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Sample records for fed brewers grain

  1. The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owango, M.O.; Sanda, I.A.; Lukuyu, B.A.; Omolo, J.O.; Masibili, M.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

  2. Claw lesions and lameness in zero-grazed cattle fed on brewer\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feet from 218 cattle in 35 zerograzing units were studied from June 2003 to June 2004. Cattle in 20 of the zero-grazing units were fed brewer's grain while 15 of the units did not feed brewer's grain. The units were conveniently selected. Comparing brewer's grain fed and non-grain fed animals, the prevalence of laminitis ...

  3. Process kinetics and digestion efficiency of anaerobic batch fermentation of brewer`s spent grains (BSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeonu, F.C.; Okaka, A.N.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Biochemistry

    1996-12-31

    The process kinetics of optimized anaerobic batch digestion of brewer`s spent grains (BSG) reveal that biomethanation is essentially a first order reaction interrupted intermittently by mixed order reactions. An apparent cellulose degradation efficiency of approximately 60% and a lignin degradation efficiency of about 40% was observed in the optimized process. Using the Ken and Hashimoto model, the operational efficiency of the digester was determined to be 26%. (author)

  4. Effects of brewer's dried grain consumption on hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred, 22 weeks old Nera black pullet were used in eight weeks feeding trial to assess the effects of brewer's dried grain (BDG) as energy source on hematological profile of the birds. Five experimental diets were formulated in which T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% BDG respectively. The laying ...

  5. The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    In this study brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast (1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 %) addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-lactic acid and reducing sugars concentration an...

  6. Corrected: The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates were used for lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for LA fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-LA and reducing sugar concentration and number of viable cell-viability). Very high L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cell viability was achieved in a...

  7. Lactic acid production on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Radosavljević, Miloš; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry, representing around 85% of the total by-products generated. Per 100 L of beer produced 20 kg of brewer's spent grain are obtained. BSG is a lignocellulosic material and due to its high content of protein and fibre, it can also serve as a raw material in biotechnology i.e. in lactic acid production. In this study brewer's spent grain hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic a...

  8. Digestibilidade da dieta, parâmetros ruminais e desempenho de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com polpa cítrica peletizada e resíduo úmido de cervejaria Diet digestibility, ruminal parameters and performance of Santa Ines sheep fed dried citrus pulp and wet brewer grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gilaverte

    2011-03-01

    mixture of wet brewer grain and citrus pulp. In experiment 1, for evaluation of intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and ruminal parameters, 12 Santa Ines ram lambs fitted with canulas in the rumen were assigned to a randomized complete block design with three diets and four replicates. In experiment two, for performance evaluation, 48 ewe lambs were confined and fed the same diets of experiment 1. Replacement of corn by dried citrus pulp did not affect intake or digestibility of nutrients in the diet. However, the inclusion of wet brewer grain reduced intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, with exception of NDF. Apparent digestibility of NDF was similar among diets. Inclusion of wet brewer grain in the diet decreased ruminal concentration of acetate and propionate and increased acetate/propionate ratio and ruminal pH. In general, there is no difference between the diet containing corn and that containing citrus pulp in total replacement to corn. The use of wet brewer grain, however, reduces average daily gain, final body weight and feed efficiency.

  9. Composition and Nutrient Value Proposition of Brewers Spent Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Sana; Huang, LianYan; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Yin, Meng

    2017-10-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a major brewing industry byproduct, is generated in large quantities annually. This review summarizes research into the composition and preservation of BSG, different extraction techniques for BSG proteins and phenolic acids, and the bioactivities of these phenolic components. Moreover, this article also highlights BSG integration into foodstuff for human consumption and animal feed supplements. BSG is considered a rich source of fiber, protein, and phenolic compounds. The phenolic acids present in BSG are hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids), which have many biofunctions, such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, and antiinflammatory activities. Previously, attempts have been made to integrate BSG into human food, such as ready-to-eat snacks, cookies and bread, to increase fiber and protein contents. The addition of BSG to animal feed leads to increased milk yields, higher fat contents in milk, and is a good source of essential amino acids. Therefore, many studies have concluded that integrating the biofunctional compounds in BSG into human food and animal feed has various health benefits. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Brewer's Grain from Cameroon Brewery in Breeder Chicken Rations : Effect on Productive and Reproductive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeni, MJ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of brewer's dried grain (BDG on the productive and reproductive traits in breeder chickens, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of ISA commercial breed were subjected to dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % levels of BDG. Feed and water were provided ad libitum over the 5-months experimental period. Reproductive and productive traits such as egg production, egg weight, albumen height, shell weight, semen quantity fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were measured. Results indicated that when BDG was fed at the 30 % level in the ration, the hen-day egg production (50.6 % was significantly (P of inclusion. There was a significant (P 0.05 was noticed between treatments for ratio of shell weight to egg weight, albumen height, semen quantity and fertility. The results suggest that although the 30 % level of BDG can be tolerated, the 20 %, level of BDG inclusion is more appropriate for breeder birds.

  11. Evaluation of Ensiled Brewer's Grain in the Diet of Piglets by One Way Multiple Analysis of Variance, MANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang A Mbang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of feeding trials is to find the optimum level of feed ingredients which give the highest economical returns to the farmers. This can be achieved through estimation and comparison of means of different rations. The example we have is a study of incorporation of different levels of ensiled brewers grains in the diet of 24 hybrids weaned piglets from Landrace x Duroc x Berkshire x Large White. They were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of two piglets per pen. They were fed 0, 10, 20, 30% incorporation of ensiled brewer's grains on dry matter basis during post-weaning period followed by 0, 30, 40 and 50% during growing period and 0, 50, 60 and 70% during finishing period. We have one explanatory variable: initial weight, and four post treatment outcome variables recorded per piglets: final weight, dry matter consumption, weight gain and index of consumption. Comparing of several multivariate treatment means model design analysis is adapted. We obtain the MANOVA (Multiple Analyse of Variance table of each phase, where the treatment differences exist by using Wilk's lambda distribution, and we find the treatment effect by using a confidence interval method of MANOVA. This model has the advantage of computing the responses of all variables in the matrix of sum of squares and more precisely in separation of the different means percentage of Ensiled Brewer's grain.

  12. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly ( p meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  13. Maize/Sorghum - Based Dried Brewers' Grains In Broiler Finisher Diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 40 - day feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal substitution level of maize/sorghum-based dried brewers' grains (MSDBG) for maize in broiler ... At replacement levels or 50% and 75% with or without palm oil, the birds consumed significantly (P< 0.05) more feed than the group on the control diet (140.0, ...

  14. Effect of Sorghum -Barley Brewer's Spent Grain as a Feed Ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine if the inclusion of Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG) in broiler diets will affect growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 380 Ross broiler chicks were brooded on a common diet without SBBSG for 28 days after which they were randomly assigned to ...

  15. Studies on Brewers Spent Grains (BSG) Biomethanation: I - Optimal Conditions for Digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeonu, F. C.; Udedi, S. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the effect of parameters such as water dilution and carbon to nitrogen ratio, on the anaerobic digestion of brewer's spent grains (BSG). Digesters were operated at between 270C and 330C and pH 6.0 - 7.0 The initiation of methane production was achieved using small volumes of cow rumen liquor (1: -10 v/v). The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion are presented and the importance of the level of organic nitrogen, moisture content and in the digester starring materials emphasized

  16. Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Major Penicillium glabrum Xylanase Using Brewer's Spent Grain as Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Susan Michelz; Fortkamp, Diana; Terrasan, César Rafael Fanchini; de Almeida, Alex Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn2+ and the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost. PMID:23762855

  17. Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Major Penicillium glabrum Xylanase Using Brewer's Spent Grain as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Knob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn2+ and the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost.

  18. Effects of structure and xylanase treatment of brewers' spent grain on performance and nutrient availability in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denstadli, V; Westereng, B; Biniyam, H G; Ballance, S; Knutsen, S H; Svihus, B

    2010-06-01

    1. A factorial (2 x 3) feeding trial was set up to investigate the effects of coarse or finely ground brewers' spent grain (BSG) and xylanase treatment, either with no xylanase, top-dressed with xylanase or pre-treated with xylanase. 2. The experimental diets shared the same basal formulation and were fed to male broiler chickens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 12 to 29 d of age. 3. Xylanase pre-treatment reduced the dietary concentration of arabinoxylan by 15-30%. Pellet durability increased when BSG was ground. 4. Feed utilisation was significantly higher (6%) when the birds were given coarse BSG rather than ground BSG, whereas there was no significant effect of enzyme treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy was unaffected by the dietary treatments. 5. The overall starch digestibility was high (99%), with no dietary differences, whereas ileal protein digestibility was low (57%). Xylanase top-dressing tended to improve ileal protein digestibility but, in general, xylanase treatment had no major effect on overall performance in male broilers given diets with BSG.

  19. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  1. Comparison of wet brewers' grains or dried distillers' grains as supplements to conserved bermudagrass forage as winter feeding options for beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M V; Hersom, M J; Thrift, T A; Yelich, J V

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of 2 byproduct supplements and conserved warm-season forage as winter feeding options for primiparous beef cows. Gestating Angus ( = 48) and Brangus ( = 24) 2-yr-old cows were stratified by BW and breed to 1 of 12 pens. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 supplements, wet brewers' grains (WBG) or dried distillers' grains (DDG). Coastal bermudagrass hay or round bale silage (RBS) was fed free choice (6 pens each) and cows received WBG or DDG supplements at a daily rate of 0.05% BW (DM basis) prorated for feeding 3 d/wk. Total BW and BCS changes did not differ ( = 0.65 and = 0.93, respectively) between DDG- and WBG-supplemented cows. Total amount of forage DM offered and mean calculated daily forage DM offered did not differ ( = 0.59 and = 0.20, respectively) between supplement treatments. Estimated daily mean and total supplement DM offered was greater ( forage sources were used in an unbalanced 6 × 4 design to measure intake, digestibility, and rumen parameters in ruminally fistulated steers. Supplement did not affect forage DMI of hay ( = 0.31) or RBS ( = 0.63). Total DMI was not different ( = 0.37 and = 0.73) for hay-based and RBS-based diets, respectively. Total tract digestibility tended to be greater ( = 0.06) for DDG than for WBG in hay diets but was not different ( = 0.76) for RBS diets. Daily mean ruminal pH was greater ( = 0.03) for WBG than for DDG when supplemented to hay-based diets. In RBS diets, a supplement × hour interaction ( = 0.05) existed for ruminal pH. Daily mean ruminal ammonia N concentration was greater ( forage. High-moisture forage sources can be coupled with high-moisture byproduct supplements.

  2. Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christakopoulos Paul

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brewer's spent grain (BG, a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixtures simulating the carbohydrate content of BG in order to determine the utilization pattern that could be expected during the fermentation of the cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysate of BG. The sugar mixture fermentation study focused on the effect of the initial total sugar concentration and on the effect of the aeration rate on fermenting performance of F. oxysporum. The alkali pretreatment of BG and different aeration levels during the ethanol production stage were studied for the optimization of the ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Results Enzyme yields as high as 550, 22.5, 6.5, 3225, 0.3, 1.25 and 3 U per g of carbon source of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-D-glucosidase, xylanase, feruloyl esterase, β-D-xylosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase respectively, were obtained during the growth stage under optimized submerged conditions. An ethanol yield of 109 g ethanol per kg of dry BG was obtained with alkali-pretreated BG under microaerobic conditions (0.01 vvm, corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield based on total glucose and xylose content of BG. Conclusion The enzymatic profile of the extracellular extract from F. oxysporum submerged cultures using BG and corn cob as the carbon source was proved efficient for a successful hydrolysis of BG. The fermentation study carried out using sugar mixtures simulating BG's carbohydrates content and consecutively alkali-pretreated and untreated BG, indicates that BG hydrolysis is the bottleneck

  3. Characterisation of corn extrudates with the addition of brewers' spent grain as a raw material for the production of functional batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelaziński, Tomasz; Ekielski, Adam; Siwek, Adam; Dardziński, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Novel food batters, recommended for various products, are at present manufactured by extru- sion. Thanks to this, it is possible to look for and process new raw materials, if their processing has so far been considered impossible or economically unviable. The purpose of the work was therefore to investigate the extrudates produced from the corn and brewers' spent grain compounds that are subsequently used as raw material for food batter production. The work presents the findings of research on extrusion of corn mixes with varying levels of brewers' spent grains, to the maximum amount of 30%. Tests were conducted using a co-rotating double screw extruder, equipped with a single-outlet matrix with a diameter of 2.5mm. The products obtained were subjected to analysis of their parameters (apparent density, strength parameters, abrasiveness index) and the granulation of a single fraction was checked. The sample for which the percentage content was the highest was subjected to a detailed analysis of particle shape using vision software. It was found that an increase in the content of brewers' spent grains resulted in increased hardness of the products obtained. During the tests it was observed that the increasing hardness of the measured sam- ples is opposite to their abrasion resistance. The maximum decrement of the brasion parameters was seen for extrudates with 30% spent grain addition and was 1.4%, while the minimum decrement values for extrudates with brewers' grain content (10%) amounted to 0.85%. It was noted that this may prove the high brittleness of such products, particularly on the outer surface. It was also observed that lower grindability was recorded for samples produced by extrusion at a temperature of 140°C. On the other hand, higher grindability obtained at a temperature of 120°C may facilitate the grinding of such products, which may be particularly important in the production of food batter. Brewers' spent grains used as an addition to corn groats

  4. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  5. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  6. The effect of different enzymes on the quality of high-fibre enriched brewer's spent grain breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojceska, Valentina; Ainsworth, Paul

    2008-10-15

    The brewing industry produces large quantities of waste co-products. There is increasing pressure to ensure total utilisation of such products to address economic and environmental concerns. Brewer's spent grain (BSG) the main by-product of the brewing industry is rich in dietary fibre and has a strong potential to be recycled. The overall objective of this study was to incorporate BSG into wheat flour breads together with a range of different enzymes (Maxlife 85, Lipopan Extra, Pentopan Mono BG and Celluclast) and evaluate the bread quality. A number of nutritional and textural properties of the finished product were studied. The incorporation of BSG significantly (Pbreads containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% BSG). Image analysis of the bread structure obtained from the C-cell analyzer showed that the most significantly (P<0.001) open network was obtained using LE, followed by PE and PCE. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of fermentation quality of brewers' grains ensiled in combination with malt sprouts and chemical conservation additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vyskočil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of addition of humidity absorbent (malt sprouts and chemical conservation additive on fermentation process quality of brewer grains’ silage. Chemical conservation additive was based on formic acid, propionic acid, benzoic acid and ammonium formate content. In a model experiment the fresh brewer grains were used. A dry matter (DM content of brewer grains was 187.4 g / kg. Six treatments with three repetitions per treatment were prepared. The treatments A1, A2 and A3 were not supplied by humidity absorbent. Treatment A1 was a control treatment without any additive. The treatments A2 and A3 were supplied by chemical conservation additive in a dose of 3 L per tonne and 6 L per tonne, respectively. The treatments B1, B2 and B3 were supplied by malt sprouts to reach DM content of conserved matter on level 320–350 g / kg. Moreover the treatments B2 and B3 were supplied by chemical additive with its dose 3 and 6 L per tonne. Model silages were evaluated after 8 months of conservation at average laboratory temperature 26–28  °C, from each treatment were the final laboratory samples taken and analyzed. During conservation of treatments B1, B2 and B3 were no drain recognized. From A1 treatment drained 1300 ml of waste fluid that is 145 L per tonne of conserved matter. That was significant (P < 0.01 the malt sprouts addition support the lactic acid production and eliminate acetic acid production. There was no propionic acid or butyric acid detected in silages with malt sprouts event in these silages were analyzed higher (P < 0.01 concentration of ammoniac. Chemical additive supplementation improved (P < 0.01 the pH value and water leach acidity. The results show the malt sprout addition eliminates waste fluid drain and improves fermentation process. The higher concentration of chemical additive (6 l / t inhibited the fermentation process in our model experiment.

  8. Alcohol production from sterilized and non-sterilized molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on brewer's spent grains in two types of continuous bioreactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Bosnea, Loulouda; Bekatorou, Argyro; Tzia, Constantina; Kanellaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this work an integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation of a cheap raw material (molasses) is described, involving yeast immobilized by a simple method on brewer's spent grains, able to ferment in the temperature range 30–40 °C, and two types of bioreactors, a Multistage Fixed Bed Tower (MFBT) and a Packed Bed reactor (PB). The MFBT bioreactor gave better results regarding ethanol concentration, productivity and conversion. Furthermore, the use of sterilized and non-sterilized molasses, fed in two similar MFBT bioreactors, showed that ethanol concentration (kg m −3 ) was significantly (p −3 at 35 °C and 44.2–48.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C), compared to sterilized molasses, where ethanol concentration ranged from 35.6 to 46.6 kg m −3 at 35 °C and 30.8–44.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C. During 32 days of continuous operation using non-sterilized molasses no contamination was observed. Industrialization of the proposed system seems to have a potential, mainly due to its high fermentation efficiency and the obtained high operational stability. -- Highlights: ► An integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation. ► Efficient conversion of non-sterilized molasses to ethanol. ► No need for additional treatments to prevent contamination. ► Results showed high fermentation efficiency and high operational stability.

  9. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  10. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  11. Valorization of Brewer's spent grain to prebiotic oligosaccharide: Production, xylanase catalyzed hydrolysis, in-vitro evaluation with probiotic strains and in a batch human fecal fermentation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajib, Mursalin; Falck, Peter; Sardari, Roya R R; Mathew, Sindhu; Grey, Carl; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2018-02-20

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) accounts for around 85% of the solid by-products from beer production. BSG was first extracted to obtain water-soluble arabinoxylan (AX). Using subsequent alkali extraction (0.5 M KOH) it was possible to dissolve additional AX. In total, about 57% of the AX in BSG was extracted with the purity of 45-55%. After comparison of nine xylanases, Pentopan mono BG, a GH11 enzyme, was selected for hydrolysis of the extracts to oligosaccharides with minimal formation of monosaccharides. Growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703) was promoted by the enzymatic hydrolysis to arabinoxylooligosaccharides, while Lactobacillus brevis (DSMZ 1264) utilized only unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides. Furthermore, utilization of the hydrolysates by human gut microbiota was also assessed in a batch human fecal fermentation model. Results revealed that the rates of fermentation of the BSG hydrolysates by human gut microbiota were similar to that of commercial prebiotic fructooligosaccharides, while inulin was fermented at a slower rate. In summary, a sustainable process to valorize BSG to functional food ingredients has been proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of laying hens fed diets containing DAS-59122-7 maize grain compared with diets containing nontransgenic maize grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hinds, M; Liebergesell, M; Sauber, T

    2008-03-01

    An experiment using 216 Hy-Line W-36 pullets was conducted to evaluate transgenic maize grain containing the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes from a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain and the phosphinothricin ace-tyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes confers resistance to corn rootworms, and the pat gene confers tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate-ammonium. Pullets (20 wk of age) were placed in cage lots (3 hens/cage, 2 cages/lot) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (12 lots/treatment) formulated with the following maize grains: near-isogenic control (control), conventional maize, and transgenic test corn line 59122 containing event DAS-59122-7. Differences between 59122 and control group means were evaluated with statistical significance at P < 0.05. Body weight and gain, egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency for hens fed the 59122 corn were not significantly different from the respective values for hens fed diets formulated with control maize grain. Egg component weights, Haugh unit measures, and egg weight class distribution were similar regardless of the corn source. This research indicates that performance of hens fed diets containing 59122 maize grain, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with near-isogenic corn grain.

  13. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  14. ADSORPTION ONTO BREWERS' SPENT GRAIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and are the ... production of bio-plastics and bio-fuel, to agricultural uses as animal feed and ... Hot Plate with Magnetic Stirrer. HJ-3D. England. 2010. Oven. DHG 9101-2A. Searchtech UK.

  15. OMASAL MORPHOLOGY OF DAIRY COWS FED WITH HIGH OR LOW GRAIN CONTENT DIET PRIOR PARTURITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Oliveira Rocha Bhering Santoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the morphological response of the omasum in dairy cows that consume a high-energy diet pre-partum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a transitional diet with high grain content is able to induce changes in omasum morphology. Six weeks before the expected calving, four Holstein cows were fed a standardization diet, and four weeks before delivery, the cows were fed a diet with high grain content (HGC or low (LGC grain content. After calving, all of the cows were fed a high energy lactation diet. The cows that were fed the HGC diet pre-partum had higher dry matter and nutrient intake than the cows that were fed the LGC diet. The mitotic index of the omasum epithelium was higher than the mitotic index in the rumen, but apparently the response to the diet stimuli was slower. In the cows that were fed the HGC diet, the omasum papillae were taller one week before parturition and two weeks post-partum. Cows that were fed the HGC diet had a thinner epithelium due to thinner non-keratinized layers of the omasum epithelium. We conclude that the omasum mucosa of dairy cows responds to the stimuli of a pre-partum HGC diet, which was indicated by the greater height of the omasum papillae and by the reduced thickness of the omasum epithelium. It seems that the mitotic index responds a little more slowly, but the response to the diet stimuli is stronger in the omasum epithelium than in the rumen.

  16. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  17. Performance and ultrasound measurements of beef cattle fed diets based on whole corn or oats grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M Arelovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to contrast dietary effects of whole grain oats versus corn included in rations with moderate roughage content on animal performance, beef ultrasound measurements, rumen and blood parameters. Ten Aberdeen Angus steers (203 kg in individual pens were fed twice daily on either whole oats (OD or corn (CD based diets. Measurements were: DM intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed to gain ratio (F/G; back fat (BF and rib eye area (RA; blood parameters. Four cannulated steers were used to study rumen pH, NH3-N and grain degradability. Rations dietary components were 55% grain, 30.1% barley straw, and 10.6% whole soybeans. Despite calculated higher ME supply (P = 0.0887 no differences were found for DMI, ADG, or F/G. Metabolizable protein intake (19.4% was larger and degradable protein intake (43.3% smaller for CD compared with OD (P < 0.01. The growth rate (cm² d-1 for RA was 40% grater for OD, but larger BF deposition (P = 0.0787 was found for CD. Blood Mg was higher for OD (p = 0.0564, nevertheless other blood parameters remained unaffected. Rumen pH and NH3-N were not influenced by diet, variations were only observed within time periods. Rumen pH decreased linearly from 7.05 to 6.13 and 7.11 to 6.37 for OD and CD respectively (P < 0.05. Minimum NH3-N concentrations (mg dL-1 were reached 12 and 18 h after morning meal for OD (7.10 and CD (5.82 respectively. Rumen degradation was larger for oats than corn. Whole oats rather than corn fed up to 55% of total DM seems to improve protein deposition, without significant changes in animal performance, rumen environment or blood parameters.

  18. Performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of free-range broilers fed wet grain corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of total replacement of dry corn by wet grain corn silage (WGCS in the feed of label broilers older than 28 days of age on performance, mortality, carcass, parts, breast meat and thighs meat yields, and meat quality. A mixed-sex flock of 448 ISA S 757-N (naked-neck ISA JA Label day-old chicks was randomly distributed in to randomized block experimental design with four treatments (T1 - with no WGCS; T2 - WGCS between 28 and 83 days; T3 - WGCS between 42 and 83 days; and T4 - WGCS between 63 and 83 days and four replicates of 28 birds each. Birds were raised under the same management and feeding conditions until 28 days of age, when they started to have free access to paddock with pasture (at least 3m²/bird and to be fed the experimental diets. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the rearing period, which was divided in three stages: starter (1 to 28 days, grower (29 to 63 days, and finisher (64 to 83 days according to the feeding schedule. During the short periods of WGCS use (group T2 during grower stage and T4 during the finisher stage, performance and mortality results were similar as to those of the control group (T1. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the extended use of WGCS (T2 and T3 determined a negative effect on feed conversion ratio. However, the best results of breast meat yield were observed with birds fed WGCS since 28 days (T2. It was concluded that WGCS can replace dry corn grain for short periods during the grower and finisher stages with no impairment of meat quality and yield in slow growth broilers.

  19. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupia, S; Winkler-Moser, J K; Guney, A C; Beckstead, R; Chen, C-Y O

    2016-11-01

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller's dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluated. Neither R-DDGS nor L-DDGS at up to 20% of laying hen feeds had a statistically significant impact on hen weight gain, egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg mass, or egg weight. Specific gravity was slightly lower for eggs from hens fed 10% R-DDGS or 20% L-DDGS. Eggs from layers fed DDGS had enhanced levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls in the yolk, as well as also increased yolk yellow and red color. Eggs from L-DDGS diet had higher tocopherol content, but eggs from R-DDGS diets had higher xanthophylls. Fatty acid composition in eggs was slightly altered by DDGS, but the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was very similar. Feeding DDGS to layer hens had no effect on lecithin or cholesterol content of the eggs. Thus, inclusion of DDGS in the diet of laying hens resulted in increases of several beneficial lipophilic nutrients in egg yolks with no apparent detrimental effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF RABBITS FED ON DIETS OF GRADUAL LEVELS OF BARLEY GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Adawy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male New Zealand White rabbits of 6 weeks age (BW 875 ± 28.3 g were randomly allocated among six groups in different levels of barley grains (BG; 0 (B0, 5 (B5, 10 (B10, 15 (B15, 20 (B20, 25% (B25 of the total diet on growth performance and carcass composition of rabbits . The highest live BW value (P < 0.05 was obtained in B20 rabbits, whereas the highest feed intake (P < 0.05 value was obtained in B25 rabbits followed by those fed on the other diets. The better-feed conversion ratio (FCR was obtained in B20 rabbits followed by those of B15 and B25. Animals of B20 had better FCR than those of the other experimental diets. The relative contribution of soft feces to dry matter or crude protein intake differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental diets. The caecal turnover rate was increased (P < 0.05 in B15 and B20 rabbits than those other diets. The per-slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental groups and highest values were recorded in B20 rabbits. Data suggested that a partial replacement of corn grains (CG by 20% BG in rabbit diets was increased live body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio.

  2. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  3. Carcass characteristics of steers of different genetic predominance fed diets containing levels of substitution of corn grain by millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medeiros da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the carcass and meat characteristics of European crossbred young bulls or Zebu crossbred young bulls feedlot finished with diets with high percentage of concentrate (80% containing different levels of grounded millet grain as replacement for grounded corn grain (0, 33, 66 and 100%. Forty-five young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus and forty-four young bulls with genotype predominance Nellore with average initial weight of 317.8 and 320.7 kg, respectively, and average age of 21 month, were allocated in 16 collective pens. At the end of the finishing period were slaughtered six animals of each genetic group, chosen according to the body weight and degree of finishing each treatment. The experimental design was the completely randomized design with treatments in a 4x2 factorial arrangement using six replicates. The replacement of corn grain by millet grain did not significantly influence slaughter weight (480.4 kg, hot carcass weight (259.5 kg, carcass yield (54.1% and subcutaneous fat thickness (3.95 mm. Young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus showed significantly higher values for slaughter weight (507.6 vs. 453.3 kg, hot carcass weight (269.6 vs. 249.3 kg and longissimus dorsi area (65.34 vs 56.83 cm2, however, were lower in carcass yield (53.2 vs. 55.00%. Millet grain can be used in substitution to corn grain for finishing steers since it does not change carcass traits of economic interest.

  4. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  5. Effect of FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah; Arif, M.; Shah, P.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rain fed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rain fed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha/sup -1/ wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dry land conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rain fed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production. (Author)

  6. Digesta characteristiscs and performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed cereal grains that differ in viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Veld, ter M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusion of cereal grains in fish diets may induce changes in digesta characteristics with possible consequences for fish performance. Especially viscosity characteristics of the dietary ingredients may induce these changes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary cereal grains

  7. Brewer?s Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSEINZADEH, Payam; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; MOSTAFAVI, Seyed-Ali; JAVANBAKHT, Mohammad Hassan; DERAKHSHANIAN, Hoda; RAHIMIFOROUSHANI, Abbas; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer?s yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer?s yeast (1800 mg/day) and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall), fasting s...

  8. Sorghum grain supplementation affects rumen pH of animals fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin Aguerre

    Ruminal pH was measured immediately and NH3-N concentration was determined by ... when using sorghum as a supplement of a rye grass hay. The aim of this ... Increasing grain level in a diet often results in higher rumen fermentation (Rymer & .... and in situ degradability and the in vitro gas production profile of the diet.

  9. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers' dried grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distiller grains with soluble (DDGS) have roughly three times the amount of oil as regular corn used in feeds, and several studies have shown that DDGS also have higher concentrations of lipophilic bioactives such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls, because the levels found in whole corn...

  10. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.

  11. Biochemical studies of amylase, lipase and protease in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations fed with Vigna unguiculata grain cultivated with diazotrophic bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L B; Torres, É B; Nóbrega, R A S; Lopes, G N; Vogado, R F; Pavan, B E; Fernandes-Junior, P I

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of homogenates of insects fed on grain of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), cultivars grown with different nitrogen sources. For the experiment we used aliquots of the homogenate of 100 unsexed adult insects, emerged from 10 g of grain obtained from four cowpea cultivars: 'BRS Acauã', 'BRS Carijó', 'BRS Pujante', and 'BRS Tapaihum' grown under different regimes of nitrogen sources: mineral fertilizer, inoculation with strains of diazotrophs (BR 3267, BR 3262, BR 3299; INPA 03-11B, 03-84 UFLA, as well as the control (with soil nitrogen). The parameters evaluated were enzymatic activities of insect protease, amylase and lipase and the starch content of the grains. There were differences in the enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and protease of insect homogenate according to the food source. A lower activity of the enzyme amylase from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when insects were fed grain of the cultivar BRS Carijó. A lower activity of lipase enzyme from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when the insects fed on grain from the interaction of the cultivar Tapaihum inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. The lowest proteolytic activity was observed in homogenate of insects fed on interaction of 'BRS Carijó' inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. Starch content correlated positively with the amylase activity of C. maculatus homogenate. The cultivar BRS Carijó had a different behavior from the other cultivars, according to the cluster analysis.

  12. Metagenomic analysis of rumen microbial population in dairy heifers fed a high grain diet supplemented with dicarboxylic acids or polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Li, Shucong; Khafipour, Ehsan; Plaizier, Kees J C; Gianesella, Matteo; Ricci, Rebecca; Andrighetto, Igino; Segato, Severino

    2016-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two feed supplements on rumen bacterial communities of heifers fed a high grain diet. Six Holstein-Friesian heifers received one of the following dietary treatments according to a Latin square design: no supplement (control, C), 60 g/day of fumarate-malate (organic acid, O) and 100 g/day of polyphenol-essential oil (P). Rumen fluid was analyzed to assess the microbial population using Illumina sequencing and quantitative real time PCR. The P treatment had the highest number of observed species (P PCoA with unweighted Unifrac distance showed a separation among dietary treatments (P = 0.09), above all between the C and P (P = 0.05). The O and P treatments showed a significant increase of the family Christenenellaceae and a decline of Prevotella brevis compared to C. Additionally, the P treatment enhanced the abundance of many taxa belonging to Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Tenericutes phyla due to a potential antimicrobial activity of flavonoids that increased competition among bacteria. Organic acid and polyphenols significantly modified rumen bacterial populations during high-grain feeding in dairy heifers. In particular the polyphenol treatment increased the richness and diversity of rumen microbiota, which are usually high in conditions of physiological rumen pH and rumen function.

  13. Thin grain oriented electrical steel for PWM voltages fed magnetic cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Belgrand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on performances of high permeability grain oriented electrical steel when used in association with power electronic switching devices. Loss measurement results obtained from the Epstein test, using sinusoidal or various PWM voltages in medium frequency range, show that for both studied thicknesses (HGO 0.23mm and HGO 0.18mm, comparing performances at a fixed induction level between the various situations may not be the most convenient method. The effect of magnetic domain refinement has been investigated. After having shown the interest of lowering the thickness, an alternative way of looking at losses is proposed that may help to design the magnetic core when it comes to the matter of reducing size in considering frequency and magnetization levels.

  14. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  15. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of whole-grain highland hull-less barley in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuejuan; Li, Guannan; Song, Jiaxin; Zheng, Jiong; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-05-01

    Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats. The lipid regulation effect of WHLB, which was reconfirmed through hepatocyte morphologic observation, was accompanied by a large excretion of bile acids in the small intestinal contents and the faeces. Real-time PCR analyses, which were further reconfirmed through Western blot analyses, revealed that a high dose of WHLB significantly enhanced the hepatic expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase α, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, LDL receptor, liver X receptor, and PPARα and decreased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. It also enhanced the ileal expression of farnesoid X receptor and resulted in the decrease of expression of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. WHLB exhibited hypocholesterolaemic effects mainly by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol accumulation in peripheral tissue, and bile acid reabsorption and by stimulating bile acid synthesis.

  16. Influence of housing system, grain type, and particle size on Salmonella colonization and shedding of broilers fed triticale or corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F B O; Sheldon, B W; Santos, A A; Ferket, P R

    2008-03-01

    Salmonella colonization in poultry may be influenced by grain type and particle size. Broilers reared either in nonlitter cage-based housing or in a conventionally floored litter house from 0 to 42 d were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground corn-soybean meal (C, 560 microm), 2) coarsely ground corn-soybean meal (CC, >1,700 microm), 3) ground triticale-soybean meal (T, 560 microm), or 4) whole triticale-soybean meal (WT). A 4-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica was orally gavaged into each chick at placement. Growth performance, cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, gizzard and proventriculus pH, intestinal size, jejunum histomorphometry, and carcass yields were measured. Broilers responded differently to the dietary treatments according to the housing system used. At 42 d, birds reared on litter and fed ground grain had greater BW than those fed coarse grain (2.87 vs. 2.71 kg), whereas cage-reared broilers fed ground triticale were heavier than those fed corn (2.75 vs. 2.64 kg). Broilers raised on litter had a better feed conversion ratio than those raised in cages (1.71 vs. 1.81 g/g). Independent of the housing system, relative eviscerated carcass weights of birds fed T and C were heavier than those of CC- and WT-fed broilers (762 vs. 752 g/kg). Generally, the jejunum villus area and mucosal depth were larger, whereas the small intestine was lighter and shorter in broilers raised on litter. Relative gizzard weights of broilers raised on litter and fed the coarser diets were heavier than those of broilers reared in cages and fed finely ground diets. Feeding whole or coarsely ground grains decreased cecal Salmonella populations in 42-d-old broilers (3.8, 3.9, 4.4, and 4.4 log most probable number/g for CC, WT, C, and T, respectively). Additionally, 42-d-old broilers reared on litter had lower cecal Salmonella populations than those in cages (3.8 vs. 4.4 log most probable number/g). In conclusion, as a feed ingredient, triticale is a good

  17. Feeding behavior and productive performance of steers fed pearl millet grain-based diets containing proportions of babassu mesocarp bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Martins Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and feedlot productive performance of dairy-origin steers fed for 84 days ground pearl millet grain-based diets with 0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 g kg-1 of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB and a standard diet based on ground corn. Thirty Holstein-Zebu steers with average initial body weight of 371.02±27 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Dry matter intake showed better fit with the quadratic regression equation with the inclusion of BMB, reaching a maximum value in diets with 360 g of this by-product. There was no difference for dry matter intake between pearl millet- and corn-based diets. There was no difference in total digestible nutrients intake between diets. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter decreased linearly with the increase in the dietary level of BMB. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not different between corn and millet diets. There was no difference in feeding time between diets. Total requirement of metabolizable energy increased linearly with inclusion of BMB. However, total requirements of metabolizable energy did not differ between the corn- and pearl millet-based diets. Average daily gain decreased linearly with the increase in BMB, with adjustment forced by the sharp decline of this variable in diets with 480 g of BMB. There was no difference in average daily gain between corn- and pearl millet-based diets. The inclusion of levels above 360 g of babassu mesocarp bran in pearl millet-based diets reduces the supply of metabolizable energy and the productive performance of feedlot dairy steers.

  18. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from the...

  19. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brewer in default. 25.173... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a... the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  20. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  1. 77 FR 72999 - Small Brewers Bond Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... 1986 (IRC), pertains to the taxation of distilled spirits, wines, and beer (see title 26 of the United... qualification of breweries, bonds and taxation, removals without payment of tax, and records and reporting..., including the increased number of small (``craft'') brewers. In an advance notice of proposed rulemaking...

  2. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  4. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  5. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan D.; Dodić Siniša N.; Mastilović Jasna S.; Dodić Jelena M.; Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2005-01-01

    The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated) was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positive...

  6. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data suggest that 15% replacement of corn and 10% untreated residue with treated forage result in a nutrient supply of OM similar to that of the control. The improvements in total tract fiber digestibility that occurred when treated forages were fed may have been related to increased digestibility of recoverable NDF and not to increased ruminal pH. Feeding chemically treated crop residues and WDGS is an effective strategy for replacing a portion of corn grain and roughage in feedlot diets.

  7. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  8. Brewer's spent grain: A review of its potentials and applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... BSG as the main by-product of brewing industry, representing approximately 85% of total by-products ... also to stimulate researchers to explore further, especially in developing new value-added products.

  9. Performance evaluation of Fe (III) adsorption onto brewers' spent grain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, batch adsorption technique was employed to evaluate the effects of adsorption variables such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time on the sorption efficiency of BSG. The maximum adsorption time was fixed at 120minutes with a stirring speed of 100rpm. Experimental data ...

  10. Energy and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities of Chinese Distillers Dried Grains, Produced from Different Regions and Grains Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein (CP, amino acids and energy in three Chinese corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, one rice DDGS, one American corn DDGS and one American high protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of CP and amino acids in the six samples were determined using cannulated barrows (initial BW: 43.3±1.7 kg. In Exp. 2, the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of these six samples were determined using crossbred barrows (initial BW: 46.0±2.5 kg. The results of the two experiments indicated that Chinese corn DDGS is generally similar to American DDGS in chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME. However, Chinese DDGS had a lower Lys concentration (0.50% vs. 0.74% and SID Lys (52.3% vs. 57.0%, p<0.01. The DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS were 3,427 and 3,306 kcal/kg, respectively. Rice DDGS had a similar DE and ME (3,363 and 3,228 kcal/kg but higher Lys concentration (0.64% vs. 0.50% to corn DDGS, while the SID of Lys was quite low (61.8%, p<0.01. HP-DDG had high value of SID of Lys, DE and ME (79.8%, 3,899 and 3,746 kcal/kg. In conclusion, except for a lower Lys concentrations and availability, the chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS are similar to American corn DDGS. Additionally, the rice DDGS had lower Lys content and digestible Lys values than that in corn DDGS. Thirdly, HP-DDG has higher levels of digestible amino acids and energy than DDGS.

  11. Restoration of in situ fiber degradation and the role of fibrolytic microbes and ruminal pH in cows fed grain-rich diets transiently or continuously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Zebeli, Q

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we used two different grain-rich feeding models (continuous or transient) to determine their effects on in situ fiber degradation and abundances of important rumen fibrolytic microbes in the rumen. The role of the magnitude of ruminal pH drop during grain feeding in the fiber degradation was also determined. The study was performed in eight rumen-fistulated dry cows. They were fed forage-only diet (baseline), and then challenged with a 60% concentrate diet for 4 weeks, either continuously (n=4 cows) or transiently (n=4 cows). The cows of transient feeding had 1 week off concentrate in between. Ruminal degradation of grass silage and fiber-rich hay was determined by the in situ technique, and microbial abundances attached to incubated samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The in situ trials were performed at the baseline and in the 1st and the last week of concentrate feeding in the continuous model. The in situ trials were done in cows of the transient model at the baseline and in the 1st week of the re-challenge with concentrate. In situ degradation of NDF and ADF of the forage samples, and microbial abundances were determined at 0, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h of the incubation. Ruminal pH and temperature during the incubation were recorded using indwelling pH sensors. Compared with the respective baseline, both grain-rich feeding models lowered ruminal pH and increased the duration of pH below 5.5 and 5.8. Results of the grass silage incubation showed that in the continuous model the extent of NDF and ADF degradation was lower in the 1st, but not in the last week compared with the baseline. For the transient model, degradation of NDF of the silage was lower during the re-challenge compared with the baseline. Degradation of NDF and ADF of the hay was suppressed by both feeding models compared with the respective baseline. Changes in fiber degradation of either grass silage or hay were not related to the magnitude of ruminal pH depression during grain

  12. Aberration Correction in the Brewer Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.E.; Kerr, J.B.; McElroy, C.T.; Wardle, D.I.

    2000-01-01

    The optical design of the Brewer Spectrophotometer has been optimised for measurements in the 300-320 nm wavelength range. An aberration resolution limit that is much less than the 0.6 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) is achieved by using an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer design, modified by the inclusion tilted lens that optimises performance at 310 nm. The small contribution of the remaining aberration to the measured instrument function is critical to radiometric measurement quality. Ramifications of this design to the development of instrumentation with enhanced scanning abilities are discussed. (author)

  13. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a person...

  14. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  15. Effects of haylage and monensin supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing 60% dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Loerch, S C

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the interaction of monensin and haylage supplementation for steers fed 60% dried distillers grains (DDGS) on 1) mineral status, performance, and carcass characteristics, and on 2) ruminal pH, H(2)S, and short-chain fatty acid concentrations. In Exp. 1, Angus-cross steers (n=168; BW=277 ± 67 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to 24 pens. Dietary treatments were 1) 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 0% haylage, 2) 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 0% haylage, 3) 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 10% haylage, and 4) 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 10% haylage. The remainder of the diet was 60% DDGS, 10% corn silage, 15% supplement, and corn (either 5 or 15%) on a DM basis. When supplemented with 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet, added haylage increased ADG by 5.7%, whereas when supplemented with 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet, added haylage increased ADG by 13% (P haylage were observed for DMI or G:F (P ≥ 0.36). Haylage inclusion increased (P 0.05) on plasma mineral concentrations were observed; however, over time, plasma Cu concentrations decreased (P Haylage inclusion increased ruminal pH from 1.5 through 12 h postfeeding, and the effects of monensin supplementation were additive (P < 0.05). From 1.5 through 9 h postfeeding, steers fed 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet tended to have reduced (P ≤ 0.10) concentrations of H(2)S when compared with steers fed 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet. Acetate:propionate ratios at 6 h postfeeding were 0.94, 0.93, 1.29, and 1.35 for diets 1 to 4, respectively (P < 0.01); total lactate was decreased regardless of treatment (range: 0.94 to 1.42 µmol/mL). Sulfuric acid in DDGS, not ruminal short-chain fatty acids, may be responsible for the low rumen pH observed and may influence the maximum inclusion of DDGS in cattle diets. Monensin supplementation decreased H(2)S concentration and may decrease the risk of polioencephalomalacia for cattle fed high-DDGS diets

  16. Effect of sulfur content in wet or dry distillers grains fed at several inclusions on cattle growth performance, ruminal parameters, and hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarturi, J O; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Vasconcelos, J T; Griffin, W A; Rolfe, K M; Benton, J R; Bremer, V R

    2013-10-01

    Effects of S from wet or dry distillers grains with solubles (DGS) containing 0.82 or 1.16% S on animal growth performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal parameters were evaluated. In Exp. 1, crossbred beef steers (n = 120; 345 ± 34 kg BW) were individually fed ad libitum using Calan gates. Treatments were applied as a 2 × 2 × 3 + 1 factorial treatment arrangement with factors of DGS type (wet or dry), S content in DGS (0.82 or 1.16% DM basis), and DGS inclusion (20, 30, and 40%, DM basis), as well as a corn control diet (no DGS). In Exp. 2, ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers (n = 6; 381 ± 31 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 5 diets in a 5 × 6 unbalanced Latin Square design and fed ad libitum through five 14-d periods. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial treatment arrangement was used with the factors of DGS type and S content in DGS (similar to Exp. 1). Inclusion of DGS was 40%, except for a MATCH diet containing wet 1.16% S DGS included at 31.4% (DM basis). Intake of DM decreased linearly (P content (P = 0.52). Feeding diets with wet 1.16% S DGS linearly decreased (P = 0.03) HCW. In Exp. 2, molar proportion of propionate declined (P = 0.01) 9% and A:P ratio tended (P = 0.13) to be greater when 1.16 compared with 0.82% S DGS was fed. Apparent total tract DMD was not affected (P > 0.16) and only subtle changes (P ruminal pH parameters were observed. Greater (P = 0.02) ruminal H2S concentration for steers fed wet compared with dry DGS was observed, while 1.16% S DGS tended (P = 0.12) to produce greater ruminal H2S than 0.82% S. Sulfur in wet DGS appears to be more prone to be converted to ruminal H2S, because feeding 1.16% S as wet DGS had a greater impact on ADG, DMI, and ruminal H2S compared with dry DGS.

  17. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  18. Consumo e digestibilidade em ovinos alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola Intake and digestibility of sheep fed grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva Neubern de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta nas dietas sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade. Seis ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês (210 e 240 dias de idade e peso corporal de 44,8 + 4,2kg receberam dietas contendo 40% de feno de capim Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, mistura mineral, além de canola em grão integral, farelo de canola e torta de canola, que constituíram os três tratamentos. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 para o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, energia bruta (EB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF entre as dietas experimentais, no ensaio de digestibilidade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 de tratamento para a digestibilidade de MS, MO, EE, PB, EB, FDN, CT e CNF. Recomenda-se incluir até 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta na dieta de ovinos.The effect of feeding 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola on intake and digestibility was evaluated. Six non castrated Santa Ines sheep (from 210 to 240 days old and body weight of 44.8 + 4.2kg were fed diets composed by 40% of Tifton hay and 60% of concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. No differences on the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non fiber carbohydrate (NFC were observed among treatments, in the digestibility trial. No treatment effect on the digestibilities of DM, OM, EE, CP, GE, NDF, TC and NFC was observed. It is recommended to include up to 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola in the sheep diet.

  19. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P EPF diets. Steers fed CON also had greater G:F (P EPF steers. Final BW was greater for CON than EP and EPF diets (P EPF steers (P = 0.04). Dressing percent, 12th-rib fat depth, LM area, KPH, and yield grade were not affected by treatment (P >or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P EPF diets. There were no differences in WBSF, ether extract, or lipid oxidation due to treatment (P >or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than EF-fed steers and greater b* values than EP, EF, and EPF steers (P

  20. Aerosol optical depth in the European Brewer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solano, Javier; Redondas, Alberto; Carlund, Thomas; Rodriguez-Franco, Juan J.; Diémoz, Henri; León-Luis, Sergio F.; Hernández-Cruz, Bentorey; Guirado-Fuentes, Carmen; Kouremeti, Natalia; Gröbner, Julian; Kazadzis, Stelios; Carreño, Virgilio; Berjón, Alberto; Santana-Díaz, Daniel; Rodríguez-Valido, Manuel; De Bock, Veerle; Moreta, Juan R.; Rimmer, John; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Boulkelia, Lamine; Jepsen, Nis; Eriksen, Paul; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Shirotov, Vadim; Vilaplana, José M.; Wilson, Keith M.; Karppinen, Tomi

    2018-03-01

    Aerosols play an important role in key atmospheric processes and feature high spatial and temporal variabilities. This has motivated scientific interest in the development of networks capable of measuring aerosol properties over large geographical areas in near-real time. In this work we present and discuss results of an aerosol optical depth (AOD) algorithm applied to instruments of the European Brewer Network. This network is comprised of close to 50 Brewer spectrophotometers, mostly located in Europe and adjacent areas, although instruments operating at, for example, South America and Australia are also members. Although we only show results for instruments calibrated by the Regional Brewer Calibration Center for Europe, the implementation of the AOD algorithm described is intended to be used by the whole network in the future. Using data from the Brewer intercomparison campaigns in the years 2013 and 2015, and the period in between, plus comparisons with Cimel sun photometers and UVPFR instruments, we check the precision, stability, and uncertainty of the Brewer AOD in the ultraviolet range from 300 to 320 nm. Our results show a precision better than 0.01, an uncertainty of less than 0.05, and, for well-maintained instruments, a stability similar to that of the ozone measurements. We also discuss future improvements to our algorithm with respect to the input data, their processing, and the characterization of the Brewer instruments for the measurement of AOD.

  1. Technical note: Impact of a molasses-based liquid feed supplement on the feed sorting behavior and growth of grain-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L J; DeVries, T J

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a high-grain mixed ration on the feed sorting behavior and growth of grain-fed veal calves. Twenty-four Holstein bull veal calves (90.2 ± 2.6 d of age, weighing 137.5 ± 16.9 kg) were split into groups of 4 and exposed, in a crossover design with 35-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control diet (76.0% high-moisture corn, 19.0% protein supplement, and 5.0% alfalfa/grass haylage) and 2) LF diet (68.4% corn, 17.1% protein supplement, 9.0% molasses-based LF, and 4.5% alfalfa/grass haylage). Diets were designed to support 1.5 kg/d of growth. Data were collected for the final 3 wk of each treatment period. Feed intakes were recorded daily and calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed samples of fresh feed and refusals were collected 3 times/wk for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percent of its predicted intake. Calves tended ( = 0.08) to sort for long particles on the control diet (110.5%) and did not sort these particles on the LF diet (96.8%). Sorting for medium particles (102.6%) was similar ( = 0.9) across diets. Calves sorted against short particles on the LF diet (97.5%; = 0.04) but did not sort this fraction on the control diet (99.4%). Calves sorted against fine particles (79.3%) to a similar extent ( = 0.2) on both diets. Dry matter intake was similar across diets (6.1 kg/d; = 0.9), but day-to-day variability in DMI was greater (0.5 vs. 0.4 kg/d; = 0.04) when calves were fed the control compared with the LF diet. Calves on both diets had similar ADG (1.6 kg/d; = 0.8) as well as within-pen variability in ADG (0.4 kg/d; = 0.7). The feed-to-gain ratio was also similar between control and LF diets (4.3 vs. 3.9 kg DM/kg gain; = 0.4). The results suggest

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of brewer's yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergerioux, C.; Zikovsky, L.

    1978-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation was used for the determination of 23 trace and minor elements in 4 different samples of brewer's yeast. Detection limits vary from 2 ppb to 100 ppm. The following average concentrations were found (ppm, dry weight): Al 597, Br 0.36, Cl 1473, Co 0.21, Cu 19, Fe 285, K 16400, Mg 1355, Mn 8.4, Na 2330, Rb 19, Sb 0.053, Se 1.2, V 2.2 and Zn 80. NBS standard 1569 was also analyzed and the following concentrations (in ppm) were measured: Al 2300, Br 0.65, Ce 0.23, Cl 460, Co 0.26, Cr 2.12, Cu 11, Fe 707, Gd 7.1, Hf 0.13, K 15500, Mg 1780, Mn 7, Na 510, Rb 16, Sb 0.075, Sc 0.18, Se 0.92, Th 3.7, Ti 38, U 0.49, V 4.1 and Zn 70. (author)

  3. The efficacy of using exogenous enzymes cocktail on production, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites of laying hens fed distiller's dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Chaudhry, M T; Mahrose, K M; Noreldin, A; Emam, M; Alagawany, M

    2018-04-01

    An experiment was performed using 120 Hisex Brown laying hens for evaluating the effects of different inclusion levels of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with or without enzyme cocktail on performance, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites in laying hens through 22-42 weeks of age. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was performed including four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 250, 500 and 750 g/kg respectively) and two enzyme cocktail levels (0 and 250 mg/kg diet). The used enzyme in this study "Gallazyme" composed of xylanase, Trichoderma longibrachiatum (600 units/g), protease, Bacillus subtilis (8,000 units/g) and amylase and Bacillus amyloliquofaciens (800 units/g). The control diet showed the best feed efficiency followed by the intermediate levels of DDGS. The lowest value of feed efficiency was found in the group fed the highest level of DDGS. Enzyme addition improved feed efficiency and decreased laying rate. Increasing DDGS levels was associated with albumin and shell thickness increases. Dietary DDGS depressed all egg components except the organic matter which maximised in enzyme-treated groups. Increasing DDGS level was accompanied by increase in yolk cholesterol and total lipids. No significant impacts were detected with enzymes supplementation on yolk lipids profile. Excepting serum calcium and phosphorous, all serum constituents increased with increasing level of DDGS. Using enzyme markedly depressed serum ammonia by 15.02% and increased calcium by 6.44% compared with enzyme-free diets. Interaction between DDGS and enzyme was significant on most of studied parameters. It could be concluded that using enzyme cocktail in DDGS-based diets may improve feed efficiency and egg quality, in addition to lowering blood ammonia and increasing blood calcium. It is recommended to substitute SBM by DDGS up to 500 g/kg diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Evaluation of some properties of wheat-brewers' spent cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.

  5. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  6. UV-observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersee, Winfried; Koehler, U.

    1994-01-01

    Regular spectral UV-B measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been performed at Hohenpeissenberg since 1990. Intercomparison of the Brewer instrument with other UV-B monitoring devices have shown agreement to within plus or minus 10 percent. Comparisons of UV-B spectra measured on fair weather days reveal the well known increasing influence of ozone on UV-B irradiance with decreasing wavelengths. The integral amplification factor the erythemal irradiance reaches values up to 2.8, which can be diminished by increasing turbidity. The influence of cirrus cloud on the UV-B is also shown.

  7. [Antivirus effect of polysaccharides of brewer yeast in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Shi, Y; Guan, X; Zhang, S; Tian, T

    1998-03-01

    The antivirus effect of polysaccharides of brewer yeast from yeast mud on 13 kinds of viruses including DNA and RNA virus along with their mechanisms were studied. The result showed that this effect was remarkable on the infections with poliovirus III, adenovirus III, ECHO6 virus, enterovirus 71, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpesvirus I, II, coxsackie A16 virus and coxsackie B3 virus. The polysaccharides of brewer yeast could also inhibit the development of cytopathic effect(CPE) and protect cultural cells from being infected with the above viruses.

  8. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  9. Quality assurance of the Brewer spectral UV measurements in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakkala

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality assurance of the two Brewer spectrophotometers of the Finnish Meteorological Institute is discussed in this paper. The complete data processing chain from raw signal to high quality spectra is presented. The quality assurance includes daily maintenance, laboratory characterizations, calculation of long-term spectral responsivity, data processing and quality assessment. The cosine correction of the measurements is based on a new method, and is included in the data processing software. The results showed that the actual cosine correction factor of the two Finnish Brewers can vary between 1.08–1.13 and 1.08–1.12, respectively, depending on the sky radiance distribution and wavelength. The temperature characterization showed a linear temperature dependence between the instruments' internal temperature and the photon counts per cycle, and a temperature correction was used for correcting the measurements. The long-term spectral responsivity was calculated using the time series of several lamps using two slightly different methods. The long-term spectral responsivity was scaled to the irradiance scale of the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT for the whole of the measurement time-periods 1990–2006 and 1995–2006 for Sodankylä and Jokioinen, respectively. Both Brewers have participated in many international spectroradiometer comparisons, and have shown good stability. The differences between the Brewers and the portable reference spectroradiometer QASUME have been within 5% during 2002–2007.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on brewer's yeast fermentation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharandiuk, Tetiana; Kosiv, Ruslana; Palianytsia, Liubov; Berezovska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of temperature treatment of brewer's yeast strain Saflager W-34/70 at temperatures of -17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C on their fermentative activity was studied. It was established that the freezing of yeast leads to a decrease of fermentation activity in directly proportional to the duration way. Fermentative activity of yeast samples can be increased by 20-24% by heat treatment at 35 °C during 15-30 minutes.

  11. Brewer's Yeast Improves Glycemic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Djalali, Mahmoud; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Hajianfar, Hossein; Bahonar, Ahmad; Djazayery, Abolghassem

    2013-10-01

    Brewer's yeast may have beneficial effects on insulin receptors because of itsglucose tolerance factor in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer's yeast supplementation on glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 84 adults (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3 ± 6.1 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: Supplement group receiving brewer's yeast (six 300mg tablets/day, total 1800 mg) and control group receiving placebo (six 300mg tablets/day) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, body mass index, food consumption (based on 24h food record), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance were measured before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). The changes in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity were significantly different between the two groups during the study (respectively P brewer›s yeast besides the usual treatment of diabetes can ameliorate blood glucose variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  13. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Xue, Fuguang; Nan, Xuemei; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kun; Beckers, Yves; Jiang, Linshu; Xiong, Benhai

    2017-01-01

    The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis), high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis) and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T). On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio , and Ruminobacter , and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum , and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was positively

  14. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis, high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T. On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio, and Ruminobacter, and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was

  15. From theory to practice: caring science according to Watson and Brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Watson, Jean; Brewer, Barbara B

    2009-10-01

    Caring science is presented by Jean Watson and Barbara Brewer through an interview and dialogue format. Jean Watson presents caring science and its philosophy and evolution and the impact of her model on nursing and other disciplines. Barbara Brewer addresses the implementation of the model in a Magnet hospital setting and describes how her leadership facilitated implementation.

  16. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J A; Stein, H H; Singh, V; Shurson, G S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-04-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has low and variable AA digestibility. The variability is often attributed to damage during the heating process, and it has been suggested that the damage happens to the soluble components of DDGS such as reducing sugars. Combining solubles and grains sometimes produces syrup balls (SB); their digestibility is unknown. The objective of this experiment was to identify potential sources of poor and variable AA digestibility in DDGS. Specifically, our objective was to determine whether the problems are associated with the solubles component or with SB. The ingredients evaluated were DDGS, intact SB, ground SB, liquid condensed solubles (LCS), and pulse dried thin stillage (PDTS) obtained from the same ethanol plant. The LCS is produced by evaporation of thin stillage. Each ingredient was used as the only source of AA in an experimental diet. In a duplicate 6 × 6 Latin square design with 7-d adaptation and collection periods, the 6 treatments consisted of an N-free diet and the 5 test ingredients. Pigs had 5 d of adaptation to each diet, and on d 6 and 7 ileal digesta were collected from an ileal cannula for 8 h each day. Both SB treatments had apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA that were similar or greater (P < 0.05) than those of DDGS. The AID and SID values of Lys and a few other AA were similar in LCS (SID Lys: 63.1%) and DDGS (SID Lys: 61.5%), but the digestibility values of most AA in LCS were less than in DDGS (P < 0.05). The low digestibility of AA in LCS was most pronounced for Met (SID: LCS, 41.9% vs. DDGS, 82.8%). The LCS had less (P < 0.05) AID and SID of CP (SID: 67.8%) than intact SB (SID: 85.2%) and ground SB (SID: 85.9%) as well as all AA. The PDTS generally had the least AID and SID and had less (P < 0.05) CP (SID: 55.3%) and several AA, including Lys, compared with LCS. In conclusion, the presence of SB does not decrease AA digestibility of DDGS, and the LCS

  17. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  18. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  19. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW] were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers, which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May. Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size. Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G, urea-nitrogen (UN and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05.The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05. In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW, and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, crude protein (ADCP and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP, NDF (kdNDF and passage rate (kp also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and propionate concentrations also increased with

  20. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  1. Ozone, spectral irradiance and aerosol measurements with the Brewer spectro radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marenco, F.; Di Sarra, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this technical report a detailed description of the Brewer spectro radiometer, a widespread instrument for ozone and ultraviolet radiation, is given. The methodologies used to measure these quantities and for instrument calibration are described in detail. Finally a new methodology, developed by ENEA to derive the aerosol optical depth from the Brewer routine total ozone measurements, is described. This methodology is based on Langley extrapolation, on the determination of the transmissivity of the Brewer neutral density filters, and on a statistically significant number of half days of measurements obtained in could-free conditions. Results of this method, obtained with the Brewer of the ENEA station for climate observations Roberto Sarao, located in the island of Lampedusa, are reported. These results confirm the validity of the method, thanks to independent measurements taken in 1999 with a Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer. This methodology allows researchers to obtain an aerosol climatology from ozone measurements obtained at several sites world-wide [it

  2. Drying enhances immunoactivity of spent brewer's yeast cell wall β-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepins, Janis; Kovačova, Elena; Shvirksts, Karlis; Grube, Mara; Rapoport, Alexander; Kogan, Grigorij

    2015-07-20

    Due to immunological activity, microbial cell wall polysaccharides are defined as 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). Cell walls of spent brewer's yeast also have some BRM activity. However, up to date there is no consensus on the use of spent brewer's yeast D-glucan as specific BRM in humans or animals. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of spent brewer's yeast β-D-glucans as BRM, and drying as an efficient pretreatment to increase β-D-glucan's immunogenic activity. Our results revealed that drying does not change spent brewer's yeast biomass carbohydrate content as well as the chemical structure of purified β-D-glucan. However, drying increased purified β-D-glucan TNF-α induction activity in the murine macrophage model. We presume drying pretreatment enhances purity of extracted β-D-glucan. This is corroborated with FT-IR analyses of the β-D-glucan spectra. Based on our results, we suggest that dry spent brewer's yeast biomass can be used as a cheap source for high-quality β-D-glucan extraction. Drying in combination with carboxylmethylation (CM), endows spent brewer's yeast β-D-glucan with the immunoactivity similar or exceeding that of a well-characterized fungal BRM pleuran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of GOME total ozone data with ground data from the Spanish Brewer spectroradiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares total ozone measurements from five Brewer spectroradiometers located at the Iberian Peninsula with satellite observations given by the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment sensor. The analyzed period covers simultaneous ozone values from July 1995 until December 2004. The regression analysis shows an excellent agreement between Brewer-GOME values in the five locations; the coefficient of correlation is always higher than 0.92 and the root mean square error is about 3%. Moreover, the comparison shows that the satellite retrieval accuracy is within the uncertainty of current ground-based instruments. In addition, the effects of several variables, such as cloudiness, solar zenith angle (SZA, effective temperature and total ozone values in Brewer-GOME differences are analyzed. The results indicate that clouds induce a minor dependence of GOME values on the SZA. For example, during heavy cloudy conditions in Madrid station, GOME observations overestimate ground-based Brewer data for low AMF (low SZA values by 2% while for high AMF (high SZA values the satellite underestimates ground-based ozone values by 1%. Moreover, the dependence of Brewer-GOME differences with respect to SZA for cloud-free conditions may be due to the variability of effective temperature. This fact could indicate that the effective temperature estimated by GOME does not fully reflect the actual atmospheric temperature variability. Finally, GOME ozone observations slightly underestimate the highest values measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers and overestimates the lowest ground-based measurements.

  4. Studies on Brewers Spent Grains (BSG) Biomethanation: II - Biological Efficiency of Digester Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeonu, F. C.; Udedi, S. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Dangogo and Fernando suggested that a laboratory qualitative assessment of the manurial quality of digester slurry can be achieved by analyzing nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content. Analyzing data from our study indicate an approximate range of nutrient contents of BSG digester manure to be within the following ranges, 0.50 - 0.61%, phosphorus, 0.55- 0.58% potassium and 3.14 - 3.48'% nitrogen for dried sludge. (Figures are not corrected for loss of nitrogen and other nutrients on drying). From the field study, it is apparent from the percentage biological yield that the digester dry manure is a better fertilizer than humus

  5. Desempenho e digestibilidade in vivo de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo canola em grão integral em diferentes formas Performance and digestibility in vivo of lambs fed diets with whole canola grain in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Bett

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de cordeiros alimentados com concentrados formulados com farelo de soja (FS, canola integral (CI canola quebrada (CQ ou canola peletizada (CP e feno de aveia, fornecidos na relação 30/70 (volumoso/conconcentrado, %MS foram avaliados. Vinte oito cordeiros machos com idade inicial entre 60 e 90 dias e 17 kg PV foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As ingestões (g/d de MS, PB, FDA, FDN e EB (Mcal/dia, o ganho médio diário e a conversão alimentar, foram semelhantes. Não houve diferenças para digestibilidade aparente da MS, PB e EB, exceto para digestibilidade de FDN (46,84; 60,11; 50,10; e 38,88% e FDA (45,84; 54,19; 46,57; e 29,59% para FS, CI, CQ e CP, respectivamente. Houve menor retenção de nitrogênio para CP (3,0 g/d em comparação às outras dietas (entre 5,0 e 7,3 g/d. Os tratamentos não diferiram na concentração de propionato, mas reduziram as concentrações de butirato (7,08; 4,87; 4,08; e 4,29 μM/mL de líquido ruminal e N-amoniacal (12,17; 8,69; 8,40; e 7,66 mg/100 mL de líquido de rúmen. O uso de canola, nas diferentes formas, não influenciou a ingestão e a digestão, proporcionando desempenho semelhante entre os tratamentos.The performance and digestibility of nutrients of lambs fed concentrates formulated with soybean meal (SM and whole canola grain (WC, cracked canola grain (CC or pelleted canola (PC and oat hay, fed in a 30:70 (forage to concentrate ratio, %DM were evaluated. Twenty-eight male lambs with initial age from 60 to 90 days and 17 kg LW were allotted to a completely randomized design. The intakes (g/d of DM, CP, ADF, NDF and GE (Mcal/d, the average daily gain and feed: gain ratio, were similar. There were no differences for apparent digestibilities of MS, PB and GE, except for the NDF digestibility (46.84, 60.11, 50.10, and 38.88% and ADF (45.84, 54.19, 46.57, and 29.59% for SM, WC, CC and PC, respectively. There was lower nitrogen

  6. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  7. Functional enrichment of mannanase-treated spent brewer yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruge; Yang, Xingyue; Shang, Wenting; Zhou, Zhongkai; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2017-09-14

    In this study, the effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-produced β-mannanase on the nutrient diffusion (release) and antioxidant activity of spent brewer yeast (SBY) was investigated. Three pretreatments were performed: (1) autolysis at 50°C for 24 h; (2) autolysis at 50°C for 24 h, with the addition of β-mannanase during the autolysis; (3) autolysis at 50°C for 24 h, and the β-mannanase was added for another 12 h treatment. The pretreatments with the addition of β-mannanase caused significant cell wall degradation, markedly increased the yield of SBY extracts. More importantly, this study found that polysaccharides were degraded to be oligosaccharides with a considerable reduction in molecular weights. Meanwhile, pretreatment with the enzyme also exhibited a higher antioxidant activity in SBY extract compared to autolysis itself. The current study indicated that pretreatment (3) had a better effect than pretreatment (2) in terms of improving in antioxidant activity in SBY extract. These improved characteristics of SBY extracts isolated through enzymatic treatment appear to show promising features for their prospective use as natural functional agents.

  8. Adsorption performance of nickel and cadmium ions onto brewer's yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.; Wu, G. [South-Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China). College of Chemical and Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Catalysts and Materials Science of Hubei Province; Jeong, T. [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Heavy metals must be removed from polluted water streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Although various techniques have been used to recover metal ions from wastewater, they are either ineffective when heavy metals are present at low concentrations. In this study, brewer's yeast was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(2) and Cd(2) metal ions from aqueous solution. The surface of the brewer's yeast had 3 main functional groups of sulfonate, carboxyl, and amine groups. The pH of solution played a key role on the uptake of metal ions. Optimum adsorption was obtained at pH 6. An acid solution with a pH of 3 was efficient for the desorption of Ni(2) and Cd(2) ions from loaded brewer's yeast. The desorption efficiency was greater than 90 per cent. The rate of metal ions adsorption onto brewer's yeast was rapid with short contact time. The kinetics of the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to fit the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm model provided a better fit. The maximum uptakes of Ni(2) and Cd(2) by brewer's yeast were estimated to be 5.34 and 10.17 mg/g, respectively. Electrostatic interaction was found to be the main mechanism of metal ions adsorption on the brewer's yeast. It was concluded that brewer's yeast is a promising adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from wastewater. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Ozone, spectral irradiance and aerosol measurements with the Brewer spectro radiometer; Misure di ozono, irradianza spettrale ultravioletta e aerosol con lo spettroradiometro Brewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marenco, F.; Di Sarra, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this technical report a detailed description of the Brewer spectro radiometer, a widespread instrument for ozone and ultraviolet radiation, is given. The methodologies used to measure these quantities and for instrument calibration are described in detail. Finally a new methodology, developed by ENEA to derive the aerosol optical depth from the Brewer routine total ozone measurements, is described. This methodology is based on Langley extrapolation, on the determination of the transmissivity of the Brewer neutral density filters, and on a statistically significant number of half days of measurements obtained in could-free conditions. Results of this method, obtained with the Brewer of the ENEA station for climate observations Roberto Sarao, located in the island of Lampedusa, are reported. These results confirm the validity of the method, thanks to independent measurements taken in 1999 with a Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer. This methodology allows researchers to obtain an aerosol climatology from ozone measurements obtained at several sites world-wide. [Italian] In questo rapporto tecnico viene fornita la descrizione dettagliata di uno strumento comunemente utilizzato per le misure di ozono e radiazione ultravioletta: lo spettroradiometro Brewer. Le metodologie usate per la misura di queste grandezze e per la calibrazione dello strumento vengono descritte in dettaglio. Infine, viene descritto una nuova metodologia, messa a punto dall'ENEA, per ricavare lo spessore ottico degli aerosol a partire dalle misure di ozono fatte normalmente dal Brewer. Questa metodologia si basa su di una calibrazione effettuata con il metodo dell' estrapolazione di Langley, sulla misura della trasmissivita' dei filtri a densita' neutra dello strumento, e su un numero statisticamente grande di mezze giornate di misure effettuate in assenza di nuvole. Sono riportati alcuni risultati della metodologia, ottenuti con il Brewer della Stazione per le

  10. Protective effect of Brewer's yeast on methimazole-induced-adrenal atrophy (a stereological study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Farzaneh; Zabolizadeh, Jamal; Noorafshan, Ali; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2010-04-20

    Induction of hypothyroidism by thioamide drugs will cause adrenal gland atrophy and decrease in its hormones. To prevent side effect on the adrenal gland, brewer's yeast, a natural product rich in vitamins and minerals was used. Serological techniques were applied to measure the volume of adrenal gland. For this purpose, 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. In group 1, methimazole was administered at the dose of 30 mg/kg/day days, in group 2, 120 mg/kg/day of, brewer's yeast, in group 3, 30 mg/kg/day of methimazole plus 120 mg/kg/day of brewer yeast, and for the control group, an equal volume of saline (0.5 ml/rat/day) was orally given. After 30 days, all the animals were anesthetized and their adrenal glands were removed, fixed, embedded and stained. The volume of different zones of the adrenal glands was estimated by Cavalieri principle and point counting methods. statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Withney test and p Brewer's yeast reduced the methimazole side effects on this zone. In conclusion, it seems that the use of brewer's yeast could prevent methimazole-induced atrophy of the adrenal gland.

  11. Intercomparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from Brewer Ozone spectrophotometers and CIMEL sunphotometers measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cheymol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Langley plot method applied on the Brewer Ozone measurements can provide accurate Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD in the UV-B. We present seven intercomparisons between AOD retrieved from Brewer Ozone measurements at 320 nm and AOD measured by CIMEL sunphotometer at 340 nm or 440 nm (shifted to 320 nm in using the Angström's law, which are stored in the international AERONET database. Only the intercomparisons between co-located instruments can be used to validate the Langley Plot Method applied to the Brewer measurements: in this case, all the correlation coefficients are above 0.82. If the instruments are not at the same site, the correlation between the AOD retrieved by both instruments is much lower. In applying the Angström's law the intercomparison is improved compared to previous study.

  12. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  13. Defective quiescence entry promotes the fermentation performance of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomuro, Mayu; Kato, Taku; Zhou, Yan; Watanabe, Daisuke; Motoyama, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hiromi; Akao, Takeshi; Aizawa, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    One of the key processes in making beer is fermentation. In the fermentation process, brewer's yeast plays an essential role in both the production of ethanol and the flavor profile of beer. Therefore, the mechanism of ethanol fermentation by of brewer's yeast is attracting much attention. The high ethanol productivity of sake yeast has provided a good basis from which to investigate the factors that regulate the fermentation rates of brewer's yeast. Recent studies found that the elevated fermentation rate of sake Saccharomyces cerevisiae species is closely related to a defective transition from vegetative growth to the quiescent (G 0 ) state. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between the fermentation rate of brewer's yeast and entry into G 0 , we constructed two types of mutant of the bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70: a RIM15 gene disruptant that was defective in entry into G 0 ; and a CLN3ΔPEST mutant, in which the G 1 cyclin Cln3p accumulated at high levels. Both strains exhibited higher fermentation rates under high-maltose medium or high-gravity wort conditions (20° Plato) as compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, G 1 arrest and/or G 0 entry were defective in both the RIM15 disruptant and the CLN3ΔPEST mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that regulation of the G 0 /G 1 transition might govern the fermentation rate of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast in high-gravity wort. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  15. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  16. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer...

  17. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value.…

  18. Beer and Fast Cars: How Brewers Target Blue-collar Youth through Motor Sport Sponsorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David R.; Lev, Jane

    This study explored how motor sports sponsorships complement and amplify the brewers' media campaigns by joining masculinity, risk, excitement, and beer in the actual "lived" experiences of potential consumers. To document industry expenditures and justifications for motor sports sponsorship, trade journals and newsletters (N=25) and…

  19. Comparison between Brewer spectrometer, M 124 filter ozonometer and Dobson spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feister, U.

    1994-01-01

    Concurrent measurements were taken using the Brewer spectrometer no. 30, the filter ozonometer M 124 no. 200 and the Dobson spectrophotometer no. 71 from September 1987 to December 1988 at Potsdam. The performance of the instrument types and the compatibility of ozone data was checked under the conditions of a field measuring station. Total ozone values derived from Dobson AD direct sun measurements were considered as standard. The Dobson instrument had been calibrated at intercomparisons with the World Standard Dobson instrument no. 83 (Boulder) and with the Regional Standard instrument no. 64 (Potsdam), while the Brewer instrument was calibrated several times with the Travelling Standard Brewer no. 17 (Canada). The differences between individual Brewer DS (direct sun) ozone data and Dobson ADDS are within plus or minus 3 percent with half of all differences within plus or minus 1 percent. Less than 0.7 percent of the systematic difference can be due to atmospheric SO2. Due to inadequate regression coefficients Brewer ZB (zenith blue) ozone measurements are by (3...4) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone values. M124 DS ozone data are systematically by (1...2) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone with 50 percent of the differences within plus or minus 4 percent, but with extreme differences up to plus or minus (20...25) percent. M124 ZB ozone values are by (3...5) percent higher than Dobson ADDS with all the differences within plus or minus 10 percent, i.e. the scatter of differences is smaller for ZB than for M 124 DS measurements, Results for differences in the daily mean ozone values are also addressed. The differences include the uncertainties in the ozone values derived from both types of measurements. They provide an indication of the uncertainty in ozone data and the comparability of ozone values derived from different types of instruments.

  20. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  1. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards.

  2. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and protein in chromium-rich brewer's yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wenjun; Qian Qinfang; Hou Xiaolin; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang

    2000-01-01

    The contents of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast were determined with the neutron activation analysis in order to study the combination of Cr with DNA, RNA and protein in chromium-rich brewer's yeast. The results showed that the extracting rats and concentrations of DNA, RNA and protein had no significant difference in two types of yeast, but the chromium contents of DNA, RNA and protein in the chromium-rich yeast were significantly higher than those in the normal. In addition, the content of chromium in DNA was much higher than that in RNA and protein, which indicated that the inorganic chromium compounds entered into the yeast cell, during the yeast cultivation in the culture medium containing chromium were converted into organic chromium compounds combined with DNA, RNA and protein

  3. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi, Rika; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Araki, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p.), a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline ...

  4. Impact of narasin on manure composition and microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30.34% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with either 0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet, on subsequent manure composition, manure mic...

  5. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli in feces and feedlot surface manure from cattle fed diets with or without corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and fee...

  6. Comparative proteome and transcriptome analysis of lager brewer's yeast in the autolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weina; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    The autolysis of brewer's yeast during beer production has a significant effect on the quality of the final product. In this work, we performed proteome and transcriptome studies on brewer's yeast to examine changes in protein and mRNA levels in the process of autolysis. Protein and RNA samples of the strain Qing2 at two different autolysis stages were obtained for further study. In all, 49 kinds of proteins were considered to be involved in the autolysis response, eight of which were up-regulated and 41 down-regulated. Seven new kinds of proteins emerged during autolysis. Results of comparative analyses showed that important changes had taken place as an adaptive response to autolysis. Functional analysis showed that carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cellular amino acid metabolic processes, cell response to various stresses (such as oxidative stress, salt stress, and osmotic stress), translation and transcription were repressed by the down-regulation of the corresponding proteins, and starvation and DNA damage responses could be induced. The comparison of data on transcriptomes with proteomes demonstrated that most autolysis-response proteins as well as new proteins showed a general correlation between mRNA and protein levels. Thus these proteins were thought to be transcriptionally regulated. These findings provide important information about how brewer's yeast acts to cope with autolysis at molecular levels, which might enhance global understanding of the autolysis process. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola = Carcass characteristics in lambs fed with grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi estudar a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola em dietas para cordeiros. Para a avaliação das características quantitativas da carcaça, foram utilizadas 24 carcaças de cordeiros, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As dietas com média de 15,4% de PB na MS e 80,2% de NDT foram compostas por 40% de feno de capim-Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, canola em grão integral, farelo de canola, torta de canola e mistura mineral. A utilização de grãos e subprodutos da canola na dieta de borregos terminados em confinamento não influenciou (p > 0,05 as características quantitativas da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, não houve efeito dos tratamentos para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. Assim, a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola possibilitaram bons resultados podendo ser recomendados nas formulações de dietas para cordeiros.The aim of this work was to evaluate the introduction of 8% grains and by-products (meal or cake of canola in the diets of lambs. To evaluate quantitative carcass characteristics, 24 Santa Ines lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Diets with averages of 15.4% of CP in DM and 80.2% of TDN were composed for 40% Tifton hay and 60% concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. The use of whole grains and by-products of canola in the diet of lambs finished in feedlot did not influence (p > 0.05 quantitative carcass characteristics. For cut dressing in relation to the CCW, no effect was observed for the analyzed variables among treatments. It was concluded that the introduction of grains and by-products of canola allow for satisfactory results, and could be recommended in the formulations of lamb diets.

  8. Degradation of spent craft brewer's yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Bryant, R W; Cohen, S D; O'Connell, S P; Flythe, M D

    2016-10-01

    Spent yeast from craft beers often includes more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) secondary metabolites than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. The objective was to determine if the hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast (CY; ~ 3·5 mg g(-1) hops acids) would protect it from degradation by caprine rumen bacteria and HAB when compared to a baker's yeast (BY; no hops acids). Cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated goats, straining and differential centrifugation. The cells were re-suspended in media with BY or CY. After 24 h (39°C), HAB were enumerated and ammonia was measured. Fewer HAB and less ammonia was produced from CY than from BY. Pure culture experiments were conducted with Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusBG1 (caprine HAB). Ammonia production by BG1 from BY was greater than from CY. Ammonia production was greater when exogenous amino acids were included, but similar inhibition was observed in CY treatments. These results indicate that rumen micro-organisms deaminated the amino acids in CY to a lesser degree than BY. Spent brewer's yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. This study demonstrated that hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast protected protein from destruction by HABin vitro. These results suggest that the spent yeast from craft breweries, a source of beneficial hops secondary metabolites, could have value as rumen-protected protein. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  10. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  11. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. Each...

  12. Impact of narasin on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Brian J; Trabue, Steven L; van Weelden, Mark B; Andersen, Daniel S; Pepple, Laura M

    2018-04-14

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period. After each of the twice-daily feedings, feces and urine from each crate was collected and added to its assigned enclosed manure storage tank. Each tank contained an individual fan system that pulled a constant stream of air over the manure surface for 2 wk prior to air (day 52) and manure sampling (day 53). After manure sampling, the manure in the tanks was dumped and the tanks cleaned for the second group of pigs. Except for total manure Ca and P output as a percent of intake and for manure methane product rate and biochemical methane potential (P ≤ 0.08), there were no interactions between diet composition and narasin supplementation. Narasin supplementation resulted in increased manure C (P = 0.05), increased manure DM, C, S, Ca, and phosphorus as a percent of animal intake (P ≤ 0.07), and increased manure volatile solids and foaming capacity (P ≤ 0.09). No effect of narasin supplementation was noted on manure VFA concentrations or any of the gas emission parameters measured (P ≥ 0.29). In contrast, feeding finishing pigs a diet containing DDGS dramatically affected manure composition as indicated by increased concentration of DM, C, ammonia, N, and total and volatile solids (P = 0.01), increased manure DM, N, and C as a percent of animal intake (P = 0.01), increased manure total VFA and phenols (P ≤ 0.05), decreased gas emissions of ammonia and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC; P = 0.01), increased

  13. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado adicionadas de agentes tamponantes Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed high grain diets with buffer compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luis Gastaldello Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os efeitos da adição de bicarbonato de sódio ou de fontes de calcário com diferentes granulometrias na ração, associadas ou não a monensina sódica, sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de cordeiros confinados recebendo dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado. Quarenta e dois cordeiros Santa Inês com peso inicial de 21 ± 3 kg e 88 ± 5 dias de idade foram distribuídos em blocos completos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2 × 3, com seis tratamentos e sete repetições. Os animais foram alimentados com rações contendo 90% de concentrado, 10% de feno de "coastcross", uma fonte de calcário (calcário calcítico ou calcário calcítico tipo filler ou bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3, com ou sem adição de monensina sódica (30 mg/kg da MS. Não foi observada influência dos agentes tamponantes no consumo de matéria seca e no ganho de peso médio diário. Entretanto, a conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com as rações contendo monensina sódica (3,32 kg MS/kg de ganho foi melhor que naqueles que consumiram as rações sem esse aditivo (3,58 kg MS/kg de ganho. Não houve efeito dos agentes tamponantes nos parâmetros de carcaça avaliados, observando-se valores médios de 50,4%; 2,4%; 13,9 cm² e 1,9 mm para o rendimento de carcaça quente, a perda por resfriamento, a área de olho-de-lombo e a espessura de gordura, respectivamente. A adição de monensina melhora a conversão alimentar e pode aumentar a rentabilidade do sistema de produção de cordeiros confinados.The objective of this study was to assess the effects of adding sodium bicarbonate or limestone sources with different particle sizes to the diet, and their interaction with sodium monensin, on the performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed fed high grain diets. Forty two Santa Ines lambs were used with 21 ± 3 kg initial average body weight and 88 ± 5 days old in feedlot, placed a

  14. On the compatibility of Brewer total column ozone measurements in two adjacent valleys (Arosa and Davos in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stübi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arosa site is well known in the ozone community for its continuous total ozone column observations that have been recorded since 1926. Originally based on Dobson sun spectrophotometers, the site has been gradually complemented by three automatic Brewer instruments, in operation since 1998. To secure the long-term ozone monitoring in this Alpine region and to benefit from synergies with the World Radiation Center, the feasibility of moving this activity to the nearby site at Davos (aerial distance of 13 km has been explored. Concerns about a possible rupture of the 90-year-long record has motivated a careful comparison of the two sites, since great attention to the data continuity and quality has always been central to the operations of the observatory at Arosa. To this end, one element of the Arosa Brewer triad has been set up at the Davos site since November 2011 to realize a campaign of parallel measurements and to study the deviations between the three Brewer instruments. The analysis of the coincident measurement shows that the differences between Arosa and Davos remain within the range of the long-term stability of the Brewer instruments. A nonsignificant seasonal cycle is observed, which could possibly be induced by a stray-light bias and the altitude difference between the two sites. These differences are shown to be lower than the short-term variability of the time series and the overall uncertainty from individual Brewer instruments and therefore are not statistically significant. It is therefore concluded that the world's longest time series of the total ozone column obtained at Arosa site could be safely extended and continued with measurements taken from instruments located at the nearby Davos site without introducing a bias to this unique record.

  15. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey W

    reviewed paper: Proc. ... maize grain is a staple food for humans and a major ingredient in the diets of intensively fed livestock. Therefore, Se in ..... Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids. National Research.

  16. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  17. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2001-01-01

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  18. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  19. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot juice (Daucus carota L. and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748. From the data obtained through chemical analyses of the fermented products, it can be seen that the mixture of beetroot and carrot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate is richer in minerals (Ca, P, Fe and b-carotene than fermented beetroot juice with the same content of brewer’s yeast autolysate.

  20. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros após desaleitamento até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Após o resfriamento, foram tomados nas meias-carcaças esquerdas os cortes da seção H&H para estimativa da composição tecidual da carcaça e os cortes no Longissimus dorsi à altura da 12ª e 13ª costelas para determinação da área de olho-de-lombo (AOL, da espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS, da força de cisalhamento (FC e da composição química. Não houve efeito da composição das rações concentradas sobre a composição física e a relação entre tecidos na seção H&H, bem como para AOL, EGS e FC. A ração concentrada SGUM resultou em maiores teores de EE no Longissimus dorsi, mas não diferiu das rações SCTM e SSTM. A ração concentrada SGUM gerou maior deposição de gordura muscular em comparação à MM, no entanto, as rações SGUISCT e SGUISST não aumentaram essa deposição em comparação ao fornecimento dos grãos secos moídos. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem a composições física e química da carca��a e conferem resultados similares.The physical and chemical carcasses composition of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

  1. Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.; Serrano, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Loyola, D.; Zimmer, W. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMet), Madrid (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to compare the total ozone data from the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument (GOME-2/MetOp) with reliable ground-based measurement recorded by five Brewer spectroradiometers in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a similar comparison for the predecessor instrument GOME/ERS-2 is described. The period of study is a whole year from May 2007 to April 2008. The results show that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data already has a very good quality, total ozone columns are on average 3.05% lower than Brewer measurements. This underestimation is higher than that obtained for GOME/ERS-2 (1.46%). However, the relative differences between GOME-2/MetOp and Brewer measurements show significantly lower variability than the differences between GOME/ERS-2 and Brewer data. Dependencies of these relative differences with respect to the satellite solar zenith angle (SZA), the satellite scan angle, the satellite cloud cover fraction (CF), and the ground-based total ozone measurements are analyzed. For both GOME instruments, differences show no significant dependence on SZA. However, GOME-2/MetOp data show a significant dependence on the satellite scan angle (+1.5%). In addition, GOME/ERS-2 differences present a clear dependence with respect to the CF and ground-based total ozone; such differences are minimized for GOME-2/MetOp. The comparison between the daily total ozone values provided by both GOME instruments shows that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data are on average 1.46% lower than GOME/ERS-2 data without any seasonal dependence. Finally, deviations of a priori climatological ozone profile used by the satellite retrieval algorithm from the true ozone profile are analyzed. Although excellent agreement between a priori climatological and measured partial ozone values is found for the middle and high stratosphere, relative differences greater than 15% are common for the troposphere and lower stratosphere. (orig.)

  2. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including prediction, ... number of hidden layers, this study was done in Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey Branch, during ... External features describe the boundary information. ... based on Bayes decision theory to classify rice variety.

  3. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P Phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei enhanced ileal digestibility of N and several AA in growing pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  4. Simulations of anthropogenic change in the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butchart, N. [Met Office, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Scaife, A.A. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Bourqui, M. [University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Grandpre, J. de [McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Hare, S.H.E. [University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Kettleborough, J. [British Atmospheric Data Centre, Rutherford Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Langematz, U. [Freie Universitaet of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Manzini, E. [National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Sassi, F. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Shibata, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Shindell, D. [NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York (United States); Sigmond, M. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The effect of climate change on the Brewer-Dobson circulation and, in particular, the large-scale seasonal-mean transport between the troposphere and stratosphere is compared in a number of middle atmosphere general circulation models. All the models reproduce the observed upwelling across the tropical tropopause balanced by downwelling in the extra tropics, though the seasonal cycle in upwelling in some models is more semi-annual than annual. All the models also consistently predict an increase in the mass exchange rate in response to growing greenhouse gas concentrations, irrespective of whether or not the model includes interactive ozone chemistry. The mean trend is 11 kt s{sup -1} year{sup -1} or about 2% per decade but varies considerably between models. In all but one of the models the increase in mass exchange occurs throughout the year though, generally, the trend is larger during the boreal winter. On average, more than 60% of the mean mass fluxes can be explained by the EP-flux divergence using the downward control principle. Trends in the annual mean mass fluxes derived from the EP-flux divergence also explain about 60% of the trend in the troposphere-to-stratosphere mass exchange rate when averaged over all the models. Apart from two models the interannual variability in the downward control derived and actual mass fluxes were generally well correlated, for the annual mean. (orig.)

  5. Impact of new ingredients obtained from brewer's spent yeast on bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2018-05-01

    The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers' spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust. However, breads with proteins/proteolytic enzymes addition presented lower specific volume, whereas the incorporation of β-glucans in bread lead to uniform pores that was also noticeble in terms of higher specific volume. Overall, the improvement of nutritional/health promoting properties is highlighted with β-glucan rich extract, not only due to bread β-glucan content but also for total dietary fibre content (39% increase). The improvement was less noticeable for proteins/proteolytic enzymes extract. Only a 6% increase in bread protein content was noted with the addition of this extract and higher protein content would most likely accentuate the negative impact on bread specific volume that in turn could impair consumer acceptance. Therefore, only β-glucan rich extract is a promising bread ingredient.

  6. In-flight comparison of Brewer-Mast and electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübi, René; Levrat, Gilbert; Hoegger, Bruno; Viatte, Pierre; Staehelin, Johannes; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2008-07-01

    The analysis of 140 dual flights between two types of ozonesondes, namely, the Brewer-Mast (BM) and the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC), is presented in this study. These dual flights were performed before the transition from BM to ECC as the operational ozonesonde for the Payerne Aerological Station, Switzerland. The different factors of the ozonesonde data processing are considered and their influences on the profile of the difference are evaluated. The analysis of the ozone difference between the BM and the ECC ozonesonde data shows good agreement between the two sonde types. The profile of the ozone difference is limited to ±5% (±0.3 mPa) from the ground to 32 km. The analysis confirms the appropriateness of the standard BM data processing method and the usefulness of the normalization of the ozonesonde data. The conclusions of the extended dual flight campaigns are corroborated by the analysis of the time series of the Payerne soundings for the periods of 5 years before and after the change from BM to ECC which occurred in September 2002. No significant discontinuity can be identified in 2002 attributable to the change of sonde.

  7. Newly registered small grains cultivars from Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principal properties of 5 new cultivars of small grains created in the Center for Agricultural and Technological Research in Zaječar. They are as follows: Arena (winter bread wheat, Premium (winter malting barley, Tango (winter triticale, Center (spring oat and Balsa (spring naked barley. In 2004 and 2005 these cultivars were registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The Arena cultivar has good indices of technological quality and high yield genetic potential which is successfully preserved even in dry years. The Premium cultivar, besides high yield capacity, has a very low protein grain content what makes it especially suitable for brewers industry. Triticale Tango is intended, in the first place, for animal feeds and like Arena cultivar. is highly tolerant to draught. Spring oat Center is Zaječar's first made oat cultivar in this group of small grains. Cultivar Balsa is the first spring six-row naked barley in Serbia and Montenegro. Creating of Balsa cultivar is the attempt to meet the future demands on the market. By the act of registering above mentioned cultivars the Center in Zajecar has completed and enlarged its already existing variety of small grains assortment.

  8. Peptide (Lys-Leu) and amino acids (Lys and Leu) supplementations improve physiological activity and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast during very high-gravity (VHG) wort fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Zong, Xuyan; Cui, Chun; Mu, Lixia; Zhao, Haifeng

    2017-12-22

    Lys and Leu were generally considered as the key amino acids for brewer's yeast during beer brewing. In the present study, peptide Lys-Leu and a free amino acid (FAA) mixture of Lys and Leu (Lys + Leu) were supplemented in 24 °P wort to examine their effects on physiological activity and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast during very high-gravity (VHG) wort fermentation. Results showed that although both peptide Lys-Leu and their FAA mixture supplementations could increase the growth and viability, intracellular trehalose and glycerol content, wort fermentability, and ethanol content for brewer's yeast during VHG wort fermentation, and peptide was better than their FAA mixture at promoting growth and fermentation for brewer's yeast when the same dose was kept. Moreover, peptide Lys-Leu supplementation significantly increased the assimilation of Asp, but decreased the assimilation of Gly, Ala, Val, (Cys)2, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, Arg, and Pro. However, the FAA mixture supplementation only promoted the assimilation of Lys and Leu, while reduced the absorption of total amino acids to a greater extent. Thus, the peptide Lys-Leu was more effective than their FAA mixture on the improvement of physiological activity, fermentation performance, and nitrogen metabolism of brewer's yeast during VHG wort fermentation. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Microarray studies on lager brewer's yeasts reveal cell status in the process of autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weina; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we performed DNA microarray studies on lager brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus to investigate changes in gene expression in the process of autolysis. The two strains we used were Qing2 and 5-2. Strain 5-2 is a mutant of Qing2 and autolyzes much more slowly than its parent strain. Four samples of these two strains during different autolysis stages (0% and 15%) were tested using DNA microarray containing > 10,000 yeast's genes. Analysis of genes with the same transcription pattern (up- or down-regulated in both strains) showed that the same 99 genes were up-regulated (transcription levels were increased), and the same 97 genes were down-regulated (transcription levels were decreased) by fivefold or more during autolysis. Genes involved in energy production/utilization, protein anabolism, and stress response were down-regulated. Genes related to cell wall organization and biogenesis, starvation response and DNA damage response were up-regulated. Analysis of genes with opposite transcription patterns (up-regulated in one strain and down-regulated in the other one) showed that 246 genes were up-regulated in 5-2 (autolyzes slowly) and down-regulated in Qing2 (autolyzes rapidly). Another 18 genes had opposite transcription levels, indicating that the strain which autolyzes slowly had better cell vitality despite the same autolysis stage. These findings might further promote the global understanding of autolysis in yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Total Column Amounts using a Brewer Double Spectrophotometer in Direct Sun Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cede, Alexander; Herman, Jay; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; Burrows, John

    2006-01-01

    NO2 column amounts were measured for the past 2 years at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, using a Brewer spectrometer in direct Sun mode. A new bootstrap method to calibrate the instrument is introduced and described. This technique selects the cleanest days from the database to obtain the solar reference spectrum. The main advantage for direct Sun measurements is that the conversion uncertainty from slant column to vertical column is negligible compared to the standard scattered light observations where it is typically on the order of 100% (2sigma) at polluted sites. The total 2sigma errors of the direct Sun retrieved column amounts decrease with solar zenith angle and are estimated at 0.2 to 0.6 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU approx. equal to 2.7 10(exp 16) molecules cm(exp -2)), which is more accurate than scattered light measurements for high NO2 amounts. Measured NO2 column amounts, ranging from 0 to 3 DU with a mean of 0.7 DU, show a pronounced daily course and a strong variability from day to day. The NO2 concentration typically increases from sunrise to noon. In the afternoon it decreases in summer and stays constant in winter. As expected from the anthropogenic nature of its source, NO2 amounts on weekends are significantly reduced. The measurements were compared to satellite retrievals from Scanning Image Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Satellite data give the same average NO2 column and show a seasonal cycle that is similar to the ground data in the afternoon. We show that NO2 must be considered when retrieving aerosol absorption properties, especially for situations with low aerosol optical depth.

  11. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-05

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Methane as a Diagnostic Tracer of Changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation of the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study makes use of time series of methane (CH4/ data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) to detect whether there were any statistically significant changes of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) within the stratosphere during 1992-2005. The HALOE CH4 profiles are in terms of mixing ratio versus pressure altitude and are binned into latitude zones within the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. Their separate time series are then analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The CH4 trend terms for the Northern Hemisphere are significant and positive at 10 N from 50 to 7 hPa and larger than the tropospheric CH4 trends of about 3%decade(exp -1) from 20 to 7 hPa. At 60 N the trends are clearly negative from 20 to 7 hPa. Their combined trends indicate an acceleration of the BDC in the middle stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere during those years, most likely due to changes from the effects of wave activity. No similar significant BDC acceleration is found for the Southern Hemisphere. Trends from HALOE H2O are analyzed for consistency. Their mutual trends with CH4 are anti-correlated qualitatively in the middle and upper stratosphere, where CH4 is chemically oxidized to H2O. Conversely, their mutual trends in the lower stratosphere are dominated by their trends upon entry to the tropical stratosphere. Time series residuals for CH4 in the lower mesosphere also exhibit structures that are anti-correlated in some instances with those of the tracer-like species HCl. Their occasional aperiodic structures indicate the effects of transport following episodic, wintertime wave activity. It is concluded that observed multi-year, zonally averaged distributions of CH4 can be used to diagnose major instances of wave-induced transport in the middle atmosphere and to detect changes in the stratospheric BDC.

  13. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  14. Determination of chromium in Bowen's kale, NBS bovine liver, and brewers yeast, before and after dry ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versieck, J.; Hoste, J.; De Rudder, J.; Barbier, F.; Vanballenberghe, L.

    1979-01-01

    In view of the persistent controversy about the volatility of chromium in biologic materials, the element was determined by neutron activation analysis in three reference materials before and after dry ashing up to 450 0 C. The following mean values were obtained: 0.364 μg/g and 0.362 μg/g (Bowen's kale), 0.0806 μg/g and 0.0789 μg/g (NBS bovine liver), 2.043 μg/g and 2.094 μg/g (NBS brewers yeast). It was concluded that chromium does not volatilize significantly in experimental conditions of drying and ashing

  15. NBS SRM 1569 Brewer's Yeast: Is it an adequate standard reference material for testing a chromium determination in biological materials tion in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.; Tjioe, P.S.; Kroon, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1569 Brewer's Yeast are presented. Against this background the adequacy of this standard reference material for the determination of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Authors have three main objections. Due to its high content of insoluble chromium-containing particles, SRM 1569 is not typical for biological materials, possibly not even for Brewer's Yeast. The chromium level of SRM 1569 is not typical for the chromium levels normally encountered in pure biological materials. The major fraction (69 +- 3 percent) of the chromium is present in a form which is insoluble under the conditions used in Author's analysis. (T.I.)

  16. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  17. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  18. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho = Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Belisário de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietasdiferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins egordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem serterminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadas.The study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemicalcharacteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, emptygastrointestinal tract, head or feet. There

  19. Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods in Terms of Yield, Purity, Long-Term Storage, and Downstream Manipulation with Brewer's Yeast Chromosomal DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Matoulková, D.; Němec, M.; Jelínková, Markéta; Felsberg, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-5 ISSN 0361-0470 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewer's yeast * Isolation of DNA * Phenol/chloroform extraction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2014

  20. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates of laying hens and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2005-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of laying hens. Thirty-six 32-wk-old laying hens were fed diets formulated with 1) uncontaminated grains, 2) contaminated grains, or 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent for a period of 4 wk. Hepatic FSR were measured in vivo by the flooding-dose method. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased hepatic FSR in laying hens compared with controls after 4 wk. The hepatic FSR of birds fed contaminated grains and contaminated grains + glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent were not different. It was concluded that the in vivo hepatic FSR of laying hens was inhibited by the feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and that this may explain some of the adverse effects seen when contaminated grains were fed to laying hens.

  1. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  2. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and proteins in chromium-rich brewer's yeast by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.J.; Qian, Q.F.; Hou, X.L.; Feng, W.Y.; Chai, Z.F.

    2000-01-01

    The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins. (author)

  3. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  4. Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste products on nutrient digestibility and performance by lambs. ... The diets had similar intake and nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Lambs fed the 25 and 50% PW diets had higher intakes of crude ...

  5. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain – Part 1: Analysis of parameter influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare the erythemal UV irradiance (UVER and spectral UV irradiances (at 305, 310 and 324 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA EOS/Aura polar sun-synchronous satellite (launched in July 2004, local equator crossing time 01:45 p.m. with ground-based measurements from the Brewer spectrophotometer #150 located at El Arenosillo (South of Spain. The analyzed period comprises more than four years, from October 2004 to December 2008. The effects of several factors (clouds, aerosols and the solar elevation on OMI-Brewer comparisons were analyzed. The proxies used for each factor were: OMI Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER at 360 nm (clouds, the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 440 nm measured from the ground-based Cimel sun-photometer (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, and solar zenith angle (SZA at OMI overpass time. The comparison for all sky conditions reveals positive biases (OMI higher than Brewer 12.3% for UVER, 14.2% for UV irradiance at 305 nm, 10.6% for 310 nm and 8.7% for 324 nm. The OMI-Brewer root mean square error (RMSE is reduced when cloudy cases are removed from the analysis, (e.g., RMSE~20% for all sky conditions and RMSE smaller than 10% for cloud-free conditions. However, the biases remain and even become more significant for the cloud-free cases with respect to all sky conditions. The mentioned overestimation is partially due to aerosol extinction influence. In addition, the differences OMI-Brewer typically decrease with SZA except days with high aerosol loading, when the bias is near constant. The seasonal dependence of the OMI-Brewer difference for cloud-free conditions is driven by aerosol climatology.

    To account for the aerosol effect, a first evaluation in order to compare with previous TOMS results (Antón et al., 2007 was performed. This comparison shows that the OMI bias is between +14% and +19% for

  6. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  7. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  8. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  9. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  10. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  11. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  12. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  13. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T G; Miller, G W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-02-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total and selective enumeration of anaerobic bacteria. VFA analysis, and enumeration of protozoa were collected during the 80:20 alfalfa hay-to-grain diet before salinomycin feeding, and during the 80:20, 50:50, and 20:80 hay-to-grain diets with salinomycin. At each sampling period, rumen samples were collected at 3 h after feeding on three consecutive days. Salinomycin feeding had no effect on rumen pH and total VFA concentration. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was significantly lower in salinomycin-fed steers than in the control. The molar proportion of butyrate increased in both control and salinomycin-fed steers. Total anaerobic bacterial counts were lower in salinomycin-fed steers than in the control steers after 8 weeks of salinomycin feeding. Salinomycin-resistant bacteria increased from 7.6 to 15.6% in salinomycin-fed steers but remained unchanged in control steers. Salinomycin had no effect on cellulolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria, but the proportion of amylolytic bacteria was higher in salinomycin-fed steers than in control steers. The total number of protozoa decreased initially in salinomycin-fed steers. The initial reduction was due to reduced numbers of Entodinium species. Holotrichs were unaffected by salinomycin feeding.

  14. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  15. Brewer's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  17. Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration of sheep fed temperate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on ruminal pH and NH. 3-N concentration of wethers consuming a fresh temperate pasture (Lotus corniculatus) in metabolism cages. Sixteen Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers were fed temperate pastures ad libitum and were ...

  18. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  19. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  20. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  1. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  2. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  3. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  4. Beneficial Effect of Brewers' Yeast Extract on Daily Activity in a Murine Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW, SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  5. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  6. Mapping sediment–landform assemblages to constrain lacustrine sedimentation in a glacier-fed lake catchment in northwest Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Bilt, Willem van der; Balascio, Nicholas L.; Bakke, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the deposition of fine-grained rock-flour in glacier-fed lakes reflect glacier variability. This meltwater-driven signal is, however, often overprinted by other processes. To constrain the signature of lacustrine sedimentation, we mapped the catchment of glacier-fed Lake Hajeren in northwest Spitsbergen, identifying sediment sources and linking them to surface processes. To this end, we employed a combined approach of aerial image interpretation and field mapping. Our map comprises...

  7. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  8. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  9. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on production and metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H V L N; Smith, T K; Cotter, P F; Boermans, H J; Sefton, A E

    2002-07-01

    Three hundred sixty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were fed diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins for 56 d. The four diets included control (0.14 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 18 mg/ kg fusaric acid, effect on serum albumin and y-glutamyltransferase activity. Blood hemoglobin and biliary IgA concentrations, however, responded in significant linear and quadratic fashions. Supplementation of E-GM counteracted most of the blood parameter alterations caused by the Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains and reduced breast muscle redness. It was concluded that broiler chickens may be susceptible to Fusarium mycotoxicoses when naturally contaminated grains are fed containing a combination of mycotoxins.

  10. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  11. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  12. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  13. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  14. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  15. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  16. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  17. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2004-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding laying hens grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins. Parameters measured included performance, organ weights, and plasma chemistry. One hundred and forty-four, 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for a 12-wk period. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased feed consumption compared with controls in the first 4 wk. Feed consumption increased, however, from 4 to 8 wk and from 8 to 12 wk. The efficiency of feed utilization (feed consumption/egg mass) decreased compared with controls in the periods from 4 to 8 and from 8 to 12 wk when birds were fed contaminated grains. Supplementation with GMA decreased feed consumption and increased the efficiency of feed utilization in the period from 8 to 12 wk. Egg production and egg mass decreased in wk 4 and 8 compared with controls when contaminated grains were fed, whereas egg and eggshell weights decreased in the fourth wk. Plasma uric acid concentrations increased throughout the experiment and relative kidney weights increased at the end of the experiment compared with controls when birds were fed contaminated grains. The feeding of GMA prevented the elevation in uric acid concentrations and relative kidney weights. It was concluded that layer performance and metabolism were adversely affected by chronic feeding of a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins, and that GMA prevented many of these effects.

  18. Antiproliferation and induction of cell death of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) extract fermented by brewer malt waste on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Ivy Tuang Ngo; Chui, Chung Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Lau, Fung Yi; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Ho, Kwok Ping

    2005-11-01

    Astaxanthin has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on breast cancer and skin cancer cells. However, the high cost of production, isolation and purification of purified astaxanthin from natural sources or chemically synthetic methods limit its usage on cancer therapy. We show that astaxanthin could be produced by fermentating the Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) yeast cells with brewer malt waste using a 20 L B. Braun fermentor. The percentage composition of astaxanthin from the P. rhodozyma was >70% of total pigment as estimated by the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of this P. rhodozyma cell extract (PRE) was demonstrated on breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB231 (estrogen receptor negative) by using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-arboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (MTS) assay. No apoptotic cell death, but growth inhibitory effect was induced after 48 h of PRE incubation as suggested by morphological investigation. Anchorage-dependent clonogenicity assay showed that PRE could reduce the colony formation potential of both breast cancer cell lines. Cell death was observed from both breast cancer cell lines after incubation with PRE for 6 days. Taken together, our results showed that by using an economic method of brewer malt waste fermentation, we obtained P. rhodozyma with a high yield of astaxanthin and the corresponding PRE could have short-term growth inhibition and long-term cell death activity on breast cancer cells.

  19. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  20. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  1. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451 Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas diferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins e gordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem ser terminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadasThe study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemical characteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, empty gastrointestinal tract, head or feet

  2. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com resíduo de cervejaria fermentado - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990 Nutrient intake and digestibility and milk yield of cows fed with fermented brewer’s grain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Bublitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 0, 5, 10 e 15% do resíduo de cervejaria fermentado (RCF nas rações de vacas leiteiras sobre o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade total (CD dos nutrientes, produção e qualidade do leite. Foram utilizadas 28 vacas da raça Holandesa, com aproximadamente 101 ± 21 dias de lactação, e peso corporal médio de 612 ± 110 kg, alimentadas com silagem de milho, silagem pré-secada de azevém, RCF e concentrado. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os dados de consumo e CD dos nutrientes, produção e qualidade do leite foram submetidos à análise de regressão considerando 5% de probabilidade. O consumo de matéria seca (MS dos animais foi “ad libitum”. Os teores de RCF nas rações não alteraram (p > 0,05 o consumo dos nutrientes. Os CD da matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CHT, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA não foram influenciados (p > 0,05 pelos teores de RCF, contudo, verificou-se efeito linear positivo com relação aos CD da MS, proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE em função da inclusão do RCF nas rações. A inclusão do RCF nas rações não influenciou (p > 0,05 na produção e qualidade do leite. Conclui-se que o RCF pode ser incluído até 15% nas rações de vacas leiteiras sem alterar o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e qualidade do leiteThe objective this work was to evaluate the inclusion of 0, 5, 10 and 15% of the fermented brewer’s grain (FBG in diets of dairy cows on intake and total digestibility coefficient (DC of nutrients, production and milk quality. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were used, with 100 ± 21 days in milk, and average body weight (BW of 612 ± 110 kg, fed with corn silage, ryegrass silage, FBG and concentrate. Intake data and nutrient’s DC, production and milk quality were subjected to regression analysis to 5% of probability. The DM intake of animals was ad libitum. The FBG inclusion

  3. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  4. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  6. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  7. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  8. Predictive coarse-graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  9. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  10. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  11. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  12. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T G; Miller, G W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...

  13. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  14. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  15. Desempenho e digestibilidade de nutrientes em frangos de corte alternativos alimentados com silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.557 Performance and nutrient digestibility in alternative broilers fed with high-moisture sorghum grains silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Pelícia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de inclusão de silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo (SGUS, em substituição ao milho seco da ração sobre desempenho, rendimento de carcaça, cortes e gordura abdominal, além de avaliação econômica da criação alternativa, no período de 1 a 49 dias de idade. Também foi avaliada a digestibilidade das rações aos 21 dias de idade. Para as análises de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça, foram distribuídos, em galpão, 600 pintos machos (Cobb, um dia de idade, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50% de inclusão SGUS, em substituição ao milho seco da ração, e quatro repetições de 25 aves cada. Para digestibilidade, foram alojados em câmara termoneutra, 72 pintos (Cobb, em 24 gaiolas, sendo três aves/gaiola, 12 aves/tratamento. Os tratamentos experimentais foram os mesmos adotados para o galpão. A SGUS pode substituir em até 50% o milho seco das rações de frangos alternativos, criados até 49 dias de idade, sem alterar desempenho, rendimento de carcaça, cortes e gordura abdominal, bem como a digestibilidade de nutrientes aos 21 dias de idade. Entretanto, o maior retorno econômico e melhor fator de produção foram obtidos com 10% de substituição.The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of inclusion of high-moisture sorghum grains silage (HMSS in replacement of dry corn in diet on performance, carcass yield, cuts and abdominal fat, and also economic analysis of alternative system at 1 to 49 d of age. The digestibility of the diets was determined at 21 d of age. For performance and carcass yield analysis, 600 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb were used, installed in a broiler house, in a randomized blocks, with six treatments based on the inclusion of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of HMSS in replacement of dry corn, and four replicates/treatment with 25 chicks each. For digestibility, 72 one-dayold male chicks (Cobb were

  16. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  17. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  18. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  19. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  20. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  1. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 2, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, carcass characteristics and economy of production of broilers fed maize grit and brewers' dried grain · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Biochemical and microbial qualities of raw, boiled and fermented Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 591 ... Vol 8, No 2 (2010), Effects of dietary levels of roasted flamboyant (Delonix regia) seed meal on milk quality and yield form Savanna Brown does, Abstract .... Vol 5, No 2 (2007), Egg Quality Characteristics Of Isa – Brown Layers Fed Brewers Dried Grains –Based Diets Supplemented With Grandizyme ...

  3. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  4. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  5. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  6. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  7. Fatty acids in beef from grain- and grass-fed cattle: the unique South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets.5. When dietary intake .... Nutritional analysis. The muscle and fat fractions from three of the same cuts were .... PUFAs exhibit anti-cancer properties, anti-inflammatory responses and other ...

  8. Fatty acids in beef from grain- and grass-fed cattle: the unique South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Different fatty acids elicit different responses in the human body once ingested. Although red meat is often considered to be a source of fatty acids which has a negative impact on human health, many studies have reflected variability in the quantity and quality of fatty acids found in red meat produced on different ...

  9. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H V L N; Smith, T K; Karrow, N A; Boermans, H J

    2004-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens. Three hundred sixty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins for 56 d. The diets included (1) control; (2) low level of contaminated grains (5.9 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON), 19.1 mg/kg fusaric acid (FA), 0.4 mg/kg zearalenone, and 0.3 mg/kg 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; (3) high level of contaminated grains (9.5 mg/kg DON, 21.4 mg/kg FA, 0.7 mg/kg zearalenone, and 0.5 mg/kg 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol); and (4) high level of contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer). Body weight gains and feed consumption of chickens fed contaminated grains decreased linearly with the inclusion of contaminated grains during the grower phase (d 21 to 42). Efficiency of feed utilization, however, was not affected by diet. Production parameters were not significantly affected by the supplementation of GM polymer to the contaminated grains. Peripheral blood monocytes decreased linearly in birds fed contaminated grains. The feeding of contaminated diets linearly reduced the B-cell count at the end of the experiment, whereas the T-cell count on d 28 responded quadratically to the contaminated diets. The feeding of contaminated diets did not significantly alter serum or bile immunoglobulin concentrations, contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, or antibody response to SRBC. Supplementation with GM polymer in the contaminated diet nonspecifically increased white blood cell count and lymphocyte count, while preventing mycotoxin-induced decreases in B-cell counts. It was concluded that broiler chickens are susceptible during extended feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins.

  10. Stochastic theory of grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiyun; Xing Xiusan.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this note is to set up a stochastic theory of grain growth and to derive the statistical distribution function and the average value of the grain radius so as to match them with the experiment further. 8 refs, 1 fig

  11. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    children; increased body mass index of people formerly wasted by HIV/AIDS; ... and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to ... Peru, grain amaranth also used the grains as food; preparation of local beverage; added ... initiated to know the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of ...

  12. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available of length b (1+ epsilon) is parallel to sigma, embedded in a grain in which the lattice vector b (1+ epsilon) is transverse to sigma. If the embedded grain grows at the expense of its matrix, the source of the stress will do work, and therefore the presence...

  13. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  14. VARIATION IN GRAIN YIELD, BIOMASS AND GRAIN NUMBER OF BARLEY UNDER DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido López-Castañeda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variability in grain yield (GY, aerial biomass (BM and number of grains m-2 (G M-2 in F6 lines and commercial varieties of barley was studied, and the relationship among these characters in full-irrigation (FI, drought (D and rain-fed (RF conditions was determined. Variation in GY, BM and G M-2 among all genotypes, between F6 lines and varieties, and among genotypes of F6 lines and varieties was significant in all the three soil moisture environments. GY, BM and G M-2 in FI were 23, 14 and 21 % greater than the average of the three soil moisture environments; GY, BM and G M-2 in RF were 21, 16 y 24 % lower than this average. F6 lines produced greater GY (380 g m-2, BM (1027 g m-2 and G M-2 (8641 than the commercial varieties (GY=290 g m-2; BM=726 g m-2 y G M-2=7463 in average of the three environments. GY was positive and significantly associated with BM and G M-2; BM and G M-2 were also associated. GY could be improved in either FI, D or RF environments by selecting genotypes with a greater BM and G M-2 or both of them.

  15. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of each grain (such as their centre-of-mass positions, volumes, phases, orientations and/or elastic strain tensor components), while the exact locations of the grain boundaries are unknown. In the present chapter a detailed description of the setup and software for both grain centre mapping...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  16. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  17. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  18. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  19. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies. PMID:3709478

  20. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  2. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.

  3. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Style What Is a Healthy Eating Style? Choosing Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars ... may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, ... weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and ...

  4. Chemisputtering of interstellar graphite grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of erosion of interstellar graphite grains as a result of chemical reaction with H, N, and O is estimated using the available experiment evidence. It is argued that ''chemical sputtering'' yields for interstellar graphite grains will be much less than unity, contrary to earlier estimates by Barlow and Silk. Chemical sputtering of graphite grains in evolving H II regions is found to be unimportant, except in extremely compact (n/sub H/> or approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) H II regions. Alternative explanations are considered for the apparent weakness of the lambda=2175 A extinction ''bump'' in the direction of several early type stars

  5. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  6. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  7. Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Linda A; Everds, Nancy E; Reynolds, Julia; Mann, Peter C; Lamb, Ian; Rood, Tracy; Schmidt, Jean; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Hinds, Mark; Locke, Mary; Chui, Chok-Fun; Claussen, Fred; Mattsson, Joel L; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-07-01

    59122 is a transgenic maize line containing event DAS-59122-7 that expresses the corn rootworm (CRW) specific pesticidal Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner strain PS149B1 and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes for tolerance to the herbicidal ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. For the current study, 59122 maize grain, non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain (091), and a commercially available non-transgenic reference maize grain (33R77) were grown under conditions simulating commercial farming practices. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed diets formulated with 35% maize grain from either 59122, 091, or 33R77, or one of two separate lots of commercially available rodent chow prepared with commercially available corn (35%) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet 5002 for approximately 90 days. All diets possessed similar nutritional and contaminant profiles. The transgenic proteins were detected only in diets prepared with 59122 maize grain and were stable over the course of the study. Compared to control groups, no adverse diet-related differences were observed in rats fed diets formulated with 59122 maize grain with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs of toxicity, mortality, ophthalmology, neurobehavioral (FOB and motor activity) assessments, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), and pathology (organ weights and gross and microscopic pathology). Results from this study indicate that 59122 maize grain is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional maize grain.

  8. Field measurements of the global UV-B radiation: a comparison between a broad-band radiometer and a Brewer spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anav, A.; Moriconi, M.L.; Di Menno, M.; Giannoccolo, S.

    1996-01-01

    The spectral responsivity shape plays an important role in the prospect of a wide use of broad-band meters in the UV-B monitoring. As most UV-B broad-band meters have a responsivity approximating an erythemal action spectrum, a measurement campaign was planned to verify if such an instrument could be successfully used to measure the unfiltered global irradiance. A Yankee radiometer mod. UV-B 1 and a Brewer spectrophotometer, considered as a reference meter, were compared for this purpose. A short theoretical treatment of the Yankee radiometer response and some results of the comparison are shown. Only clear-sky days data are selected so that the UV-B radiation reaching the ground could be modelled as the sum of the direct and isotropic diffuse components. The comparison results show a good agreement between the two instruments and confirm the capability of a broad-band UV-B radiometer of correctly measuring the global irradiance

  9. Use of β-glucan from spent brewer's yeast as a thickener in skimmed yogurt: Physicochemical, textural, and structural properties related to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Grant, Shannon B; Hayes, Helen; Ranawana, Viren

    2018-04-25

    Powdered β-glucan extracted from brewer's yeast (Yestimun, Leiber GmbH, Bramsche, Germany) was incorporated into skimmed-milk yogurt at varying concentrations (0.2-0.8% wt/wt) to investigate its potential application as a thickener. The effect of β-glucan fortification on the nutritional profile, microstructure, physicochemical properties, and texture of freshly prepared yogurts was investigated. Sensory evaluation was also conducted and was correlated with instrumental analysis. The addition of Yestimun significantly reduced the fermentation time of the yogurt mix from 4 h to 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that β-glucan particles formed small spherical clusters within the yogurt matrix. The majority of the physicochemical properties (syneresis, viscosity, color, and titratable acidity) remained unaffected by the incorporation of Yestimun in the recipe. Textural properties showed a gradual increment with increasing β-glucan concentration. Hardness, total work done, adhesive force, and adhesiveness increased by 19.27, 23.3, 21.53, and 20.76%, respectively, when using the highest amount of Yestimun powder. Sensory analysis (n = 40) indicated that fortifying yogurt with Yestimun at 0.8% (wt/wt) concentration may affect overall acceptance ratings, which was attributed to adverse flavor and aftertaste effects. However, the overall liking score of the yogurt (5.0/9.0) shows potential for commercialization of the product. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of flocculating brewer's yeast for Cr(III) and Pb(II) removal from residual wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, A.I.; Teixeira, J.A. [Centro de Engenharia Biologica-IBQF, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    1999-11-01

    The use of inexpensive biosorbents to sequester heavy metals from aqueous solutions, is one of the most promising technologies being developed to remove these toxic contaminants from wastewaters. Considering this challenge, the viability of Cr(III) and Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions using a flocculating brewer's yeast residual biomass from a Portuguese brewing industry was studied. The influence of physicochemical factors such as medium pH, biomass concentration and the presence of a co-ion was characterised. Metal uptake kinetics and equilibrium were also analysed, considering different incubation temperatures. For both metals, uptake increased with medium pH, being maximal at 5.0. Optimal biomass concentration for the biosorption process was determined to be 4.5 g dry weight/l. In chromium and lead mixture solutions, competition for yeast binding sites was observed between the two metals, this competition being pH dependent. Yeast biomass showed higher selectivity and uptake capacity to lead. Chromium uptake kinetic was characterised as having a rapid initial step, followed by a slower one. Langmuir model describes well chromium uptake equilibrium. Lead uptake kinetics suggested the presence of mechanisms other than biosorption, possibly including its precipitation. (orig.)

  11. Biomass and lipid production of Chlorella protothecoides under heterotrophic cultivation on a mixed waste substrate of brewer fermentation and crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoyu; Walker, Terry H; Bridges, William C; Thornton, Charles; Gopalakrishnan, Karthik

    2014-08-01

    Biomass and lipid accumulation of heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides by supplying mixed waste substrate of brewer fermentation and crude glycerol were investigated. The biomass concentrations of the old and the new C. protothecoides strains on day 6 reached 14.07 and 12.73 g/L, respectively, which were comparable to those in basal medium with supplement of glucose and yeast extract (BM-GY) (14.47 g/L for old strains and 11.43 g/L for new strains) (P>0.05). Approximately 81.5% of total organic carbon and 65.1% of total nitrogen in the mixed waste were effectively removed. The accumulated lipid productivities of the old and the new C. protothecoides strains in BM-GY were 2.07 and 1.61 g/L/day, respectively, whereas in the mixed waste, lipid productivities could reach 2.12 and 1.81 g/L/day, respectively. Our result highlights a new approach of mixing carbon-rich and nitrogen-rich wastes as economical and practical alternative substrates for biofuel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  13. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work tha...

  14. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given

  15. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  16. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  17. Review of the relationship between nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J

    2003-10-01

    Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.

  18. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  19. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  20. Studying the application of gamma radiation in removing fungal contamination of poultry grain and the effect of this radiation on changing the immunity titer related to vaccinate SPF chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhoseini, Gh. R.

    1998-01-01

    Considering the existing problems in discarding or reducing the fungal contamination of poultry grain, due to the conventional methods being inadequate, for example remainder of fungal toxins (using chemical substance) or grain's dampness (using autoclave) etc, make us using nuclear techniques to remove these problems. First specification and determination of contamination types and also determination types and also determination of different kinds of fungal contamination and their amount in the poultry grain was done. The most fungal contamination were Aspergillus in the starter grain. Then biochemical analysis in poultry grain and determination of existence and the amount of Aflatoxin was done. Then gamma radiation of Co-60 from 1 to 6 kilo grays doses were applied in order to reduce or remove the contamination and finally 6 kilo gray dose was chosen. Rechecking the irradiated grains 4-5 months after application of gamma radiation in different moisture and temperatures (in cellophane packaging) revealed 6 kilo gray dose not only has constant effect in removal of fungal contamination and Aflatoxin (in the two cases) but also has no negative effect on the grain's compounds. In the continuation of this research two types of grain: non-irradiated and irradiated were fed to identical groups of SPF chickens in three different time periods. The follow up experiments showed the immune titers in the chickens fed on the irradiated grain were lower than the immune titers in the chickens fed on the non-irradiated grain. (author)

  1. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  2. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  3. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  4. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  5. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  6. Grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Scoberg, J.A.; Walden, W.

    1979-06-01

    Grain growth studies have been carried out on UO 2 to provide data for the fuel modelling program and to evaluate fuel fabricated in commissioning the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel examined includes natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from ADU powder for CANDU reactors; natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from AU powder; natural UO 2 from ADU and AU powder, fabricated in the MOFFL; and commercially fabricated UO 2 enriched 1.7, 4.5, and 9.6 wt. percent U-235 in U. Samples were step-annealed in vacuo at 1870-2070 K for up to 32.5 h. All data fit a (grain size)sup(2.5) versus annealing time relationship. Apparent activation energy for grain growth, Q, depends on fuel type and varies from 150+-10 kJ/mol for early AU powder to 360+-10 kJ/mol for pellets from ADU fabricated in the MOFFL. Grain sizes calculated using the laboratory equation in a fuel performance code tend to be greater than those measured in irradiated natural fuel, suggesting irradiation-induced inhibition of grain growth. However, any inhibition is equivalent to that expected for a systematic 5 percent underpredicition in reactor power. (author)

  7. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  8. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  9. FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR DOUBLY FED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-31

    Dec 31, 2010 ... against internal and external perturbations, but the FSMC is superior to ... controller, doubly fed induction motor, fuzzy logic control. 1. ... capabilities in accounting for modeling imprecision and bounded disturbances. It ..... To show the effect of the parameters uncertainties, we have simulated the system with.

  10. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  11. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J; Fischer, F D

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported. (paper)

  12. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  13. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  14. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  15. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  16. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain) - Part 2: Analysis of site aerosol influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Antón, M.; Berjón, A.; de Frutos, A.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Arola, A.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    Several validation studies have shown a notable overestimation of the clear sky ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at the Earth's surface derived from satellite sensors such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with respect to ground-based UV data at many locations. Most of this positive bias is attributed to boundary layer aerosol absorption that is not accounted for in the TOMS/OMI operational UV algorithm. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to analyse the aerosol effect on the bias between OMI erythemal UV irradiance (UVER) and spectral UV (305 nm, 310 nm and 324 nm) surface irradiances and ground-based Brewer spectroradiometer measurements from October 2004 to December 2008 at El Arenosillo station (37.1° N, 6.7° W, 20 m a.s.l.), with meteorological conditions representative of the South-West of Spain. The effects of other factors as clouds, ozone and the solar elevation over this intercomparison were analysed in detail in a companion paper (Antón et al., 2010). In that paper the aerosol effects were studied making only a rough evaluation based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) information at 440 nm wavelength (visible range) without applying any correction. We have used the precise information given by single scattering albedo (SSA) from AERONET for the determination of absorbing aerosols which has allowed the correction of the OMI UV data. An aerosol correction expression was applied to the OMI operational UV data using two approaches to estimate the UV absorption aerosol optical depth, AAOD. The first approach was based on an assumption of constant SSA value of 0.91. This approach reduces the OMI UVER bias against the reference Brewer data from 13.4% to 8.4%. Second approach uses daily AERONET SSA values reducing the bias only to 11.6%. Therefore we have obtained a 37% and 12% of improvement respectively. For the spectral irradiance at 324 nm, the OMI bias is reduced from 10.5% to 6.98% for constant

  17. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  18. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  19. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Tracer concentration contours in grain lattice and grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Olander, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion plays a significant role in fission gas release, which is one of the crucial processes dominating nuclear fuel performance. Gaseous fission products such as Xe and Kr generated during nuclear fission have to diffuse in the grain lattice and the boundary inside fuel pellets before they reach the open spaces in a fuel rod. These processes can be studied by 'tracer diffusion' techniques, by which grain boundary diffusivity can be estimated and directly used for low burn-up fission gas release analysis. However, only a few models accounting for the both processes are available and mostly handle them numerically due to mathematical complexity. Also the numerical solution has limitations in a practical use. In this paper, an approximate analytical solution in case of stationary grain boundary in a polycrystalline solid is developed for the tracer diffusion techniques. This closed-form solution is compared to available exact and numerical solutions and it turns out that it makes computation not only greatly easier but also more accurate than previous models. It can be applied to theoretical modelings for low burn-up fission gas release phenomena and experimental analyses as well, especially for PIE (post irradiation examination). (author)

  1. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  2. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  3. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P < 0.01). 50% LBY had the highest (P < 0.05) pH (4.81) and ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) (7.40%) and the lowest V-score (90.3). Propionic and butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. High Precision, Absolute Total Column Ozone Measurements from the Pandora Spectrometer System: Comparisons with Data from a Brewer Double Monochromator and Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria A.; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  5. Effects of different ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast mixed with cassava pulp on chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Angthong, Wanna; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Bureenok, Smerjai

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation of various ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) mixed with cassava pulp (CVP). Four mixtures of fresh LBY and CVP were made (LBY0, LBY10, LBY20, and LBY30 for LBY:CVP at 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70, respectively) on a fresh matter basis, in 500 g in plastic bags and stored at 30 to 32°C. After storage, the bags were opened weekly from weeks 0 to 4. Fermentation quality and in vitro gas production (IVGP) were determined, as well as the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents. The contents of CP and EE increased, whereas all other components decreased, in proportion to LBY inclusion (pcontents gradually decreased in weeks 3 and 4 (pcontents were lowest in week 0. The pH, ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) and V-score in each mixture and storage period demonstrated superior fermentation quality (pH≤4.2, NH 3 -N/TN≤12.5%, and V-score>90%). The pH increased and NH 3 -N/TN decreased, with proportionate increases of LBY, whereas the pH decreased and NH 3 -N/TN increased, as the storage periods were extended (pcontent, while decreasing IVGP, without decreasing fermentation quality and IVOMD. In addition, a preservation period of up to four weeks can guarantee superior fermentation quality in all types of mixtures. Therefore, we recommend limiting the use of CVP as a feed ingredient, given its low nutritional value and improving feed quality with the inclusion of LBY.

  6. Reproductive performance in ewes fed varying levels of cut lucerne pasture around conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Morgan, B; Friend, M A

    2015-07-01

    Elevated intakes of protein and energy may increase embryo mortality, but it is not clear whether fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa) pasture poses a risk. A two-year pen study using oestrous synchronised and artificially inseminated Merino ewes (n=175 in 2013 and 215 in 2014) evaluated whether feeding freshly cut lucerne pasture (mean crude protein 19.7%, metabolisable energy 9.4MJ/kg DM) at maintenance or ad libitum during different periods around insemination altered reproductive performance in comparison with ewes fed a Control diet (mean crude protein 7.8%, metabolisable energy 9.0MJ/kg DM) of pelleted faba bean hulls and oat grain hulls at maintenance. The proportion of pregnant ewes carrying multiple fetuses was reduced (P=0.026) when ewes were fed lucerne ad libitum between days 0 and 17 after insemination compared with the Control diet (0.18 and 0.34, respectively), but not when ewes were fed lucerne ad libitum between days 0 and 7 after insemination (0.22). Reproductive performance, including the proportion of ewes pregnant and the proportion with multiple fetuses, was not different (P>0.05) when ewes were fed lucerne at maintenance between days 0 and 7 compared with the Control diet. While reproductive performance was similar when ewes were fed lucerne at maintenance between 0 and 17 days after artificial insemination compared with pellets at maintenance, fetal numbers per pregnant ewe were reduced by feeding lucerne ad libitum after insemination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  8. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Alignment of dust grains in ionized regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nels; Watson, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which charged dust grains in a plasma are torqued by passing ions and electrons is calculated. When photo-emission of electrons is not important, attraction of ions by the grain monopole potential increases the rate at which the grains' spins are dealigned by nearly an order of magnitude. Consequently, the energy density of the magnetic field required to align grains in an H II region may be increased by about an order of magnitude. In contrast, electric dipole and quadrupole moments are unlikely to produce large dealignment rates for grains of modest length-to-width ratio. Nonetheless, for positively charged grains these higher-order moments likely prevent monopole repulsion of ions from reducing the dealignment rate far below that for neutral grains. The presence of positive grain charge therefore does not greatly facilitate grain alignment in an H II region.

  10. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  11. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  12. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  13. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary

  14. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  15. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  16. The Andatza coarse-grained turbidite system (westernmost Pyrenees: Stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bodego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a field-based work that describes the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Andatza Conglomerate Formation. Based on facies analysis three facies associations of a coarse-grained turbidite system and the related slope have been identified: (1 an inner fan of a turbidite system (or canyon and (2 a low- and (3 a high-gradient muddy slope respectively. The spatial distribution of the facies associations and the palaeocurrent analysis allow to interpret a depositional model for the Andatza Conglomerates consisting of an L-shaped, coarse-grained turbidite system, whose morphology was structurally controlled by synsedimentary basement-involved normal faults. The coarse-grained character of the turbidite system indicates the proximity of the source area, with the presence of a narrow shelf that fed the turbidite canyon from the north.

  17. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier; Poulsen

    2000-07-01

    Wheat infested with grain mites (Acari) and Sitophilus granarius, and maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus, were exposed to hot air in a CIMBRIA HTST Microline toaster((R)). Inlet temperatures of the hot air were in the range of 150-750 degrees C decreasing to outlet temperatures in the range of 100-300 degrees C during the exposure period. A rotating drum, connected to a natural-gas burner was fed with grain which was in constant movement along the drum and thereby mixed thoroughly during the process. The capacity of the toaster was 1000 kg per hour.Complete control of grain mites and adult S. granarius in wheat was obtained with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average residence time in the drum of 6 s. More than 99% mortality was obtained for all stages of S. granarius with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average exposure period of 40 s. For control of P. truncatus in maize, an inlet temperature of 700 degrees C resulted in a complete disinfestation when the exposure time was 19 s.The reduction in grain moisture content was 0.5-1% at treatments giving 100% control. Germination tests indicate that it is possible to choose a combination of inlet temperatures and exposure periods which effectively kills mites and insects in small grains, without harming the functional properties of the grain.Economy of the method was considered to be competitive with fumigation using phosphine.

  18. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  20. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  1. Nutrient digestibility in Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus fed diets containing animal meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gugołek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three digestibility experiments on Arctic foxes were carried out. Control groups were fed standard diets (C1 and C2 composed of fresh or frozen animal by-products and steamed ground grain. Dry experimental diets (E1 and E2 contained animal meals, extracted meals and fat, were mixed with water prior to administration. In a preliminary experiment, the digestibility of dry diet E1 moistened with water for 15min and 24h was compared to determine the optimum moistening time during the experimental period proper. The preliminary experiment showed that moistening time had no significant effect on digestibility. In the main experiment, two independent digestibility trials were performed to compare the digestibility of diets fed to foxes during growth (C1 vs. E1 and fur development (C2 vs. E2. Better nutrient digestibility was noted for control diets, compared to experimental. The greatest differences were reported for total protein digestibility. Protein contained in meals undergoes denaturation during heat treatment, which reduces digestibility. It was found that the retention of nitrogen in relation to nitrogen digestion was higher in foxes fed experimental diets (E1 and E2.

  2. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effect of Propionibacterium acidipropionici P169 on the rumen and faecal microbiota of beef cattle fed a maize-based finishing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, E; Narvaez, N; Derakhshani, H; Allazeh, A Y; Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Khafipour, E

    2017-10-13

    Direct fed microbial supplementation with lactic acid utilising bacteria (i.e. Propionibacterium acidipropionici P169) has been shown to alleviate the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in high-grain fed beef cattle. This study was carried out to explore the impact of P169 supplementation on modulating rumen and hindgut microbiota of high-grain fed steers. Seven ruminally-canulated high-grain fed steers were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control diet (n=3) and the same diet supplemented with P169 added at a rate of 1×10 11 cfu/head/d (n=4). Samples were collected every 28 days for a 101 d period (5 time points) and subjected to qPCR quantification of P169 and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial V4 16S rRNA genes. Ruminal abundance of P169 was maintained at elevated levels (P=0.03) both in liquid and solid fractions post supplementation. Concomitant with decreased proportion of amylolytic (such as Prevotella) and key lactate-utilisers (such as Veillonellaceae and Megasphaera), the proportions of cellulolytic bacterial lineages (such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Christensenellaceae) were enriched in the rumen microbiota of P169-supplemented steers. These, coupled with elevated molar proportions of branched-chain fatty acids and increased concentration of ammonia in the rumen content of P169-supplemented steers, indicated an improved state of fibrolytic and proteolytic activity in response to P169 supplementation. Further, exploring the hindgut microbiota of P169-supplemented steers revealed enrichment of major amylolytic bacterial lineages, such as Prevotella, Blautia, and Succinivibrionaceae, which might be indicative of an increased availability of carbohydrates in the hindgut ecosystem following P169 supplementation. Collectively, the present study provides insights into the microbiota dynamics that underlie the P169-associated shifts in the rumen fermentation profile of high-grain fed steers.

  4. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  5. Physics of dust grains in hot gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Charging of dust grains in hot (10 4 --10 9 K) plasma is studied, including photoelectron and secondary electron emission, field emission, and transmission of electrons and ions through the grain; resulting grain potentials are (for T > or approx. = 10 5 K) considerably smaller in magnitude than found by Burke and Silk. Even so, large electrostatic stresses can cause ion field emission and rapid destruction of small grains in very hot gas. Rapid rotation can also disrupt small grains, but damping (by microwave emission) usually limits the centrifugal stress to acceptable values for plasma densities n/sub H/ -3 . Sputtering rates are estimated for grains in hot gas, based upon a semiempirical fit to experimental data. Predicted sputtering rates for possible grain constituents are similar to estimates by Barlow, but in some cases differ significantly. Useful approximation formulae are given for the drag forces acting on a grain with arbitrary Mach number

  6. Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew R; Crews, Timothy E; Culman, Steven W; DeHaan, Lee R; Hayes, Richard C; Jungers, Jacob M; Bakker, Matthew G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality. Several perennial cereals can be used to produce both grain and forage, and these dual-purpose crops can be intercropped with legumes for additional benefits. Highly diverse perennial grain polycultures can further enhance ecosystem services, but increased management complexity might limit their adoption. PMID:29662249

  7. A grain-boundary diffusion model of dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Nam; Hiraga, Keijiro; Sakka, Yoshio; Ahn, Byung-Wook

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation is modelled on the basis of a grain-boundary diffusion mechanism. On the grain boundary where a static and a dynamic potential difference coexist, matter transport along the boundary is assumed to contribute to dynamic grain growth through depositing the matter on the grain surface located opposite to the direction of grain-boundary migration. The amount of the diffusive matter during deformation is calculated for an aggregate of spherical grains and is converted to the increment of mean boundary migration velocity. The obtained relationship between the strain rate and the dynamic grain growth rate is shown to be independent of deformation mechanisms, provided that the grain growth is controlled by grain-boundary diffusion. The strain dependence, strain-rate dependence and temperature dependence of grain growth predicted from this model are consistent with those observed in superplastic ZrO 2 -dispersed Al 2 O 3

  8. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  9. Ten per cent more grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-08-15

    At a low estimate, ten per cent of stored grain is lost every year to insect pests. In this article, based on a lecture given earlier this year in Switzerland, Dr. Harry E. Goresline, Food Radiation Specialist of the Food and Agriculture Organisation, now assisting the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, explains how use of radiation can help to prevent losses and the research which has taken place to ensure its safety

  10. Adsorption of metal ions and acid dyes on brewer's refuse and its crosslinked products; Biru shikomikasu oyobi sono kashikaketai ni taisuru kinzoku ion oyobi sansei senryo no kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.; Kubota, Y.; Higashimura, T. [The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga (Japan). Department of Materials Sceince; Kawaguchi, M. [Seisui Kogyo Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    To use brewer's refuse as adsorbent adsorption of metal ions and acid dyes on them and their reaction products with 1,3,5-triacryloylhexahydro-1,3,5-triazine(TAF) were examined. The refuse samples used in the present study are protein rich fraction(Pr) and cellulosics rich fraction(Hr) obtained by sifting brewer's refuse. Adsorptive experiments were conducted by a batchwise method at 303 K. Pr adsorbed more metal ions such as Cr{sup 6+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, especially Fe{sup 3+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} than Hr. But both refuses hardly adsorbed Ca{sup 2+}. Also Pr adsorbed more acid dyes, especially more hydrophobic C. I. Acid Red 88 than C. I. Acid Orange 7- than Hr at pH 5. By crosslinking Pr and Hr using TAF adsorption of acid dyes increased markedly, but adsorption of metal ions decreased. Therefore Pr can be used as adsorbent for acid dyes and metal ions as it is. Moreover the crosslinked products are excellent adsorbents for acid dyes. (author)

  11. Grain nucleation and growth during phase transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offerman, S.E.; Dijk, N.H. van; Sietsma, J.

    2002-01-01

    of individual grains. Our measurements show that the activation energy for grain nucleation is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by thermodynamic models. The observed growth curves of the newly formed grains confirm the parabolic growth model but also show three fundamentally...... different types of growth. Insight into the grain nucleation and growth mechanisms during phase transformations contributes to the development of materials with optimal mechanical properties....

  12. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  13. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ηηi has a value of unity inside the ith grain, decreases smoothly through the grain boundary region to zero out- side the grain. For a symmetric alloy of composition, c = 0⋅⋅5, our results show that microstructural evolution depends largely on the difference in the grain boundary energies, γγgb, of A-rich (αα) and B-rich (ββ) ...

  14. Conception, definition, measuring procedure of grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    1976-12-01

    The conception, definition, measuring procedure of ''Grain Size'' were surveyed. A concept ''grain diameter'' was introduced after deriving a calculation formula for the grain diameter for using the Comparison (simple) and Intercept(detailed) procedure. As an example and putting into practice, the grain diameter determination was carried out by means of the Comparison procedure for a UO 2 pellet used in a densification experiment. (auth.)

  15. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  16. Grain growth studies on nanocrystalline Ni powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, G.K.; Welzel, U.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of nanocrystalline Ni powder produced by ball-milling and its thermal stability were investigated by applying different methods of X-ray diffraction line-profile analysis: single-line analysis, whole powder-pattern modelling and the (modified) Warren–Averbach method were employed. The kinetics of grain growth were investigated by both ex-situ and in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements. With increasing milling time, the grain-size reduction is accompanied by a considerable narrowing of the size distribution and an increase in the microstrain. Upon annealing, initial, rapid grain growth occurs, accompanied by the (almost complete) annihilation of microstrain. For longer annealing times, the grain-growth kinetics depend on the initial microstructure: a smaller microstrain with a broad grain-size distribution leads to linear grain growth, followed by parabolic grain growth, whereas a larger microstrain with a narrow grain-size distribution leads to incessant linear grain growth. These effects have been shown to be incompatible with grain-boundary curvature driven growth. The observed kinetics are ascribed to the role of excess free volume at the grain boundaries of nanocrystalline material and the prevalence of an “abnormal grain-growth” mechanism.

  17. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  18. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  19. Stress selection indices an acceptable tool to screen superior wheat genotypes under irrigated and rain-fed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.; Alam, M.

    2014-01-01

    The climate is changing day by day and water scarcity has developed a milieu for the breeder to think accordingly. Twenty-four advanced wheat lines along with four prominent check cultivars were evaluated independently in irrigated (IRE) and rain-fed environments (RFE) for yield related traits at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2010-11, using randomized complete block design with three replications under each test environment. Analysis of variance across the two environments exhibited highly significant variation (p=0.01) among the genotypes for yield and associated traits. Differences among the two test environments (E) were significant for tillers m/sup -2/, 1000-grain weight and harvest index. Genotype * environment interaction (G*E) effects were significant only for 1000-grain weight and grain yield. There was general reduction in 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield of all genotypes under RFE as compared to IRE. Magnitude of heritabilities estimates were greater for tillers m/sup -2/, spikelets spike-1 and grains spike-1 under IRE than RFE. Heritabilities were greater in RFE than IRE for spike length (0.31 vs 0.26), biological yield (0.80 vs 0.22), grain yield (0.94 vs 0.20) and harvest index (0.41 and 0.39). Relative high expected selection response was recorded for all characters under IRE except spike length, grains spike-1 and grain yield. In IRE, highest grain yield was produced by genotypes BRF-7 (5123 kg ha/sup -1/), B-VI(N)16 (5111 kg ha/sup -1/), B-IV(N)1 (5086 kg ha/sup -1/) and B-VI(N)5 (5049 kg ha/sup -1/), while genotypes B-VI(N)5 (4649 kg ha/sup -1/), B-IV(N)1 (4595 kg ha/sup -1/), BRF-7 (4486 kg ha/sup -1/) and B-IV(N)16 (4462 kg ha/sup -1/) were high yielding under RFE. Prominent stress selection indices used in the experiments were mean productivity (MP), tolerance (TOL), stress tolerance index (STI), trait index (TI) and trait stability index (TSI). MP and STI were the efficient and reliable selection indices in both

  20. Legume finishing provides beef with positive human dietary fatty acid ratios and consumer preference comparable with grain-finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2016-05-01

    Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.

  1. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  2. Stress-assisted grain growth in nanocrystalline metals: Grain boundary mediated mechanisms and stabilization through alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Tucker, Garritt J.; Trelewicz, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of stress-assisted grain growth are explored using molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation in nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-1 at.% P as a function of grain size and deformation temperature. Grain coalescence is primarily confined to the high stress region beneath the simulated indentation zone in nanocrystalline Ni with a grain size of 3 nm. Grain orientation and atomic displacement vector mapping demonstrates that coalescence transpires through grain rotation and grain boundary migration, which are manifested in the grain interior and grain boundary components of the average microrotation. A doubling of the grain size to 6 nm and addition of 1 at.% P eliminates stress-assisted grain growth in Ni. In the absence of grain coalescence, deformation is accommodated by grain boundary-mediated dislocation plasticity and thermally activated in pure nanocrystalline Ni. By adding solute to the grain boundaries, the temperature-dependent deformation behavior observed in both the lattice and grain boundaries inverts, indicating that the individual processes of dislocation and grain boundary plasticity will exhibit different activity based on boundary chemistry and deformation temperature.

  3. Grain-size sorting and slope failure in experimental subaqueous grain flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Grain-size sorting in subaqueous grain flows of a continuous range of grain sizes is studied experimentally with three mixtures. The observed pattern is a combination of stratification and gradual segregation. The stratification is caused by kinematic sieving in the grain flow. The segregation is

  4. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 [Docket GIPSA-2010-FGIS-0012] RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  5. Computer simulation of grain growth in HAZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinhua

    Two different models for Monte Carlo simulation of normal grain growth in metals and alloys were developed. Each simulation model was based on a different approach to couple the Monte Carlo simulation time to real time-temperature. These models demonstrated the applicability of Monte Carlo simulation to grain growth in materials processing. A grain boundary migration (GBM) model coupled the Monte Carlo simulation to a first principle grain boundary migration model. The simulation results, by applying this model to isothermal grain growth in zone-refined tin, showed good agreement with experimental results. An experimental data based (EDB) model coupled the Monte Carlo simulation with grain growth kinetics obtained from the experiment. The results of the application of the EDB model to the grain growth during continuous heating of a beta titanium alloy correlated well with experimental data. In order to acquire the grain growth kinetics from the experiment, a new mathematical method was developed and utilized to analyze the experimental data on isothermal grain growth. Grain growth in the HAZ of 0.2% Cu-Al alloy was successfully simulated using the EDB model combined with grain growth kinetics obtained from the experiment and measured thermal cycles from the welding process. The simulated grain size distribution in the HAZ was in good agreement with experimental results. The pinning effect of second phase particles on grain growth was also simulated in this work. The simulation results confirmed that by introducing the variable R, degree of contact between grain boundaries and second phase particles, the Zener pinning model can be modified as${D/ r} = {K/{Rf}}$where D is the pinned grain size, r the mean size of second phase particles, K a constant, f the area fraction (or the volume fraction in 3-D) of second phase.

  6. Optimal neutral beam heating scenario for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Optimal neutral beam heating scenarios are determined for FED based on a 1/one-half/-D transport analysis. Tradeoffs are examined between neutral beam energy, power, and species mix for positive ion systems. A ramped density startup is found to provide the most economical heating. The resulting plasma power requirements are reduced by 10-30% from a constant density startup. For beam energies between 100 and 200 keV, the power needed to heat the plasma does not decrease significantly as beam energy is increased. This is due to reduced ion heating, more power in the fractional energy components, and rising power supply requirements as beam energy increases

  7. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...

  8. Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Salem, A Z M; López, S

    2017-08-01

    Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid. The diets were as follows: (i) small PS (average 1200 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no CA addition); (ii) small PS barley grain soaked in a CA solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley); (iii) large PS (average 2400 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no citric acid addition) and (iv) large PS barley grain soaked in a citric acid solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley). Barley grain was then incorporated at 35% in a total mixed ration and fed to the calves for 11 weeks. Feeding small PS barley decreased feed intake (P=0.02) and average daily weight gain (P=0.01). The addition of CA to barley grain did not affect intake but increased weight gain (P0.05). However, the molar proportion of propionate was increased (P=0.03) when barley was more finely ground, and that of acetate was increased (P=0.04) when CA was added to barley grain. The ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen was increased (Pgrain with citric acid increased fibre digestibility of total mixed rations, attenuated the decrease in ruminal pH, and improved weight gain and feed efficiency in male Holstein growing calves fed a high-cereal diet (550 g cereal grain/kg diet).

  9. Randomly grain growth in metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIME), Unidad Profesional Ticoman, Av. Ticoman 600, Del. G.A.M., C.P. 07340 Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: adaramil@yahoo.com.mx; Chavez, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Demedices, L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIME), Unidad Profesional Ticoman, Av. Ticoman 600, Del. G.A.M., C.P. 07340 Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Cruz, A.; Macias, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-30

    Computational modeling of grain structures is a very important topic in materials science. In this work, the development of the computational algorithms for a mathematical model to predict grain nucleation and grain growth is presented. The model place a number of nucleated points randomly in a liquid pool according with the solid and liquid fractions (X{sub sol} and X{sub liq}) of metal solute and the local temperature distribution (SS{sub I,J}). Then these points grows isotropically until obtain a grain structure with straight interfaces. Different grain morphologies such as columnar and equiaxed can be obtained as a function of the temperature distributions and growth directions.

  10. Experimental Study of Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, Richard H.; Mian, Abbas M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the charging mechanisms of micron size dust grains are presented. Individual dust grains are electrodynamically suspended and exposed to an electron beam of known energy and flux, and to far ultraviolet radiation of known wavelength and intensity. Changes in the charge-to-mass ratio of the grain are directly measured as a function of incident beam (electron and/or photon), grain size and composition. Comparisons of our results to theoretical models that predict the grain response are presented.

  11. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less than 100 micron of whole dust; bulk density; particle density; and ash content. PMID:3709482

  12. Randomly grain growth in metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Chavez, F.; Demedices, L.; Cruz, A.; Macias, M.

    2009-01-01

    Computational modeling of grain structures is a very important topic in materials science. In this work, the development of the computational algorithms for a mathematical model to predict grain nucleation and grain growth is presented. The model place a number of nucleated points randomly in a liquid pool according with the solid and liquid fractions (X sol and X liq ) of metal solute and the local temperature distribution (SS I,J ). Then these points grows isotropically until obtain a grain structure with straight interfaces. Different grain morphologies such as columnar and equiaxed can be obtained as a function of the temperature distributions and growth directions.

  13. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  14. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  15. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  16. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  17. Effect of a Grain Extract on Certain Digestive Physiological Indicators in Early Weaned Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Kovács

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a non-medicated diet with or without a grain extract feed additive (benzoquinones as main active ingredients on the growth of rabbits and certain physiological indicators of the digestive tract was examined. One-day-old rabbits of average birth weight were distributed into litters of eight, and these litters were randomly divided into three groups (21-22 litters/group. The control group (Group C received a basal diet. The diet fed to rabbits of Group IM, was supplemented with a feed additive containing natural basic ingredients (Immunovet-HBM, 1 kg/t; the diet fed to Group M was medicated (tiamulin, oxytetracycline and diclazuril. Three days prior to kindling and up to weaning at 21 days of age of the pups, the does were fed one of the three diets ad libitum. Young rabbits were allowed to consume the same diets beside their mother’s milk before weaning. Significant (p p p < 0.05 higher in the C and IM group than in M rabbits. The proportion of butyric acid was lower than that of propionic acid even on the 42nd day in Group M. From the results of this study it is clear that the early weaning of rabbits can be accomplished by the use of a non-medicated diet without any decrease in weight gain. In our study the grain extract feed additive exerted a beneficial effect by increasing the pancreatic enzyme activity and maintaining a better VFA ratio.

  18. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J.

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters

  19. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  20. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  1. GRAINE balloon experiment in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokujo Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of cosmic gamma rays are important for studying high energy phenomena in the universe. Since 2008, the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite has surveyed the whole gamma-ray sky in the sub-GeV/GeV energy region, and accumurated a large amount of data. However, observations at the low galactic latitude remains difficult because of a lack of angular resolution, increase of background flux originating from galactic diffuse gamma rays, etc. The Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion (GRAINE is a gamma-ray observation project with a new balloon-borne emulsion gamma-ray telescope. Nuclear emulsion is a high-resolution 3D tracking device. It determines the incident angle with 0.1∘ resolution for 1 GeV gamma rays (1.0∘ for 100 MeV, and has linear polarization sensitivity. GRAINE aims at precise observation of gamma-ray sources, especially in the galactic plane, by repeating long-duration balloon flights with large-aperture-area (10 m2 high-resolution emulsion telescopes. In May 2015, we performed a balloon-borne experiment in Alice Springs, Australia, in order to demonstrate the imaging performance of our telescope. The emulsion telescope that has an aperture area of 0.4 m2 was employed in this experiment. It observed the Vela pulsar (the brightest gamma-ray source in the GeV sky at an altitude of 37 km for 6 hours out of the flight duration of 14 hours. In this presentation, we will report the latest results and the status of the GRAINE project.

  2. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R O

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Direct imaging of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronsky, R.

    1979-09-01

    There are currently two types of microscopes which, in principle, are capable of imaging atom positions at grain boundaries. One, the field ion microscope (FIM), yields a projection of the specimen surface (approximately stereographic) by field ionization of an imaging gas at protruding atom sites, and provides topographic information in high-index pole regions which may be interpreted atom-by-atom. The other, a transmission electron microscope (TEM), yields a projection (approximately linear) of the entire specimen thickness by electron optical imaging, and provides atomic resolution detail throughout the illuminated area. In this paper, both methods are described and compared, using examples from practical materials systems

  4. Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility of distillers' grains for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Olayiwola; Ragland, Darryl

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA) digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG), and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS) in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD) were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower ( P  digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater ( P  digestibility values for traditional and high-protein corn distillers' dried grains coproducts for use in formulating swine diets. Amino acid digestibility was generally higher in HP-DDG than in other tested co-products of the dry grind processing of corn for ethanol.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Sorghum grains were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. Irradiated and unirradiated sorghum samples were analyzed for crude fiber contents, total nitrogen, fat, ash and tannic acid. Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were also determined. In addition, digestibility coefficient received special attention. The irradiated sorghum grains were incorporated into basal diets and fed to rats during the digestion trials. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had no effects on total nitrogen, fat and ash contents of sorghum grains. Irradiation treatments of sorghum did not cause a pronounced effect on tannic acid content even those received the highest irradiation dose (200 kGy). Moreover, the irradiation treatments decreased the NDF content of sorghum especially those subjected to 100 or 200 kGy. On the other hand, the ADF and ADL values did not show a remarkable change due to irradiation treatments. Hemicellulose content was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose levels. Also, it was noticed that feeding rats on basal diets enriched with irradiated sorghum grains had a beneficial effects on digestibility coefficient. This trend was obvious with animals supplemented with sorghum grains subjected to the relatively high irradiation dose levels. 4 tabs

  6. Whole Grains: Hearty Options for a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in particular are an important part of a healthy diet. Grains are naturally high in fiber, helping you ... to make whole grains a part of your healthy diet. Also called cereals, grains and whole grains are ...

  7. The effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Nørgaard, Peder; Eriksen, Lis

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present experiment were to study the effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses. Three adult trotters (Exp.I) and 3 adult Icelandic horses (Exp.II) were fed 3 daily meals during 3 consecutive days in two 3 x 3 completely randomized block design experiments....... Meals of (Exp.I: 1.0 kg) and (Exp.II: 0.5 kg) oats, barley and wheat were fed whole, rolled and ground at 10 am, 12 pm, 2 pm. Jaw movements (JM) were identified from pressure oscillations in a tube around the mouth. The efficient chewing time (EPTIME, min/kg DM), corrected for pauses, the basic chewing...... rate (PBCR, JM/s) and the standard deviation of time interval between JM (SPDDT), which indicate chewing regularity, were estimated. The mean EPTIME was 24 and 15 min for the Icelandic and trotter horses, respectively. The EPTIME for whole grain was 20 min and shorter than for ground grain (P = 0...

  8. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  9. Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshyar, E.

    2017-07-01

    Current intensive grain crops production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of barley production. This study was undertaken to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production. Additionally, three alternative scenarios were examined for irrigated barley fields including conservation tillage and biomass utilization policies. The findings showed that around 25 GJ/ha energy is needed in order to produce 2300 kg/ha irrigated barley and 13 GJ/ha for 1100 kg/ha rain-fed barley. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results indicated that irrigated farms had more environmental impacts than rain-fed farms. Electricity generation and consumption had the highest effect on the abiotic depletion potential, human toxicity potential, freshwater and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. However, alternative scenarios revealed that using soil conservation tillage systems and biomass consumption vs. gas for electricity generation at power plants can significantly mitigate environmental impacts of irrigated barley production similar to the rain-fed conditions while higher yield is obtained.

  10. Faecal Microbiota of Forage-Fed Horses in New Zealand and the Population Dynamics of Microbial Communities following Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karlette A.; Kittelmann, Sandra; Rogers, Christopher W.; Gee, Erica K.; Bolwell, Charlotte F.; Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet (“Group A”; n = 6) or pasture (“Group B”; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson’s index of diversity >0.8), with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (Phorses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa) of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change. PMID:25383707

  11. Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houshyar, E.

    2017-01-01

    Current intensive grain crops production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of barley production. This study was undertaken to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production. Additionally, three alternative scenarios were examined for irrigated barley fields including conservation tillage and biomass utilization policies. The findings showed that around 25 GJ/ha energy is needed in order to produce 2300 kg/ha irrigated barley and 13 GJ/ha for 1100 kg/ha rain-fed barley. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results indicated that irrigated farms had more environmental impacts than rain-fed farms. Electricity generation and consumption had the highest effect on the abiotic depletion potential, human toxicity potential, freshwater and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. However, alternative scenarios revealed that using soil conservation tillage systems and biomass consumption vs. gas for electricity generation at power plants can significantly mitigate environmental impacts of irrigated barley production similar to the rain-fed conditions while higher yield is obtained.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is a set of theoretical, methodological and practical fundamentals of organizational and economic functioning are integrated agricultural formations in the grain market of Ukraine. The methodological basis of research is the complex analysis of economic processes in the grain market in Ukraine and the world. During research we used such methods as method of systematization and comparison, statistic, economic, balance, constructive, target-oriented, and the methods of induction and deduction, analogy and comparison. Main aim of this article is the analysis of the situation on the grain market in Ukraine, defining the role of integrated agricultural formations in this market, improving the organizational-economic mechanism of its functioning, identifies ways of improving the competitiveness of Ukraine among world exporters of grain. Using results of the studies we examined trends grain market in Ukraine; influence of businesses in grain production; analysis of constraints to improve production efficiency of grain; defined domestic (internal needs of grain in Ukraine; assessed the status and expediency transformation infrastructure of the grain market of Ukraine; defined priority directions of development of the grain market in Ukraine. As a result of the preparation of articles, it is obtained the following conclusions: Ukraine is the world's largest producers and exporters of grain, the production of integrated agricultural units to a third of the total grain; technical condition of farm does not meet the needs of production; the domestic market is unable to provide the existing demand for grain production, contributing to export growth; Ukraine has a number of problems due to increased grain production, namely the shortage of storage capacity for the storage of grain, limited performance transshipment of grain in port elevators and imperfection and depreciation of transport systems; solving the existing problems is

  13. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  14. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Chowdhury, S R; Oinas, N; MacDonald, E J; Smith, T K

    2006-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens. In Experiment 1, thirty-six 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Concentrations of brain neurotransmitters and metabolites were analyzed in pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and the metabolites measured included dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxylphenyacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The feeding of contaminated grains significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT and decreased the 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid:5-HT in the pons region in the brain stem. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet on concentrations of other neurotransmitters or metabolites in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. In Experiment 2, thirty-six 1-d-old turkey poults were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Hypothalamic, pons, and cortex neurotransmitter concentrations were not affected by diet. In Experiment 3, forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens were fed diets including the following for 15 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. There was no effect of diet on neurotransmitter concentrations in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. It was concluded that differences in intraspecies effects of these mycotoxins on brain neurotransmitter concentrations might explain the intraspecies differences in the severity of Fusarium mycotoxin-induced reductions in feed intake.

  15. Feasibility Study for Preparation and Use of Glass Grains as an Alternative to Glass Nodules for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonavane, M S; Mishra, P.K., E-mail: maheshss@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mandal, S; Barik, S; Roy Chowdhury, A; Sen, R [Central Glass and Ceramic Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2012-10-15

    High level nuclear liquid waste (HLW) is immobilized using borosilicate glass matrix. Presently joule heated ceramic melter is being employed for vitrification of HLW in India. Preformed nodules of base glass are fed to melter along with liquid waste in predetermined ratio. In order to reduce the cost incurred for production of glass nodules of base glass, an alternative option of using glass grains was evaluated for its preparation and its suitability for the melter operation. (author)

  16. Feasibility Study for Preparation and Use of Glass Grains as an Alternative to Glass Nodules for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavane, M.S.; Mishra, P.K.; Mandal, S.; Barik, S.; Roy Chowdhury, A.; Sen, R.

    2012-01-01

    High level nuclear liquid waste (HLW) is immobilized using borosilicate glass matrix. Presently joule heated ceramic melter is being employed for vitrification of HLW in India. Preformed nodules of base glass are fed to melter along with liquid waste in predetermined ratio. In order to reduce the cost incurred for production of glass nodules of base glass, an alternative option of using glass grains was evaluated for its preparation and its suitability for the melter operation. (author)

  17. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  18. Nutrient digestibility of veal calves fed large amounts of different solid feeds during the first 80 days of fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating nutrients apparent digestibility in veal calves fed 3 feeding plans based on milk-replacer plus large amounts of solid feeds differing in their composition during the first 80 days of fattening. Twelve Polish Friesian male calves (70.6±1.9 kg were randomly assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: i milk-replacer plus corn grain (CG; ii milk-replacer plus 80:20 mixture (as fed basis of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS; and iii milk-replacer plus 72:20:8 mixture of corn grain, wheat straw and extruded soybean (CGSES. Calves received the same milk-replacer but the daily amount was restricted (96% for CGSES calves to balance dietary protein. Total dry matter intake from milk-replacer and solid feeds was similar among treatments, but CGSES calves showed better growth performance than CG ones. Calves were introduced into a metabolism stall (1/pen during week 9 of fattening for a 3- day adaptation period and a 4-day digestibility trial. Calves fed CG showed the greatest DM, NFC, and ash digestibility while CGSES calves showed the lowest CP digestibility. Haemoglobin concentrations measured at day 5, 31 and 80 were similar among feeding treatments and significantly decreased over time. In CGSES treatment, the combination of milkreplacer with solid feed closer to a complete diet for ruminants led to better calves’ growth performance. However, the reduced protein digestibility with CGSES indicates that protein quality becomes a key factor when formulating diets for veal calves using alternatives to dairy sources.

  19. Quantitative comparisons of select cultured and uncultured microbial populations in the rumen of cattle fed different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Minseok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number and diversity of uncultured ruminal bacterial and archaeal species revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs sequences greatly exceeds that of cultured bacteria and archaea. However, the significance of uncultured microbes remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to assess the numeric importance of select uncultured bacteria and cultured bacteria and the impact of diets and microenvironments within cow rumen in a comparative manner. Results Liquid and adherent fractions were obtained from the rumen of Jersey cattle fed hay alone and Holstein cattle fed hay plus grain. The populations of cultured and uncultured bacteria present in each fraction were quantified using specific real-time PCR assays. The population of total bacteria was similar between fractions or diets, while total archaea was numerically higher in the hay-fed Jersey cattle than in the hay-grain-fed Holstein cattle. The population of the genus Prevotella was about one log smaller than that of total bacteria. The populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the genus Butyrivibrio, and R. albus was at least one log smaller than that of genus Prevotella. Four of the six uncultured bacteria quantified were as abundant as F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and the genus Butyrivibrio. In addition, the populations of several uncultured bacteria were significantly higher in the adherent fractions than in the liquid fractions. These uncultured bacteria may be associated with fiber degradation. Conclusions Some uncultured bacteria are as abundant as those of major cultured bacteria in the rumen. Uncultured bacteria may have important contribution to ruminal fermentation. Population dynamic studies of uncultured bacteria in a comparative manner can help reveal their ecological features and importance to rumen functions.

  20. Grain Boundary Engineering of Electrodeposited Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein

    is not yet well-understood. This, at least partly, owes to the lack of robust characterization methods for analyzing the nature of grain boundaries including the grain boundary plane characteristics, until recently. In the past decade, significant improvements in the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analysis...... of the favorable boundaries that break the network of general grain boundaries. Successful dedicated synthesis of a textured nickel film fulfilling the requirements of grain boundary engineered materials, suggests improved boundary specific properties. However, the textured nickel film shows fairly low...... thermal stability and growth twins annihilate by thermal treatment at 600 degree C. In contrast, for oriented grains, growth nano-twins which are enveloped within columnar grains show a high thermal stability even after thermal treatment at 600 degree C. In order to exploit the high thermal...

  1. Grain processes in massive star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfire, M.G.; Cassinelli, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment

  2. Grain boundary segregation and intergranular failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trace elements and impurities often segregate strongly to grain boundaries in metals and alloys. Concentrations of these elements at grain boundaries are often 10 3 to 10 5 times as great as their overall concentration in the alloy. Because of such segregation, certain trace elements can exert a disproportionate influence on material properties. One frequently observed consequence of trace element segregation to grain boundaries is the occurrence of grain boundary failure and low ductility. Less well known are incidences of improved ductility and inhibition of grain boundary fracture resulting from trace element segregation to grain boundaries in certain systems. An overview of trace element segregation and intergranular failure in a variety of alloy systems as well as preliminary results from studies on Al 3% Li will be presented

  3. Industrial application of radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakladnoj, G.A.; Men'shenin, A.I.; Pertsovskij, E.S.; Salimov, R.A.; Cherepkov, V.G.; Krsheminskij, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    One of the main reasons for grain losses during storage is its damage by pest insects. Chemical methods widely used at present for grain decontamination have some shortcomings. In this connection a radiation method for grain disinfestation is developed and introduced in industry. First in the world experimental-industrial disinfestator on the base of electron accelerators is put into operation at Odessa port elevator

  4. The composition of interstellar grain mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular composition of interstellar grain mantles employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions has been calculated. The calculated mixtures consist mainly of the molecules H 2 O H 2 CO, N 2 , CO, O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O 2 , NH 3 , and their deuterated counterparts in varying ratios. The exact compositions depend strongly on the physical conditions in the gas phase. The calculated mixtures are compared to the observations by using laboratory spectra of grain mantle analogs. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  6. Contour fractal analysis of grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Giulia; Casini, Francesca; Viggiani, Giulia MB

    2017-06-01

    Fractal analysis has been shown to be useful in image processing to characterise the shape and the grey-scale complexity in different applications spanning from electronic to medical engineering (e.g. [1]). Fractal analysis consists of several methods to assign a dimension and other fractal characteristics to a dataset describing geometric objects. Limited studies have been conducted on the application of fractal analysis to the classification of the shape characteristics of soil grains. The main objective of the work described in this paper is to obtain, from the results of systematic fractal analysis of artificial simple shapes, the characterization of the particle morphology at different scales. The long term objective of the research is to link the microscopic features of granular media with the mechanical behaviour observed in the laboratory and in situ.

  7. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat...... macroscopic variables all produce identical long time relaxation behaviors. Hence, CTRW shed no light on the link between microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. We then highlight how a more recent approach, Record Dynamics (RD) provides a viable alternative, based on a very different set of physical ideas......: while CTRW make use of a renewal process involving identical traps of infinite size, RD embodies a dynamical entrenchment into a hierarchy of traps which are finite in size and possess different degrees of meta-stability. We show in particular how RD produces the stretched exponential, power...

  8. Hierarchical coarse-graining transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Vera; King, Peter R; Christensen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    We present a hierarchical transform that can be applied to Laplace-like differential equations such as Darcy's equation for single-phase flow in a porous medium. A finite-difference discretization scheme is used to set the equation in the form of an eigenvalue problem. Within the formalism suggested, the pressure field is decomposed into an average value and fluctuations of different kinds and at different scales. The application of the transform to the equation allows us to calculate the unknown pressure with a varying level of detail. A procedure is suggested to localize important features in the pressure field based only on the fine-scale permeability, and hence we develop a form of adaptive coarse graining. The formalism and method are described and demonstrated using two synthetic toy problems.

  9. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  10. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  11. Use of a complete starter feed in grain adaptation programs for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C J; Nuttelman, B L; Shreck, A L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Gramkow, J L; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E

    2017-08-01

    Four experiments evaluated the use of a complete starter feed (RAMP; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) for grain adaptation. In Exp. 1, 229 yearling steers (397 ± 28.4 kg BW) were used to compare a traditional adaptation program (CON) with adapting cattle with RAMP in either a 1- (RAMP-1RS) or 2- (RAMP-2RS) ration system. From d 23 to slaughter, cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 2, 390 yearling steers (341 ± 14 kg BW) were used to compare accelerated grain adaptation programs with RAMP with 2 control treatments where RAMP was blended with a finishing diet containing either 25 (CON25) or 47.5% (CON47) Sweet Bran (Cargill Corn Milling) in 4 steps fed over 24 d to adapt cattle. Rapid adaptation treatments involved feeding RAMP for 10 d followed by a blend of RAMP and a 47% Sweet Bran finishing diet to transition cattle with 3 blends fed for 1 d each (3-1d), 2 blends fed for 2 d each (2-2d), or 1 blend fed for 4 d (1-4d). From d 29 to slaughter, all cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 3, 300 steer calves (292 ± 21 kg BW) were used to compare the CON47 and 1-4d adaptation programs with directly transitioning cattle from RAMP, which involved feeding RAMP for 10 d and then switching directly to F1 on d 11 (1-STEP). From d 29 until slaughter, F2 was fed to all cattle. In Exp. 4, 7 ruminally fistulated steers (482 ± 49 kg BW) were used in a 35-d trial to compare the CON47 and 1-STEP adaptation programs. Ruminal pH and intake data from the first 6 d of F1and first 6 d of F2 were used to compare adaptation systems. Adaptation with RAMP-1RS and RAMP-2RS increased ( cattle adapted using CON in Exp. 1. Feeding RAMP-1RS increased ADG ( = 0.03) compared with CON. Intakes were similar ( = 0.39) among treatments. Daily gain, DMI, G:F, and carcass traits were similar ( > 0.11) among treatments in Exp. 2. Daily gain, DMI, and G:F were not different ( > 0.20) among treatments on d 39 or over the entire feeding period in Exp. 3. When F1 or F2 was being fed

  12. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), Art . No. 015013 ISSN 0965-0393 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * abnormal grain growth * theory * modelling * solute drag Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2014

  13. Grain-boundary engineering applied to grain growth in a high temperature material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Crystallography of grain boundaries are determined for a high temperature material, before and after grain growth processes, so as to study the induction of special properties useful for application in components of a gas-turbine engine. The philosophy of grain-boundary engineering is applied to grain growth in APK-6, a powder formed nickel-base superalloy so as to establish the possible structure/property relationships. The alloy in the as received condition is shown to possess a strong texture and contained coincident site lattices (CSL) boundaries with most boundaries having sigma values in the range of 3 > sigma > 25. A normal grain-growth heat treatment result in a good population of low angle grain boundaries, and drastically reduces the proportion of CSL boundaries. A strong [011] annealing texture is observed after an intermediate grain growth; most grain boundaries, here, tend to be high angle indicating a possibility of possessing special properties. (author)

  14. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  15. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty Weaner pigs with an average initial live weight of 6.81 ± 1.0kg were studied for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw bambara waste (BW) using a completely randomized design (CRD). They were fed five diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentage composition for 5 months ...

  16. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  17. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  18. Evaluation of limit feeding varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, L; Meyer, E T; Studer, D L; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2011-02-01

    An experiment was conducted with 672 Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) to evaluate the effects of feeding varying levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with corn, wheat middlings, and soybean hulls on long-term laying hen postmolt performance. The control molt treatment consisted of a 47% corn:47% soybean hulls (C:SH) diet fed ad libitum for 28 d. Hens fed the other 7 treatments were limit fed 65 g/hen per day for 16 d, and then fed 55 g/hen per day for 12 d. Hens on treatments 2 and 3 were fed 49% C:35% wheat middlings (WM) or SH:10% DDGS diets (C:WM:10DDGS, C:SH:10DDGS). Hens on treatments 4 and 5 were fed 49% C:25% WM or SH:20% DDGS diets (C:WM:20DDGS, C:SH:20DDGS). Those on treatments 6 and 7 were fed 47% C:47% DDGS (C:DDGS) or 47% WM:47% DDGS (WM:DDGS) diets. Those on treatment 8 were fed a 94% DDGS diet. At 28 d, all hens were fed a corn-soybean meal layer diet (16% CP) and production performance was measured for 36 wk. None of the hens fed the molt diets went completely out of production, and only the C:SH and C:SH:10DDGS molt diets decreased hen-day egg production to below 5% by wk 4 of the molt period. Postmolt egg production was lowest (P 0.05) in egg weights were detected among treatments throughout the postmolt period. In addition, no consistent differences were observed among treatments for egg mass throughout the postmolt period. Overall results of this study indicated that limit feeding diets containing DDGS at levels of 65 or 55 g/hen per day during the molt period did not cause hens to totally cease egg production.

  19. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing

  20. Phloem Transport Of Arsenic Species From Flag Leaf To Grain During Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was ...

  1. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic

  2. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  3. Grain formation in cool stellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of dust grains in the stellar envelope are investigated for the case of oxygen-rich stars, where the mass loss occurs as a result of the radiation pressure on the dust grains. The number density of grains, the final grain sizes, and the final amount of metals remaining in gaseous states are calculated based on the grain-nucleation theory proposed by Yamamoto and Hasegawa and Draine and Salpeter. It is shown that, even if we base our calculations on the Lothe-Pound nucleation rate equation instead of the classical, homogeneous nucleation rate equation, the proposed theory gives a number density of grains quite similar to that based on the classical rate equation. The approximate solution of the flow, in this paper, brings physical insight to the problem of how the formation of grains couples the flow passing the sonic point. The metals in the outer envelope remain in gaseous state by the amount of 1--10% of the initial content for the mass-loss rate of 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and by less than 1% for the massloss are less than 3 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . Species of metals condensed onto the grains are also discussed

  4. A new treatment of transient grain growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fratzl, P.; Zickler, G. A.; Fischer, F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, AUG (2016), s. 442-447 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Grain size distribution * Grain growth * Growth kinetics * Thermodynamic modelling * Numerical solution of integro-differential equations Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  5. Molasses and grains together (in alcohol production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T

    1961-01-01

    The simultaneous fermentation of mashes prepared from grains and molasses is entirely feasible. It is preferable to run the fermentation continuously in this case, starting with a grain fermentation liquor containing little molasses. As time progresses more and more molasses are added to replace the fermented sugar.

  6. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    34Thermal Analysis Study of Heterogeneous Nuclei in Stainless Steels ," International Journal of Metalcasting Date: May, 2011 Status: Submitted...develop strength through the precipitation of carbide particles. The resulting mechanical properties can be strengths of 2,000 MPa, 80% elongation, and...by thermomechanical grain refinemeni and precipitation hardening. This is achieved by precipitating niobium carbides , which pin the austenite grains

  7. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  8. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  9. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  10. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  11. Grain boundaries in high temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Mannhart, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic

  12. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. The use of labelled nitrogen for studying wheat fertilizer application under rain fed area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thabet, E.M.A.; Zapata, F.; Moutonnel, P.

    1999-01-01

    A Field experiment was conducted in the IAEA agricultural field in Seibersdorf, austria, during 1995 growing season. Wheat grains of Astrodur variety were planted in the field using seed drill at rate of 300 plants/m 2 . The experimental block has a size of 1.25 m.x 7.5 m. randomized complete block design with six replications was used. Each block include two fertilization rates (100 and 50 kg. N/ha.) and three different harvesting samples (67, 100 and 124 DAP). The applications were giver in two split applications. N 1 5 labelled fertilizer (2.59% atom excess) was only used for 100 kg. N/ha. Rainfall was measured along the season and then calculated as amount of cubic meters per hecater in different respective periods. The obtained results indicated that dry matter yield kg. /ha., water use efficiency (WUE), N-utilized % chlorophyll content and yield and yield components of wheat under rain fed area significantly increased for the application of the recommended nitrogen rate (100 kg. N/ha.) at different wheat growth stages as compared to nitrogen rat of 50 kg. N/ ha. It is obvious that the addition of nitrogen have a strong relation with water applied in rain fed area. So that the application of nitrogen showed split more than two times to avoid leaching and to be utilized by wheat under rain fed conditions. Moreover, the nitrogen applied should be not less than the recommended rate which was 100 kg. N/ha. as ammonium sulphate

  14. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help and strengthen the technological development of the Brazilian beekeeping industry increasing its consumption in the national market. This research presents values of royal jelly a little different from those established by the Brazilian legislation. This fact shows that is important to discuss or change the official method for royal jelly analysis. The characterization of physicochemical and microbiological parameters is important in order to standardize fresh, frozen, and lyophilized royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees.

  15. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  16. Coarse graining for synchronization in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, An; Lü, Linyuan

    2011-05-01

    Coarse-graining model is a promising way to analyze and visualize large-scale networks. The coarse-grained networks are required to preserve statistical properties as well as the dynamic behaviors of the initial networks. Some methods have been proposed and found effective in undirected networks, while the study on coarse-graining directed networks lacks of consideration. In this paper we proposed a path-based coarse-graining (PCG) method to coarse grain the directed networks. Performing the linear stability analysis of synchronization and numerical simulation of the Kuramoto model on four kinds of directed networks, including tree networks and variants of Barabási-Albert networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Erdös-Rényi networks, we find our method can effectively preserve the network synchronizability.

  17. Grain interaction effects in polycrystalline Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, C.; Somers, Marcel A.J.; Wert, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Crystal orientation maps for a grain in a deformed Cu polycrystal have been analysed with the goal of understanding the effect of grain interactions on orientation subdivision. The polycrystal was incrementally strained in tension to 5, 8, 15 and 25% extension; a crystal orientation map...... was measured after each strain increment. The measurements are represented as rotations from the initial crystal orientation. A coarse domain structure forms in the initial 5% strain increment and persists at higher strains. Crystal rotations for all coarse domains in the grain are consistent with the full...... range of Tailor solutions for axisymmetric strain; grain interactions are not required to account for the coarse domain structure. Special orientation domains extend 20-100 µm into the grain at various locations around its periphery. The special orientation domain morphologies include layers along...

  18. The Rosseland mean opacity of interstellar grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; El Shalaby, M.A.; El-Nawawy, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    We have calculated the opacity of interstellar grains in the temperature range 10 deg. K - 1500 deg. K. Two composite grain models have been considered. One of them consists of silicate coated with ice mantle and the second has a graphite core coated also with ice mantle. These models are compared with isolated grain models. An exact analytical and computational development of Guettler's formulae for composite grain models has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient. It has been found that the thickness of the mantle affects the opacity of the interstellar grains. The opacity of composite models differs from that of the isolated models. The effect of the different species (ice, silicate and graphite) is also clear. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on small intestinal morphology of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; Smith, T K

    2008-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Three hundred 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat, corn, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, and contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Morphometric indices were measured at the end of each growth phase and included villus height (VH), crypt depth, villus width, thicknesses of submucosa and muscularis, villus-to-crypt ratio, and apparent villus surface area (AVSA). At the end of the starter phase, feedborne mycotoxins significantly decreased the VH in the duodenum, and supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented this effect. The feeding of contaminated grains also reduced (P effects in jejunum and ileum. No effects of diets were seen on morphometric variables at the end of the developer and finisher phases. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins results in adverse effects on intestinal morphology during early growth phases of turkeys, and GMA can prevent many of these effects.

  20. Passive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petrut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring sediment transport processes in rivers is of particular interest to engineers and scientists to assess the stability of rivers and hydraulic structures. Various methods for sediment transport process description were proposed using conventional or surrogate measurement techniques. This paper addresses the topic of the passive acoustic monitoring of bedload transport in rivers and especially the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution from self-generated noise. It discusses the feasibility of linking the acoustic signal spectrum shape to bedload grain sizes involved in elastic impacts with the river bed treated as a massive slab. Bedload grain size distribution is estimated by a regularized algebraic inversion scheme fed with the power spectrum density of river noise estimated from one hydrophone. The inversion methodology relies upon a physical model that predicts the acoustic field generated by the collision between rigid bodies. Here we proposed an analytic model of the acoustic energy spectrum generated by the impacts between a sphere and a slab. The proposed model computes the power spectral density of bedload noise using a linear system of analytic energy spectra weighted by the grain size distribution. The algebraic system of equations is then solved by least square optimization and solution regularization methods. The result of inversion leads directly to the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution. The inversion method was applied to real acoustic data from passive acoustics experiments realized on the Isère River, in France. The inversion of in situ measured spectra reveals good estimations of grain size distribution, fairly close to what was estimated by physical sampling instruments. These results illustrate the potential of the hydrophone technique to be used as a standalone method that could ensure high spatial and temporal resolution measurements for sediment transport in rivers.

  1. Passive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrut, Teodor; Geay, Thomas; Gervaise, Cédric; Belleudy, Philippe; Zanker, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring sediment transport processes in rivers is of particular interest to engineers and scientists to assess the stability of rivers and hydraulic structures. Various methods for sediment transport process description were proposed using conventional or surrogate measurement techniques. This paper addresses the topic of the passive acoustic monitoring of bedload transport in rivers and especially the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution from self-generated noise. It discusses the feasibility of linking the acoustic signal spectrum shape to bedload grain sizes involved in elastic impacts with the river bed treated as a massive slab. Bedload grain size distribution is estimated by a regularized algebraic inversion scheme fed with the power spectrum density of river noise estimated from one hydrophone. The inversion methodology relies upon a physical model that predicts the acoustic field generated by the collision between rigid bodies. Here we proposed an analytic model of the acoustic energy spectrum generated by the impacts between a sphere and a slab. The proposed model computes the power spectral density of bedload noise using a linear system of analytic energy spectra weighted by the grain size distribution. The algebraic system of equations is then solved by least square optimization and solution regularization methods. The result of inversion leads directly to the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution. The inversion method was applied to real acoustic data from passive acoustics experiments realized on the Isère River, in France. The inversion of in situ measured spectra reveals good estimations of grain size distribution, fairly close to what was estimated by physical sampling instruments. These results illustrate the potential of the hydrophone technique to be used as a standalone method that could ensure high spatial and temporal resolution measurements for sediment transport in rivers.

  2. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  3. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  4. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hong Park

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1 C: control (no prebiotic, 2 T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3 T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40 group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS, microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  5. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1) C: control (no prebiotic), 2) T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3) T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40) group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS), microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  6. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  7. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  8. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Aberdeen); (UC); (Dartmouth)

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  9. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Grain boundary and grain interior conduction in γ'-Bi2MoO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, C.M.C.; Aragon, R.

    2005-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy of fine grained ( 2 MoO 6 samples, in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz-250 kHz, relevant to sensor applications, up to 800 deg. C, has been used to characterize grain boundary and grain interior contributions to conduction. Above 500 deg. C, the grain boundary contribution is no longer rate limiting and conduction is dominated by the grain interior component. The corresponding activation energies are 0.98 eV for grain boundary and 0.73 eV for grain interior components. The weak dependence of conductivity on oxygen partial pressure below 500 deg. C can be attributed to electrode-electrolyte interface phenomena, whereas the robust response to ethanol is commensurate with changes in intrinsic ionic conductivity

  11. 7 CFR 810.801 - Definition of mixed grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of mixed grain. 810.801 Section 810.801 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Terms Defined § 810.801 Definition of mixed grain. Any...

  12. Grain dissection as a grain size reducing mechanism during ice microdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martin R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheets are valuable paleo-climate archives, but can lose their integrity by ice flow. An understanding of the microdynamic mechanisms controlling the flow of ice is essential when assessing climatic and environmental developments related to ice sheets and glaciers. For instance, the development of a consistent mechanistic grain size law would support larger scale ice flow models. Recent research made significant progress in numerically modelling deformation and recrystallisation mechanisms in the polycrystalline ice and ice-air aggregate (Llorens et al., 2016a,b; Steinbach et al., 2016). The numerical setup assumed grain size reduction is achieved by the progressive transformation of subgrain boundaries into new high angle grain boundaries splitting an existing grain. This mechanism is usually termed polygonisation. Analogue experiments suggested, that strain induced grain boundary migration can cause bulges to migrate through the whole of a grain separating one region of the grain from another (Jessell, 1986; Urai, 1987). This mechanism of grain dissection could provide an alternative grain size reducing mechanism, but has not yet been observed during ice microdynamics. In this contribution, we present results using an updated numerical approach allowing for grain dissection. The approach is based on coupling the full field theory crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) of Lebensohn (2001) to the multi-process modelling platform Elle (Bons et al., 2008). VPFFT predicts the mechanical fields resulting from short strain increments, dynamic recrystallisation process are implemented in Elle. The novel approach includes improvements to allow for grain dissection, which was topologically impossible during earlier simulations. The simulations are supported by microstructural observations from NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice core. Mappings of c-axis orientations using the automatic fabric analyser and full crystallographic orientations using electron

  13. Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures

  14. Suprathermal grains: on intergalactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Charged dust grains of radii a approximately equal to 3 x 10 -6 to approximately 3 x 10 -5 cm may be driven out of the galaxy due to radiation pressure of starlight. Once clear of the main gas-dust layer, dust grains may then escape into intergalactic space. Such grains are virtually indestructible-being evaporated only during formation. The dust grains, once injected into the intergalactic medium, may acquire suprathermal energy, thus 'suprathermal grains' in collision with magnetized cloud by the Fermi process. In order to attain relativistic energy, suprathermal grains have to move in and out ('scattering') of the magnetic field of the medium. It is now well established that high energy cosmic rays are of the order 10 20 eV or more. It has been speculated that these high energy (> = 10 18 eV) cosmic ray particles are charged dust grains, of intergalactic origin. This is possible only if there exists a magnetic field in the intergalactic medium. (Auth.)

  15. Grain size dependence of wear in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.; Rice, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Platt, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Pin-On-Disk (POD), microwear tests of Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 , most being dense and essentially single phase, showed the reciprocal of wear following a hall-petch type relationship. However, extrapolation to infinite grain size always gave a lower intercept than most or all single-crystal values; in particular, Al 2 O 3 data projects to a negative intercept. Initial macro wear tests of some of the same Al 2 O 3 materials also indicate a hall-petch type grain-size dependence, but with a greatly reduced grain-size dependence, giving a positive hall-petch intercept. Further, the macrowear grain-size dependence appears to decrease with increased wear. It is argued that thermal expansion anisotropy (of Al 2 O 3 ) significantly affects the grain size dependence of POD wear, in particular, giving a negative intercept, while elastic anisotropy is suggested as a factor in the grain-size dependence of the cubic (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 ) materials. The reduced grain-size dependence in the macrowear tests is attributed to overlapping wear tracks reducing the effects of enhanced wear damage, e.g., from elastic and thermal expansion anisotropies

  16. Efficacy and immunogenicity of live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and formula-fed European infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Prymula, Roman; Schuster, Volker; Tejedor, Juan-C; Cohen, Robert; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Damaso, Silvia; Han, Htay Htay

    2012-05-01

    Rotavirus is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children less than 5 years of age. Potential impact of breast-feeding on the efficacy and immunogenicity of human rotavirus G1P[8] vaccine was examined in this exploratory analysis. Healthy infants (N = 3994) aged 6-14 weeks who received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine/placebo according to a 0-1 or 0-2 month schedule were followed for rotavirus gastroenteritis during 2 epidemic seasons. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (anti-IgA antibody concentration ≥ 20 mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentrations were measured prevaccination and 1-2 months post-dose 2. Vaccine efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was analyzed according to the infants being breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed at the time of vaccination. Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was 85.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4-88.3) in breast-fed and 89.2% (95% CI: 84.2-93) in exclusively formula-fed infants; geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 185.8 U/mL (95% CI: 161.4-213.9) and 231.5 U/mL (95% CI: 185.9-288.2). Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season but fell in breast-fed infants in the second rotavirus season. During the combined 2-year efficacy follow-up period, vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis was 76.2% (95% CI: 68.7-82.1) and 89.8% (95% CI: 77.6-95.9) and against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6-93) and 98.1% (95% CI: 88.2-100) in the breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants, respectively. The difference in immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants was small. Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season. Breast-feeding seemed to reduce slightly the efficacy in the second season.

  17. Molecular dynamics study on microstructure of near grain boundary distortion region in small grain size nano- NiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; Wang, X.W.; Rifkin, J.; Li, D.X.

    2001-12-01

    Using the molecular dynamics simulation method, the microstructure of distortion region near curved amorphous-like grain boundary in nano-NiAl alloy is studied. The results showed that due to the internal elastic force of high energy grain boundary, distortion layer exists between grain and grain boundary. The lattice expansion and structure factor decreasing are observed in this region. Stacking fault in sample with grain size 3.8nm is clearly observed across the distortion region at the site very close to grain. The influences of different grain sizes on average distortion degree and volume fractions of distortion region, grain and grain boundary are also discussed. (author)

  18. Tracing magnetic fields with aligned grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g., transport of heat), and cosmic rays. One of the easiest ways to determine the magnetic field direction is via polarization of radiation resulting from extinction or/and emission by aligned dust grains. Reliability of interpretation of the polarization maps in terms of magnetic fields depends on how well we understand the grain-alignment theory. Explaining what makes grains aligned has been one of the big issues of the modern astronomy. Numerous exciting physical effects have been discovered in the course of research undertaken in this field. As both the theory and observations matured, it became clear that the grain-alignment phenomenon is inherent not only in diffuse interstellar medium or molecular clouds but also is a generic property of the dust in circumstellar regions, interplanetary space and cometary comae. Currently the grain-alignment theory is a predictive one, and its results nicely match observations. Among its predictions is a subtle phenomenon of radiative torques. This phenomenon, after having stayed in oblivion for many years after its discovery, is currently viewed as the most powerful means of alignment. In this article, I shall review the basic physical processes involved in grain alignment, and the currently known mechanisms of alignment. I shall also discuss possible niches for different alignment mechanisms. I shall dwell on the importance of the concept of grain helicity for understanding of many properties of grain alignment, and shall demonstrate that rather arbitrarily shaped grains exhibit helicity when they interact with gaseous and radiative flows

  19. Bioavailability of cadmium in rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabar, I.; Kostial, K.

    1981-01-01

    Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115 sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Comparison of winter wheat yield sensitivity to climate variables under irrigated and rain-fed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Shen, Yanjun; Zhang, He; Moiwo, Juana P.; Qi, Yongqing; Wang, Rende; Pei, Hongwei; Zhang, Yucui; Shen, Huitao

    2016-09-01

    Crop simulation models provide alternative, less time-consuming, and cost-effective means of determining the sensitivity of crop yield to climate change. In this study, two dynamic mechanistic models, CERES (Crop Environment Resource Synthesis) and APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator), were used to simulate the yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) under well irrigated (CFG) and rain-fed (YY) conditions in relation to different climate variables in the North China Plain (NCP). The study tested winter wheat yield sensitivity to different levels of temperature, radiation, precipitation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration under CFG and YY conditions at Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experimental Stations in the NCP. The results from the CERES and APSIM wheat crop models were largely consistent and suggested that changes in climate variables influenced wheat grain yield in the NCP. There was also significant variation in the sensitivity of winter wheat yield to climate variables under different water (CFG and YY) conditions. While a temperature increase of 2°C was the threshold beyond which temperature negatively influenced wheat yield under CFG, a temperature rise exceeding 1°C decreased winter wheat grain yield under YY. A decrease in solar radiation decreased wheat grain yield under both CFG and YY conditions. Although the sensitivity of winter wheat yield to precipitation was small under the CFG, yield decreased significantly with decreasing precipitation under the rainfed YY treatment. The results also suggest that wheat yield under CFG linearly increased by ≈3.5% per 60 ppm (parts per million) increase in CO2 concentration from 380 to 560 ppm, and yield under YY increased linearly by ≈7.0% for the same increase in CO2 concentration.

  1. 78 FR 33224 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in...

  2. 78 FR 57261 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers... temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland, OR, the United...

  3. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  4. Grain orientation, deformation microstructure and flow stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Winther, G.

    2008-01-01

    Dislocation structures in deformed metals have been analyzed quantitatively by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy and Kikuchi line analysis. A general pattern for the microstructural evolution with increasing strain has been established and structural parameters have been defined and quantified. It has been found that two dislocation patterns co-exist in all grains, however, with very different characteristics dependent on grain orientation. This correlation with the grain orientation has been applied in modeling of the tensile flow stress and the flow stress anisotropy of fcc polycrystals. In conclusion some future research areas are briefly outlined

  5. Statistical Theory of Normal Grain Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.; Luczka, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three physically relevant problems concerning the normal grain growth process. These are: Infinite vs finite size of the system under study (a step towards more realistic modeling); conditions of fine-grained structure formation, with possible applications to thin films and biomembranes, and interesting relations to superplasticity of materials; approach to log-normality, an ubiquitous natural phenomenon, frequently reported in literature. It turns out that all three important points mentioned are possible to be included in a Mulheran-Harding type behavior of evolving grains-containing systems that we have studied previously. (author)

  6. CASS Ferrite and Grain Structure Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Clayton O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This document summarizes the results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine whether, based on experimental measurements, a correlation existed between grain structure in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping and ferrite content of the casting alloy. The motivation for this research lies in the fact that ultrasonic testing (UT) is strongly influenced by CASS grain structure; knowledge of this grain structure may help improve the ability to interpret UT responses, thereby improving the overall reliability of UT inspections of CASS components.

  7. Grain refinement control in TIG arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.; Whiffen, E. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A method for controlling grain size and weld puddle agitation in a tungsten electrode inert gas welding system to produce fine, even grain size and distribution is disclosed. In the method the frequency of dc welding voltage pulses supplied to the welding electrode is varied over a preselected frequency range and the arc gas voltage is monitored. At some frequency in the preselected range the arc gas voltage will pass through a maximum. By maintaining the operating frequency of the system at this value, maximum weld puddle agitation and fine grain structure are produced.

  8. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  9. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  10. Therapeutic evaluation of grain based functional food formulation in a geriatric animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Deepa; Joshi, Neena; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of wholesome grain based functional food formulation, on clinical and biochemical parameters in 24-30 months old Wistar albino geriatric rats, corresponding to human age 60-75 years. Animals were randomly divided into five, groups. Experimental diets were compared to the basal rat diet (Group I). Four food, formulation were-wheat based (Group II), finger millet based (Group III), wheat based, diet + fenugreek seed powder (Group IV), finger millet based diet + fenugreek powder, (Group V). These five types of diets were fed to the experimental rats for 6 weeks. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The results showed that, feed intake was influenced by the type of feed. Diets supplemented with, fenugreek (Group IV) caused a significant increase in serum hemoglobin. The total serum protein values were significantly highest in Group III. Total serum albumin was found to be lower in Group I and highest in Group II. The concentration of BUN was highest in Group I and the lowest in control diet. Serum cholesterol and glucose were significantly reduced in Group IV. Several hematological and serum mineral values were influenced by the type of diet. The type of diet did not influence the organs weight. A moderate hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemic effect was observed in composite mix fed rats. This study clearly justifies the recommendation to use wholesome grain based functional foods for geriatric population.

  11. Grain Entrapment Pressure on the Torso: Can You Breathe while Buried in Grain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin G; Jones, Carol L

    2017-04-26

    The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim. However, other factors, such as the victim's age, gender, and body position in the grain, may influence respiration. The aspiration of grain appears to be the most likely asphyxiation risk during grain bin entrapment. Entering a grain storage bin is inherently dangerous, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines for permit-required confined spaces and grain handling facilities must be followed. Due to the risk of grain aspiration during engulfment, the development of safety equipment that could help protect the airway of a victim should be investigated. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  12. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating ... might help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  13. 10559 A NATIONAL SURVEY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study provided quantitative measures of the quality status of rice grains available in Sierra ... using the most convenient methods at their disposal. ... rice, moisture content of grains and percentages of foreign matter, chalky immature grains ...

  14. Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology, metabolism, and immunocompetence of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Karrow, N A

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology, metabolism, and immunological parameters of turkeys. The efficacy of polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) in preventing these adverse effects was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, contaminated grains, and contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Feeding contaminated grains significantly decreased BW gains during the grower and developer phases, and GMA supplementation prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet, however, on feed intake or feed efficiency. The feeding of contaminated grains reduced total lymphocyte counts at wk 3 (P effect. Feeding contaminated grains significantly increased the percentage of CD4(+) lymphocyte populations during wk 6; however, there was no change in the percentage of CD8(+) and B-lymphocyte populations. Contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, which is a CD8(+) T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, was significantly decreased after 24 and 72 h by feedborne mycotoxins compared with controls. Supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented the decrease in response after 24 h. Secondary antibody (IgG titer) response against SRBC antigens (CD4(+) T cell-dependent) was significantly decreased after feeding contaminated grains compared with controls. It was concluded that turkey performance and some blood and immunological parameters were adversely affected by feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins, and GMA prevented many of these effects.

  16. Performance, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies of broilers fed either corn or sorghum based diets supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Noboa, H A; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Sarsour, A H; Barnes, J; Ferzola, P; Rademacher-Heilshorn, M; Braun, U

    2018-04-13

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation in broilers fed corn or sorghum-based diets on live performance, carcass and cut up yields, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies. The treatments consisted of corn or sorghum-based diets with or without the addition of GAA (600 g/ton). A total of 800 one-d-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly placed in 40 floor pens with 10 replicates (20 birds per pen) per each of the four treatments. At hatch, 14, 35, and 50 d, BW and feed intake were recorded. BW gain and FCR were calculated at the end of each phase. Four broilers per pen were selected and slaughtered at 51d and 55d of age to determine carcass and cut up yields, meat quality and myopathies (spaghetti muscle, white striping, and wooden breast) severity in the Pectoralis major. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with grain type and GAA supplementation as main effects. At 50 d, diets containing GAA improved (P broilers fed corn diets with GAA had higher breast meat yield (P 0.05) by GAA supplementation at any slaughter ages. However, GAA decreased (P broilers supplemented with GAA had double (P broilers fed non-supplemented diets, therefore reducing the severity of this myopathy. In conclusion, GAA supplementation improved broiler live performance in broilers raised up to 50 d independently of grain source, increased breast meat yield in corn-based diets and reduced the severity of wooden breast myopathy.

  17. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  18. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  19. Protein, energy and phosphorus supplementation of cattle fed low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein, energy and phosphorus supplements, fed ..... The results of this experiment confirm the basic concepts that ... article. The lack of response or even negative reaction to energy supplements under these conditions can be ...

  20. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Slaughter characteristics in three groups of fattening pigs fed in different ways were ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic preparations are used as food additives ...... Effect of use of Vitaprotein 50 as fish meal substitute in nutrition of.

  1. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  2. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  3. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  4. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Haematology, jackfruit, bulb, seed, supplementation. INTRODUCTION ... Albokhadaim, 2015) and humans (Lavy,. 1994 .... Table 2: Body weights and daily food intake of control and rats fed jackfruit seed diet (g). Experimental.

  5. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different mixtures of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The experimental diets (starter and finisher diets) were offered to the respective bids with water ad libitum.

  6. Fine-grained zirconium-base material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houten, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for making zirconium with inhibited grain growth characteristics, by the process of vacuum melting the zirconium, adding 0.3 to 0.5% carbon, stirring, homogenizing, and cooling. (Official Gazette)

  7. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  8. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  9. Spent grain as energy source for breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, P; Meyer-Pittroff, R [Technical Univ. of Munich, Freising (West Germany)

    1990-01-01

    About 1.7 million tons of spent grain are produced from brewing operations each year in the Federal Republic of Germany. Because there is more spent grain than can be sold as cattle fodder, other uses for this product are being sought. These include composting, methane generation, and direct combustion. Researchers are using anaerobic fermentation as a means of producing biogas and using waste energy from the brewery to heat the fermenter. Combustion of spent grain can give a net energy of 12.8 MJ per kg dry grain. With biogas production, about 15-20% of the whole primary energy or 50% of the primary energy used in the boiling house could be substituted by the biogas.

  10. Grain operator miffed at port administration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ventspils Grain Terminal saatis president Vaira Vike-Freibergale ja mitmetele ministritele kirja sõnumiga, et Ventspilsi Vabasadama (Ventspils Free Port) administratsiooni tegevus takistab terminali äritegevust

  11. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  12. Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulastya Putra, Purna

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of tsunami deposits are very complex as the deposition by tsunami is very complex processes. The grain size characteristics of tsunami deposits are simply generalized no matter the local condition in which the deposition took place. The general characteristics are fining upward and landward, poor sorting, and the grain size distribution is not unimodal. Here I review the grain size characteristics of tsunami deposit in various environments: swale, coastal marsh and lagoon/lake. Review results show that although there are similar characters in some environments and cases, but in detail the characteristics in each environment can be distinguished; therefore, the tsunami deposit in each environment has its own characteristic. The local geological and geomorphological condition of the environment may greatly affect the grain size characteristics.

  13. Indium solar neutrino experiment using superconducting grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefon, A. de; Espigat, P.

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we would like to emphasize the revival of interest for Indium experiment in Europe. Properties of metastable superconducting indium grains are presented and our progress towards making an experiment feasible is reviewed

  14. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Grain boundary engineering of highly deformable ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecartney, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Highly deformable ceramics can be created with the addition of intergranular silicate phases. These amorphous intergranular phases can assist in superplastic deformation by relieving stress concentrations and minimizing grain growth if the appropriate intergranular compositions are selected. Examples from 3Y-TZP and 8Y-CSZ ceramics are discussed. The grain boundary chemistry is analyzed by high resolution analytical TEM is found to have a strong influence on the cohesion of the grains both at high temperature and at room temperature. Intergranular phases with a high ionic character and containing large ions with a relatively weak bond strength appear to cause premature failure. In contrast, intergranular phases with a high degree of covalent character and similar or smaller ions than the ceramic and a high ionic bond strength are the best for grain boundary adhesion and prevention of both cavitation at high temperatures and intergranular fracture at room temperature

  16. regional grain allocation and transportation in China

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... China was partitioned into eight regions, and the virtual water flow due to regional grain allocation and ... strategy can be choices which can realize Chinese food security and ..... Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's ...

  17. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  18. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  19. Statistics of grain misorientations in molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybin, V V; Titovets, Yu F; Teplitskij, D M; Zolotorevskij, N Yu

    1982-03-01

    Sets of misorientations between neighbouring grains for three recrystallized molybdenum polycrystals differing in purity, phase composition and prehistory are experimentally determined. The data obtained are analyzed according to modern representations of intergrain boundary structure. In the two materials among the three mentioned above the share of boundaries close to special boundaries with high density of coinciding points turned to be 1.5 times higher than in the polycrystal with chaotic distribution of grains by orientations.

  20. The formation of small grains in shocks in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony P.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous and silicate grains swept up, and betatron accelerated, by supernova-generated shock waves in the interstellar medium are exposed to grain destructive processing. The degree of grain destruction is determined by the differential gas-grain and grain-grain velocities, which lead to sputtering of the grain surface and grain core disruption (deformation, vaporization and shattering), respectively. The threshold pressure for grain shattering in grain-grain collisions (100 k bar) is considerably lower than that for vaporization (approximately 5 M bar). Therefore, collisions between grains shatter large grains into smaller fragments (i.e., small grains and PAH's). Using a new algorithms for the destructive processes, it was possible to model the formation fo small grain fragments in grain-grain collisions in the warm phase of the interstellar medium. It was found that in one cycle through the warm medium (approximately 3 x 10(sup 6) years) of order 1-2% of the total grain mass is shattered into particles with radii of less than 50 A.

  1. GRAIN-BOUNDARY PRECIPITATION UNDER IRRADIATION IN DILUTE BINARY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H. Song; Z.X. Yuan; J. Liu; R.G.Faulkner

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation-induced grain boundary segregation of solute atoms frequently bring about grain boundary precipitation of a second phase because of its making the solubility limit of the solute surpassed at grain boundaries. Until now the kinetic models for irradiation-induced grain boundary precipitation have been sparse. For this reason, we have theoretically treated grain boundary precipitation under irradiation in dilute binary alloys. Predictions ofγ'-Ni3Si precipitation at grain boundaries ave made for a dilute Ni-Si alloy subjected to irradiation. It is demonstrated that grain boundary silicon segregation under irradiation may lead to grain boundaryγ'-Ni3 Si precipitation over a certain temperature range.

  2. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  3. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  5. Bovine rumen epithelium undergoes rapid structural adaptations during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael A; Croom, Jim; Kahler, Melissa; AlZahal, Ousama; Hook, Sarah E; Plaizier, Kees; McBride, Brian W

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in rumen epithelial structure and function during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) are largely undescribed. In this study, four mature nonlactating dairy cattle were transitioned from a high-forage diet (HF; 0% grain) to a high-grain diet (HG; 65% grain). After feeding the HG diet for 3 wk, the cattle were transitioned back to the original HF diet, which was fed for an additional 3 wk. Continuous ruminal pH was measured on a weekly basis, and rumen papillae were biopsied during the baseline and at the first and final week of each diet. The mean, minimum, and maximum daily ruminal pH were depressed (P < 0.01) in the HG period compared with the HF period. During the HG period, SARA was diagnosed only during week 1, indicating ruminal adaptation to the HG diet. Microscopic examination of the papillae revealed a reduction (P < 0.01) in the stratum basale, spinosum, and granulosum layers, as well as total depth of the epithelium during the HG period. The highest (P < 0.05) papillae lesion scores were noted during week 1 when SARA occurred. Biopsied papillae exhibited a decline in cellular junctions, extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum, and the appearance of undifferentiated cells near the stratum corneum. Differential mRNA expression of candidate genes, including desmoglein 1 and IGF binding proteins 3, 5, and 6, was detected between diets using qRT-PCR. These results suggest that the structural integrity of the rumen epithelium is compromised during grain feeding and is associated with the differential expression of genes involved in epithelial growth and structure.

  6. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  7. A Rare Allele of GS2 Enhances Grain Size and Grain Yield in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang; Wang, Yuexing; Fang, Yunxia; Zeng, Longjun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Haiping; Shi, Zhenyuan; Pan, Jiangjie; Zhang, Dong; Kang, Shujing; Zhu, Li; Dong, Guojun; Guo, Longbiao; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Xie, Lihong; Xiong, Guosheng; Li, Jiayang; Qian, Qian

    2015-10-05

    Grain size determines grain weight and affects grain quality. Several major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating grain size have been cloned; however, our understanding of the underlying mechanism that regulates the size of rice grains remains fragmentary. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a dominant QTL, grain size on chromosome 2 (GS2), which encodes Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), a transcriptional regulator. GS2 localizes to the nucleus and may act as a transcription activator. A rare mutation of GS2 affecting the binding site of a microRNA, OsmiR396c, causes elevated expression of GS2/OsGRF4. The increase in GS2 expression leads to larger cells and increased numbers of cells, which thus enhances grain weight and yield. The introduction of this rare allele of GS2/OsGRF4 into rice cultivars could significantly enhance grain weight and increase grain yield, with possible applications in breeding high-yield rice varieties. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of grain boundary evolution during grain growth in fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, J.G.; Thompson, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Grain growth of Cu and Ni thin films, subjected to in situ annealing within a transmission electron microscope, has been quantified using a precession-enhanced electron diffraction technique. The orientation of each grain and its misorientation with respect to its neighboring grains were calculated. The Cu underwent grain growth that maintained a monomodal grain size distribution, with its low-angle grain boundaries being consumed, and the Ni exhibited grain size distributions in stages, from monomodal to bimodal to monomodal. The onset of Ni’s abnormal grain growth was accompanied by a sharp increase in the Σ3 and Σ9 boundary fractions, which is attributed to simulation predictions of their increased mobility. These Σ3 and Σ9 fractions then dropped to their room temperature values during the third stage of grain growth. In addition to the Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, the Σ5 and Σ7 boundaries also underwent an increase in total boundary fraction with increasing temperature in both metals

  9. Concurrent grain boundary motion and grain rotation under an applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkaya, Tatiana; Molodov, Konstantin D.; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Gottstein, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous shear coupling and grain rotation were observed experimentally during grain boundary migration in high-purity Al bicrystals subjected to an external mechanical stress at elevated temperatures. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the structure of the investigated planar 18.2 o non-tilt grain boundary with a 20 o twist component. For characterization of the grain rotation after annealing under stress the bicrystal surface topography across the boundary was measured by atomic force microscopy. The temperature dependence of the boundary migration rate was measured and the migration activation energy determined.

  10. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε=0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron...... backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within...

  11. Mechanism of secondary recrystallization of Goss grains in grain-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yasuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Since its invention by Goss in 1934, grain-oriented (GO) electrical steel has been widely used as a core material in transformers. GO exhibits a grain size of over several millimeters attained by secondary recrystallization during high-temperature final batch annealing. In addition to the unusually large grain size, the crystal direction in the rolling direction is aligned with , which is the easy magnetization axis of α-iron. Secondary recrystallization is the phenomenon in which a certain very small number of {110} (Goss) grains grow selectively (about one in 106 primary grains) at the expense of many other primary recrystallized grains. The question of why the Goss orientation is exclusively selected during secondary recrystallization has long been a main research subject in this field. The general criterion for secondary recrystallization is a small and uniform primary grain size, which is achieved through the inhibition of normal grain growth by fine precipitates called inhibitors. This paper describes several conceivable mechanisms of secondary recrystallization of Goss grains mainly based on the selective growth model.

  12. CoQ10 plasmatic levels in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnoni, G; Giuffrè, B; Lista, G; Mosca, F; Marini, A

    2004-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 has been recognized as an important antioxidant factor besides its main role in bioenergetic metabolism. CoQ10 tissue levels depend both on exogenous dietetic intake and on endogenous biosynthesis, as this compound can be partly synthesized in human cells. Q10 plasma levels reflect the tissue content of the coenzyme and can be used to evaluate the presence of this compound in the human organism. Aim of the study was to measure CoQ10 plasmatic levels in a newborn breast-fed population and to compare them to CoQ10 levels in a newborn formula-fed population in order to verify whether changes in CoQ10 plasmatic contents could be related to a different dietetic intakes. We measured CoQ10 plasmatic levels in 25 healthy term neonates with different dietetic intakes: 15 breast-fed and 10 bottle-fed with a common infant formula. These infants were evaluated prospectively during the first month of life. The analyses were performed on the mothers' blood samples and cord blood samples at the time of delivery, then on infants at 4 and 28 days of age. Our results showed markedly reduced Q10 levels in cord blood samples compared to maternal Q10 plasmatic levels at the time of delivery, suggesting placental impermeability towards this molecule or increased fetal utilization during labor and delivery. At 4 days of age Q10 levels had increased in both groups of neonates, but significantly more in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed babies (p <0.05). At 4 weeks of age no significant changes occurred in breast-fed infants, while values increased significantly in formula-fed infants (p <0.05). The content of Q10 in breast milk samples was lower than in infant formula. The results of this study show that CoQ10 plasmatic levels are at least partly influenced by the exogenous dietetic supply.

  13. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S L; Smith, T K; Swamy, H V L N

    2003-09-01

    The feeding of Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains adversely affects the performance of swine and poultry. Very little information is available, however, on adverse effects associated with feeding these mycotoxin-contaminated grains on the performance of horses. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses. A polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer) was also tested for efficacy in preventing Fusarium mycotoxicoses. Nine mature, nonexercising, light, mixed-breed mares were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments for 21 d. The horses were randomly reassigned and the experiment was subsequently replicated in time following a 14-d washout interval. Feed consumed each day was a combination of up to 2.8 kg of concentrates and 5 kg of mixed timothy/alfalfa hay. The concentrates fed included the following: 1) control, 2) blend of contaminated grains (36% contaminated wheat and 53% contaminated corn), and 3) blend of contaminated grains + 0.2% GM polymer. Diets containing contaminated grains averaged 15.0 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.8 ppm of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 9.7 ppm of fusaric acid, and 2.0 ppm of zearalenone. Feed intake by all horses fed contaminated grains was reduced (P mycotoxins caused a decrease in feed intake and altered serum gamma glutamyltransferase activities. The supplementation of GM polymer prevented these mycotoxin-induced adverse effects.

  14. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill Young Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD of three kinds of distillers grains (DG; i wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg, ii dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg, iii dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis, respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05 in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05 in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3 can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i Control (total mixed ration, TMR, ii WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis, and iii WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis. With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg, WDG 10% (9.21 kg and 20% (8.86 kg and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0, WDG 10% (13.2 and 20% (12.1 did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up to 20

  15. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karlette A; Kittelmann, Sandra; Rogers, Christopher W; Gee, Erica K; Bolwell, Charlotte F; Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6) or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6) for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8), with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P 003), CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004), and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003) and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006). The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa) of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  16. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlette A Fernandes

    Full Text Available The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6 or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6 for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8, with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P < 0.017 adjusted for multiple comparisons. There were differences between Groups A and B in the relative abundances of four genera, BF311 (family Bacteroidaceae; P = 0.003, CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004, and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003 and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006. The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  17. Interplay between grain structure and protein adsorption on functional response of osteoblasts: ultrafine-grained versus coarse-grained substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R D K; Nune, C; Pesacreta, T C; Somani, M C; Karjalainen, L P

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adsorption of proteins is the starting and primary biological response that occurs when a biomedical device is implanted in the physiological system. The biological response, however, depends on the surface characteristics of the device. Considering the significant interest in nano-/ultrafine surfaces and nanostructured coatings, we describe here, the interplay between grain structure and protein adsorption (bovine serum albumin: BSA) on osteoblasts functions by comparing nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) and coarse-grained (CG: grain size in the micrometer range) substrates by investigating cell-substrate interactions. The protein adsorption on NG/UFG surface was beneficial in favorably modulating biological functions including cell attachment, proliferation, and viability, whereas the effect was less pronounced on protein adsorbed CG surface. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions on protein adsorbed NG/UFG surface. The functional response followed the sequence: NG/UFG(BSA) > NG/UFG > CG(BSA) > CG. The differences in the cellular response on bare and protein adsorbed NG/UFG and CG surfaces are attributed to cumulative contribution of grain structure and degree of hydrophilicity. The study underscores the potential advantages of protein adsorption on artificial biomedical devices to enhance the bioactivity and regulate biological functions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  19. Enhancement of the immunity and body weight gain in broiler by feeding with the brewer yeast β-glucan degraded by gamma Co-60 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Luan; Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-01-01

    The insoluble β-glucan extracted from the cell wall of brewer’s yeast was dispersed in deionized water for swelling, then irradiated in order to degrade into water-soluble β-glucan. The results revealed that the water-soluble β-glucan contents in the irradiated samples were increased with radiation dose to 25.89, 49.07 and 66.71%; whereas their molecular weight (Mw) decreased to 48.1, 23.0 and 10.8 kDa by gamma irradiation at 100, 200 and 300 kGy, respectively. The supplementation of poultry feed with the radiation degraded β-glucan enhanced both non-specific (total white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrocytes) and specific immune components (anti-Newcastle disease, antiGumboro disease virus and anti-infectious bronchitis virus antibodies) in the broilers. In comparison with the control, broiler fed normal poultry foodstuff without β-glucan, the supplementation of radiation degraded β-glucan not only increased the survival rate of the testing broiler about 33.3% and their average body weight of about 24.4%, but also reduced the feed conversion rate from 4.8 to 3.1 kg. The β-glucan oligosaccharides that having Mw of about 25 kDa produced by gamma irradiation at 200 kGy showed the highest effect on the growth performance and immunomodulatory capability in the immune system of the testing broilers. This product is promising to be applied for production of the safe stimulator of immunity for broiler chickens. (author)

  20. Microcirculatory effects of zinc on fructose-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, R C; Barros, C M M R; Boa, B C S; Bouskela, E

    2016-04-01

    Fructose is a major dietary component directly related to vascular dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Zinc is considered a non-pharmacological alternative for treating diabetes due to its antioxidant and hyperglycemia-lowering effects in diabetic animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the microcirculatory parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, whereas control animals were fed drinking water alone. Their microcirculatory function was evaluated using cheek pouch preparation, as well as their blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Their microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator) as well as the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were noted. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was significantly increased in control animals with high zinc supplementation compared to the groups without zinc supplementation. Zinc was able to protect against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups, although the microvascular permeability was higher in animals fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution compared to those fed filtered drinking water alone. Our results indicate that dietary zinc supplementation can improve microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent dilatation and reducing the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by I/R in fructose-fed animals. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Beltranena, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0?21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ? 0.8 g were a...

  2. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  3. Grain Boundaries From Theory to Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Priester, Louisette

    2013-01-01

    Grain boundaries are a main feature of crystalline materials. They play a key role in determining the properties of materials, especially when grain size decreases and even more so with the current improvements of  processing tools and methods that allow us to control various elements in a polycrystal. This book presents the theoretical basis of the study of  grain boundaries and aims to open up new lines of research in this area. The treatment is light on mathematical approaches while emphasizing practical examples; the issues they raise are discussed with reference to theories. The general approach of the book has two main goals: to lead the reader from the concept of ‘ideal’ to ‘real’ grain boundaries; to depart from established knowledge and address the opportunities emerging through "grain boundary engineering",  the control of morphological and crystallographic features that affect material properties. The book is divided in three parts:  I ‘From interganular order to disorder’ deals wit...

  4. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  5. Discrete stochastic charging of aggregate grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell W.

    2018-05-01

    Dust particles immersed in a plasma environment become charged through the collection of electrons and ions at random times, causing the dust charge to fluctuate about an equilibrium value. Small grains (with radii less than 1 μm) or grains in a tenuous plasma environment are sensitive to single additions of electrons or ions. Here we present a numerical model that allows examination of discrete stochastic charge fluctuations on the surface of aggregate grains and determines the effect of these fluctuations on the dynamics of grain aggregation. We show that the mean and standard deviation of charge on aggregate grains follow the same trends as those predicted for spheres having an equivalent radius, though aggregates exhibit larger variations from the predicted values. In some plasma environments, these charge fluctuations occur on timescales which are relevant for dynamics of aggregate growth. Coupled dynamics and charging models show that charge fluctuations tend to produce aggregates which are much more linear or filamentary than aggregates formed in an environment where the charge is stationary.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of grain growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Blikstein

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting grain growth in Metallurgy is meaningful. Monte Carlo methods have been used in computer simulations in many different fields of knowledge. Grain growth simulation using this method is especially attractive as the statistical behavior of the atoms is properly reproduced; microstructural evolution depends only on the real topology of the grains and not on any kind of geometric simplification. Computer simulation has the advantage of allowing the user to visualize graphically the procedures, even dynamically and in three dimensions. Single-phase alloy grain growth simulation was carried out by calculating the free energy of each atom in the lattice (with its present crystallographic orientation and comparing this value to another one calculated with a different random orientation. When the resulting free energy is lower or equal to the initial value, the new orientation replaces the former. The measure of time is the Monte Carlo Step (MCS, which involves a series of trials throughout the lattice. A very close relationship between experimental and theoretical values for the grain growth exponent (n was observed.

  7. Grain distinct stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatus, U., E-mail: uyimedonatus@yahoo.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Zhou, X.; Alias, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Tsai, I.-L. [Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis, HP12 2SE, High Wycombe (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The grains of aluminium alloys have stratified nanolayers which determine their mechanical and chemical responses. In this study, the nanolayers were revealed in the grains of AA6082 (T6 and T7 conditions), AA5083-O and AA2024-T3 alloys by etching the alloys in a solution comprising 20 g Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 30 ml HPO{sub 3} in 1 L H{sub 2}O. Microstructural examination was conducted on selected grains of interest using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It was observed that the nanolayers are orientation dependent and are parallel to the {100} planes. They have ordered and repeated tunnel squares that are flawed at the sides which are aligned in the <100> directions. These flawed tunnel squares dictate the tunnelling corrosion morphology as well as appearing to have an affect on the arrangement and sizes of the precipitation hardening particles. The inclination of the stratified nanolayers, their interpacing, and the groove sizes have significant influence on the corrosion behaviour and seeming influence on the strengthening mechanism of the investigated aluminium alloys. - Highlights: • Stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloy grains. • Relationship of the stratified nanolayers with grain orientation. • Influence of the inclinations of the stratified nanolayers on corrosion. • Influence of the nanolayers interspacing and groove sizes on hardness and corrosion.

  8. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  9. Whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole grains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain gluten free, egg free (no chemicals adde...

  10. 7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such blending will result in grain being designated as Mixed grain in accordance with subpart E of the... processed into a product(s) by the purchaser and not resold into the grain market. (3) Products or... include additional requirements for grain that is officially inspected and weighed. (3) Marketing dockage...

  11. Statistical model for grain boundary and grain volume oxidation kinetics in UO2 spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.; Shaw, H.F.; Einziger, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This paper addresses statistical characteristics for the simplest case of grain boundary/grain volume oxidation kinetics of UO 2 to U 3 O 7 for a fragment of a spent fuel pellet. It also presents a limited discussion of future extensions to this simple case to represent the more complex cases of oxidation kinetics in spent fuels. 17 refs., 1 fig

  12. The Pinning by Particles of Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries during Grain Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C.J.; Ralph, B.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    A study has been made using transmission electron microscopy of the pinning of grain boundaries in aluminium during grain growth by fine dispersions of alumina particles. The boundary parameters have been determined with precision and the pinning effects measured using an approach due to Ashby...

  13. Computerized pattern recognition used for grain counting in high resolution autoradiographs with low grain densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Zweijpfenning, R. C.; van Marle, J.; Huijsmans, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a video-image system coupled to a minicomputer with commercial image handling software, autoradiographic grains displayed in dark-field are counted with a fast (ca. 3.5 min for 120,000 microns 2) and reliable (false scores less than 5%) grain-recognizing FORTRAN program executed in the users

  14. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen Zheng

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05 increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for

  15. Growth and Reproduction of Artificially Fed Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian XU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, fed on an artificial diet were studied. The results showed that the larvae were able to grow and pupate on the artificial diet. The durations of larvae and pupas of C. medinalis on the artificial diet were 28.1 d and 10.1 d, postponed 4.9 d and 1.7 d respectively, compared with those reared with rice leaves. The number of ovipositions was 41.6 per female, 26.2% higher than that fed on rice leaves. Survival rate curve of larvae was a descent function of mortality-age, with no significant differences from the curve of larvae fed on rice leaves. The net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of increase (rm and finite rate of increase (λ of the population fed on diet were 17.6928, 0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively, and the mean generation time (T and double time (td were prolonged 4.9 d and 1.3 d in comparison with the treatment of rice leaves. Population trend index (I was 3.26, indicating a growing number of the population of C. medinalis fed on artificial diet.

  16. Grain breakage under uniaxial compression, through 3D DEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader François

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A breakable grain model is presented, using the concept of particles assembly. Grains of polyhedral shapes are generated, formed by joining together tetrahedral subgrains using cohesive bonds. Single grain crushing simulations are performed for multiple values of the intra-granular cohesion to study the effect on the grain’s strength. The same effect of intra-granular cohesion is studied under oedometric compression on samples of around 800 grains, which allows the evaluation of grain breakage model on the macroscopic behaviour. Grain size distribution curves and grain breakage ratios are monitored throughout the simulations.

  17. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  18. Evolution of grain boundary character distributions in alloy 825 tubes during high temperature annealing: Is grain boundary engineering achieved through recrystallization or grain growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xia, Shuang; Wang, Baoshun; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) of nickel-based alloy 825 tubes was carried out with different cold drawing deformations by using a draw-bench on a factory production line and subsequent annealing at various temperatures. The microstructure evolution of alloy 825 during thermal-mechanical processing (TMP) was characterized by means of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the TMP effects on the grain boundary network and the evolution of grain boundary character distributions during high temperature annealing. The results showed that the proportion of ∑ 3 n coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries of alloy 825 tubes could be increased to > 75% by the TMP of 5% cold drawing and subsequent annealing at 1050 °C for 10 min. The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples and the fully recrystallized samples suggested that the proportion of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries depended on the annealing time. The frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries increases rapidly with increasing annealing time associating with the formation of large-size highly-twinned grains-cluster microstructure during recrystallization. However, upon further increasing annealing time, the frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries decreased markedly during grain growth. So it is concluded that grain boundary engineering is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. - Highlights: •The grain boundary engineering (GBE) is applicable to 825 tubes. •GBE is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. •The low ∑ CSL grain boundaries in 825 tubes can be increased to > 75%.

  19. Decreasing radioactive cesium in lodged buckwheat grain after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katashi Kubo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed soil contamination with high radioactive cesium (R–Cs concentration in buckwheat grains by lodging, and assessed the possibility of R–Cs reduction in grain through post-harvest preparation. Analysis of buckwheat grain produced in farmers’ fields and reports from farmers indicated that grain from fields that had lodging showed higher R–Cs than grain from fields with no lodging. A field experiment demonstrated that R–Cs in grain after threshing and winnowing (TW was about six times higher in lodged plants than in nonlodged plants. In lodged plants, R–Cs in grain was decreased to about one-fourth by polishing, and was decreased to about one-seventh by ultrasonic cleaning, compared with R–Cs in grain after TW. These results demonstrate that R–Cs of buckwheat grain of lodged plants can be decreased by removing soil from the grain surface by polishing and winnowing.

  20. Dust Spectroscopy and the Nature of Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based, air-borne and space-based, infrared spectra of a wide variety of objects have revealed prominent absorption and emission features due to large molecules and small dust grains. Analysis of this data reveals a highly diverse interstellar and circumstellar grain inventory, including both amorphous materials and highly crystalline compounds (silicates and carbon). This diversity points towards a wide range of physical and chemical birthsites as well as a complex processing of these grains in the interstellar medium. In this talk, I will review the dust inventory contrasting and comparing both the interstellar and circumstellar reservoirs. The focus will be on the processes that play a role in the lifecycle of dust in the interstellar medium.