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Sample records for fecal steroid excretion

  1. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  2. Steroid excretion during the ovarian cycle in captive and wild muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Ziegler, T E; Santos, C V; Pissinatti, A; Strier, K B

    1997-01-01

    Urine, feces, and copulation frequency were collected from two captive muriqui females, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro following the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles. Fecal steroid profiles from seven wild muriqui females at the Estação Biologica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compared to the captive females to determine the approximate patterns of steroid excretion relative to the urinary LH peak. Hormonal profiles from one of the captive female muriquis revealed a discrete urinary LH peak. For this female, fecal progesterone increased on the same day as the urinary LH peak, while fecal estradiol increased 6 days later and urinary steroids increased 5 days later. For both captive females, the onset of fecal progesterone increase was preceded by the onset of copulations, which occurred during at least a 5-day period. The complete fecal hormonal profiles of the one captive female for which continuos data were available were similar to those found in wild muriqui monkeys, with the onset of an increase in sustained progesterone levels occurring several days prior to the onset of sustained estradiol increase. These patterns suggest that fecal progesterone may be excreted rapidly in this species. The onset of sustained increase in fecal progesterone levels, together with the consistent delay in the onset of the sustained increase in estradiol, may provide the best indicators of the periovulatory period for muriqui females.

  3. Fractionation of fecal neutral steroids by high performance liquid chromatography

    Jackson, E.M.; Kloss, C.A.; Weintraub, S.T.; Mott, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Fecal neutral steroids were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into three major fractions: 5 beta-H, 3-keto steroids; 5 beta-H, 3 beta-hydroxy steroids; and 5 alpha-H and delta 5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids. This separation was achieved in about 10 minutes, with greater than 97% recovery of standards in each fraction. Gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of fecal steroids fractionated by either HPLC or thin-layer chromatography gave nearly identical results. A method using both C18 reverse phase and silica HPLC to purify radiolabeled sterols is also described

  4. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  5. Acute sterol o-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 knockdown rapidly mobilizes hepatic cholesterol for fecal excretion.

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE. We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD, the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼ 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion.

  6. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    Sun, C.; Lee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example

  7. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  8. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring reproduction in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)

    Schwarzenberger, F.; Schaller, K.; Kolter, L.; Fredriksson, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Fecal steroid analyses were conducted on captive (n 1/4 10) and free-ranging (n 1/4 2) sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in order to establish a noninvasive technique for monitoring endocrine profiles during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Secondly, the effect of the contraceptive porcine zona

  9. Steroid hormone release as well as renal water and electrolyte excretion of mice expressing PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3.

    Boini, Krishna M; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Mack, Andreas; Lang, Florian

    2008-09-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) participate in the regulation of renal electrolyte excretion. Insulin- and IGF1-dependent signaling includes phosphatidylinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 as well as protein kinase B (PKB) and serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) isoforms, which in turn phosphorylate and thus inhibit glycogen synthase kinase GSK3alpha,beta. Replacement of the serines in the PKB/SGK consensus sequences by alanine (gsk3 ( KI )) confers resistance of GSK3 to PKB/SGK. To explore the role of PKB/SGK-dependent inhibition of GSK3 in the regulation of water/electrolyte metabolism, mice carrying the PKB/SGK resistant mutant (gsk3 ( KI )) were compared to their wild-type littermates (gsk3 ( WT ) ). Body weight was similar in gsk3 ( KI ) and gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Plasma aldosterone at 10 A.M: . and corticosterone concentrations at 5 P.M: . were significantly lower, but 24-h urinary aldosterone was significantly higher, and corticosterone excretion tended to be higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Food and water intake, fecal excretion, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow rate, urine osmolarity, as well as urinary Na+, K+, urea excretion were significantly larger, and plasma Na+, urea, but not K+ concentration, were significantly lower in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Body temperature was significantly higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. When allowed to choose between tap water and saline, gsk3 ( WT ) mice drank more saline, whereas gsk3 ( KI ) mice drank similar large volumes of tap water and saline. During high-salt diet, urinary vasopressin excretion increased to significantly higher levels in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. After water deprivation, body weight decreased faster in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Blood pressure, however, was significantly higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. The observations disclose a role of PKB/SGK-dependent GSK3

  10. Diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy by 111In-transferrin scanning and fecal excretion test

    Urita, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    A total of 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were studied for possible protein loss. The underlying diseases were intestinal lymphangiectasia, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in 2 patients each; and Menetrier's disease, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, severe atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer and gastroenteropathy of unknown origin in one patient each. The controls were four healthy volunteers and 9 patients with benign disease not accompanied by lesions in the digestive tract and protein loss, 111 In-transferrin (Tf) was prepared by incubating 2-3 mCi of 111 In-chloride with 15-20 ml of each patient's plasma in a sterilized vial at room temperature for 1 hour. After i.v. injection of 111 In-Tf, the patients were scanned at given intervals of time for 72 hours to localize protein loss. Seventy-two hour fecal 111 In-Tf excretion was also measured. 111 In-Tf was detected in the feces of all patients. The recovery rate in the patient group was 7.95±3.65%, being significantly higher than 0.48±0.26% in the control group. However, 111 In-Tf scanning showed the site of protein loss only in 6 patients. Negative scan in six other patients was thought to be associated with extensive inflammation and severe diarrhea. Five of the 12 patients were observed before and after treatment. A decrease in fecal 111 In-Tf excretion with clinical improvement was noted in the 5 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss could be demonstrated in 3 of the 5 patients before treatment. Its site in 1 of the 3 patients was the small intestine. However, accumulation of 111 In-Tf was found there in the 3 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss in one of three patients was the small intestine. 111 In-Tf scanning is particularly useful when the small intestine is involved, because surgery is contraindicated in this case. Fecal 111 In-Tf excretion test is mandatory when the site of protein loss cannot be imaged. (author)

  11. One year daily changes in fecal sexual steroids of two captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Italy.

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Faustini, Massimo; Gabai, Gianfranco; Da Dalt, Laura; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter. No significant increases of progestogens were recorded after the estrogen peaks, indicating that induced or spontaneous ovulations did not occur during the observation period. The wavelet decomposition evidenced the temporal pattern of ovarian activity in the two females, underlying throughout the year a more pronounced rhythmical ovarian estrogenic activity in Geijsha than in Duchessa. However, this statistical approach had a smoothing effect in depicting the hormonal patterns and the number of follicular phases might be lower than that revealed by the iterative method. In this study, RIA on wet feces performed very well to determine sexual steroid concentrations, and an ovarian activity interrupted by anestrous periods along the year in captive cheetahs co-housed in a small group was demonstrated. More information on estrous behavior of captive cheetahs were obtained in this study, but the effects of husbandry and management conditions on natural reproductive physiology of this species remain to elucidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Alterations of fecal steroid composition induced by changes in dietary fiber consumption.

    Ullrich, I H; Lai, H Y; Vona, L; Reid, R L; Albrink, M J

    1981-10-01

    The short-term effects of high carbohydrate diets of normal foods either high or low in dietary fiber on fecal steroids and fiber was assessed in eight healthy young men. Each subject consumed in random order for 4 days a diet containing 59 g (high fiber) or 21 g (low fiber) neutral detergent fiber. After a 9-day rest period he consumed the other diet. Analysis of random fecal samples during their usual diet and after 4 days of each experimental diet showed an increased in primary bile acids from less than 4 to 32% of total bile acids, and a decreases of coprostanol from 76% (control diet) or 64% (low fiber diet) to 45% of total neutral sterol after the high fiber diet. Fecal fiber concentration doubled after the high fiber diet. We conclude that 4 days of high fiber diet is sufficient to cause a large increase in primary and decrease in secondary fecal steroids. Such changes have implications for prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer of the colon.

  13. Mouldy feed: A possible explanation for the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2016-05-01

    To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Correlation of fractional excretion of magnesium with steroid responsiveness in children with nephrotic syndrome

    Jubaida Rumana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS patients are candidates for other alter-native drug regimes, and the non-responsiveness to steroid is more common among glomerulo-nephritides other than minimal change disease. Without performing biopsy and proper renal histology, progression of the disease cannot be assessed. Fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg has been found to correlate directly with various renal histologies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of FE Mg in children with the histological pattern in SRNS. In this prospective observational study, 40 children of nephrotic syndrome, both with the first episode as well as relapse, aged 1-12 years were included in the study. Of them, 20 were steroid-responsive cases and 20 were steroid-resistant cases. FE Mg was determined in all the patients and renal histology was performed in the steroid-resistant cases. A correlation was found between FE Mg and renal histology. Data were analyzed in SPSS program version-16. Comparison of two groups was performed by the Fisher exact test and unpaired t test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. The results of histo-pathology showed that the mean difference in FE Mg was significant (P <0.001, as FE Mg was 7.0 ± 2.3% in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, 6.9 ± 1.3% in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 4.7 ± 0.6% in immunoglobulin M nephropathy, 4.5 ± 1.2% in focal segmental proliferative glomerulo-nephritis, 4.4 ± 1.6% in minimal change disease, 4.2 ± 0.4% in diffuse mesangial proliferative glome-rulonephritis and 3.8 ± 1.3% in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. There was a statistically significant difference between FE Mg in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (4.9 ± 1.9 and steroid-responsive syndrome (1.2 ± 0.3. FE Mg is a simple, minimally invasive screening marker for SRNS, and is an early predictor of clinical outcome. It can be considered as an initial investigation where biopsy

  15. Reproductive gonadal steroidogenic activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) assessed by fecal steroid analyses.

    Santymire, Rachel M; Brown, Janine L; Stewart, Rosemary A; Santymire, Robb C; Wildt, David E; Howard, JoGayle

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive fecal steroid analyses were used to characterize gonadal activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus). Estrogen, progestagen and androgen metabolites were quantified in fecal samples collected for 12 months from four males and 10 females housed at seven North American zoological institutions. Male reproductive hormone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) among season, and estrogen cycles were observed year-round in females and averaged (±SEM) 19.9±1.0 days. Mean peak estrogen concentration during estrus (460.0±72.6ng/g feces) was five-fold higher than baseline (87.3±14.0ng/g feces). Five of seven females (71.4%) housed alone or with another female demonstrated spontaneous luteal activity (apparent ovulation without copulation), with mean progestagen concentration (20.3±4.7μg/g feces), increasing nearly five-fold above baseline (4.1±0.8μg/g feces). The non-pregnant luteal phase averaged 32.9±2.5 days (n=13). One female delivered kittens 70 days after natural mating with fecal progestagen concentrations averaging 51.2±5.2μg/g feces. Two additional females were administered exogenous gonadotropins (150IU eCG; 100IU hCG), which caused hyper-elevated concentrations of fecal estrogen and progestagen (plus ovulation). Results indicate that: (1) male and female fishing cats managed in North American zoos are reproductively active year round; (2) 71.4% of females experienced spontaneous ovulation; and (3) females are responsive to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction, but a regimen that produces a normative ovarian steroidogenic response needs to be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  17. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella

  18. Diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy by sup 111 In-transferrin scanning and fecal excretion test

    Urita, Yoshihisa (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-10-01

    A total of 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were studied for possible protein loss. The underlying diseases were intestinal lymphangiectasia, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in 2 patients each and Menetrier's disease, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, severe atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer and gastroenteropathy of unknown origin in one patient each. The controls were four healthy volunteers and 9 patients with benign disease not accompanied by lesions in the digestive tract and protein loss {sup 111}In-transferrin Tf was prepared by incubating 2-3 mCi of {sup 111}In-chloride with 15-20 ml of each patient's plasma in a sterilized vial at room temperature for 1 hour. After iv injection of {sup 111}In-Tf the patients were scanned at given intervals of time for 72 hours to localize protein loss. Seventy-two hour fecal {sup 111}In-Tf excretion was also measured. {sup 111}In-Tf was detected in the feces of all patients. The recovery rate in the patient group was 7.95{+-}3.65%, being significantly higher than 0.48{+-}0.26% in the control group. However {sup 111}In-Tf scanning showed the site of protein loss only in 6 patients. Negative scan in six other patients was thought to be associated with extensive inflammation and severe diarrhea. Five of the 12 patients were observed before and after treatment. A decrease in fecal {sup 111}In-Tf excretion with clinical improvement was noted in the 5 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss could be demonstrated in 3 of the 5 patients before treatment. Its site in 1 of the 3 patients was the small intestine. However accumulation of {sup 111}In-Tf was found there in the 3 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss in 1 of 3 patients was the small intestine. {sup 111}In-Tf scanning is particularly useful when the small intestine is involved, because surgery is contraindicated in this case. Fecal {sup 111}In-Tf excretion test is mandatory when the site of protein loss

  19. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  20. Fecal steroid hormones reveal reproductive state in female blue whales sampled in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Valenzuela-Molina, Marcia; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Gendron, Diane; Brownell, Robert L

    2018-05-15

    Steroid hormone assessment using non-invasive sample collection techniques can reveal the reproductive status of aquatic mammals and the physiological mechanisms by which they respond to changes in their environment. A portion of the eastern North Pacific blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population that seasonally visits the Gulf of California, Mexico has been monitored using photo-identified individuals for over 30 years. The whales use the area in winter-early spring for nursing their calves and feeding and it therefore is well suited for fecal sample collection. Using radioimmunoassays in 25 fecal samples collected between 2009 and 2012 to determine reproductive state and stress, we validated three steroid hormones (progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol) in adult female blue whales. Females that were categorized as pregnant had higher mean fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations (1292.6 ± 415.6 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (14.0 ± 3.7 ng·g -1 ; 23.0 ± 5.4 ng·g -1 , respectively). Females classified as pregnant also had higher concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (37.5 ± 9.9 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (17.4 ± 2.0 ng·g -1 ; 16.8 ± 2.8 ng·g -1 , respectively). In contrast, cortisol metabolite concentrations showed high variability between groups and no significant relationship to reproductive state. We successfully determined preliminary baseline parameters of key steroid hormones by reproductive state in adult female blue whales. The presence of pregnant or with luteal activity and known lactating females confirms that the Gulf of California is an important winter-spring area for the reproductive phase of these blue whales. The baseline corticosterone levels we are developing will be useful for assessing the impact of the increasing coastal development and whale-watching activities on the whales in the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Phytosterol stearate esters elicit similar responses on plasma lipids and cholesterol absorption but different responses on fecal neutral sterol excretion and hepatic free cholesterol in male Syrian hamsters.

    Ash, Mark M; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-07-01

    The dietary impact of specific phytosterols incorporated into phytosterol fatty acid esters has not been elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that phytosterol esters containing different sterol moieties (sitosterol, sitostanol, or stigmasterol) but the same fatty acid moiety (stearic acid) produce different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian hamsters were fed sitosterol, sitostanol, and stigmasterol stearate esters (25 g/kg diet) in an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol (1.2 g/kg) and coconut oil (80 g/kg). The phytosterol stearates produced no decrease in cholesterol absorption or plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol despite a reduction in liver free cholesterol in hamsters fed both sitosterol and sitostanol stearate diets. In addition, sitosterol stearate significantly increased fecal esterified and total neutral sterol excretion. Stigmasterol stearate did not differ from control in neutral sterol excretion, plasma lipids, or hepatic lipid concentration. Sitosterol stearate demonstrated the highest level of net intestinal hydrolysis, whereas sitostanol and stigmasterol stearate equivalently demonstrated the lowest. The cholesterol-lowering effect in liver-but not plasma-and the limited presence of fecal free sterols indicate that intact (unhydrolyzed) phytosterol stearates may impact cholesterol metabolism by mechanisms unrelated to the role of free phytosterols. The consumption of phytosterol esters at 2.5% of the diet elicited only modest impacts on cholesterol metabolism, although sitosterol stearate had a slightly greater therapeutic impact by lowering liver free cholesterol and increasing esterified and total neutral sterol fecal excretion, possibly due to a greater level of intestinal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor AMP-DNM lowers plasma cholesterol levels by promoting fecal cholesterol excretion without inhibiting cholesterol absorption

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Bietrix, Florence; Lombardo, Elisa; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis with iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) increases fecal neutral sterol output in mice. To investigate which pathways were involved in this increase, C57BI/6J mice were treated with AMP-DNM and/or ezetimibe. Fecal

  3. Supplementation with dairy calcium and/or flaxseed fibers in conjunction with orlistat augments fecal fat excretion without altering ratings of gastrointestinal comfort

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Juul, Signe Rømer; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2017-01-01

    -in and week 4. The primary end-point, gastrointestinal symptoms, was assessed biweekly. At baseline and after 12 weeks, cardiometabolic risk markers and anthropometrics were evaluated as secondary end-points. RESULTS: Both FF and Ca increased fecal fat excretion (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Although...... circumference was most reduced in the FF+/Ca + group. No effects of dietary supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors were observed, except a slight increase in diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) with FF, but not Ca. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support an improvement in orlistat-induced gastrointestinal...

  4. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  5. Steroids

    ... return of symptoms and sometimes joint pain. SIDE EFFECTS Steroids can cause a wide range of unwanted effects. ... please talk with your doctor. MANAGING COMMON SIDE EFFECTS WEIGHT GAIN AND INCREASED BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS Steroids increase the appetite and often cause weight gain. ...

  6. Steroids

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Steroids KidsHealth ... athletes, and why not? It's fun to think about being the very best in your favorite sport, not to mention earning a big salary. But ...

  7. Steroids

    ... of aggression and hostility Increased risk of heart disease, liver damage Addiction Read More about Steroids Be Informed. Search for information about a drug View Popular Searches: POT , HEROIN , METH Previous Pause Next Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana ...

  8. Efeito de probiótico na infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos Effect of probiotic on the Salmonella infection and fecal excretion in pigs

    Mariana Gomes Nogueira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão de Salmonella na cadeia produtiva de suínos é um problema de difícil controle. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração oral de probiótico sobre a ocorrência de infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos em fase de crescimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de ração basal sem aditivos (controle ou adicionada de probiótico (10(7ufc g-1 de células viáveis dos gêneros Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus e Saccharomyces. Foram alocados seis leitões de 50 dias em cada tratamento, com duas repetições por tratamento. Todos os animais foram inoculados com Salmonella Typhimurium (10(6ufc mL-1 após 14 dias do alojamento. Semanalmente, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e fezes e no dia 35 pós-inoculação os animais foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Os animais de ambos os tratamentos foram infectados por Salmonella e soroconverteram. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os grupos nas médias de Salmonella, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus e coliformes totais nas fezes, porém a administração de probiótico resultou em menor frequência de isolamento de Salmonella a partir de fígado (P=0,04, linfonodos mesentéricos (P=0,04, pulmão (P=0,03 e baço (P=0,01. Conclui-se que os microrganismos probióticos testados não foram capazes de impedir a infecção ou a excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos de crescimento, mas diminuíram o número de portadores em linfonodos mesentéricos.Control of Salmonella transmission has been a challenge for the pork production companies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of probiotics on the occurrence of infection and fecal excretion of Salmonella in growers. The treatments consisted of basal diet without additives (control or added of probiotic (10(7cfu g-1 of viable cells of the genera Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces. Six 50 days-old pigs were allocated into each treatment, with two

  9. Long-term monitoring of fecal steroid hormones in female snow leopards (Panthera uncia during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy.

    Kodzue Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1 estradiol-17β, (2 progesterone and (3 cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1 first housed with a male in all year round and then (2 in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days. The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g (P<0.05. Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g (P<0.05. Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding

  10. Clinical investigations on the urinary 17-ketogenic steroids. Part IV. Studies on the changes of urinary 17-ketogenic steroids. Excretion by age during adolescence of the children exposed to the atomic bomb in utero

    Arai, Y

    1963-01-01

    A biochemical study was carried out during a three-year period from 1958 as a joint investigation of Kyoto University and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) under a research project to study adolescents who were exposed in utero. Determination of urinary 17-ketogenic steroids (17-KGS) was performed in 275 adolescents drawn from a group of 874 children who were either exposed to the atomic bomb in utero in Nagasaki or who entered the city after the bombing (nonexposed controls). The measurements were done in the same subjects between the age of 13 and 15 at three-month intervals. In the unexposed control group the 17-KGS excretion showed a rapid increase around the age of 14 in males and a slight increase around the same age in females. The mean values in males seemed to become higher than in females around the age of 14. Changes of 17-KGS excretion showed no statistically significant difference between the groups proximally exposed (under 2000 m from the hypocenter) or distally exposed (between 3000 and 5000 m) and the unexposed control children of both sexes. However, the mean values of 17-KGS excretion of every group tended to decrease in the order of unexposed, distally exposed, and proximally exposed groups in males after the age of 14.5 and in females at the age of 15. Changes of 17-KGS excretion showed no statistically significant difference between the exposed and unexposed groups in terms of 1 to 3 month, 4 to 6 month, and 7 to 10 month of gestation at the time of bombing. From these results it appears that there was no effect of the atomic bomb radiation in the adolescents exposed in utero with regard to their adrenocortical function.

  11. Comparison of endogenous and radiolabeled bile acid excretion in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea

    Schiller, L.R.; Bilhartz, L.E.; Santa Ana, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fecal recovery of radioactivity after ingestion of a bolus of radiolabeled bile acid is abnormally high in most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. To evaluate the significance of this malabsorption, concurrent fecal excretion of both exogenous radiolabeled bile acid and endogenous (unlabeled) bile acid were measured in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Subjects received a 2.5-microCi oral dose of taurocholic acid labeled with 14C in the 24th position of the steroid moiety. Endogenous bile acid excretion was measured by a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase assay on a concurrent 72-h stool collection. Both radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion were abnormally high in most patients with chronic diarrhea compared with normal subjects, even when equivoluminous diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by ingestion of osmotically active solutions. The correlation between radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion was good. However, neither radiolabeled nor endogenous bile acid excretion was as abnormal as is typically seen in patients with ileal resection, and none of these diarrhea patients responded to treatment with cholestyramine with stool weights less than 200 g. These results suggest (a) that this radiolabeled bile acid excretion test accurately reflects excess endogenous bile acid excretion; (b) that excess endogenous bile acid excretion is not caused by diarrhea per se; (c) that spontaneously occurring idiopathic chronic diarrhea is often associated with increased endogenous bile acid excretion; and (d) that bile acid malabsorption is not likely to be the primary cause of diarrhea in most of these patients

  12. In vitro simulation of the equine hindgut as a tool to study the influence of phytosterol consumption on the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, steroids other than testosterone are considered to be synthetic, anabolic steroids. Nevertheless, in stallions, it has been shown that β-Bol can originate from naturally present testosterone. Other precursors, including phytosterols from feed, have been put forward to explain the prevalence of low levels of steroids (including β-Bol and ADD) in urine of mares and geldings. However, the possible biotransformation and identification of the precursors has thus far not been investigated in horses. To study the possible endogenous digestive transformation, in vitro simulations of the horse hindgut were set up, using fecal inocula obtained from eight different horses. The functionality of the in vitro model was confirmed by monitoring the formation of short-chain fatty acids and the consumption of amino acids and carbohydrates throughout the digestion process. In vitro digestion samples were analyzed with a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The addition of β-Bol gave rise to the formation of ADD (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) or αT. Upon addition of ADD to the in vitro digestions, the transformation of ADD to β-Bol was observed and this for all eight horses' inocula, in line with previously obtained in vivo results, again confirming the functionality of the in vitro model. The transformation ratio proved to be inoculum and thus horse dependent. The addition of pure phytosterols (50% β-sitosterol) or phytosterol-rich herbal supplements on the other hand, did not induce the detection of β-Bol, only low concentrations of AED, a testosterone precursor, could be found (0.1 ng/mL). As such, the digestive transformation of ADD could be linked to the detection of β-Bol, and the consumption of phytosterols to low concentrations of AED, but there is no direct link between phytosterols and β-Bol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    Boer, J.F. de; Schonewille, M.; Boesjes, M.; Wolters, H.; Bloks, V.W.; Bos, T.; Dijk, T.H. van; Jurdzinski, A.; Boverhof, R.; Wolters, J.C.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Elferink, R.P.; Moschetta, A.; Kremoser, C.; Verkade, H.J.; Kuipers, F.; Groen, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE)

  14. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhaled Steroids

    ... considerations when your dosage changes. What about side effects and inhaled steroids? The most common side effects with inhaled steroids ... inhaled steroid has much less potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding ...

  16. Late excretion of plutonium following acquisition of known amounts

    Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of plutonium 10,000 days after intravenous injection of known amounts are compared with the predictions of various models. Both Langham's and Durbin's equations underestimated the urinary excretion by about an order of magnitude; the observed fecal excretion rates were also higher than the predictions. The total excretion rate predicted by the ICRP model was in quite good agreement with the observed rate, but it overestimated it at early times ( 239 Pu of former Manhattan Project plutonium workers, as calculated from the measured urinary excretion an application of Langham's equation. In one of these subjects the urinary excretion rate started to increase at about 6000 days, reached a maximum at about 9500 days, and declined for the next 2700 days

  17. Patterns of fecal gonadal hormone metabolites in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Songsasen, N; Rodden, M; Brown, J L; Wildt, D E

    2006-10-01

    Ex situ populations of maned wolves are not viable due to low reproductive efficiency. The objective of this study was to increase knowledge regarding the reproductive physiology of maned wolves to improve captive management. Fecal samples were collected 3-5 d/wk from 12 females of various reproductive age classes (young, prime breeding and aged) and reproductive histories (conceived and raised pups, conceived but lost pups, pseudo-pregnant and unpaired). Ovarian steroids were extracted from feces and assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Concentrations of estrogen metabolites gradually increased, beginning 2-5 d before breeding, and declined to baseline on the day of lordosis and copulation. Fecal progestin metabolite concentrations increased steadily during the periovulatory period, when sexual receptivity was observed, and remained elevated during pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy. During the luteal phase, young and prime breeding-age females excreted larger amounts of progestins than those of older age classes. Furthermore, progestin concentrations were higher during the luteal phase of pregnant versus pseudo-pregnant bitches. Profiles of fecal progestin metabolites for three singleton females were unchanged throughout the breeding season, suggesting ovulation is induced in this species. However, this finding could be confounded by age, as these females were either young or aged.

  18. Excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in mice

    Wang, X.; Wu, M.; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.W.; Tian, J.; Sheng, X.L.

    1999-01-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions was applied to the investigation of the trace elements behavior in feces and urine of mouse. The excretion rates of 23 elements, Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In were simultaneously detected under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of the elements in Mice. Fecal and urinary excretion rates of the elements in mice reached the highest value separately at 48 and 24 hours. The total excretion of Mo, Tc and Co within 96 hours were all larger, more than 60%. Accumulative excretion rates of Ca, Nb, Mg, Sr, V, Sc, Na, Cr, Fe, Ag, Mn and Zr were 60-30%. The total rates of Ru, K, As, Zn, Rb, Y, Ga and In were less than 30%, and low excretion. The main excretion pathway of Mo, Co, Mg, Fe and Ag was through urine, and Na, K, As and Rb were eliminated from the body also in urine. But fecal excretion of Tc, Nb, Sr, Y, Ru, and In were larger than urinary excretion, and Ca, Sc, Mn, Zr, Zn were eliminated from the body in feces. (author)

  19. Late excretion rates of 226Ra and 210Pb following occupational or iatrogenic exposure. I. 226Ra

    Holtzman, R.B.; Sha, J.Y.; Markun, F.

    1982-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of 226 Ra have been determined for 53 subjects who had been exposed to 226 Ra; 25 had been radium dial painters, 16 were iatrogenic (medical) cases and 12 were former radium chemists. The mean coefficient of elimination, CE (fraction of body content excreted annually), was significantly lower for the medical cases than for dial painters. The mean ratio of urinary-to-fecal excretion rates was 3.0 +- 0.7%

  20. Establishment of fecal bioassay facility at Kalpakkam

    Krishnan, H.; Yuvaraj, Ramani; Mohanty, B.N.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an unusual occurrence, occupational radiation workers employed in fuel reprocessing/fuel fabrication facilities have potential risk of acquiring internal contamination, in spite of implementation of efficient engineering and administrative control measures. Quantification of internally deposited radionuclides is achieved either by (i) direct methods and/or (ii) indirect methods. In general, urinalysis is preferred for moderately absorbing (Type M-compounds of Americium) compounds, while analysis of fecal samples are preferred for slow absorption (Type S - Oxides of Plutonium) compounds. The predicted clearance of Type S and Type M compounds deposited in respiratory tract via fecal is about three to five orders higher than urinary excretion. In view of this, a facility for ashing fecal samples was established and standardization of radioanalytical procedure for quantification of Pu/Am using synthetic fecal (SF) samples was carried out

  1. Steroidal Saponins

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  2. Absorption and excretion tests

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Steroid osteopathy

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  4. Steroid osteopathy

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  5. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    ... steroid bursts can cause a number of side effects. Steroid side effects usually occur after long-term use ... how the dosage of steroids is determined; side effects of inhaled steroids, and some recommendations to decrease or prevent side ...

  6. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  7. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  8. Fecal microbiota transplant

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007703.htm Fecal microbiota transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) helps to replace some of the " ...

  9. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  10. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 2

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment with 20 15 N-labelled growing rats the excretion of amino acids as well as of metabolic fecal amino acids were investigated after feeding of soybean oil meal as sole protein source. A low, yet statistically significant increase of the excretion of amino acids and metabolic fecal amino acids was ascertained in accordance with a growing quota of soybean oil meal in the ration. The true digestibility of amino acids ascertained according to conventional methods is above 90% and, under consideration of the increase of metabolic fecal amino acids, on the average increases by 3.5 digestibility units (1.4 to 6.2). (author)

  11. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  12. Steroidal saponin from Chlorophytum nimonii (Grah with lipid-lowering and antioxidant activity

    Vijai Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since drugs used these days to lower the lipids are all synthetic drugs, they have some or the other side effects, therefore in search of cheaper lipid-lowering drugs with no side effects, we have conducted a study on Chlorophytum nimonii for its lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Chloragin and Gemfibrozil both caused a significant decrease in the serum level of lipids in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and this model has been successfully used for the evaluation of lipid-lowering activity of chloragin in the rats. Results and Discussion: The lipid-lowering action of steroidal saponin and chloragin of the C. nimonii has been studied in triton model (in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rats in vivo and antioxidant activity in vitro model. Serum lipids were found to be lowered by the steroidal saponin (100 mg/kg body weight in triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia. Chronic feeding of this compound (50 mg/kg in animals simultaneously fed with high-fat diet for 30 days caused lowering in the lipid and lipoproteins levels of low-density lipoproteins in experimental animals. Conclusion: Chloragin activates lipolytic enzymes in plasma and liver. Chloragin is mediated through inhibition of hepatic lipids, increased fecal bile acid excretion, and enhanced plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activities. Chloragin from the C. nimonii showed potent antioxidant activity as well.

  13. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  14. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India.

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Madkaikar, Manisha Rajan; Desai, Mukesh; Taur, Prasad; Nalavade, Uma Prajwal; Sharma, Deepa Kailash; Gupta, Maya; Dalvi, Aparna; Shabrish, Snehal; Kulkarni, Manasi; Aluri, Jahnavi; Deshpande, Jagadish Mohanrao

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014-April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID). We isolated 8 enteroviruses (3 polioviruses and 5 nonpolio enteroviruses) in cell culture of 105 fecal samples collected from 42 patients. Only 1 patient with severe combined immunodeficiency was identified as a long-term VDPV3 excreter (for 2 years after identification of infection). Our results show that the risk of enterovirus excretion among children in India with PID is low; however, systematic screening is necessary to identify long-term poliovirus excreters until the use of oral polio vaccine is stopped.

  16. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  17. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases

    Mustafa Erbayrak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses.

  18. The fecal bacteria

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  19. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    Shinde, Y.; Hacker, R.R.; Ntunde, B.; Smith, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  20. Exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in 21 patients suffering from autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid treatment.

    Frulloni, Luca; Scattolini, Chiara; Katsotourchi, Anna Maria; Amodio, Antonio; Gabbrielli, Armando; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Benini, Luigi; Vantini, Italo

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds rapidly and dramatically to steroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic exocrine and endocrine function in patients suffering from AIP both before and after steroid therapy. Fecal elastase 1 and diabetes were evaluated before steroid therapy and within 1 month of its suspension in 21 patients (13 males and 8 females, mean age 43 +/- 16.5 years) diagnosed as having AIP between 2006 and 2008. At clinical onset, fecal elastase 1 was 107 +/- 126 microg/g stool. Thirteen patients (62%) showed severe pancreatic insufficiency (insufficiency (100-200 microg/g stool), while 4 (19%) had normal pancreatic function (>200 microg/g stool). Before steroids, diabetes was diagnosed in 5 patients (24%), all of whom had very low levels of fecal elastase 1 (endocrine pancreatic insufficiency at clinical onset. These insufficiencies improve after steroid therapy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Intake and excretion

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  2. Transintestinal cholesterol excretion in humans

    Reeskamp, Laurens F.; Meessen, Emma C. E.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. Recent findings TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by

  3. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  4. Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant fecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant plants

    Pinkalski, Christian Alexander Stidsen; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and subsequently deposited fecal droplets on the seedlings, coffee leaves showed increased levels of 15N and total N compared to control plants without ants. This was evident for both exposed leaves and leaves covered in plastic bags (i.e. not directly exposed to ants). Thus, N from ant excretions was absorbed...

  5. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Steroids (For Parents)

    ... build muscle, steroids can have very serious side effects. Using steroids for a long time can harm the reproductive ... Teen girls and women risk these additional side effects: male-type facial and body ... risks, kids who use steroids without a prescription are breaking the law. Drug ...

  7. Marine polar steroids

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  8. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  9. Greater bile acid excretion with soy bean than with cow milk in infants.

    Potter, J M; Nestel, P J

    1976-05-01

    The excretion of fecal sterols and bile acids was measured in five infants from the 1st week of life to 2 or 3 months of age as the composition of their diet was changed from cow milk to soy bean milk. Bile acid excretion, adjusted for body weight, was initially lower during the 1st than during the 3rd week, when it reached adult values. The average excretion of bile acids was 6.8 mg/kg per day with soy bean milk and 3.6 mg/kg per day with cow milk. Net sterol excretion (total sterol output minus cholesterol intake) was also twice as high with soy bean milk and probably reflected enhancement of cholesterol re-excretion as well as of synthesis since the cholesterol content of soy beans is nil. However, net sterol excretion remained higher with soy bean than with cow milk even when egg yolk cholesterol was added to the soy bean milk. It is concluded that the substitution of soy bean milk for cow milk, which lowered the plasma cholesterol in all infants (even in the presence of dietary cholesterol) leads to an increase in bile acids and probably also in cholesterol excretion in young infants.

  10. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  11. Incontinencia fecal del adulto

    Vergara A,M. Teresa; Suárez M,Juan; Orellana G,Hernán; Cofré L,Pamela; Germain P,Fernando; Stanley E,William; Sivori H,Javiera; Cruz M,Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de esta revisión es actualizar los conocimientos sobre esta patología, destacando su evolución clínica, estudio y tratamiento, aspectos que ameritan un enfoque multidisciplinario, ya que, además de su compleja fisiopatología, puede asociarse a incontinencia urinaria y prolapso de los tres compartimentos de la pelvis. La incontinencia fecal (IF) constituye una patología altamente prevalente que afecta al menos un 2% de la población y hasta el 45% de los pacientes en casas de repos...

  12. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  13. Pathophysiology of pediatric fecal incontinence

    Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric fecal incontinence in 4 main categories: (1) Functional fecal retention, the withholding of feces because of fear of painful defecation, results in constipation and overflow soiling. Treatment includes dietary changes, use of laxatives,

  14. Step-up fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) strategy

    Cui, Bota; Li, Pan; Xu, Lijuan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Xiang, Jie; He, Zhi; Zhang, Ting; Ji, Guozhong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut dysbiosis is a characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy to restore intestinal microbial diversity and has been reported to have a potential therapeutic value in IBD. Our recent study reported a holistic integrative therapy called “step-up FMT strategy,” which was beneficial in treating steroid-dependent IBD patients. This strategy consists of scheduled FMTs combined with steroids, anti-TNF-α antibody treatment or enteral nutrition. Herein, we will elaborate the strategy thoroughly, introducing the concept, potential indication, methodology, and safety of “step-up FMT strategy” in detail. PMID:26939622

  15. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  16. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... admitted to 47 hospitals in Denmark during 2002-2004 (population 5.4 million) and was combined with results from a questionnaire regarding treatment guidelines in these hospitals. In 36 of 47 departments responding to the questionnaire, 21 recommended early steroid treatment, but none did so initially...... during 2002. Early steroid treatment was given to 15% of patients and was given more often when recommended locally (41% vs 11%, OR=5.7 (2.4-13.5)). Unfavourable outcome was demonstrated rarely in patients treated with early steroids compared to the non-steroid group (17% vs 42%, p

  17. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  18. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  19. The absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of Di-n-Octylten dichloride in rats

    Penninks, A.H.; Hilgers, Luuk; Seinen, Willem

    1987-01-01

    In this study the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of 14 C-labeled di-n-octyltin dichloride ([ 14 C] DOTC) in rats were investigated after oral and intravenous (i.v.) administration with 6.3 mg [ 14 C] DOTC/Kg body weight, the relative tissue accumulation was found to be the same after oral and i.v. dosage. The highest amount of radioactivity was found in liver and kidney, and to a lesser degree in adrenal, pituitary and thyroid glands. The lowest activity was recovered from blood and brain. No selective accumulation was observed in thymus, although it has been reported that thymus atrophy is the most sensitive parameter of DOTC toxicity in rats. For all tissues a time dependent decrease in radioactivity was found, except for kidney. The excretion of radioactivity in feces and urine was determined after a single i.v. or oral dose of l.2 and 2 mg [ 14 C] DOTC, respectively. After i.v. administration most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces which was characterized by a biphasic excretion pattern. In orally treated rats more than 80% of the radioactivity was already excreted in the feces during the first day after administration. This indicated that only a small part of the DOTC was absorbed, which was calculated to be approximately 20% of the dose. Similar half-life values of 8.3 and 8.9 days were obtained from the fecal excretion of radioactivity after the i.v. and oral administration, respectively. The urinary excretion of radioactivity appeared to be independent of the body burden, since the daily amount of radioactivity excreted in urine was nearly the same independent of the route of administration as well as the time after administration. 26 refs. (author)

  20. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  1. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    ... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...

  2. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of fecal glucocorticoids in parrotfishes to assess stress

    Turner, J.W.; Nemeth, R.; Rogers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide from a combination of natural and human forces. The environmental compromises faced by coral reef habitats and their associated fishes are potentially stressful, and in this study we examined the potential for assessing stress levels in coral reef fish. We determined the feasibility of using fecal casts from parrotfishes for remote assessment of stress-related hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), and the response of these hormones to the stress of restraint and hypoxia. Measurement of these hormones in fecal extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated using mass spectrometry, chemical derivitization, and radioactive tracer methods. In aquarium-adapted parrotfish, baseline levels of cortisol and corticosterone averaged 3.4??1.1 and 14.8??2.8ng/g feces, respectively, across 32 days. During 13 days of periodic stress these hormones, respectively, average 10.8-fold and 3.2-fold greater than baseline, with a return to near baseline during a 23-day follow-up. Testosterone was also measured as a reference hormone which is not part of the stress-response axis. Levels of this hormone were similar across the study. These fecal hormones were also measured in a field study of parrotfish in 10 fringing coral reef areas around the Caribbean Island of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Extracts of remotely collected fecal casts of three parrotfish species revealed no difference in respective average hormone levels among these species. Also, there was no difference in respective hormone levels between aquarium and field environments. However, levels of both cortisol and corticosterone, but not testosterone, were elevated in two of the 10 reef sites surveyed. This study demonstrates that parrotfish fecals can be collected in aquarium and field conditions and that steroid hormones in these fecals can be extracted and reliably measured. The study also demonstrates that cortisol and corticosterone in parrotfish fecals can

  4. Effects of pelleted or powdered diets containing soy protein or sodium caseinate on lipid concentrations and bile acid excretion in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S

    2015-08-01

    Custom diets are a convenient vector for oral administration of test articles, but the processing and physical form of a diet can affect its nutritional properties and how it is consumed. Here, the authors evaluated the feeding behavior and physiology of golden Syrian hamsters fed diets of either soy or caseinate protein in pelleted or powdered forms for 28 d to determine whether dietary processing and form mediates the physiological effects of dietary proteins. The authors compared body weight, food consumption, serum cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride concentration, fecal weight and fecal excretion of bile acids between treatment groups. Hamsters fed powdered diets showed higher food consumption than hamsters fed pelleted diets, regardless of protein source. Hamsters fed soy pelleted diets showed lower serum cholesterol concentration and higher fecal excretion of bile acid than hamsters fed caseinate pelleted diets, and serum cholesterol concentration correlated strongly with fecal excretion of bile acid. This correlation suggests that the physiological effects of soy protein on cholesterol and excretion of bile acid might be related or similarly mediated through diet. The differences observed between hamsters on different diets indicate that dietary form can influence both feeding behavior and the physiological effects of a diet in hamsters.

  5. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more accurate community profiles for fecal source tracking.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    Hampl, R.; Stranska, I.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative antisera against 17 α-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 α-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  7. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  8. New Insights on Steroid Biotechnology

    Fernandez-Cabezon, Lorena; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays steroid manufacturing occupies a prominent place in the pharmaceutical industry with an annual global market over $10 billion. The synthesis of steroidal active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) such as sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progestogens) and corticosteroids is currentl...

  9. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  10. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  11. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a hormone that's in all of us—testosterone. Some people take anabolic steroid pills or injections to try to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, ...

  12. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    of cholesterol is the formation of a green colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, and this was shown to be due to a polyenyl steroidal dimer carbocation.7–9 Many dimeric and oligomeric steroids exhibit interesting micellular, detergent and liquid crystal behaviour.10,11. Most of the steroidal dimmers are also well-known.

  13. Steroids facing emotions

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  14. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  16. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  17. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    requirements for maintenance, and fetal and maternal growth were described. In the lactating module, a factorial approach was used to estimate requirements for maintenance, milk production, and maternal growth. The priority for nutrient partitioning was assumed to be in the order of maintenance, milk...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...... emission, manure carbon excretion, and manure production. The model was evaluated using independent data sets from the literature using root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients. The gestation module predicted body fat gain better than body protein gain, which...

  18. Excretion, distribution and metabolism of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in rats

    Tanaka, Akira; Sato, Michio; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Adachi, Tohru; Niimura, Toshio; Yamaha, Tsutomu

    1986-01-01

    1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (TCB) labeled with C-14 was given perorally to rats at a dosage of 50 mg/kg for excretion and distribution studies. About 66% and 17% of the oral dose was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively, within 7 days. Trapped radioactivity in the expired air amounted to 2.1% of the dose, but production of labeled carbon dioxide was negligible. Tissue residues were evenly distributed throughout the organs and tissues examined, except for the adipose tissue which consistently had a little higher concentration. The urinary, fecal and expiratory metabolites were identified. Free 2,4,5- and 2,3,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and their conjugates were mainly detected in the urine. 5- or 6-sulfhydryl, methylthio, methylsulfoxide and methylsulfone derivatives of TCB were also detected as minor metabolites. Dichlorobenzenes and unchanged TCB were confirmed in the expired air. Reductive dechlorination seems to be catalysed by intestinal microflora enzymes. (orig.)

  19. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Paek, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. Methods Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. Tissue distribution kinetics, excretion profiles, and fates in tissues were analyzed using elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Results The differently sized silica nanoparticles mainly distributed to kidneys and liver for 3 days post-administration and, to some extent, to lungs and spleen for 2 days post-administration, regardless of particle size or sex. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies in tissues demonstrated almost intact particles in liver, but partially decomposed particles with an irregular morphology were found in kidneys, especially in rats that had been administered 20 nm nanoparticles. Size-dependent excretion kinetics were apparent and the smaller 20 nm particles were found to be more rapidly eliminated than the larger 100 nm particles. Elimination profiles showed 7%–8% of silica nanoparticles were excreted via urine, but most nanoparticles were excreted via feces, regardless of particle size or sex. Conclusion The kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were found to be the target organs of orally-administered silica nanoparticles in rats, and this organ distribution was not affected by particle size or animal sex. In vivo, silica nanoparticles were found to retain their particulate form, although more decomposition was observed in kidneys, especially for 20 nm particles. Urinary and fecal excretion pathways were determined to play roles in the elimination of silica nanoparticles, but 20 nm particles were secreted more rapidly, presumably because they are more easily decomposed. These findings will be of interest to those seeking to predict

  20. Fecal pellet output does not always correlate with colonic transit in response to restraint stress and corticotropin-releasing factor in rats

    Nakade, Yukiomi; Mantyh, C.; Pappas, T.N.; Takahashi, Toku

    2007-01-01

    Fecal pellet output has been assessed as a colonic motor activity because of its simplicity. However, it remains unclear whether an acceleration of colonic transit correlates well with an increase in fecal pellet output. We examined the causal relationship between colonic transit and fecal pellet output stimulated by the central application of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and restraint stress. Immediately after intracisternal injection of CRF, 51 Cr was injected via a catheter positioned in the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after 51 Cr injection, the total number of excreted feces was counted, and then the rats were killed. The radioactivity of each colonic segment was evaluated, and the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of 51 Cr was calculated. For the restraint stress study, after administration of 51 Cr into the proximal colon, rats were submitted to wrapping restraint stress for 90 min. Then they were killed, and GC was calculated. Both restraint stress and CRF significantly accelerated colonic transit. There was a positive correlation observed between fecal pellet output and GC of colonic transit in response to restraint stress, but not CRF, when the number of excreted feces was more than three. In contrast, there was no significant correlation observed between the two in stress and CRF when the number of excreted feces was less than two. The acceleration of colonic transit in response to restraint stress and central administration of CRF does not always correlate with an increase in fecal pellet output. (author)

  1. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-12-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium (/sup 40/K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction.

  2. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium ( 40 K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction

  3. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  4. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? Part I: Critical appraisal of the evidence for the presence, biosynthesis and uptake of steroids.

    Scott, Alexander P

    2012-11-01

    The consensus view is that vertebrate-type steroids are present in mollusks and perform hormonal roles which are similar to those that they play in vertebrates. Although vertebrate steroids can be measured in molluscan tissues, a key question is 'Are they formed endogenously or they are picked up from their environment?'. The present review concludes that there is no convincing evidence for biosynthesis of vertebrate steroids by mollusks. Furthermore, the 'mollusk' genome does not contain the genes for key enzymes that are necessary to transform cholesterol in progressive steps into vertebrate-type steroids; nor does the mollusk genome contain genes for functioning classical nuclear steroid receptors. On the other hand, there is very strong evidence that mollusks are able to absorb vertebrate steroids from the environment; and are able to store some of them (by conjugating them to fatty acids) for weeks to months. It is notable that the three steroids that have been proposed as functional hormones in mollusks (i.e. progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol) are the same as those of humans. Since humans (and indeed all vertebrates) continuously excrete steroids not just via urine and feces, but via their body surface (and, in fish, via the gills), it is impossible to rule out contamination as the sole reason for the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks (even in animals kept under supposedly 'clean laboratory conditions'). Essentially, the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks cannot be taken as reliable evidence of either endogenous biosynthesis or of an endocrine role. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: Identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites

    Rebouche, C.J.; Chenard, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Results of kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dietary carnitine is not totally absorbed and is in part degraded in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To determine the metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in humans, we administered orally a tracer dose of methyl- 3 H L-carnitine with a meal to subjects who had been adapted to a low-carnitine diet or a high-carnitine diet. Urinary and fecal excretion of radiolabeled carnitine and metabolites was monitored for 5 to 11 d following administration of the test dose. Total radioactive metabolites excreted ranged from 13 to 34% (low carnitine diet) and 27 to 46% (high carnitine diet) of the ingested tracer. Major metabolites found were [ 3 H]trimethylamine N-oxide (8 to 39% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in urine) and [ 3 H]gamma-butyrobetaine (0.09 to 8% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in feces). Urinary excretion of total carnitine was 42 to 95% (high carnitine diet) and 190 to 364% (low carnitine diet) of intake. These results indicate that oral carnitine is 54 to 87% bioavailable from normal Western diets; the percentage of intake absorbed is related to the quantity ingested

  6. Endogenous phosphorus excretion by sheep fed hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, lucerne hay and citrus pulp

    Dias, R.S.; Roque, A.P.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine endogenous phosphorus excretion in sheep fed with different diets. Sixteen male growing sheep, received a basic diet with: 42% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (HSB), 45% lucerne hay (LH) plus 14% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and 30% citrus pulp (CTP) plus 40% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. A dose of 7.7 MBq 32 P was injected into the left jugular vein of each animal. The P endogenous fecal losses were: 1.69, 2.50, 2.33 and 1.45 g/animal for treatments HSB, LH, and CTP respectively (P>0.05). The type of diet influenced slight endogenous P excretion but altered excretion of P in urine. Endogenous P excreted in feces (P F ) comes mainly from saliva and represents an important loss of P. The estimation of net requirements of phosphorus (P) for ruminants includes endogenous losses, which is also essential for calculating true absorption of this mineral. Physical structure of the feed may influence endogenous losses, altering the metabolism of P and also the demand of this mineral, therefore being important to know how different feeds affect endogenous P losses. (author)

  7. Distribution and Excretion of Arsenic Metabolites after Oral Administration of Seafood-Related Organoarsenicals in Rats

    Yayoi Kobayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Less information is available on the metabolism of organic arsenicals compared to inorganic arsenic in mammals. In the present study, we investigated tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion in rats of organoarsenicals, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, arsenobetaine (AB, arsenocholine (AC and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAOV. Among these animals, arsenic concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs and spleen increased remarkably only in the DMAV group. Hepatic arsenic concentration increased significantly only in the AC group. Approximately 17%, 72% and 60% of the dose was excreted in urine in two days in the DMAV, AB and AC groups, respectively; virtually the entire dose was excreted in urine in one day in the TMAOV group. On the other hand, approximately 18%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.1% of the dose was excreted in feces in two days in the DMAV, AB, AC and TMAOV groups, respectively. A large amount of arsenic was accumulated in RBCs in the form of protein-bound dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII, and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV, a reportedly toxic thio-arsenical, was found in urine and fecal extract in the DMAV group. These results suggest that intake of DMAV is a potential health hazard, given that the metabolites of DMAV, such as DMAIII and DMMTAV, are known to be highly toxic.

  8. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  9. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  11. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High...... and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation) or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi)) with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3) previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from...... a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became...

  12. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  13. Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Barger, Kathryn; Fu, Xueyan; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B; Meydani, Simin N; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined. Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8. Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation

  14. Po-210 excretion and radon exposure

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model is given to describe the metabolism of the 210 Po introduced into the systemic compartiments of the human body. The model has been based on the experimental data referred to the 210 Pb- 210 Po intake, excretion and body burden of members of the general italian population. The model fits also very well the experimental data of 210 Pb- 210 Po intake and excretion reported by other authors. The retention function of 210 Po in total body, soft tissue and bone has been evaluated together with the urinary excretion function and the absorbed fraction by ingestion. The model is very valuable to evaluate the lung exposure to Radon decay products on the basis of the 210 Pb- 210 Po urinary excretions

  15. Oral contraceptives and neuroactive steroids.

    Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra

    2006-08-01

    A deregulation in the peripheral and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids has been found in certain pathological conditions characterized by emotional or affective disturbances, including major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we summarize data pertaining to the modulatory effects of oral contraceptive treatment on neuroactive steroids in women and rats. Given that the neuroactive steroids concentrations are reduced by oral contraceptives, together with the evidence that a subset of women taking oral contraceptives experience negative mood symptoms, we propose the use of this pharmacological treatment as a putative model to study the role of neuroactive steroids in the etiopathology of mood disorders. Moreover, since neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of GABA(A) receptor function and plasticity, the treatment with oral contraceptives might also represent a useful experimental model to further investigate the physiological role of these steroids in the modulation of GABAergic transmission.

  16. Renal acid excretion in the domestic fowl.

    Long, S; Skadhauge, E

    1983-05-01

    1. In order to assess the role of uricotelism in net renal acid excretion, blood and ureteral urine samples were collected from five hens fed a commercial poultry feed (Diet A) and five hens fed a protein-rich, Na-poor feed (Diet B). All samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, ammonium, phosphate, uric acid and urates (UA + U) and inulin. 2. On Diet A, average pH in venous blood was 7.42, while urinary pH (pHu) ranged from 4.74 to 7.25. At average pHu (6.10), uric acid accounted for 52% of total acid excreted, H2PO4 for 20% and NH4 for 28%. Net acid excretion in ureteral urine was 345 muequiv h-1 kg body weight-1, or 5-10 times that observed in ureotelic vertebrates (amphibians and mammals). 3. The relative contributions of these urinary buffers to net renal acid excretion changed with pHu. Significant negative correlations exist between pHu and both total phosphate and ammonium excretion rates (P less than 0.001). Excretion rates of (UA + U) showed a positive correlation (P less than 0.05) with pHu. 4. Feeding on Diet B revealed the homeostatic power of the avian kidney. Blood pH and PCO2 were not changed relative to values in hens fed the control diet while striking increases in excretion rates of all urinary buffers (except HCO3) were observed. Average pHu fell to 5.12, and the average net renal acid excretion rate doubled.

  17. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour

    Gage, J C

    1961-01-01

    Rats have been exposed for varying periods to an atmosphere containing 1 mg/cu.m. mercury vapor. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues. The efficiency of absorption of mercury by the rat lung is about 50%. A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure. After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine. Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value.

  18. Relation between creatinine and uric acid excretion.

    Nishida, Y

    1992-01-01

    The relation between creatinine and uric acid metabolism was analysed in 77 male patients with primary gout and 62 healthy male subjects. Significant positive correlations between 24 hour urinary creatinine and uric acid excretion were shown in both groups. The mean urinary creatinine and uric acid excretions in the patients with gout were significantly increased as compared with those of normal male controls. These results suggest that there is a close correlation between creatinine and uric...

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Diclofenac on Steroid Glucuronidation In Vivo Do Not Affect Hair-Based Doping Tests for Stanozolol.

    Zachár, Gergely; Deshmukh, Naved I K; Petróczi, Andrea; Székely, Andrea D; Shah, Iltaf; Barker, James; Naughton, Declan P

    2017-06-12

    In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1-3) and diclofenac (weeks 1-6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3'-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair, which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests.

  20. Steroids and Autoimmunity.

    Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Meroni, Marianna; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones, vitamin D, and melatonin and prolactin importantly all contribute to the homeostasis of the immune system. Indeed, some of the steroidal hormone activities determine inhibition or stimulation of immune system components, in both physiological (i.e. suppression of an unwanted response in pregnancy, or stimulation of a protective response in infections) and pathological conditions. We will finally mention the rationale for optimization of exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in chronic autoimmune diseases, and the latest developments concerning these drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  2. Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    1996-12-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata.

  3. Distribution and excretion of arsenic in cynomolgus monkey following repeated administration of diphenylarsinic acid

    Kobayashi, Yayoi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Negishi, Takayuki [Aoyama Gakuin University, Department of Chemistry and Biological Science, Tokyo (Japan); Mizumura, Ayano; Watanabe, Takayuki [Chiba University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Hirano, Seishiro [Chiba University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Research Center for Environmental Risk, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a possible product of degradation of arsenic-containing chemical weapons, was detected in well water in Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, in 2003. Although some individuals in this area have been affected by drinking DPAA-containing water, toxicological findings on DPAA are limited. To elucidate the mechanism of its toxicity, it is necessary to determine the metabolic behavior of DPAA in the body. In this study, pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at the 50th day of pregnancy were used. The monkeys were treated daily with 1.0 mg DPAA/kg body weight using a nasogastric tube, and the distribution and excretion of arsenic were examined after the repeated administration and 198-237 days after the last administration of DPAA. Fecal excretion was higher than urinary excretion (ca. 3:2 ratio), and arsenic accumulated in the hair and erythrocytes. Distribution of DAPP to plasma and hemolyzed erythrocytes was also examined by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP MS). Two peaks were found in the elution profile of arsenic, due to free and probably protein-bound DPAA. The protein-bound arsenic compounds were presumably trivalent diphenylarsenic compounds, since free DPAA was recovered after treatment of heat-denatured samples with hydrogen peroxide. (orig.)

  4. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  6. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  8. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    Partha Ray

    Full Text Available Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1 and 0.96 µg L(-1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%. Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1 of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1. Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03. Peak excretion (2.69 mg was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03. The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  10. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  11. Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.

  12. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  13. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific

  14. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    Lee JA

    2014-12-01

    distribution was not affected by particle size or animal sex. In vivo, silica nanoparticles were found to retain their particulate form, although more decomposition was observed in kidneys, especially for 20 nm particles. Urinary and fecal excretion pathways were determined to play roles in the elimination of silica nanoparticles, but 20 nm particles were secreted more rapidly, presumably because they are more easily decomposed. These findings will be of interest to those seeking to predict potential toxicological effects of silica nanoparticles on target organs. Keywords: biological fate, size effect, target organ

  15. Marine and Freshwater Fecal Indicators and Source Identification

    Fecal indicators are organisms or chemical constituents found in fecal material or wastewater that can be measured to demonstrate the presence of fecal pollution. Fecal waste from humans and other animals can contaminant surface waters and pose a serious threat to the environmen...

  16. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  17. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  18. Fecal microbiota transplantation: facts and controversies

    van Nood, Els; Speelman, Peter; Nieuwdorp, Max; Keller, Josbert

    2014-01-01

    To review the current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a randomized trial confirmed the efficacy of this treatment strategy in patients with recurrent CDI. For

  19. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Clinical and experimental studies

    van Nood, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of donor feces infusion, also called Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), are investigated. Historically, FMTs are given mainly for antibiotic associated diarrhea, caused by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are

  20. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  1. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  2. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  3. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Ian David Woolsey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1 by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3 previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1

  4. Development of a GC/C/IRMS method--confirmation of a novel steroid profiling approach in doping control.

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Polet, Michael; Brooker, Lance; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In doping control, an athlete can only be convicted with the misuse with endogenous steroids like testosterone (T), if abnormal values of steroid metabolites and steroid ratios are observed and if the subsequent analysis with isotope ratios mass spectrometry (IRMS) confirms the presence of exogenously administered androgens. In this work, we compare the results of a novel steroid profiling approach with the performance an in-house developed IRMS method. The developed IRMS has the advantage over other methods to be relatively short in time and with target compounds androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5β-androstane 3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane 3α,17β-diol. Pregnanediol was used as an endogenous reference compound (ERC). Reference limits for the IRMS values were established and applied as decision limits for the evaluation of excretion urine from administration with oral T, T-gel, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) - gel and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Results indicated the importance of both androstanediols as important IRMS markers where relative values compared to an ERC (Δδ(13)C) yielded better detection accuracy than absolute δ(13)C-values. The detection times of all administered endogenous steroids were evaluated using the proposed thresholds. The results of traditional steroid profiling and a new approach based upon minor steroid metabolites monitoring introduced in a longitudinal framework were evaluated with IRMS. With traditional steroid profiling methods, 95% of the atypical samples could be confirmed whereas an additional 74% of IRMS confirmed was provided by a new biomarkers strategy. These results prove that the other steroid profiling strategies can improve the efficiency in detection of misuse with endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  6. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  7. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  8. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  9. Interpretation of uranium and thorium excretion data taking into account excretion data caused by natural sources

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, Th.; Helling, K.

    2000-01-01

    At the Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. Rossendorf near Dresden (Germany) occupationally exposed persons are working with Uranium and Thorium. In accordance with German guides urine and faecal analysis is carried out. But for the interpretation the data in terms of dose or intake it is important to have knowledge about the portion of the activity measured caused by natural sources. For this reason 16 occupationally exposed persons who did not have any history of occupational exposure to Thorium or Uranium have been checked concerning the excretion data since 1994. The excretion data in mBq per day for all persons covers the following ranges: Faeces: U-234 1 to 310 mBq/d, U-235 0.2 to 3.7 mBq/d, U-238 1.3 to 72 mBq/d. Th-228 7 to 89 mBq/d, Th-230 0.7 to 19 mBq/d, Th-232 0.7 to 16 mBq/d. Urine: all values below the detection limits of about 1 mBq/l. The large variation results from differences between the individual excretion rates but also from the variation of the excretion rate of one person. For example, the U-234-faecal excretion of one person reaches from 77 to 310 mBq per day. In the paper the faecal excretion for some individuals in dependence on the time are given. These excretion date caused by natural sources are taken into account by interpreting faecal excretion data of occupationally exposed persons working with Uranium or Thorium. If the measured faecal excretion per day is within the range caused by natural sources no interpretation will be done. By exceeding these values additional faeces and urine samples will be collected and measured. In dependence on these additional results intake and dose will be assessed some times by using lung counter or whole body counter measuring results. In the paper some examples are described. (author)

  10. Disse fire typer bruger steroider

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden.......Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden....

  11. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628.

    Ma, Frank Y; Han, Yingjie; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Kolkhof, Peter; Tesch, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid) from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury. Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-α, IFN-γ) and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin). In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction). The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628) provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases.

  12. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628.

    Frank Y Ma

    Full Text Available Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury.Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin. In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction.The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628 provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases.

  13. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  14. Effect of past and current dietary Zn intake on Zn absorption and endogenous excretion in the rat

    Johnson, P.E.; Hunt, J.R.; Ralston, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of previous dietary Zn (or body Zn stores) and current dietary Zn intake on absorption and endogenous excretion of Zn were studied by using radioisotope dilution. Rats were fed diets containing 1.5, 12.6 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg for 19 d (dietary period I). Total body Zn in the three groups was 1870 +/- 340, 3953 +/- 698 and 4126 +/- 844 micrograms Zn/rat. Each group was divided into four subgroups fed 3.6, 12.6, 20.5 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg diet for 3 wk (dietary period II). Rats were injected intramuscularly with 65Zn after 7 d of dietary period II. True absorption and endogenous excretion were calculated by isotope dilution. Zinc intake, urinary and fecal excretion, balance and percent Zn absorption were significantly affected only by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P less than 0.01). Endogenous excretion was affected by both past dietary Zn deficiency (body Zn stores) and by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P = 0.0001). Total body Zn at the end of the experiment was significantly affected by both periods of dietary treatment (P less than 0.001), but total body Zn concentration was affected only by the final dietary treatment (P less than 0.05). These results show that Zn absorption is affected by the current diet, but that turnover of Zn (endogenous excretion) is regulated by both current Zn intake and past Zn intake, probably through an effect on body Zn stores

  15. Investigation of the connection between the quality of protein, protein level and endogenous N excretion

    Koehler, R.; Gebhardt, G.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of various protein qualities as well as of different levels of protein on the amount of endogenous N excretion, metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and endogenous urinary N (EUN) was determined in growing albino rats. The test rations were labelled with admixtures of 15 N-DL-methionine and 15 N-DL-lysine, respectively, or contained feed protein enriched with 15 N. EUN and MFN and their sum (the N maintenance requirement) showed the influence of the respective protein source and its dependence on the protein level. The endogenous N excretions showed an opposite tendency to the N balance; for high-quality protein feedstuffs with a high N balance (e.g. dried eggs) they are lower than for protein sources of inferior quality, with a low N-balance only (e.g. wheat gluten). Presumably this interaction of retention and maintenance is due to the complementary effect of exogenous and endogenous amino acids in the N and amino acid pool, respectively. Provided that the N dose and the live weight of the animals are comparable, the N balance appears to be more suitable as parameter for the description of the protein quality and the calculation of the protein utilisation than N retention, as the sum of N balance and the values of MFN and EUN (depending on the feedstuffs and the N level). (author)

  16. Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats.

    Yeh, J K; Aloia, J F; Semla, H M; Chen, S Y

    1986-02-01

    Mineral metabolism was studied by the metabolic balance technique in rats with and without administration of caffeine. Caffeine was injected subcutaneously each day at either 2.5 mg or 10 mg/100 g body weight for 2 wk before the balance studies. Urinary volume excretion was higher in the group given caffeine than in the control group, but the creatinine clearance was not different. Urinary excretion of potassium, sodium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and calcium, but not of zinc and copper, was also higher in the rats given caffeine. The rank order of the difference was the same as the percent of ingested mineral excreted in urine in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine caused a negative balance of potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphate. There was no significant difference from the control levels and in the apparent metabolic balance of calcium and magnesium. The urinary and fecal excretion of zinc and copper were found to be unaffected by caffeine. It is suggested that chronic administration of caffeine may lead to a tendency toward deficiency of those minerals that are excreted primarily in urine.

  17. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1977-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Po, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. For urinary 210 Pb the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) for three subjects ranged from 19 to 45 percent for eight continuous 24-hr samples compared to 11 to 13 percent for subsequently collected multiday samples (4 to 9 days each) for each subject. However, the standard errors of the means for the one day collections were about equal to the standard deviations of the pooled samples. Similar variability was noted for the 210 Po data. Six day fecal collections from these time periods exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12 percent to 50 percent for each of the nuclides. Multiday collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16 percent for 210 Pb and 13 percent for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25 percent, respectively, in fecal collections. Since dietary intake was maintained fairly constant, excreta collections were carefully controlled, and the analytical precision was about 5 percent, these variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied. Some possible causes of these effects are discussed

  18. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  19. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  20. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  1. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  2. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  3. Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay

    Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.) [de

  4. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P; Thamsborg, S; Schnyder, Manuela; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, C M O

    2017-12-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1) by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation) or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi)) with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3) previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1 excretion.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Biliary Excretion of Fisetin in Rats.

    Huang, Miao-Chan; Hsueh, Thomas Y; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-06-14

    The hypothesis of this study is that fisetin and phase II conjugated forms of fisetin may partly undergo biliary excretion. To investigate this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment, and their bile ducts were cannulated with polyethylene tubes for bile sampling. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that the average area-under-the-curve (AUC) ratios ( k (%) = AUC conjugate /AUC free-form ) of fisetin, its glucuronides, and its sulfates were 1:6:21 in plasma and 1:4:75 in bile, respectively. Particularly, the sulfated metabolites were the main forms that underwent biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rate ( k BE (%) = AUC bile /AUC plasma ) indicates the amount of fisetin eliminated by biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rates of fisetin, its glucuronide conjugates, and its sulfate conjugates were approximately 144, 109, and 823%, respectively, after fisetin administration (30 mg/kg, iv). Furthermore, biliary excretion of fisetin is mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  6. Studies on absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 3H-1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in vitamin D deficient rats

    Tohira, Yasuo; Hinohara, Yoshikazu; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Machiko; Nakano, Hideki

    1978-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 2- 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 (4.2 Ci/mmol) were studied in vitamin D deficient rats in comparison with the normal rats after oral or intravenous dosing. (1) Maximum blood level of administered radioactivity was observed at 8 hours after oral administration with apparent half life of 3.8 days. This blood level was higher than that in normal rat. (2) As in the normal rat, administered radioactivity was distributed relatively high in the liver, while any other specific distribution or accumulation was not observed in the another tissues, which was consistent to the finding in the normal rat. The tissue levels of the radioactivity were higher than these in the normal rat. (3) Urinary excretion of administered radioactivity was significantly higher, fecal and biliary excretion was significantly lower than that in the normal rat after intravenous dosing. (4) Relative percentage of 3 H-1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 content to 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 content in tissues and blood was higher than that in the normal one. Above results suggest that in the vitamin D deficient state, the tissue accumulation of 1α-OH-D 3 was significantly augmented than in the normal rat, thus resulting increased bioavailability of its active metabolite, 1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 . (author)

  7. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    Diana P Bojanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool. Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool, archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool, viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool, fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool, protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  8. Functional fecal retention with encopresis in childhood.

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The most common cause of encopresis in children is functional fecal retention (FFR). An international working team suggested that FFR be defined by the following criteria: a history of >12 weeks of passage of encopresis; to compare these patients to those identified as having FFR by historical symptoms or physical examination; to determine whether 1-year treatment outcome varied depending on which definition for FFR was used; and to suggest improvements to the ROME II criteria, if necessary. Data were reviewed from the history and physical examination of 213 children with encopresis. One-year outcomes identified were failure, successful treatment, or full recovery. Only 88 (41%) of the patients with encopresis fit the ROME II criteria for FFR, whereas 181 (85%) had symptoms of FFR by history or physical examination. Thirty-two (15%) patients did not fit criteria for FFR, but only 6 (3%) appeared to have nonretentive fecal soiling. Rates of successful treatment (50%) and recovery (39%) were not significantly different in the two groups. The ROME II criteria for FFR are too restrictive and do not identify many children with encopresis who have symptoms of FFR. The author suggests that the ROME II criteria for FFR could be improved by including the following additional items: a history of BMs that obstruct the toilet, a history of chronic abdominal pain relieved by enemas or laxatives, and the presence of an abdominal fecal mass or rectal fecal mass.

  9. [Biofeedback effectiveness in patients with fecal incontinence].

    Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Buenrostro-Acebes, José María; Erciga-Vergara, Nancy; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Mosqueda, Maria Elena; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; González-Alvarado, Carlos; Villanueva-Saenz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined as an involuntary bowel movement through the anal canal in inadequate time and place. There are different types of therapies for the management of fecal incontinence, being biofeedback therapy one of the most effective techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessary number of sessions of biofeedback electromyographyc therapy to achieve the maximum sphincteric complex contraction. Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study. 65 patients with fecal incontinence were included. Weekly electromyographyc biofeedback therapies were applied, with a maximum of 6, in which the sphincteric complex contraction was measured. A two ways Friedman analysis was made to determine the significant differences between the sessions. A total of 65 patients were evaluated for fecal incontinence. The values for pelvic floor contraction were significantly higher in the third session, and did not show any significant difference in posterior sessions. The maximum contraction of the sphicnteric complex was achieved in the third weekly biofeedback session, without any significant differences in the posterior sessions.

  10. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    Sharma, Monika; Agrawal, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  11. Urinary steroid hormone patterns: III. Effect of continuous daily administration of low dose megestrol acetate.

    Kumari, G L; Roy, S; Allag, I S; Ghosal, J

    1975-12-01

    The effect of megestrol acetate, administered in daily doses of .5 mg, on urinary steroid levels was studied before, during, and after therapy in 4 women volunteers. In each case, pregnanediol levels were reduced, though ovulatory biphasic patterns, as reflected in basal body temperature patterns, were apparent in the majority of the cycles, which suggests that corpus luteum function, but not ovulation, was impaired. 17-ketosteroid levels were significantly (p less than .001) increased either during or after treatment, while 17-hydroxycorticoid levels were reduced in 3 of the women. 2 subjects showed a marked reduction in levels of 17-ketogenic steroids and corticoid levels. Total estrogen levels seemed to correlate with the levels of corticoid excretion.

  12. Estimation of Body Composition from Urinay Creatinine Excretion

    小室, 史恵; 小宮, 秀一

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of total body water, using the deuterium oxide dilution method, and urinary creatinine excretion have been carried out in 26 males and females. Total body water and FFM may be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion by T.B.W.=0.0165 Cr. +17.773. FFM=0.0225 Cr. +17.446. In this subjects a high correlation (r=0.874) was found between T.B.W, FFM and urinary creatinine excretion. It appears that FFM can be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion.

  13. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Uchida, Kazushige; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Fukui, Toshiro; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of γ-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

  14. Urinary steroid profile in females - the impact of menstrual cycle and emergency contraceptives.

    Mullen, Jenny E; Thörngren, John-Olof; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Gårevik, Nina; Lehtihet, Mikael; Ekström, Lena

    2017-07-01

    Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study, we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®). The study shows that there are large individual variations in all metabolites included in the ABP and that the administration of emergency contraceptives may lead to suspicious steroid profile findings in the ABP. Urinary epitestosterone concentration increased during the menstrual cycle, leading to a decrease in the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. The ratios followed in the ABP varied widely throughout the menstrual cycle, the coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4 to 99%. There was a 3-fold decrease in epitestosterone 24 h post administration of the emergency contraceptive pill and androsterone, etiocholanolone, and 5β- androstan-3α,17β-diol concentrations decreased about 2-fold. When analyzed with the ABP software, one of the six women had an atypical profile after taking the emergency contraceptive. Furthermore, we could not find any alterations in excretion routes (i.e., if the metabolites are excreted as glucuronide or sulfate conjugates) during the menstrual cycle or after administration of emergency contraceptive, indicating no direct effect on phase II enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Significance of stepwise excretion pattern in renogram

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru; Bito, Sanae; Ito, Hidetomi

    1981-01-01

    In 204 routine renogram examinations using 131 I-iodohippurate, stepwise excretion curves were observed in 22 cases (14 with chronic thyroiditis, 4 with idiopathic edema, 3 with lower urinary tract disorders, and 1 with Bartter's syndrome). Such a phenomenon was observed in 74% of euthyroid edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis and 57% of patients with idiopathic edema. The stepwise pattern was considered to have certain correlations with spasm or increased peristalsis of the urinary tract through the studies of excretory urogram, butylscopolamine treated renogram, and regional renogram. In one of these edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis, this renogram pattern could not be reproduced after bed rest corresponding with the clinical evidence that physical rest reduce the edema. Thus, the stepwise excretory pattern in renogram seemed to be a useful indicator of the fluctuating edema in patients with chronic thyroiditis and idiopathic edema. (author)

  16. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  17. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja K; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    increased more with the consumption of both the milk (5.2 ± 0.4 g/d) and cheese (5.7 ± 0.4 g/d) diets than with the control diet (3.9 ± 0.3 g/d) (P triglycerides, and lipid ratios did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  18. Influence of dietary protein and fructooligosaccharides on fecal fermentative end-products, fecal bacterial populations and apparent total tract digestibility in dogs.

    Pinna, Carlo; Vecchiato, Carla Giuditta; Bolduan, Carmen; Grandi, Monica; Stefanelli, Claudio; Windisch, Wilhelm; Zaghini, Giuliano; Biagi, Giacomo

    2018-03-20

    Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content. Twelve healthy adult dogs were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin Square design to determine the effects of four diets: 1) Low protein diet (LP, crude protein (CP) 229 g/kg dry matter (DM)); 2) High protein diet (HP, CP 304 g/kg DM); 3) Diet 1 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg; 4) Diet 2 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg. The diets contained silica at 5 g/kg as a digestion marker. Differences in protein content were obtained using different amounts of a highly digestible swine greaves meal. Each feeding period lasted 28 d, with a 12 d wash-out in between periods. Fecal samples were collected from dogs at 0, 21 and 28 d of each feeding period. Feces excreted during the last five days of each feeding period were collected and pooled in order to evaluate ATTD. Higher fecal ammonia concentrations were observed both when dogs received the HP diets (p < 0.001) and the supplementation with FOS (p < 0.05). The diets containing FOS resulted in greater ATTD of DM, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Fe (p < 0.05) while HP diets were characterized by lower crude ash ATTD (p < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed between FOS and protein concentration in regards to fecal pH (p < 0.05), propionic acid (p < 0.05), acetic to propionic acid and acetic + n-butyric to propionic acid ratios (p < 0.01), bifidobacteria (p < 0.05) and ATTD of CP (p < 0.05) and Mn (p < 0.001). A relatively moderate increase of dietary protein resulted in higher concentrations of ammonia in

  19. The Use of Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Fontan population.

    Miranda, Carlos; Taqatqa, Anas; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Holton, Jacob P; Awad, Sawsan M

    2018-03-01

    The Fontan procedure was first performed in the seventies as a palliation for patients with single ventricle physiology. A feared complication after a Fontan procedure is the development of protein losing enteropathy (PLE). Systemic inflammation has a negative effect on the intestinal barrier integrity, which has supported the use of steroids in this setting. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies linking intestinal inflammation in patients with PLE after Fontan. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of intestinal inflammation measured by FC in patients with PLE after a Fontan procedure. A cross-sectional analysis was performed examining 23 stool samples from 23 Fontan patients for both Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (FA1AT) and FC with and without PLE. The median FC was 21 mcg/gm of stool (IQR: 15.7-241 mcg/gm of stool), and the median FA1AT was 40 mg/dL (IQR: 30-220 mg/dL). The median FC and FA1AT were significantly higher in the PLE group than in the Non-PLE group (p = 0.002 and p PLE, which correlated with the elevated levels of FA1AT. Inversely, levels of FC in Fontan patients without suspected PLE were within the normal range. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate intestinal inflammation using FC in the setting of PLE within this cohort, and may prove to be useful as a diagnostic tool in its treatment.

  20. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor

    Stojanovic, Ivan; Baumgartner, W.; van der Velden, T.J.G.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2016-01-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed

  1. Catecholamine, Corticosteroid and Ketone Excretion in Exercise and Hypoxia,

    OHCS excretion tended to be higher during the experimental period and subsequently lower overnight during the hypoxia week. Ketosis occurred in two...subjects. In one of these it could be readily related to previous extraneous stress. Excretion of unidentified ketones in overnight urines was sometimes suspected and occurred beyond doubt following gross ketosis . (Author)

  2. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  3. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were

  4. Urinary excretion of unconjugated and conjugated 3,5-diiodothyronine

    Hommel, E; Faber, J; Kirkegaard, C

    1985-01-01

    was 276 pmol/d, whereas the median excretion of glucuronidated and sulfated 3,5-T2 in 7 healthy subjects was 448 and 451 pmol/d, respectively. The median excretion of 154 pmol/d in 9 hypothyroid patients did not differ from that found in controls. In contrast 12 patients with hyperthyroidism had...

  5. Circadian variation of urinary albumin excretion in pregnancy

    Douma, C. E.; van der Post, J. A.; van Acker, B. A.; Boer, K.; Koopman, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was tested that circadian variations in urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women in the third trimester of normal pregnancy are different from nonpregnant individuals. DESIGN: Circadian variability in urinary albumin excretion was studied both in pregnant women and in

  6. The influence of serial fecal sampling on the diagnosis of giardiasis in humans, dogs, and cats.

    Uchôa, Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Macieira, Daniel de Barros; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2017-08-24

    Giardia infection is a common clinical problem in humans and pets. The diagnosis of giardiasis is challenging as hosts intermittently excrete protozoan cysts in their feces. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated two methods of serial fecal sampling in humans, dogs, and cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Faust et al. technique was used to examine fecal specimens collected in triplicate from 133 patients (52 humans, 60 dogs, and 21 cats). Specimens from 74 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on consecutive days - 34 humans, 35 dogs, and 5 cats, and specimens from 59 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on non-consecutive, separate days - 18 human beings, 25 dogs, and 16 cats. G. duodenalis cysts were found in stools of 30 individuals. Multiple stool sampling resulted in an increase in the number of samples that were positive for Giardia in both groups. The authors therefore conclude that multiple stool sampling increases the sensitivity of the Faust et al . technique to detect G. duodenalis cysts in samples from humans, cats and dogs.

  7. Effects of sex and time of day on metabolism and excretion of corticosterone in urine and feces of mice.

    Touma, Chadi; Sachser, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Palme, Rupert

    2003-02-15

    Non-invasive techniques to monitor stress hormones in small animals like mice offer several advantages and are highly demanded in laboratory as well as in field research. Since knowledge about the species-specific metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids is essential to develop such a technique, we conducted radiometabolism studies in mice (Mus musculus f. domesticus, strain C57BL/6J). Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 740 kBq of 3H-labelled corticosterone and all voided urine and fecal samples were collected for five days. In a first experiment 16 animals (eight of each sex) received the injection at 9 a.m., while eight mice (four of each sex) were injected at 9 p.m. in a second experiment. In both experiments radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the feces, although males excreted significantly higher proportions via the feces (about 73%) than females (about 53%). Peak radioactivity in the urine was detected within about 2h after injection, while in the feces peak concentrations were observed later (depending on the time of injection: about 10h postinjection in experiment 1 and about 4h postinjection in experiment 2, thus proving an effect of the time of day). The number and relative abundance of fecal [3H]corticosterone metabolites was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC separations revealed that corticosterone was extensively metabolized mainly to more polar substances. Regarding the types of metabolites formed, significant differences were found between males and females, but not between the experiments. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of these metabolites was assessed by screening the HPLC fractions with four enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, only a newly established EIA for 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,11beta,21-triol-20-one (measuring corticosterone metabolites with a 5alpha-3beta,11beta-diol structure) detected several peaks of radioactive metabolites with high intensity in both sexes, while

  8. The influence of different Ca and P ratios in feed on phosphorus turnover and endogenous excretion in growing broiler chicks by means of 32 P isotope

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1994-04-01

    Endogenous excretion and absorption (turnover) of phosphorus by male broiler chicks (14-29 day old) were quantitatively evaluated in relation to different Ca: P ratios in four groups of experimental diets: (I=1:1, II=1.5:1, III=2:1, IV=2.5:1), adlibitum. The feed mixtures contained 0.6% P in DM. in all groups. Dicalcium phosphate and calcium-Carbonate were added as sources of supplemental P and Ca in experimental diets. At 14 days of age, the chicks were injected with 32 P-Na Po 4 intramuscularly in the right leg (6.037 MBq). Isotope dilution technique was used to determine endogenous fecal and renal P excretion. Calcium and phosphorus retentions in the whole-body were calculated according to the comparative slaughter technique. From retention and endogenous excretion, P turnover within the animal was determined. The following results were obtained: Turnover and endogenous excretion of phosphorus amounted (mgP/day/animal): 304, 270, 160 and 158 and 135, 109, 31 and 30 in groups (I, II, III and IV) respectively. The efficiency of utilization of feed phosphorus and calcium retention in the body amounted 36%, 34%, 26% and 24% and 43%, 29%, 21% and 17% in the four groups, respectively. A comparison of relative endogenous excretion of availability of feed phosphorus (group I=100) in the four treatments resulted in: 100:83:24:23 or 100:86:48:45, respectively 56%(I), 60%(II), 81%(III,IV) of P-turnover were retained, respectively. The ratio of relative retention to relative endogenous excretion of absorbed phosphorus was 1.27(I), 1.50(II), 4.26(III and IV), and the ratio of calcium retention to phosphorus retention in the whole body was 1.21(I), 1.25(II), 1.70(III) and 1.71(IV). (author). 47 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  9. Ethosuximide: liver enzyme induction and D-glucaric acid excretion.

    Gilbert, J C; Scott, A K; Galloway, D B; Petrie, J C

    1974-06-01

    1 A study has been carried out to determine if ethosuximide induces liver enzymes. 2 Ethosuximide did not affect the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid by healthy adult subjects nor was the mean daily D-glucaric acid excretion of three epileptic children on long term ethosuximide therapy different from that of three matched controls. 3 Ethosuximide (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg daily) did not influence D-glucaric acid excretion or liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 contents of guinea pigs but at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily in rats it increased liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 without altering D-glucaric acid excretion. 4 These results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses ethosuximide is unlikely to induce liver enzymes. The precise relationship between D-glucaric acid excretion and liver enzyme induction remains in doubt.

  10. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette A; Ibsen, Ida B; Hau, Jann; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-05-15

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal study, fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were quantified during periods of rest and exposure to hypothesized stressors. FCM quantification was combined with behavioral analysis to further contextualize the measured increases. It was shown that both daily 5-minute handling/restraint, as well as housing devoid of climbing opportunity, resulted in increased FCM excretion. Behavioral analysis suggested that the iguanas were chronically stressed by the lack of climbing opportunity, whereas handling may have induced only a transient stress response. The experimental design, using repeated periods of stressor-exposure, also revealed a facilitating effect, where the two stressors potentiated one another. Furthermore, the order of the two stressors was found to be important. The study provides insight into the functioning of the hormonal stress response in green iguanas, and to the refining of their housing and handling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 1

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of metabolic fecal amino acids (MFAA) in dependence on the amino acid intake was determined for graded maize rations in 15 N-labelled rats and the part of labelled endogenous amino acids in feces was calculated by the isotope dilution method. The excretion of amino acids and MFAA in feces are described as functions of the amino acid intake for 17 amino acids and calculated regressively. For all 17 amino acids investigated, there was a more or less steep increase of MFAA according to an increasing amino acid intake. In contrast to N-free feeding, the MFAA increase to the 2- to 4.5-fold value in feeding with pure maize (16.5% crude protein). The thesis of the constancy of the excretion of MFAA can consequently be no longer maintained. The true digestibility according to the conventional method is, on an average of all amino acids, 7.3 units below ascertained according to the 15 N method. The limiting amino acids lysine and threonine revealed the greatest difference. Tryptophane as first limiting amino acid could not be determined. The true digestibility of nearly all amino acids ascertained for maize by the isotope method is above 90%. (author)

  12. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  13. Weight gain after fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Alang, Neha; Kelly, Colleen R

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We report a case of a woman successfully treated with FMT who developed new-onset obesity after receiving stool from a healthy but overweight donor. This case may stimulate further studies on the mechanisms of the nutritional-neural-microbiota axis and reports of outcomes in patients who have used nonideal donors for FMT.

  14. Dietary effects on human fecal microbiota

    Simões, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of microbial populations in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract is a complex process, involving microbial and host interactions eventually resulting in a dense and stable population. Recently, the identification of microbial species from fecal samples has become more accurate with the use of 16S RNA gene-based methods. However, although these molecular-based detection methods have apparent benefits over culture-based techniques, they involve potential pitfalls that should be tak...

  15. Estimates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Fecal Coliforms Entering the Environment Due to Inadequate Sanitation Treatment Technologies in 108 Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Fuhrmeister, Erica R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Julian, Timothy R

    2015-10-06

    Understanding the excretion and treatment of human waste (feces and urine) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is necessary to design appropriate waste management strategies. However, excretion and treatment are often difficult to quantify due to decentralization of excreta management. We address this gap by developing a mechanistic, stochastic model to characterize phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fecal coliform pollution from human excreta for 108 LMICs. The model estimates excretion and treatment given three scenarios: (1) use of existing sanitation systems, (2) use of World Health Organization-defined "improved sanitation", and (3) use of best available technologies. Our model estimates that more than 10(9) kg/yr each of phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD are produced. Of this, 22(19-27)%, 11(7-15)%, 17(10-23)%, and 35 (23-47)% (mean and 95% range) BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms, respectively, are removed by existing sanitation systems. Our model estimates that upgrading to "improved sanitation" increases mean removal slightly to between 17 and 53%. Under the best available technology scenario, only approximately 60-80% of pollutants are treated. To reduce impact of nutrient and microbial pollution on human and environmental health, improvements in both access to adequate sanitation and sanitation treatment efficiency are needed.

  16. Sample preparation optimization in fecal metabolic profiling.

    Deda, Olga; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Fasoula, Stella; Palachanis, Dimitris; Raikos, Νicolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Gika, Helen G

    2017-03-15

    Metabolomic analysis of feces can provide useful insight on the metabolic status, the health/disease state of the human/animal and the symbiosis with the gut microbiome. As a result, recently there is increased interest on the application of holistic analysis of feces for biomarker discovery. For metabolomics applications, the sample preparation process used prior to the analysis of fecal samples is of high importance, as it greatly affects the obtained metabolic profile, especially since feces, as matrix are diversifying in their physicochemical characteristics and molecular content. However there is still little information in the literature and lack of a universal approach on sample treatment for fecal metabolic profiling. The scope of the present work was to study the conditions for sample preparation of rat feces with the ultimate goal of the acquisition of comprehensive metabolic profiles either untargeted by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS or targeted by HILIC-MS/MS. A fecal sample pooled from male and female Wistar rats was extracted under various conditions by modifying the pH value, the nature of the organic solvent and the sample weight to solvent volume ratio. It was found that the 1/2 (w f /v s ) ratio provided the highest number of metabolites under neutral and basic conditions in both untargeted profiling techniques. Concerning LC-MS profiles, neutral acetonitrile and propanol provided higher signals and wide metabolite coverage, though extraction efficiency is metabolite dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  18. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  19. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  20. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa

  1. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  2. Reduction of Salmonella Shedding by Sows during Gestation in Relation to Its Fecal Microbiome

    Guillaume Larivière-Gauthier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pork meat is estimated to be responsible for 10–20% of human salmonellosis cases in Europe. Control strategies at the farm could reduce contamination at the slaughterhouse. One of the targeted sectors of production is maternity, where sows could be Salmonella reservoirs. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of shedding of Salmonella in terms of variation in both shedding prevalence and strains excreted during gestation in Quebec’s maternity sector. The evolution of the fecal microbiota of these sows during gestation was also assessed to detect bacterial populations associated with these variations. A total of 73 sows both at the beginning and the end of the gestation were randomly selected and their fecal matter was analyzed. Salmonella detection was conducted using a method that includes two selective enrichment media (MSRV and TBG. Nine isolates per positive samples were collected. Among the 73 sows tested, 27 were shedding Salmonella. Sows in the first third of their gestation shed Salmonella significantly more frequently (21/27 than those in the last third (6/46 (χ2P < 0.05. The shedding status of 19 of the sows that were previously sampled in the first third of their gestation was followed, this time in the last third of their gestation, which confirmed reduction of shedding. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR, significant differences between the fecal flora of sows at the beginning and the end of the gestation, shedding Salmonella or not and with different parity number were detected. Using MaAsLin, multiple OTUs were found to be associated with the time of gestation, the status of Salmonella excretion and parity number. Some of the identified taxa could be linked to the reduction of the shedding of Salmonella at the end of gestation. In this study, we showed that the level of Salmonella shedding was variable during gestation with significantly higher shedding at the beginning rather than at the end of gestation. We

  3. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function and salivary gland function in autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid therapy.

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Egawa, Naoto; Inokuma, Shigeko; Tsuruta, Kouji; Okamoto, Atsutake; Kamata, Noriko; Nakamura, Teruo; Matsukawa, Masakatsu

    2003-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct clinical entity in which an autoimmune mechanism may be involved in pathogenesis. To investigate salivary gland function in addition to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in patients with AIP, and to determine changes occurring after steroid therapy. Fasting serum glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests or glycosylated hemoglobin values were examined in 19 patients with AIP. N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid excretion test, sialochemistry and parotid gland scintigraphy were performed in 8 patients. Eight patients had evidence of DM. Steroid therapy subsequently improved insulin secretion and glycemic control in 3 of 5 patients treated. Pancreatic exocrine function was reduced in 88% of patients. Impaired pancreatic exocrine function improved after steroid therapy in 3 of 6 patients treated. The 3 patients also showed treatment-related improvement in endocrine function. Concentration of beta2-microglobulin in saliva was significantly raised in patients with AIP compared with controls (P gland dysfunction improved after steroid therapy in all 5 patients treated. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine and salivary gland function were frequently impaired in patients with AIP, and steroid therapy was occasionally effective for these dysfunctions.

  4. Excretion of infectious hepatitis E virus into milk in cows imposes high risks of zoonosis.

    Huang, Fen; Li, Yunlong; Yu, Wenhai; Jing, Shenrong; Wang, Jue; Long, Feiyan; He, Zhanlong; Yang, Chenchen; Bi, Yanhong; Cao, Wentao; Liu, Chengbo; Hua, Xiuguo; Pan, Qiuwei

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the main cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. HEV infection in immunocompromised patients involves a high risk for the development of chronic hepatitis. Because HEV is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen, it is currently believed that swine is the primary reservoir. However, this is not sufficient to justify the strikingly high seroprevalence of HEV in both developing and Western countries. Thus, this study aimed to identify new zoonotic sources that bear a high risk of transmission to humans. We collected fecal, blood, and milk samples of cows in a typical rural region of Yunnan Province in southwest China, where mixed farming of domestic animals is a common practice. HEV RNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the whole genome was sequenced. HEV infectivity was assessed in rhesus macaques. We found a high prevalence of active HEV infection in cows as determined by viral RNA positivity in fecal samples. Surprisingly, we discovered that HEV is excreted into milk that is produced by infected cows. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from cow/milk belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h. Gavage with HEV-contaminated raw and even pasteurized milk resulted in active infection in rhesus macaques. Importantly, a short period of boiling, but not pasteurization, could completely inactivate HEV. Infectious HEV-contaminated cow milk is recognized as a new zoonotic source that bears a high risk of transmission to humans; these results call attention to understanding and establishing proper measurement and control of HEV zoonotic transmission, particularly in the setting of mixed farming of domestic animals. (Hepatology 2016;64:350-359). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Quantification of fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Chelini M.O.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to the utilization of laboratory animal blood and its by-products are particularly attractive, especially regarding hamsters due to their small size and difficulties in obtaining serial blood samples. Steroid hormone metabolite quantification in feces, widely used in studies of free-ranging or intractable animals, is a non-invasive, non-stressor, economical, and animal saving technique which allows longitudinal studies by permitting frequent sampling of the same individual. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for laboratory animals. Estradiol and progesterone metabolites were quantified by radioimmunoassay in feces of intact, sexually mature female Syrian hamsters during the estrous cycle (control and in feces of superovulated females. Metabolites were extracted by fecal dilution in ethanol and quantified by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations were 9.703 and 180.74 ng/g feces in the control group, respectively. Peaks of estrogen (22.44 ± 4.54 ng/g feces and progesterone (655.95 ± 129.93 ng/g feces mean fecal concentrations respectively occurred 12 h before and immediately after ovulation, which is easily detected in this species by observation of a characteristic vaginal postovulatory discharge. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations (28.159 and 586.57 ng/g feces, respectively were significantly higher in superovulated animal feces (P < 0.0001. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to monitor ovarian activity in Syrian hamsters non-invasively by measuring fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites. This technique appears to be a quite encouraging method for the development of new endocrinologic studies on laboratory animals.

  6. Quantum behaviors on an excreting black hole

    Lindesay, James

    2009-01-01

    Often, geometries with horizons offer insights into the intricate relationships between general relativity and quantum physics. However, some subtle aspects of gravitating quantum systems might be difficult to ascertain using static backgrounds, since quantum mechanics incorporates dynamic measurability constraints (such as the uncertainty principle, etc). For this reason, the behaviors of quantum systems on a dynamic black hole background are explored in this paper. The velocities and trajectories of representative outgoing, ingoing and stationary classical particles are calculated and contrasted, and the dynamics of simple quantum fields (both massless and massive) on the spacetime are examined. Invariant densities associated with the quantum fields are exhibited on the Penrose diagram that represents the excreting black hole. Furthermore, a generic approach for the consistent mutual gravitation of quanta in a manner that reproduces the given geometry is developed. The dynamics of the mutually gravitating quantum fields are expressed in terms of the affine parameter that describes local motions of a given quantum type on the spacetime. Algebraic equations that relate the energy-momentum densities of the quantum fields to Einstein's tensor can then be developed. An example mutually gravitating system of macroscopically coherent quanta along with a core gravitating field is demonstrated. Since the approach is generic and algebraic, it can be used to represent a variety of systems with specified boundary conditions.

  7. Tissue distribution, excretion and hepatic biotransformation of microcystin-LR in mice

    Robinson, N.A.; Pace, J.G.; Matson, C.F.; Miura, G.A.; Lawrence, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution, excretion and hepatic metabolism of [3H]microcystin-LR (sublethal i.v.) were measured in mice. Plasma elimination was biexponential with alpha- and beta-phase half-lives of 0.8 and 6.9 min, respectively. At 60 min, liver contained 67 +/- 4% of dose. Through the 6-day study the amount of hepatic radioactivity did not change whereas 23.7 +/- 1.7% of the dose was excreted; 9.2 +/- 1.0% in urine and 14.5 +/- 1.1% in feces. Approximately 60% of the urine and fecal radiolabel 6 and 12 hr postinjection was the parent toxin. Hepatic cytosol, which contained 70 +/- 2% of the hepatic radiolabel (1 hr through 6 days), was prepared for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis by heat denaturation, pronase digestion and C18 Sep Pak extraction. At 1 hr, 35 +/- 2% of the radiolabel was insoluble or C18 Sep Pak-bound; 43 +/- 3% was associated with a peak of retention time (rt) 6.6 min, and 16 +/- 3% with the parent toxin (rt 9.4 min). After 6 days, 8 +/- 1% was C18 Sep Pak-bound or insoluble; 5 +/- 0% occurred at rt 6.6 min, 17 +/- 1% with parent and 60 +/- 2% was associated with rt 8.1 min. Two other peaks, rt 4.9 and 5.6 min, appeared transiently. Analysis of hepatic cytosol by desalting chromatography under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions revealed that all of the radiolabel was associated with cytosolic components, and 83 +/- 5% was bound covalently through 1 day. By day 6 the amount of covalently bound isotope decreased to 42 +/- 11%. This is the first study to describe the long-term hepatic retention of microcystin toxin and documents putative detoxication products

  8. Excretion of metrizamide (Amipaque) in humans following lumbar subarachnoid injection

    Amundsen, P.; Weber, H.; Hoel, L.; Golman, K.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of metrizamide through the kidneys and intestinal tract was determined in 10 patients submitted to myelography because of sciatica, for a period of 7 days following the examination. In the faeces, less than 5 per cent of the injected contrast medium was recovered during this period. Total recovery in the urine varied considerably from patient to patient, but most of the contrast medium was excreted during the first 48 hours. From the fourth day on, only small amounts were excreted, but even on the 7th day 3 to 11 mg iodine remained, which corresponds to 6 to 22 mg of metrizamide. (Auth.)

  9. Urinary detection of conjugated and unconjugated anabolic steroids by dilute-and-shoot liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Tudela, Eva; Deventer, Koen; Geldof, Lore; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are an important class of doping agents. The metabolism of these substances is generally very extensive and includes phase-I and phase-II pathways. In this work, a comprehensive detection of these metabolites is described using a 2-fold dilution of urine and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The method was applied to study 32 different metabolites, excreted free or conjugated (glucuronide or sulfate), which permit the detection of misuse of at least 21 anabolic steroids. The method has been fully validated for 21 target compounds (8 glucuronide, 1 sulfate and 12 free steroids) and 18 out of 21 compounds had detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng mL(-1) in urine. For the conjugated compounds, for which no reference standards are available, metabolites were synthesized in vitro or excretion studies were investigated. The detection limits for these compounds ranged between 0.5 and 18 ng mL(-1) in urine. The simple and straightforward methodology complements the traditional methods based on hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A common deletion in the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 2B17 gene is a strong determinant of androgen excretion in healthy pubertal boys

    Juul, A; Sørensen, K; Aksglaede, L

    2008-01-01

    2B17 genotypes on urinary excretion of androgen metabolites in pubertal boys. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical study of 116 healthy boys aged 8-19 yr. UGT2B17 genotyping was performed using quantitative PCR. Serum FSH, LH, T, estradiol (E2), and SHBG were analyzed by immunoassays, and urinary levels......BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T) is excreted in urine as water-soluble glucuronidated and sulfated conjugates. The ability to glucuronidate T and other steroids depends on a number of different glucuronidases (UGT) of which UGT2B17 is essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of UGT...... of androgen metabolites were quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in all subjects. RESULTS: Ten of 116 subjects (9%) presented with a homozygote deletion of the UGT2B17 gene (del/del), whereas 52 and 54 boys were hetero- and homozygous carriers of the UGT2B17 gene (del/ins and ins...

  11. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    ... Endocrinology Products, warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  12. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  13. Fecal incontinence after single-stage Soave's pull-through ...

    Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2012) > ... Demographic, clinical data, preoperative investigations, operative records, postoperative ... Keywords: fecal continence, Hirschsprung's disease, Soave's operation, transanal endorectal pull-through ...

  14. Steroid profile and IRMS analysis of musk administration for doping control.

    Wang, Jingzhu; He, Yi; Liu, Xin; Yang, Zhiyong; Yang, Wenning

    2017-11-01

    Musk, the dried secretion of the musk pod (sac) of adult male musk deer, has been used as traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China and south-east Asian countries for thousands of years. Due to the anabolic steroid component in this TCM, musk preparations have been included in the list of medical products containing prohibited substances employed for doping by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The application of musk pod formulation was claimed to be responsible for some adverse analytical findings (AAFs) in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Our preliminary study has suggested that musk ingestion did not lead to AAFs of doping control with the single dosage of 100 mg. However, the influences of musk administration in large and multi dosage are still unclear. The aim of this study is to further investigate the influences of musk administration for doping control. Wild and domestic deer musk samples were collected. The concentrations and δ 13 C-values of steroids in musk were analyzed. In an excretion study, 200 and 100 mg of wild and domestic deer musk samples were administrated by 29 subjects, respectively. Fluctuations in steroid profile could be observed, and the ratio of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol to 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol was more sensitive than other parameters. In the IRMS test, the ∆Δδ 13 C-value between endogenous reference compound and etiocholanolone was a sensitive parameter, and AAFs were obtained. It is the first time to confirm with excretion study that musk administration could lead to positive result of doping control. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  16. Equations to Estimate Creatinine Excretion Rate : The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel, Christina L.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Beck, Gerald J.; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background and objectives Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants

  17. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  18. Study on the excretion of pb-210 and po-210

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    The amount of Po-210 excreted in urine and feces was more influenced by Po-210 that was taken with food and drink than taken through inhalation. The amount of Pb-210 in urine of mining workers among uranium mine workers was higher than that of the non-uranium mine workers. It was thought that this fact was due to the working environment in uranium mine the amount of Pb-210 being a few tens times higher than that in normal environment. The activity ratios of Po-210 of faecal to urinary excretion are widely distributed, however, the average value of many samples approached to 10. Urinary excretion of Po-210 was highest after 24 hours of ingestion, but for faecal excretion, it was highest after 3 day.

  19. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  20. CADMIUM EXCRETION IN FECES OF RATS AT EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    O. A. Zemlianyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrated that the excretions per 1 gof rat weight inthe experimental group usually prevails over the  control group, especially in the second part of the experiment. The increase in the amount of feces in animals of the experimental group was also registered. Such processes may indicate the intense excretory processes and  increase the output of harmful  pollutants from the rats  together with overall stimulation of rat digestive activity. The higher correlations between Cd and other pollutants, namely toxic Ni and Pb (r = 0.84 and 0.91, respectively were calculated for rat feces of experimental group compared to the control. The concentration of Cd and Pb in the excretion of experimental group was maximal in the first day of the experiment, suggesting definite reaction towards rapid output of maximum amount of toxicants from rat body. Subsequently, a decrease in concentration of other pollutants demonstrated their incorporation in metabolic processes and significant accumulation in rat body (kidney and liver, or involvement of other mechanisms for neutralization and removal of intoxicants. Given the increasing amount of excretions  in the second half of the experiment, this may be a solution to this issue. The Cd output per 1 g of rat weight was maximal in the first day, followed by a rapid decline and partial restoration in second half of the experiment. Obviously, it confirms the theory of substitution mechanisms in excretion of significant amount of hazardous toxicants and shifting towards less concentrated excretions in greater amount. Thus, the correlation index between the percentage of excreted pollutant and its concentration in the excretion was 0.75. When we considered only the first 7 days this increased to 0.91 and proved that during the first stage of experiment the percentage of pollutants excretion was dependent upon its concentration in feces. Correlation between Cd output rate and excretion volumes was

  1. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  2. The fecal presence of enterotoxin and F4 genes as an indicator of efficacy of treatment with colistin sulfate in pigs.

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Fairbrother, John Morris; Thériault, William; Beaudry, Francis; Bergeron, Nadia; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Letellier, Ann

    2017-01-05

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing multiple enterotoxins are important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the fecal presence of ETEC enterotoxin as well as F4 and F18 genes as an indicator of colistin sulfate (CS) efficacy for treatment of PWD in pigs. Forty-eight piglets were weaned at the age of 21 days, and were divided into four groups: challenged treated, challenged untreated, unchallenged treated, and unchallenged untreated. Challenge was performed using 10 9  CFU of an ETEC: F4 strain, and treatment was conducted using oral CS at the dose of 50,000 IU/kg. The fecal presence of genes encoding for STa, STb, LT, F4 and F18 was detected using PCR. The PCR amplification of ETEC virulence genes showed that nearly 100% of pigs excreted genes encoding for STa and STb toxins in the feces before the challenge. These genes, in the absence of the gene encoding F4, were considered as a marker for F4-negative ETEC. One day after ETEC: F4 oral challenge pigs in the two challenged groups excreted the genes encoding LT and F4 in the feces. These genes were considered as a marker for F4-positive ETEC. However, the gene encoding F18 was not detected in any fecal samples of the 4 groups throughout the experiment. After only 3 days of successive oral treatment with CS, a significant reduction in both the F4-positive and negative ETEC populations was observed in the challenged treated group compared to the challenged untreated group (p F4-positive and F4-negative ETEC in pigs. However, CS clinical efficiency was correlated with non-detection of F4-positive ETEC in the feces. Furthermore the fecal presence of F4-negative ETEC was not associated with clinical symptoms of post-weaning diarrhea in pigs.

  3. Species differences in biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene

    Weyand, E.H.; Bevan, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was investigated in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs following intratracheal administration. [ 3 H]-B[a]P, in amounts of approximately 150 ng or 350 μg, was instilled into lungs and amounts of radioactivity excreted in bile were monitored for six hrs following administration. Differences in biliary excretion of [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites among species were observed at low doses but not at high doses. Six hours after instillation of a low dose of B[a]P, 70, 54, and 62% of the dose was excreted in bile of rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs, respectively. Upon administration of the higher dose of B[a]P, approximately 50% of the dose was excreted in bile in six hrs by all species. Thus, rats and guinea pigs exhibit differences in biliary excretion of low and high doses of B[a]P whereas hamsters do not. Profiles of phase II metabolites in rats and hamsters were similar at both low and high doses, with the majority of metabolites being glucuronides and thioether conjugates. However, differences in relative amounts of these conjugates were observed between the two doses, with a shift towards a greater proportion of glucuronides at the higher dose. Metabolites in bile from guinea pigs were primarily thioether conjugates, which accounted for 88% of metabolites at the low dose and 95% at the high dose

  4. Estimation of skeletal plutonium levels based on DTPA-induced radionuclide excretion in feces: possible application to man

    Bhattacharyya, M H; Guilmette, R A; Peterson, D P; Chao, F C; Lindinbaum, A [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1978-06-01

    A new approach to the estimation of plutonium (Pu) levels in the skeleton based on measurements of Pu excretion in the feces following treatment with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) is presented. The estimation method was tested in groups of mice receiving either 0.5 or 5 ..mu.. Ci/kg of /sup 239/Pu(IV) citrate, and treated with Na/sub 3/(CaDTPA) starting either at 1 hr or 24 hr after Pu administration. In the case of DTPA treatment begun at 1 hr, the ratio of skeletal Pu content at 1 hr, S, to DTPA-induced fecal excretion of Pu, F, was 1.08 +- 0.03. When DTPA treatment was begun at 24 hr, the corresponding S/F ratio was 1.68 +- 0.08 and was independent of Pu injection level. In the mouse, therefore, a reasonable estimate of skeletal Pu content just prior to treatment can be determined from the amount of Pu measured in the feces following DTPA therapy. Application of this method to species other than the mouse is examined, with anticipation that the method might be applicable to cases of human exposure.

  5. Excretion of enterovirus 71 in persons infected with hand, foot and mouth disease

    Li Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is a common illness in young children. It also can be seen in adults occasionally. Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a pathogen that causes not only HFMD but also neurological complications and even death, has caused many HFMD outbreaks in China. However, till now the data about the duration of EV71 shedding is very limited. Results A total of 136 throat swabs and fecal samples were collected from 27 children and 3 adults, which includs 7 close contacts, 9 mild cases and 14 severe cases,. The participants were divided into three groups namely, severe case group, mild case group and close contact group. All the samples were assayed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Kruskal-Wallis Test was employed to compare the difference in duration of viral RNA shedding among three groups. The results showed that significant difference in duration of EV71 shedding was found among three groups (P  Conclusions HFMD is characterized by extended excretion of EV71. Our results suggest that the duration of EV71 shedding is correlated with the severity of the disease. EV71 shedding through feces can persist more than 54 days. Prolonged virus shedding is a potential risk factor of proliferating HFMD epidemic.

  6. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  7. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of [14C]-Volixibat in Healthy Men: Phase 1 Open-Label Study.

    Siebers, Nicholas; Palmer, Melissa; Silberg, Debra G; Jennings, Lee; Bliss, Caleb; Martin, Patrick T

    2018-02-01

    Volixibat is a potent inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in development for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This phase 1, open-label study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [ 14 C]-volixibat in heathy men. Eligible men (n = 8) aged 18-50 years (body mass index 18.0-30.0 kg/m 2 ; weight >50 kg) received a single oral dose of [ 14 C]-volixibat 50 mg containing ~5.95 µCi radioactivity. The primary objectives were to assess the pharmacokinetics of [ 14 C]-volixibat and to determine the total radioactivity in whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces at pre-selected time points over 6 days. The secondary objectives were to characterize metabolites and to assess the safety and tolerability. Low concentrations of volixibat (range 0-0.179 ng/mL) were detected in plasma up to 8 h following administration; the pharmacokinetic parameters could not be calculated. No radioactivity was observed in plasma or whole blood. The percentage (mean ± standard deviation) of total radioactivity in urine was 0.01 ± 0.007%. The vast majority (92.3 ± 5.25%) of volixibat was recovered in feces (69.2 ± 33.1% within 24 h). Unchanged volixibat was the only radioactive component detected in feces. Adverse events were mild in severity and mostly gastrointestinal. Changes in laboratory values were not clinically meaningful. Following oral administration, [ 14 C]-volixibat was excreted unchanged from the parent compound almost exclusively via fecal excretion, indicating that the drug is minimally absorbed. Consistent with other studies, adverse events were primarily gastrointestinal in nature. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02571192.

  10. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal Pollution Measurement

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, cr...

  11. STEROIDS MOST OFTEN USED BY SPORTSMEN

    Goran Vasić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abusage of steroids can cause serious health problems some of which are incurable, such as liver cancer. They cause a series of other effects: pimples, hairiness, boldness, gynecomastness, headaches, impotence, problems with heart and kidney functions. In addition to physical disorders, there are psychological problems too, such as aggression, depression and even addiction. Why do sportsmen abuse steroids? The main reason is to improve results in sports competitions. Others do that in order to increase muscular mass and decrease fat tissue. So you should decide for yourselves – steroids or health?

  12. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  13. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  14. Effects of supplementing lactic acid bacteria on fecal microbiota ...

    Results: The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum strain L.p X3-2B increased fecal lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Bifidobacterium while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Viable counts of LAB and Bifidobacterium reached 8 log cfu/mL after feeding for 14 days. Fecal pH in the control group was high in ...

  15. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study.

    Flores, Roberto; Shi, Jianxin; Fuhrman, Barbara; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D; Gail, Mitchell H; Gajer, Pawel; Ravel, Jacques; Goedert, James J

    2012-12-21

    High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM), and their sum (total estrogens) were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences), high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM) were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003). These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57-0.70, P=0.03-0.002). Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with functional activity of fecal β-glucuronidase (R=0.36, P=0

  17. Fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N

    2001-07-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement 6 hr/day for 7 days. On day 8, each bird's jugular vein was catheterized, blood samples were drawn, and each crane was confined for 6 hr. Using a randomized, restricted cross-over design, cranes were injected intravenously with either 0.9% NaCl solution or ACTH (cosyntropin; Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). During the 6 hr of confinement, fecal samples (feces and urine) were collected from each of five cranes immediately after defecation. Individual fecal samples were collected approximately at hourly intervals and assayed for corticosterone. We showed previously that serum corticosterone did not vary significantly following saline injection, but peaked significantly 60 min after ACTH injection. Maximal fecal corticosterone concentrations (ng/g) were greater (P cranes under controlled conditions, fecal corticosterone concentration reflects serum corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone, Grus canadensis pratensis, sandhill cranes, serum corticosterone levels.

  18. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the Administrator...

  19. Estimation of the systemic burden of plutonium from urinary excretion data and a multi-exponential model for excretion in comparison with autopsy data

    Bernard, S.R.; Nestor, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have adapted other's method for computing the systemic burden from urinary excretion data to use a multi-exponential model (2) for excretion, rather than Langham's power function. The mathematical basis of Synder's method is the representation of the systemic burden as the convolution integral of the observed urinary excretion data with the inverse Laplace transform of the excretion function; in the case of urinary excretion of plutonium, the power function has a Laplace transform, but for other elements (notably uranium) it does not. If the method is to be used for other radioisotopes, the excretion function must have a Laplace transform, and for this reason we have used a multi-exponential form of the excretion function. They have written a computer program to calculate estimates of the systemic burden and the integrated intake from urinary excretion data, and have compared the results with two cases for which autopsy data are available, as presented in this paper

  20. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls....... There was a seven-fold increase in urinary volume in rats with non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria, as compared to controls. Uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetes all affected the urinary excretion of EGF and THP differently. The EGF excretion in uninephrectomized rats was 60......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls...

  1. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Radiation Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Definition: Corticosteroids Steroids and Cancer Treatment View more About ...

  3. Cyclosporin in steroid- resistant nephrotic syndrome

    1994-11-11

    Nov 11, 1994 ... steroid-unresponsive and alternative therapies therefore need to be assessed. ..... glomerular sclerosis. No vascular or tubular epithelial lesions ... acute tubular necrosis, and probable cyclosporin toxicity. No renal biopsy ...

  4. Steroid dysregulation and stomatodynia (burning mouth syndrome).

    Woda, Alain; Dao, Thuan; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Stomatodynia ( burning mouth syndrome) is characterized by a spontaneous, continuous burning pain felt in the oral mucosa typically of anxiodepressive menopausal women. Because there is no obvious organic cause, it is considered a nonspecific pain. This Focus Article proposes a hypothesis based on the following pathophysiological cascade: chronic anxiety or post traumatic stress leads to a dysregulation of the adrenal production of steroids. One consequence is a decreased or modified production of some major precursors for the neuroactive steroid synthesis occurring in the skin, mucosa, and nervous system. At menopause, the drastic fall of the other main precursor supply , the gonadal steroids, leads to a brisk alteration of the production of neuroactive steroids. This results in neurodegenerative alterations of small nerves fibers of the oral mucosa and /or some brain areas involved in oral somatic sensations. These neuropathic changes become irreversible and precipitate the burning pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia associated with stomatodynia, which all involve thin nerve fibers.

  5. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  7. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis.

    Mukhin, A G; Papadopoulos, V; Costa, E; Krueger, K E

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine bin...

  8. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  10. Cushing's Syndrome and Steroid Dementia.

    Bernini, Giampaolo; Tricò, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's Syndrome (CS) is associated with a specific spectrum of dementia-like symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, anxiety and mania, and neurocognitive alterations, like impairment of memory and concentration. This pattern of clinical complications, which significantly impair the health-related quality of life of CS patients, is sometimes referred to as "steroid dementia syndrome" (SDS). The SDS is the result of anatomical and functional anomalies in brain areas involved in the processing of emotion and cognition, which are only partially restored after the biochemical remission of the disease. Therefore, periodical neuropsychiatric evaluations are recommended in all CS patients, and a long-term follow-up is required after normalization of hypercortisolism. Recent evidences demonstrate that three classes of drugs (glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and pituitary tumor-targeted drugs), which are used for medical treatment of CS, can rapidly relief neuropsychiatric symptoms of SDS. Furthermore, several psychoactive medications have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of symptoms induced by the acute or chronic glucocosteroid administration. In this paper, a review of the current and future patents for the treatment and prevention of CS and SDS will be presented.

  11. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ent-Steroids: Novel Tools for Studies of Signaling Pathways

    Covey, Douglas F.

    2008-01-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of natu...

  13. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3 H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  14. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  15. Metabolism of a new synthetic progestagen, Org 2969, in female volunteers. The distribution and excretion of radioactivity after an oral dose of the labelled drug

    Viinikka, L; Ylikorkala, O; Vihko, R [Oulu Univ. (Finland); Hasenack, H G; Nieuwenhuyse, H [Organon Scientific Development Group, Organon Int., Oss, The Netherlands

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism of a new synthetic progestagen, Org 2969 was studied in 4 healthy female volunteers. During the first part of the study (Phase I), the volunteers ingested 50 ..mu..g (about 0.1 mCi) of (16-/sup 3/H)Org 2969 together with 50 ..mu..g of ethinyloestradiol as a single dose. During the second part of the study (Phase II), a 10-day pre-treatment with the same dosage of non-radioactive compound preceded the administration of the radioactive steroid. A peak level of total radioactivity, representing 3.16-5.02% of the dose given/l of serum, was achieved within 2-3 h in Phase I. During Phase II, the corresponding figures were 4.54-5.13% after 1.5-3 h. The difference was mainly due to an increase of freely-extractable steroids during Phase II. The difference can at least partly be explained by assuming a change in the kinetics of the metabolism of Org 2969 by pre-treatment with Org 2969 and ethinyloestradiol. The mean recovery of radioactivity in urine and faeces was 83.0%/48.1%/34.9% (total/urine/faeces) of the total dose in Phase I and 76.1%/45.2%/30.9% during Phase II. The differences in the total excretion and in the radioactivity excreted in the faeces were significant.

  16. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    Basu, S K; Srinivasan, M N; Chuttani, K; Bhatnagar, A; Ghose, A

    1985-06-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinine excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained up to the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels up to the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio up to the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body ..gamma..-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author).

  17. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  18. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    Basu, S.K.; Srinivasan, M.N.; Chuttani, K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Ghose, A.

    1985-01-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinie excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained upto the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels upto the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio upto the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author)

  19. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32 P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  20. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  1. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    Washburn, Brian E.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Schulz, John H.; Jones, Susan B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  2. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  3. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, disinfection of inanimate objects, in addition to good handwashing, may be important in controlling the spread of enteric diseases in day care centers. PMID:6830225

  4. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line

    2017-01-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence...... and 35% (n = 25) were titrated to daily sessions. Of the 63 children who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of constipation, 46 (73%) showed full response with complete remission of incontinence episodes. Eleven (17%) showed partial response (≥50% reduction). Of nine children with FNRFI, four (44%) showed...

  5. Adrenal responses of large whales: Integrating fecal aldosterone as a complementary biomarker to glucocorticoids.

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Hunt, Kathleen E; Kraus, Scott D; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-10-01

    Until now, physiological stress assessment of large whales has predominantly focused on adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) measures. Elevated GC concentrations in feces (fGC) are known to reflect stressful disturbances, such as fishing gear entanglement and human-generated underwater noise, in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). However, there can be considerable variation in GC production as a function of sex and life history stage, which may confound the interpretation of fGC levels. Additionally, GC antibodies used in immunoassays can cross-react with other fecal metabolites (i.e., non-target steroids), potentially influencing fGC data. Here, aldosterone concentrations (fALD; aldosterone and related metabolites) were measured in fecal samples from right whales (total n=315 samples), including samples from identified individuals of known life history (n=82 individual whales), to evaluate its utility as a complementary biomarker to fGC for identifying adrenal activation. Concentrations of fALD were positively correlated with fGCs in right whales (r=0.59, Pwhales, fALD concentrations showed similar patterns to those reported for fGC, with higher levels in pregnant females (35.9±7.6ng/g) followed by reproductively mature males (9.5±0.9ng/g) (Pwhales. The addition of fALD measurement as a biomarker of adrenal activation may help distinguish between intrinsic and external causes of stress hormone elevations in large whales, as well as other free-living wildlife species, providing a more comprehensive approach for associating adrenal activation with specific natural and anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized physiotherapy trial in patients with fecal incontinence: design of the PhysioFIT-study

    de Bie Rob A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal incontinence (FI is defined as the recurrent involuntary excretion of feces in inappropriate places or at inappropriate times. It is a major and highly embarrassing health care problem which affects about 2 to 24% of the adult population. The prevalence increases with age in both men and women. Physiotherapy interventions are often considered a first-line approach due to its safe and non-invasive nature when dietary and pharmaceutical treatment fails or in addition to this treatment regime. Two physiotherapy interventions, rectal balloon training (RBT and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT are widely used in the management of FI. However, their effectiveness remains uncertain since well-designed trials on the effectiveness of RBT and PFMT versus PFMT alone in FI have never been published. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted. One hundred and six patients are randomized to receive either PFMT combined with RBT or PFMT alone. Physicians in the University Hospital Maastricht include eligible participants. Inclusion criteria are (1 adults (aged ≥ 18 years, (2 with fecal incontinence complaints due to different etiologies persisting for at least six months, (3 having a Vaizey incontinence score of at least 12, (4 and failure of conservative treatment (including dietary adaptations and pharmacological agents. Baseline measurements consist of the Vaizey incontinence score, medical history, physical examination, medication use, anorectal manometry, rectal capacity measurement, anorectal sensation, anal endosonography, defecography, symptom diary, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQL and the PREFAB-score. Follow-up measurements are scheduled at three, six and 12 months after inclusion. Skilled and registered physiotherapists experienced in women's health perform physiotherapy treatment. Twelve sessions are administered during three months according to a standardized

  7. A randomized physiotherapy trial in patients with fecal incontinence: design of the PhysioFIT-study

    Bols, Esther MJ; Berghmans, Bary CM; Hendriks, Erik JM; de Bie, Rob A; Melenhorst, Jarno; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor GMI

    2007-01-01

    Background Fecal incontinence (FI) is defined as the recurrent involuntary excretion of feces in inappropriate places or at inappropriate times. It is a major and highly embarrassing health care problem which affects about 2 to 24% of the adult population. The prevalence increases with age in both men and women. Physiotherapy interventions are often considered a first-line approach due to its safe and non-invasive nature when dietary and pharmaceutical treatment fails or in addition to this treatment regime. Two physiotherapy interventions, rectal balloon training (RBT) and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) are widely used in the management of FI. However, their effectiveness remains uncertain since well-designed trials on the effectiveness of RBT and PFMT versus PFMT alone in FI have never been published. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted. One hundred and six patients are randomized to receive either PFMT combined with RBT or PFMT alone. Physicians in the University Hospital Maastricht include eligible participants. Inclusion criteria are (1) adults (aged ≥ 18 years), (2) with fecal incontinence complaints due to different etiologies persisting for at least six months, (3) having a Vaizey incontinence score of at least 12, (4) and failure of conservative treatment (including dietary adaptations and pharmacological agents). Baseline measurements consist of the Vaizey incontinence score, medical history, physical examination, medication use, anorectal manometry, rectal capacity measurement, anorectal sensation, anal endosonography, defecography, symptom diary, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQL) and the PREFAB-score. Follow-up measurements are scheduled at three, six and 12 months after inclusion. Skilled and registered physiotherapists experienced in women's health perform physiotherapy treatment. Twelve sessions are administered during three months according to a standardized protocol. Discussion This

  8. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested......After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase...... with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid...

  9. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  11. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  12. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... on production of hydrogen sulphide by bacteria that are associated with fecal contamination. This rapid fields test needs no technical staff and the cost is lower than ..... Sources and Potable Water Supplies in Peru.

  14. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  15. Mountain Papaya Seeds Causing Fecal Impaction in Children

    multiruka1

    Fecal impaction is a common gastrointestinal disorder and a source of ... coprostasis or inspissated stool syndrome (1). Stool ... history of abdominal distension, abdominal pain, .... functional constipation, poor dietary fiber intake or it may be ...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonization associated with fecal microbiota treatment failure

    Background: Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) has emerged as the gold standard for treatment of persistent, symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that does not respond to conventional antimicrobial treatment. Probiotics are commonly recommended in addition to antimicrobial treatment for CD...

  17. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  18. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  19. Schelpdierkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in september 2005 (fecale coliformen)

    Poelman, M.; Gool, van A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In september van 2005 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier) waterkwaliteit in de Nederlandse kustwatergebieden. Hierbij werd gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen, ten einde de schelpdierwaterkwaliteit te kunnen beoordelen. Er werd gekeken naar de aanwezigheid van

  20. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zooplankton as a compound mineralising and synthesizing system: Phosphorus excretion

    Gulati, R.D.; Martinez, C.P.; Siewertsen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on phosphate excretion rates of zooplankton are based on measurements using the pelagic crustacean zoo-plankton of Lake Vechten and laboratory-cultured Daphnia galeata. In case of Daphnia sp we measured the effects of feeding on P-rich algae and P-poor algae (Scenedesmus) as food on the

  2. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g -1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  3. Excretion pattern of enrofloxacin after oral treatment of chicken broilers.

    Slana, M; Pahor, V; Cvitkovič Maričič, L; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism and excretion of enrofloxacin were studied when applied as oral solution to chicken broilers for five consecutive days. Sixty 9-day-old broilers were isolated within an intensively rearing poultry farm during enrofloxacin therapy (15.5 mg/kg per day). The excreta of the isolated broilers were collected daily, 9 days after therapy termination, for 13 consecutive days, and analyzed for the presence of enrofloxacin and its metabolites [ciprofloxacin, desethylene-enrofloxacin (DES-EF) and desethylene-ciprofloxacin (DES-CF)]. Enrofloxacin was excreted predominantly in the form of the parent compound between days 1 and 13. Ciprofloxacin was detected in the excreta between days 1 and 6, whereas minor amounts of DES-EF and DES-CF were excreted only between days 1-7 and 1-6, respectively. In conclusion, the analysis of the excreta showed that approximately 74% of orally applied enrofloxacin was excreted as the parent compound, approximately 25% as the main metabolite ciprofloxacin, and approximately 1% as the minor metabolites desethylene-enrofloxacin and desethylene-ciprofloxacin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  5. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  6. Absorption, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin in rats.

    Yokota, Tokunori; Mikata, Kazuki; Nagasaki, Hiromi; Ohta, Kazunari

    2003-11-19

    Absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine] were investigated after a single oral administration of [nitroimino-(14)C]- or [thiazolyl-2-(14)C]clothianidin to male and female rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (bw) (low dose) or 250 mg/kg of bw (high dose). The maximum concentration of carbon-14 in blood occurred 2 h after administration of the low oral dose for both labeled clothianidins, and then the concentration of carbon-14 in blood decreased with a half-life of 2.9-4.0 h. The orally administered carbon-14 was rapidly and extensively distributed to all tissues and organs within 2 h after administration, especially to the kidney and liver, but was rapidly and almost completely eliminated from all tissues and organs with no evidence of accumulation. The orally administered carbon-14 was almost completely excreted into urine and feces within 2 days after administration, and approximately 90% of the administered dose was excreted via urine. The major compound in excreta was clothianidin, accounting for >60% of the administered dose. The major metabolic reactions of clothianidin in rats were oxidative demethylation to form N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N'-nitroguanidine and the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond between the thiazolylmethyl moiety and the nitroguanidine moiety. The part of the molecule containing the nitroguanidine moiety was transformed mainly to N-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine, whereas the thiazol moiety was further metabolized to 2-(methylthio)thiazole-5-carboxylic acid. With the exception of the transiently delayed excretion of carbon-14 at the high-dose level, the rates of biokinetics, excretion, distribution, and metabolism of clothianidin were not markedly influenced by dose level and sex.

  7. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  9. Dietary isoflavone absorption, excretion, and metabolism in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Cave, Nicholas J; Ugarte, Claudia E; Waldron, Lucy A; Prasain, Jeevan K; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Thomas, David G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration-time curve, metabolite profile, and urinary and fecal excretion of genistein and daidzein in cheetahs following consumption of isoflavones. Four adult cheetahs were administered a single oral bolus of genistein and daidzein, and five juvenile cheetahs consuming a milk replacer formula found to contain isoflavones were also included. Urine was collected from all animals, and blood and feces were also collected from adult cheetahs following isoflavone exposure. Samples were analyzed for isoflavone metabolite concentration by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sulfate conjugates were the primary metabolites detected of both genistein and daidzein (60-80% of total isoflavones present) in the plasma and urine of cheetahs. A smaller proportion of daidzein was detected as conjugates in the urine of juvenile cheetahs, compared to adult cheetahs. Other metabolites included unconjugated genistein and daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and dihydrodaidzein, but not equol. Only 33% of the ingested genistein dose, and 9% of daidzein, was detected in plasma from adult cheetahs. However, of the ingested dose, 67% of genistein and 45% of daidzein were detected in the feces of adults. This study revealed that cheetahs appear efficient in their conjugation of absorbed dietary isoflavones and only a small fraction of ingested dose is absorbed. However, the capacity of the cheetah to conjugate genistein and daidzein with sulfate moieties appears lower than reported in the domestic cat. This may confer greater opportunity for biologic

  10. Steroid hormones as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are present in normal epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine and there have also been contentious reports of androgen, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the epithelium of the normal large intestine. The majority of reports suggest that stimulation of the intestinal glucocorticoid receptors results in increased proliferation of epithelial cells in the small bowel, as does stimulation of androgen receptors and possibly mineralocorticoid receptors. The proliferative response of the normal intestine to oestrogens is difficult to evaluate and that to progestigens appears not to have been reported. Epidemiological studies reveal a higher incidence of bowel cancer in premenopausal women than in men of the same age and yet there is a lower incidence of these tumors in women of higher parity. These findings have been atributted to a variety of non-epithelial gender characteristic such as differences in bile metabolism, colonic bacterial and fecal transit times. In experimental animals, androgens have also been shown to influence carcinogenesis and this could well be attributed to changes in food intake etc. However, many studies have now revealed steroid hormone receptors on colorectal tumor cells and thus a direct effect of the steroid hormones on the epithelium during and after malignant transformation must now be considered.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of nortestosterone and related steroids

    Hampl, R.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of nortestosterone and related steroids, including its principal metabolites, is described and evaluated. Antisera against nortestosterone-17β-hemisuccinate- and nortestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin were raised in goats. By using a mixture of such antisera with different selectivity, the cross-reactions of several naturally occuring steroids can be reduced. The method can be applied for the detection of nortestosterone in both unprocessed or hydrolyzed urine extracts and also in plasma. It has been used as a screening test for anabolics in doping control. (orig.) [de

  12. Chemoselective construction of novel steroid derivatives.

    Troisi, Luigino; Florio, Saverio; Granito, Catia

    2002-07-01

    Alpha-halo-alpha-heteroarylalkyllithiums, generated by deprotonation of the corresponding halides, when added promptly to steroids with C=O or C=NR groups, lead to epoxides and aziridines. The reactions are regio- and stereoselective; in fact, in the presence of more than one C=O group, the oxido or aziridino functions are formed uniquely at the C=O of C-17 (or C-20 depending on its position in the starting molecule), and the C-20(R) stereoisomer is often the only product isolated. Protection of the hydroxyl group present on several considered steroids was required, and it was accomplished through derivatization in acetyl, ether, or lactone.

  13. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    Okker-Reitsma, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [ 3 H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  15. Assessment of Fecal Microbiota and Fecal Metabolome in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon.

    Tursi, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Elisei, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo; Capuani, Giorgio; Tomassini, Alberta; Campagna, Giuseppe; Picchio, Marcello; Giorgetti, GianMarco; Fabiocchi, Federica; Brandimarte, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess fecal microbiota and metabolome in a population with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). Whether intestinal microbiota and metabolic profiling may be altered in patients with SUDD is unknown. Stool samples from 44 consecutive women [15 patients with SUDD, 13 with asymptomatic diverticulosis (AD), and 16 healthy controls (HCs)] were analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify targeted microorganisms. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis with partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied on the metabolite data set. The overall bacterial quantity did not differ among the 3 groups (P=0.449), with no difference in Bacteroides/Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli subgroups. The amount of Akkermansia muciniphila species was significantly different between HC, AD, and SUDD subjects (P=0.017). PLS-DA analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance -based metabolomics associated with microbiological data showed significant discrimination between HCs and AD patients (R=0.733; Q=0.383; Pcolonic bacterial overgrowth, but a significant difference in the levels of fecal A. muciniphila was observed. Moreover, increasing expression of some metabolites as expression of different AD and SUDD metabolic activity was found.

  16. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor - Induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients

    van de Wal, Ruud M. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H. W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; de Jong, Paul E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2006-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy

  17. Steroid implants and markers of bone turnover in steers

    jannes

    Steroidal implants are used extensively in beef cattle management to take ... The practice of administering androgenic and estrogenic steroid implants to increase lean .... ELISA in bovine serum, so the assay was validated in our laboratory.

  18. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  19. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  20. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  1. The role of endogenous cardiotonic steroids in pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal complications of arterial hypertension

    Aneta Paczula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS, also called digitalis-like factors, are a group of steroid hormones linking high salt intake and elevated blood pressure and in part responsible for target organ damage in arterial hypertension. CTS act primarily through their ability to inhibit the ubiquitous transport enzyme sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase. A portion of Na+/K+-ATPase does not seem to actively “pump” sodium and potassium but is closely associated with other key signaling proteins. Plasma concentration and urine excretion of CTS are increased in experimental models with volume expansion and on a high salt diet. Elevated plasma concentration of marinobufagenin has been shown in volume-expanded states such as essential hypertension, primary aldosteronism, chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure and pregnancy. In experimental models marinobufagenin induces heart and kidney fibrosis to the same extent as observed in uremia. Neutralization of marinobufagenin with antibodies prevents such heart remodeling. Expanding our understanding of this new class of hormones may lead to development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies in hypertensive patients with renal and cardiovascular complications.

  2. Determination of bioequivalence of lomefloxacin tablets using urinary excretion data.

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Dharmesh B

    2002-11-07

    The present study describes development of a sensitive and simple HPTLC method for estimation of lomefloxacin (LMF) in human urine. The drug was extracted using chloroform after adjusting the pH of urine to 7.0. Chloroform extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of n-butanol-methanol-ethyl acetate-6 M ammonia (4:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 290 nm. The peak for LMF resolved at R(F) of 0.40+/-0.02. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-600 microgram/ml), precision, specificity and accuracy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for LMF in urine were found to be 20 and 50 microgram/ml, respectively. The average recovery of LMF from urine was 91.93%. The proposed method was applied to generate urinary excretion data for LMF after administration of two market LMF tablet formulations (400 mg, Formulation R and Formulation T) to six healthy human volunteers in a two-treatment, open, crossover design. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate ((dAU/dt)(max)), time for peak excretion rate (t(max)), AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), cumulative amount and % cumulative amount of LMF excreted, elimination half-life (t(1/2)), terminal elimination rate constant (k(el)) and overall elimination rate constant (K), were calculated for both the formulations. The average cumulative amounts of LMF excreted in urine after administration of Formulation R and Formulation T were found to be 321.60 mg (80.40% of dose) and 296.51 mg (74.13% of dose), respectively. The urinary excretion profiles of LMF upto 48 h for both the formulations were found to be similar. Statistical comparison (90% confidence intervals of ratio) of various pharmacokinetic parameters of Formulation T with that of Formulation R revealed that Formulation T is bioequivalent with Formulation R.

  3. Investigation of sewage contamination using steroid indexes in sediments of the Guajará Estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil

    Heyde Gonçalves Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazonian aquatic systems are usually associated with pristine waters, however, irregular urban occupation of the hydrographic basins and sewerage deficiencies may lead to point and diffuse contamination. Sewage contamination in intertidal surface sediments from the Guajará Estuary, Brazilian Amazon coast, was evaluated using a set of steroids as biomarkers. Sediments collected along the urbanized margin were also analyzed for chlorophyll a, total organic carbon and grain sizes. Coprostanol, the main fecal sterol, was found at concentrations varying from 0.06 to 7.93 µg g-1 dry sediment, following the sequence Tucunduba > Ver-o-Peso > Porto da Palha > Tamandaré > Icoaraci > Miramar. Mixed sources of organic matter and coastal process probably concurred to produce weak correlations among the parameters. Plant derived sterols, including n-C30 alcohol and β-amyrinyl alkanoates, were clearly abundant, but they did not preclude the use of other steroid signals to the assessment of sewage contamination. High values of the steroid indexes involving 5α and 5β stanols and stanones highlighted sewage contamination at the sites with the lowest absolute coprostanol concentrations. The predominance of 5β stanols indicated a chronically sewage contamination of the area.

  4. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  5. Quality-of-life assessment in children with fecal incontinence.

    Filho, Humberto S; Mastroti, Roberto A; Klug, Wilmar A

    2015-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is a clinical condition that causes embarrassment and changes the perception of quality of life. The absence of a specific tool for assessing fecal incontinence in children led us to adapt an instrument originally developed for adults, which has already been validated into Portuguese. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of life of children with fecal incontinence. This is a single-center, prospective study based on the application of survey. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire was modified by eliminating 2 questions related to sexuality and by substituting the word "depressed" with "sad" in the statement, "I feel depressed." The study took place at a tertiary academic medical center. Forty-one children >5 years of age, with incontinence of organic etiology and preserved cognition but without stomy, were interviewed with the use of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life modified questionnaire. To evaluate the discrimination validity, 28 healthy children were interviewed as control subjects. As to reproducibility, a test/retest was performed, involving 25 children. For construct validation, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life modified was correlated with the generic instrument Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé with the continence index São Paulo Score of Continence. The average values by scale included lifestyle, 3.1; emotional, 2.8; behavior, 2.3; and embarrassment, 1.6. The average values for the control group included lifestyle, 3.7; emotional, 4.0; behavior, 3.6; and embarrassment, 3.6. The instrument showed a general reliability of 0.78, measured by the Cronbach α. Reproducibility was also >0.90 according to the Cronbach α. The intrinsic characteristics of children include their constant growth, and this presented a challenge in our search for an instrument that permitted us to identify and measure these variations. The experiment showed a reduction in all of the scale values, particularly

  6. Excretion of Zinc and Copper Increases in Men during 3 Weeks of Bed Rest, with or without Artificial Gravity.

    Heacox, Hayley N; Gillman, Patricia L; Zwart, Sara R; Smith, Scott M

    2017-06-01

    Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions. Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis. Methods: Zinc and copper balances were studied in 15 men [mean ± SD age: 29 ± 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 26.4 ± 2.2] before, during, and after 21 d of head-down tilt BR, during which 8 of the participants were subjected to artificial gravity (AG) by centrifugation for 1 h/d. Control subjects were transferred onto the centrifuge but were not exposed to centrifugation. The study was conducted in a metabolic ward; all urine and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Urinary zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 33% and 14%, respectively, higher during BR than before BR, and fecal zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 36% and 19%, respectively, higher during BR, resulting in 67% and 82% lower net zinc balances for controls and AG, respectively (both P zinc by men during BR suggests that their absorption of these minerals from the diet was reduced, secondary to the release of minerals from bone and muscle. These findings highlight the importance of determining dietary requirements for astronauts on space missions and ensuring provision and intake of all nutrients. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  8. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  9. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    Covey, Douglas F

    2009-07-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  10. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different

  11. Advances in immunoassay of anabolic steroids

    Hampl, R.; Putz, Z.; Bicikova, M.; Starka, L.

    1985-01-01

    A specific RIA for the main nortestosterone metabolites, norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone and a rapid, automatizable modification of testosterone RIA in urine are described. Additionally, an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) variant for detection of 17α-methyltestosterone and related steroids is suggested. (Auth.)

  12. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  13. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Sung, Mi Sook

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  14. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  15. Extracellular and intracellular steroid binding proteins

    Wagner, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Steroid hormone binding proteins can be measured, after the removal of endogenous steroids, as specific complexes with radio-labelled hormones. In this study all the requirements for a quantitative determination of steroid hormone binding proteins are defined. For different methods, agargel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis have been evaluated. Agar electrophoresis at low temperature was found to be the simplest and most useful procedure. With this method the dissociation rates of high affinity complexes can be assessed and absolute binding protein concentrations can be determined. The dissociation rates of the oestradiol-oestrogen receptor complex and the R-5020-progestin receptor complex are low (1-2% per h run time.) In contrast, that of complexes between androgen receptor and dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT), progestin receptor and progesterone, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and cortisol or progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and DHT were hign (16-27% per h run time). Target tissue extracts (cytosols) contain, besides soluble tissue proteins, large amounts of plasma proteins. The extent of this plasma contamination can be determined by measuring the albumin concentration in cytosols by immunodiffusion. In cytosols of 4 different human target tissues the albumin content varied from 20-30% corresponding to an even higher whole plasma concentration. Steroid binding plasma proteins, such as CBG and SHBG are constituents of this containment. (author)

  16. NEPHROTIC SYNDROME steroid sensitive renal condition

    Nephrotic syndrome is primarily a paediatric disorder and is 15 times more common in children than adults. The incidence is 2–3/100,000 children per year, and the majority of affected children will have steroid- sensitive minimal change disease. The characteristic features of nephrotic syndrome are heavy proteinuria.

  17. Synthesis of synthons for steroidal dendrimer construction

    Drašar, Pavel; Král, Vladimír; Dukh, Mykhaylo; Kalvoda, L.; Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Šaman, David

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 11 (2003), s. 1102-1103 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /38./. 28.11.2003-30.11.2003, Nymburk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : synthesis * steroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly

  19. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in plantar fascia .... Several previous studies evaluate the effects of either local ... The choice of ultrasound guided technique of steroid injection was related to the accuracy of application and supe- ..... chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: a meta analysis.

  20. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  1. ABUSE OF STEROID PRESCRIPTION- A CASE REPORT

    Shilpashri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used and highly effective in treatment for number of conditions like immunological condition inflammation, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and chronic pain conditions. Steroid-induced psychiatric disturbances appear in 3 to 6% of patient on treatment. Glucocorticoid is one of the most cause of avascular necrosis, affects hip joint, and other joints.

  2. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly

  3. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of 3H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral 3 H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided

  4. Relationship between plasma uridine and urinary urea excretion.

    Ka, Tuneyoshi; Inokuchi, Taku; Tamada, Daisuke; Suda, Michio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Okuda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Asako; Takahashi, Sumio; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the concentration of uridine in plasma is related to the urinary excretion of urea, 45 healthy male subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure were studied after providing informed consent. Immediately after collection of 24-hour urine, blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast except for water. The contents of ingested foods during the 24-hour urine collection period were described by the subjects and analyzed by a dietician. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma uridine was correlated with the urinary excretions of urea (R = 0.41, P urea. These results suggest that an increase in de novo pyrimidine synthesis leads to an increased concentration of uridine in plasma via nitrogen catabolism in healthy subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  6. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Yerli Kara cattle

    Cetinkaya, N.; Guecues, A. I.; Oezcan, H.; Ulutuerk, S.; Yaman, S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other , where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40,60,80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4x4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8- ''1''4C - uric acid via a jugular catheter. In Addition to the above two experiments the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined.In the first experiment,fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (±0.053) mmol/kgW''0''.''7''5/d. Glomerular filtration rate GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P<0.05). In the second experiment the recovery of injected 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (±43.8) and 250.3 L (±29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin : PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (expressed as mmol/d and μmol/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DDMI (kg/d and kg/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DOMI (kg/d)(r=0.99, P<0.01). The rate of PD excretion as a linear function of feed intake was 16.4 mmol/kg W''0''.''7''5 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were; 1.34 (±0.72) and .44 (±0.05) and 0.13 (±0.03) and 0.08 (±0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and

  7. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rat

    Wei-Lun Hung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tangeretin, 4′,5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone, is one of the major polymethoxyflavones (PMFs existing in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels of sweet oranges and mandarins. Tangeretin has been reported to possess several beneficial bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and neuroprotective effects. To achieve a thorough understanding of the biological actions of tangeretin in vivo, our current study is designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rats. After oral administration of 50 mg/kg bw tangeretin to rats, the Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 were 0.87 ± 0.33 μg/mL, 340.00 ± 48.99 min and 342.43 ± 71.27 min, respectively. Based on the area under the curves (AUC of oral and intravenous administration of tangeretin, calculated absolute oral bioavailability was 27.11%. During tissue distribution, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the vital organs occurred at 4 or 8 h after oral administration. The highest accumulation of tangeretin was found in the kidney, lung and liver, followed by spleen and heart. In the gastrointestinal tract, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the stomach and small intestine were found at 4 h, while in the cecum, colon and rectum, tangeretin reached the maximum concentrations at 12 h. Tangeretin excreted in the urine and feces was recovered within 48 h after oral administration, concentrations were only 0.0026% and 7.54%, respectively. These results suggest that tangeretin was mainly eliminated as metabolites. In conclusion, our study provides useful information regarding absorption, distribution, as well as excretion of tangeretin, which will provide a good base for studying the mechanism of its biological effects. Keywords: Tangeretin, Oral bioavailability, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, Excretion

  9. Effects of Gentamicin on Urinary Electrolyte Excretion in Admitted Neonate

    B. Falakolaflaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used during the neonatal period. It is associated with nephrotoxic effects in neonates, including glomerular impairment and renal tubular dysfunction. Electrolyte balance is very important, especially in the sick premature neonate receiving aminoglycosides. The purpose of this study was early diagnosis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 23 neonates (11 full – term and 12 preterm with suspected sepsis who were admitted and treated with gentamicin. Blood and urine samples were collected before infusion and on the 3rd day of treatment. Serum and urine concentration of Na, K, creatinine (Cr and urine concentration of Ca were measured. Then fractional excretion of Na and K were estimated. Ca excretion was estimated as the UCa/UCr ratio. Then the collected data were analyzed using SPSS package.Results: In all neonates, increase in fractional excretion of Na and UCa/UCr, in the 3rd day of treatment were observed as compared to those of before infusion (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively. Serum creatinine levels decreased in all patients. Serum level of electrolytes during therapy was normal.Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate an effect of gentamicin infusion on renal sodium and calcium excretion. These results may be of clinical importance especially for sick preterm neonates receiving treatment with gentamicin. These babies are usually salt-losers and are also more susceptible to early onset hypocalcemia. Gentamicin can aggravate these complications.

  10. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  11. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates ( P panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  12. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  13. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  14. Whites excrete a water load more rapidly than blacks.

    Weder, Alan B; Gleiberman, Lillian; Sachdeva, Amit

    2009-04-01

    A recent report demonstrated a racial difference in response to furosemide compatible with increased ion reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in blacks. Urinary dilution is another function of the loop-diuretic-sensitive Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, and racial differences in urinary diluting capacity have not been reported previously. We assessed diluting segment (cortical thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule) function in black and white normotensives in 2 studies using a water-loading approach. In both studies, we found that whites excreted a water load more rapidly than blacks. In the first study, the final free water clearance rates (mean+/-SD) were 7.3+/-4.7 mL/min in whites (n=17, 7 females and 10 males) and 3.8+/-3.6 mL/min in blacks (n=14, 9 females and 5 males; Pwater clearance rates were 8.3+/-2.6 mL/min in whites (n=17, 8 females and 9 males) and 6.4+/-1.8 mL/min in blacks (n=11, 8 females and 3 males; Pwater excretion. We conclude that our observations are most consistent with a lower capacity of ion reabsorption in the renal diluting segment in blacks. Slower excretion of an acute water load may have been an advantage during natural selection of humans living in arid, hot climates.

  15. Distribution and Excretion of Am-241 in Rats

    Alatas, Z; Nurhayati, S; Rahardjo, T

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the activity content of Am-241 administered oral y in several organs and tissues of white rats including the excretion had been carried out. The observation of Am-241 activity was carried out through surgery and for the excretion of the radionuclide by collecting urine and faces. The surgeries were conducted on the 0 (6 hours), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 and 30th day post administration of 2.965 kBq Am-241, whereas the urine and faces collections were done every other day for 30 days using metabolism cage. The result indicated that the distribution of Am-241 which found in all tested organs/tissues with various fraction is considered as the initial distribution of Am-241 in rats. The content of americium in gastrointestinal tract and lung is relatively high within the first week post contamination. And, americium activities in other organs/tissues are various with time. The excretion of Am-241 is higher via feces than that of urin, i.e up to 20% in 30 days

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  17. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  18. Androgenic anabolic steroids also impair right ventricular function.

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra

    2009-05-01

    Chronic anabolic steroid use suppresses left ventricular functions. However, there is no information regarding the chronic effects of anabolic steroids on right ventricular function which also plays a key role in global cardiac function. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of androgenic anabolic steroids usage among athletes on remodeling the right part of the heart. Androgenic-anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders had smaller diastolic velocities of both ventricles than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary counterparts. This study shows that androgenic anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders exhibited depressed diastolic functions of both ventricles.

  19. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  20. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  1. Potentially harmful advantage to athletes: a putative connection between UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism and renal disorders with prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    Barker James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective With prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, occasional incidents of renal disorders have been observed. Independently, it has also been established that there are considerable inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences, in particular with reference to the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17 gene, in metabolising these compounds. This report postulates the association of deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene with the occurrence of renal disorders on chronic exposure to AAS. Presentation of the hypothesis The major deactivation and elimination pathway of AASs is through glucuronide conjugation, chiefly catalyzed by the UGT2B17 enzyme, followed by excretion in urine. Excretion of steroids is affected in individuals with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene. We hypothesize that UGT2B17 deficient individuals are more vulnerable to developing renal disorders with prolonged use of AAS owing to increases in body mass index and possible direct toxic effects of steroids on the kidneys. Elevated serum levels of biologically active steroids due to inadequate elimination can lead to prolonged muscle build up. An increase in body mass index may cause renal injuries due to sustained elevated glomerular pressure and flow rate. Testing the hypothesis In the absence of controlled clinical trials in humans, observational studies can be carried out. Real time PCR with allelic discrimination should be employed to examine the prevalence of different UGT2B17 genotypes in patients with impaired renal function and AAS abuse. In individuals with the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism, blood tests, biofluid analyses, urinalysis, and hair analyses following the administration of an anabolic steroid can be used to determine the fate of the substance once in the body. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis is upheld, anabolic steroid users with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene may be

  2. Fecal impaction causing pelvic venous compression and edema

    Sara Naramore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema.

  3. Successful treatment of dwarfism secondary to long-term steroid therapy in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

    Sun, Linlin; Chen, Dongping; Zhao, Xuezhi; Xu, Chenggang; Mei, Changlin

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged steroid therapy is generally used for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. However, dwarfism secondary to a long-term regimen and its successful reverse is rarely reported. The underlying mechanism of dwarfism is still poorly understood, as both long-term steroid use and nephrotic syndrome may interact or independently interfere with the process of growth. Here, we present a 17-year-old patient with dwarfism and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome and the successful treatment by recombinant human growth factor and cyclosporine A with withdrawal of steroid. We also briefly review the current understanding and the management of dwarfism in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome.

  4. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  5. Classification of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Kang, Sukwon; Chan, Diane E.; Lefcourt, Alan

    2010-04-01

    This paper reported the development of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system using ultraviolet-A excitation (320-400 nm) for detection of bovine fecal contaminants on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. Six spots of fecal contamination were applied to each of 40 lettuce and 40 spinach leaves. In this study, the wavebands at 666 nm and 680 nm were selected by the correlation analysis. The two-band ratio, 666 nm / 680 nm, of fluorescence intensity was used to differentiate the contaminated spots from uncontaminated leaf area. The proposed method could accurately detect all of the contaminated spots.

  6. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  7. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  8. The absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of a single oral dose of O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate in hens

    Abou-Donia, M.B.; Reichert, B.L.; Ashry, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The disposition and metabolism of a single oral 10 mg/kg (LD50) of uniformly phenyl-labeled [ 14 C]EPN (O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl [ 14 C]phenylphosphonothioate) were studied in adult hens. The birds were protected from acute toxicity with atropine sulfate. Three treated hens were killed at each time interval (days): 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 12. Radioactivity was adsorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed in all tissues. Most of the dose was excreted in the combined urinary-fecal excreta (74%). Only traces of the radioactivity (0.2%) were detected in expired CO 2 . Most of the excreted radioactive materials were identified as phenylphosphonic acid (PPA), O-ethyl phenylphosphonic acid (EPPA), and O-ethyl phenylphosphonothioc acid (EPPTA). Radioactivity in tissues reached a peak of 11.8% in 12 days. The highest concentration of radioactivity was present in the liver followed by bile, kidney, adipose tissue, and muscle. EPN was the major compound identified in brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, kidney, and plasma. Most of the radioactivity in the liver was identified as EPPA followed by EPPTA and PPA. Kinetic studies showed that EPN disappeared exponentially from tissues. The half-life of the elimination of EPN from plasma was 16.5 days corresponding to a constant rate value of 0.04 day-1. Relative residence (RR) of EPN relative to plasma was shortest in liver and longest in adipose tissue followed by sciatic nerve and spinal cord

  9. Characterizing the distribution of steroid sulfatase during embryonic development: when and where might metabolites of maternal steroids be reactivated?

    Paitz, Ryan T; Duffield, Kristin R; Bowden, Rachel M

    2017-12-15

    All vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternally derived steroids during development. In placental vertebrates, metabolism of maternal steroids by the placenta modulates embryonic exposure, but how exposure is regulated in oviparous vertebrates is less clear. Recent work in oviparous vertebrates has demonstrated that steroids are not static molecules, as they can be converted to more polar steroid sulfates by sulfotransferase enzymes. Importantly, these steroid sulfates can be converted back to the parent compound by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). We investigated when and where STS was present during embryonic development in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta We report that STS is present during all stages of development and in all tissues we examined. We conclude that STS activity may be particularly important for regulating maternal steroid exposure in oviparous vertebrates. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Oral steroids alone or followed by intranasal steroids versus watchful waiting in the management of otitis media with effusion.

    Hussein, A; Fathy, H; Amin, S M; Elsisy, N

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral steroids alone or followed by intranasal steroids versus watchful waiting on the resolution of otitis media with effusion in children aged 2-11 years. A total of 290 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion were assigned to 3 groups: group A was treated with oral steroids followed by intranasal steroids, group B was treated with oral steroids alone and group C was managed with watchful waiting. Patients were evaluated with audiometry and tympanometry. The complete resolution rates of otitis media with effusion were higher in groups A and B than in group C at six weeks. There were no significant differences in otitis media with effusion resolution rates between the groups at three, six and nine months. Oral steroids lead only to a quick resolution of otitis media with effusion, with no long-term benefits. There was no benefit of using intranasal steroids in the management of otitis media with effusion.

  11. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  12. Effect of the systemic versus inhalatory administration of synthetic glucocorticoids on the urinary steroid profile as studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Mazzarino, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; Giacomelli, Laura; Botre, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study carried out on human urine to verify whether the administration of glucocorticoids can affect the urinary steroid profile, and especially the levels of endogenous glucocorticoids, androgens and their main metabolites. Betamethasone and beclomethasone, administered either systemically (per os or i.m.) or locally (by inhalation) have been studied. The determination of the urinary levels of endogenous glucocorticoids and androgens was carried out by GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode. Data were evaluated taking into account the baseline individual variability, and compared with values obtained on a control group. Detectable differences were recorded in the steroids metabolites excretion profiles between men and women. The circadian variability of the steroid profile was the same for both sexes, showing a maximum during the morning hours. After systemic treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids, the relative urinary concentrations of corticosteroids, androgens and of their metabolites were significantly altered, recording a transient decrease of the concentration of cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol and a parallel, although less pronounced, increase of the concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone and related androgenic steroids; while no effects were recorded if the administration was by inhalation

  13. Effect of the systemic versus inhalatory administration of synthetic glucocorticoids on the urinary steroid profile as studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Mazzarino, Monica [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Rossi, Francesca [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Giacomelli, Laura [Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche, Universita La Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Botre, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy) and Dipartimento CGMIA, Universita La Sapienza, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.botre@uniroma1.it

    2006-02-10

    This paper presents a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study carried out on human urine to verify whether the administration of glucocorticoids can affect the urinary steroid profile, and especially the levels of endogenous glucocorticoids, androgens and their main metabolites. Betamethasone and beclomethasone, administered either systemically (per os or i.m.) or locally (by inhalation) have been studied. The determination of the urinary levels of endogenous glucocorticoids and androgens was carried out by GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode. Data were evaluated taking into account the baseline individual variability, and compared with values obtained on a control group. Detectable differences were recorded in the steroids metabolites excretion profiles between men and women. The circadian variability of the steroid profile was the same for both sexes, showing a maximum during the morning hours. After systemic treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids, the relative urinary concentrations of corticosteroids, androgens and of their metabolites were significantly altered, recording a transient decrease of the concentration of cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol and a parallel, although less pronounced, increase of the concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone and related androgenic steroids; while no effects were recorded if the administration was by inhalation.

  14. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  15. Spreading characteristics of proprietary rectal steroid preparations

    Hay, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three types of rectal steroid preparation were labelled with Technetium 99 or Indium 111, and the extent of spread of each within the bowel was followed, immediately after administration and at 2hrs, using a gamma camera. Patients with ulcerative colitis were compared with controls. Results indicate that 'Colifoam' enema and 'Predsol' suppository act mainly in the rectum, but 'Predsol retention' enema spreads further into the colon, making it more useful for patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. (U.K.)

  16. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires care...

  17. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  18. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  19. Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  20. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  1. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  2. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  3. Distribution and excretion of methyl and phenyl mercury salts

    Gage, J C

    1964-01-01

    The distribution, metabolism, and excretion of phenyl mercury acetate (P.M.A.) and of methyl mercury dicyanidiamide (M.M.D.) has been studied in the rat during the repeated subcutaneous administration of small doses over a period of six weeks, and for several weeks after a single dose. The results indicate that P.M.A. is absorbed unchanged into the circulation from which it is mainly removed by the liver and kidneys where it is metabolized and excreted in the feces and urine mostly as inorganic mercury. During repeated dosage the rats reached a steady state by the end of the second week when excretion approximately balanced intake. No measurable amount of mercury was found in the central nervous system. After repeated dosage with M.M.D. there is no clear indication of a steady state being reached after six weeks. There is an accumulation of organic mercury in all tissues, particularly in the red cells, and a progressive increase in the brain concentration. M.M.D. is more slowly released from the tissues than P.M.A. and the breakdown to inorganic mercury is low. The control of human exposure to alkyl and aryl mercury salts is considered in the light of these experimental observations. The recommendation that the concentration of alkyl mercury salts in the atmosphere should not exceed 0-01 mg/m/sup 3/ seems justifiable, but there appears to be no reason to establish the figure for aryl mercury salts below the 0-1 mg/m/sup 3/ recommended for inorganic mercury vapor. 13 references, 4 tables.

  4. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  5. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants...

  6. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide and subsequently [99mTc]pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both 123 I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid

  7. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  8. Estimation of uptake from censored urine excretion data

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1994-01-01

    The estimation of radionuclide uptake often involves consideration of measurements of urine excretion which may include some values reported as below the limit of detection (LOD). Data sets which contain below LOD data as well as positive results are known as censored data sets. A simple method which uses the information contained in censored data to estimate uptake is described. A Monte Carlo technique has been used to investigate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method using simulated data sets with increasing numbers of LOD data points. (author)

  9. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  10. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  11. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis

    Daniels, L.; Budding, A. E.; de Korte, N.; Eck, A.; Bogaards, J. A.; Stockmann, H. B.; Consten, E. C.; Savelkoul, P. H.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general

  12. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  13. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    Ana Jiménez-Girón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33. It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1 UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis; and (2 UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis. Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

  14. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired ...

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk management. The transition from a research subject to a management tool requires the integration of standardized water sampling, laboratory, and data analysis procedures. In this study, a standardized HF183/BacR287 qPCR method was combined with a water sampling strategy and Bayesian data algorithm to establish a human fecal contamination index that can be used to rank impaired recreational water sites polluted with human waste. Stability and bias of index predictions were investigated under various parameters including siteswith different pollution levels, sampling period time range (1-15 weeks), and number of qPCR replicates per sample (2-14 replicates). Sensitivity analyses were conducted with simulated data sets (100 iterations) seeded with HF183/BacR287 qPCR laboratory measurements from water samples collected from three Southern California sites (588 qPCR measurements). Findings suggest that site ranking is feasible and that all parameters tested influence stability and bias in human fecal contamination indexscoring. Trends identified by sensitivity analyses will provide managers with the information needed to design and conduct field studies to rank impaired recreational water sites based

  15. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  16. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  17. Prospective assessment of interobserver agreement for defecography in fecal incontinence

    Dobben, Annette C.; Wiersma, Tjeerd G.; Janssen, Lucas W. M.; de Vos, Rien; Terra, Maaike P.; Baeten, Cor G.; Stoker, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The primary aim of our study was to determine the interobserver agreement of defecography in diagnosing enterocele, anterior rectocele, intussusception, and anismus in fecal-incontinent patients. The subsidiary aim was to evaluate the influence of level of experience on interpreting

  18. Schelpdierwaterkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in december 2004 (fecale coliformen)

    Poelman, M.; Gool, van A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In december van 2004 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier)waterkwaliteit in de kustwatergebieden. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen. Er wordt gekeken naar de aanwezigheid in gebieden waar schelpdieren worden gekweekt, waar schelpdieren in het wild

  19. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  20. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The Me...

  1. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal isolates of salmonella and shigella ...

    Salmonellosis and Shigellosis coupled with increased levels of multidrug resistances are public health problems, especially in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of fecal Salmonella and Shigella spp and its antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted on ...

  3. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future

    de Groot, P. F.; Frissen, M. N.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial

  4. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  5. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    Yomi

    The bacterial diversity in fecal samples from Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ... Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the fecal bacteria of R. bieti distributed ... and conservation genetics, but research on fecal bacterial ... The large number of microorganisms in the intestine of .... There was high evolutional relativity between.

  6. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  7. Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling.

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula

    2016-09-20

    The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.

  8. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples

    Ying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH, EtOH −20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs and frozen at −20 °C, storage time (one, three and six months, fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO and false allele (FA rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05. The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  9. Preparation, preliminary screening of new types of steroid conjugates and their activities on steroid receptors

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Sedlák, David; Dvořáková, H.; Hajduch, M.; Bartůněk, Petr; Drasar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2013), s. 356-361 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : click chemistry * steroid ribbons * cytotoxic activity * steroid receptor reporter assay * 2,6-bis((1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2013

  10. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  11. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  12. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  13. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  14. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  15. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  16. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  17. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation.

    Rothfuss, K S; Bode, J C; Stange, E F; Parlesak, A

    2006-02-01

    Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. Urine specimens were collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). The results indicate that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG.

  18. Excretion and organic distribution of 57Co-bleomycin emulsions

    Lathan, B.

    1982-01-01

    Excretion and organic distributions of 57 Co-bleomycin were studied in normal and tumour-bearing mice with the objective of obtaining high 57 Co-bleomycin concentrations in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes. Aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin and various 57 Co-bleomycin emulsions were used for the studies and applied either locally or systemically. Excretion of 57 Co-bleomycin was slowest after local administration of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion and fastest after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. Organic distribution studies showed the highest values in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes after local injection of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion while the lowest values were measured after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. These kinetic studies suggest that intratumoral treatment with oil-in-water emulsions of bleomycin may be a new approach in the therapy of epithelial tumours with lymphogenic metastases. (orig.) [de

  19. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  20. Studies on the percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-labelled flurbiprofen, (1). Absorption, distribution around the spread site, metabolism and excretion of /sup 14/C-Flurbiprofen in swine

    Sakai, Takeo; Nagao, Soshichi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A 1% ointment of C/sup 14/-labelled 2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl) propionic acid (FP) was applied onto the depilated backs of swines. A relatively large amount of C/sup 14/-FP was absorbed percutaneously. The drug concentration in the blood attained a peak of 0.097 ..mu..g/ml 12 hours after drug administration, after which it decreased rapidly to 11.3% of the peak concentration. High concentration of C/sup 14/FP was detected in the skin, its concentration being particularly high in the epidermis and corium, which shows that there were superficial dispersion and residue. The drug concentration in the muscle was low, which shows that there was little three-dimensional dispersion. The cumulative urinary excretion of the drug 120 hours after drug application was 16.7%, and the cumulative fecal excretion was 2.6%, the ratio of excretion into the urine to that into the feces being 6 : 1. The unchanged form of the drug and 3 metabolites were detected in the urine.

  1. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  3. Methods for the synthesis of tritium labelled steroids

    Volkova, V.S.; Tatarkina, F.V.; Kaklyushkina, L.N.; Ignat'eva, N.A.; Tupitsyn, I.F.; Efimova, Ts.I.

    1977-01-01

    The catalytic substitution of bromine for tritium in corresponding bromo-derivatives of steroids was used for the preparation of 4 steroids labelled with tritium at position 7. The bromination of the starting steroids was effected with N-bromosuccinimide. Ten steroids labelled with tritium at the positions 1, 2, 6 and 7 were prepared by reduction of the unsaturated derivatives with gaseous tritium in the presence of either the heterogeneous Pd/C catalyst, or the homogeneous chloride of tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium

  4. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  5. Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants: Past, present and future

    Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD), namely allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, in ruminants have been carried out with an objective to use the excretion of these purine metabolites as a parameter to estimate the intestinal flow of microbial protein. This paper reviews the published literature, from the first paper in 1931 to the current date. The current status of understanding in some key topics is discussed. The topics include: endogenous excretion, modelling the response of PD excretion to purine absorption, calculation of microbial N supply from PD excretion, use of spot urine measurement, possible use of plasma or milk PD as an alterative index, and applications in ruminant nutrition research. This review also covers the current understanding of PD excretion in different animal species, including sheep, cattle, goats, buffaloes, llamas, camels, yak and deer. Progress in analytical methods for the determination of purine derivatives is also discussed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted. The paper stresses the need for more studies on metabolism of PD in the tissue, the kinetics of PD in the blood and physiological processes of renal excretion, so as to understand better the mechanism that accounts for the between-species and within species variation in PD excretion. Development of simpler and more rapid methods for defining the endogenous excretion and purine input-output relationship is also an area for future work. (author)

  6. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  7. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  8. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  9. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis.

    Rezk, Emtithal; Nofal, Yazan H; Hamzeh, Ammar; Aboujaib, Muhammed F; AlKheder, Mohammad A; Al Hammad, Muhammad F

    2015-11-08

    Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever or the kissing disease, is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder. It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that is found in all human societies and cultures. Epidemiological studies show that over 95% of adults worldwide have been infected with EBV. Most cases of symptomatic infectious mononucleosis occur between the ages of 15 and 24 years. It is transmitted through close contact with an EBV shedder, contact with infected saliva or, less commonly, through sexual contact, blood transfusions or by sharing utensils; however, transmission actually occurs less than 10% of the time. Precautions are not needed to prevent transmission because of the high percentage of seropositivity for EBV. Infectious mononucleosis is self-limiting and typically lasts for two to three weeks. Nevertheless, symptoms can last for weeks and occasionally months.Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly and fatigue. Symptom relief and rest are commonly recommended treatments. Steroids have been used for their anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no universal criteria for their use. The objectives of the review were to determine the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy versus placebo, usual care or different drug therapies for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE. RCTs comparing the

  10. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    Hiren Patt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc. can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc., which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs.

  11. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs. PMID:24910822

  12. Transition-Metal-Mediated or -Catalyzed Syntheses of Steroids and Steroid-Like Compounds

    Kotora, Martin; Hessler, F.; Eignerová, B.

    -, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-42 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * synthesis design * synthetic methods * asymmetric synthesis * transition metals Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  13. Classification of two steroids, prostanozol and methasterone, as Schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substance Act. Final rule.

    2012-07-30

    With the issuance of this Final Rule, the Administrator of the DEA classifies the following two steroids as "anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole) and methasterone (2[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-5[alpha]-androstan-17[beta]-ol-3-one). These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA.

  14. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  15. Epidural versus intravenous steroids application following percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.

    Hu, Annan; Gu, Xin; Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; He, Shisheng

    2018-05-01

    Retrospectively study.The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intraoperative epidural steroids and single dose intravenous steroids following a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD).Inflammatory irritation of dorsal root ganglia or sensory nerve roots may cause postoperative pain. Epidural steroids have been applied after a lumbar discectomy for more than 20 years. Epidural steroid application after a PELD is easier to perform and safer because the operations are under observation of the scope.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who had undergone transforaminal PELD at our department. There are 60 patients in epidural steroid group, intravenous steroid group, and control group, respectively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were collected. Successful pain control is defined as 50% or more reduction in back and leg pain (VAS scores).VAS scores (back and leg) and ODI showed a significant decrease in all groups when comparing pre- and postoperatively. Epidural steroid group had a significant improvement in successful pain control compared with the control group at 2 weeks of follow-up. VAS scores (leg) in the epidural steroid group showed a significant decrease compared with the intravenous steroids group at 1, 3, and 7 days after the surgery, but this difference had no statistical significance at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. All groups did not show a significant difference in ODI at 1, 6, and 12 months follow-up.Epidural application of steroid has a better effect on controlling the postoperative pain of PELD in the short term. The epidural application of steroid did not show a tendency to cause infection.

  16. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  17. Marine, freshwater and aerially acclimated mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) use different strategies for cutaneous ammonia excretion

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are ammonia gas (NH3) channels known to be involved in ammonia transport in animals. Because of the different osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory challenges faced by teleost fishes in marine and freshwater (FW) environments, we hypothesized that ammonia excretion strategies would differ between environments. Also, we hypothesized that cutaneous NH3 volatilization in air-acclimated fish is facilitated by base secretion. To test these hypotheses, we used the skin of the euryhaline amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). The skin excretes ammonia and expresses Rh glycoproteins. Serosal-to-mucosal cutaneous ammonia flux was saturable (0–16 mmol/l ammonia, Km of 6.42 mmol/l). In FW, ammonia excretion increased in response to low mucosal pH but decreased with pharmacological inhibition of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and H+ ATPase. Conversely, in brackish water (BW), lowering the mucosal pH significantly decreased ammonia excretion. Inhibitors of NHE also decreased ammonia excretion in BW fish. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that both the Rh isoform, Rhcg1, and NHE3 proteins colocalized in Na+/K+ ATPase expressing mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills, kidney, and skin. We propose that the mechanisms of cutaneous ammonia excretion in FW K. marmoratus are consistent with the model for branchial ammonia excretion in FW teleost fish. NH4+ excretion appeared to play a stronger role in BW. NH4+ excretion in BW may be facilitated by apical NHE and/or diffuse through paracellular pathways. In aerially acclimated fish, inhibition of NHE and H+ ATPase, but not the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, significantly affected cutaneous surface pH, suggesting that direct base excretion is not critical for NH3 volatilization. Overall, K. marmoratus use different strategies for excreting ammonia in three different environments, FW, BW, and air, and Rh glycoproteins and NHE are integral to all. PMID:23389109

  18. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  19. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Current Applications, Effectiveness, and Future Perspectives

    Hyun Ho Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

  20. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... by easyMag® from the same fecal samples. Furthermore, DNA extracts obtained using easyMag® seemed to contain inhibitory compounds, since in order to perform a successful PCR-analysis, the sample should be diluted at least 10 times. DGGE performed on PCR from DNA extracted by QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA...

  1. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some...... of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU...... Campylobacter in all the clinical samples. Sensitivity in diagnostic metagenomics is improving and has reached a clinically relevant level. There are still challenges to overcome before real-time diagnostic metagenomics can replace quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture-based surveillance...

  2. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  3. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome.

    A V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here.

  4. Gonadal steroids and bone metabolism in men.

    Leder, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    Over the past decade, our increasing awareness of the clinical importance of osteoporosis in men has stimulated intense interest in trying to better understand male skeletal physiology and pathophysiology. The present review focuses on a major focus of research in this area, namely the attempt to define the influence and therapeutic potential of gonadal steroids in male bone metabolism. Building on previous work defining the relative roles of androgens and estrogens in the developing male skeleton and in maintaining normal bone turnover, recent studies have begun to define these issues from epidemiologic, physiologic and therapeutic perspectives. With access to data from large prospectively defined populations of men, investigators are confirming and challenging existing hypotheses and forwarding new concepts. Clinical trials have expanded beyond standard androgen replacement studies to explore more complex hormonal interventions. Physiologic investigation has continued to probe the mechanisms underlying the differential and independent roles of androgens and estrogens in male bone metabolism. Recent work has added significantly to our understanding of the role of gonadal steroids in male skeletal physiology. Nonetheless, further research is necessary to build on these initial human studies and to capitalize on rapidly emerging advances in our understanding of the basic biology of bone metabolism.

  5. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers. Anabolic steroids are considered because of their ability to stimulate protein synthesis and build muscle mass. Comprehensive evidence is required to facilitate decision making, regarding the benefits and harms of using anabolic steroids. To assess the effects of anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers. In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of anabolic steroids with alternative treatments or different types of anabolic steroids in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Two review authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The review contains only one trial with a total of 212 participants, all with spinal cord injury and open pressure ulcers classed as stage III and IV. The participants were

  6. Neuroactive Steroids: Receptor Interactions and Responses

    Kald Beshir Tuem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids (NASs are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs. NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors. Among these, NSs (especially allopregnanolone have high potency and extensive GABA-A receptors and hence demonstrate anticonvulsant, anesthetic, central cytoprotectant, and baroreflex inhibitory effects. NSs are also involved in mood and learning via serotonin and anti-nociceptive activity via T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Moreover, they are modulators of mitochondrial function, synaptic plasticity, or regulators of apoptosis, which have a role in neuroprotective via voltage-dependent anion channels receptors. For proper functioning, NASs need to be in their normal level, whereas excess and deficiency may lead to abnormalities. When they are below the normal, NSs could have a part in development of depression, neuro-inflammation, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, stress and attention deficit disorder could occur during excessive level. Overall, NASs are very important molecules with major neuropsychiatric activity.

  7. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation

    Rothfuss, K. S.; Bode, J.C.; Stange, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    . In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine specimens were...... collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG...... that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG....

  8. I-131 rose bengal excretion test is not dead

    Antico, V.F.; Denhartog, P.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.; Houle, S.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and thirty I-131 Rose Bengal Excretion Studies (RBI) were performed on 84 patients over nine years. In 90% (56/60) of cases with biliary atresia, the 72-hour RBI was less than or equal to 7%. In only 12.5% (3/24) of cases with neonatal hepatitis was the 72-hour RBI less than or equal to 7%. The accuracy of the test was 91% with a specificity of 88%. Thirty patients later were studied following a Kasai procedure. The RBI test reliably predicted the patency of the anastomosis. The authors conclude that the 72-hour RBI is a reliable test in the diagnosis of biliary atresia and in the documentation of biliary patency following surgery, provided adequate care is taken in stool collection and measurement

  9. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  10. Influence of radioiodine therapy on urinary iodine excretion

    Meller, B.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 214 patients with benign thyroid diseases the time-course of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was investigated in order to identify changes after radioiodine therapy (RITh). Method: UIE was measured photometrically (cerium-arsenite method) and related to urinary creatinine on the first and last day of the radioiodine test and the three days, seven days, four weeks, and six months after 131 I administration. Results: As compared with the level found immediately before radioiodine therapy, median UIE had almost doubled four weeks after therapy and was still significantly elevated six months after therapy. This increase correlated significantly with the target volume as measured by scintigraphy and sonography. Conclusions: The persistent elevation of UIE for months after RITh is a measure of treatment-induced damage to thyrocytes. Therefore, in view of the unfavourable kinetics of iodine that follow it, RITh should if possible be given via a single-dose regime. (orig.) [de

  11. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  12. Endoscopic and Histological Findings Are Predicted by Fecal Calprotectin in Acute Intestinal Graft-Versus-Host-Disease.

    Adam, Birgit; Koldehoff, Michael; Ditschkowski, Markus; Gromke, Tanja; Hlinka, Michal; Trenschel, Rudolf; Kordeals, Lambros; Steckel, Nina K; Beelen, Dietrich W; Liebregts, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal graft-versus-host-disease (GI-GVHD) is a major cause of nonrelapse mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) necessitating endoscopic examinations and biopsies for diagnosis. Fecal calprotectin (CPT) has been widely used in gastrointestinal inflammation, but comprehensive data in GI-GVHD are lacking. We aimed to identify an association of CPT with endoscopic findings, mucosal damage and symptoms for diagnosing and monitoring acute GI-GVHD. Symptoms were prospectively evaluated in 110 consecutive HSCT recipients by standardized questionnaires and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS). CPT was assayed by ELISA. Symptom assessment and CPT were performed weekly and with onset of first symptoms. GVHD was diagnosed according to the Glucksberg criteria and by endoscopic biopsies. Patients with GI-GVHD received standard high-dose corticosteroid therapy and follow-up CPT, and symptom evaluation was performed after 28 days. Patients not responding to steroid treatment were re-evaluated by colonoscopy. GI-GVHD was diagnosed in 40 patients. Twelve patients with GI symptoms and CMV colitis and 24 patients with isolated skin GVHD were included as control subjects. CPT was significantly higher in GI-GVHD compared to skin GVHD and CMV colitis. Endoscopic findings, histological grading, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, urgency and BSS correlated with CPT. At follow-up, CPT correlated with abdominal cramps, diarrhea, urgency and BSS. In steroid refractory patients, CPT level was still significantly associated with severity of mucosal damage. CPT predicts endoscopic and histological findings in GI-GVHD and correlates with lower GI symptoms. It enables to discriminate GVHD from CMV colitis and to monitor therapeutic success.

  13. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  14. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  15. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  16. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Fecal Source Identification in the ...

    Rivers in the Tillamook Basin play a vital role in supporting a thriving dairy and cheese-making industry, as well as providing a safe water resource for local human and wildlife populations. Historical concentrations of fecal bacteria in these waters are at times too high to allow for safe use leading to economic loss, endangerment of local wildlife, and poor conditions for recreational use. In this study, we employ host-associated qPCR methods for human (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2), ruminant (Rum2Bac), cattle (CowM2 and CowM3), canine (DG3 and DG37), and avian (GFD) fecal pollution combined with high-resolution geographic information system (GIS) land use data and general indicator bacteria measurements to elucidatewater quality spatial and temporal trends. Water samples (n=584) were collected over a 1-year period at 29 sites along the Trask, Kilchis, and Tillamook rivers and tributaries (Tillamook Basin, OR). A total of 16.6% of samples (n=97) yielded E. coli levels considered impaired based on Oregon Department of Environmental Quality bacteria criteria (406 MPN/100mL). Hostassociated genetic indicators were detected at frequencies of 39.2% (HF183/BacR287), 16.3% (HumM2), 74.6% (Rum2Bac), 13.0% (CowM2), 26.7% (CowM3), 19.8% (DG3), 3.2% (DG37), and 53.4% (GFD) across all water samples (n=584). Seasonal trends in avian, cattle, and human fecal pollution sources were evident over the study area. On a sample site basis, quantitative fecal source identification and

  17. [Colonic duplication revealed by intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction].

    Azahouani, A; Hida, M; Benhaddou, H

    2015-12-01

    Colonic duplications are very rare in children. With rectal duplications, they are the rarest locations of alimentary tract duplications, most often diagnosed in the first years of life. We report an unusual case of colic duplication with fecal impaction in a 9-month-old boy revealed by intestinal obstruction. We discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this malformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  19. Neuromodulation for fecal incontinence: An effective surgical intervention

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Asteria, Corrado R; Whitehead, William E

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a disabling symptom with medical and social implications, including fear, embarrassment, isolation and even depression. Most patients live in seclusion and have to plan their life around the symptom, with secondary impairment of their quality of life. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy are reported to benefit a good percentage of those affected. However, surgery must be considered in the non-responder population. Recently, sacral nerve electrostimulation, la...

  20. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

    María G. Domínguez-Bello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M, tet(S, tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O and tet(W, but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q. Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota.

  1. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Unknown

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  2. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  3. Steroid induced diabetes mellitus in patients receiving prednisolone ...

    Introduction: Steroids are a useful component of combination chemotherapy or as a single agent in the treatment of haematological disorders even though there are adverse effects associated with its use. Methods: We report four patients who developed diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with steroids for ...

  4. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  5. Cyclodextrin dimers as receptor molecules for steroid sensors

    de Jong, M.R.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2000-01-01

    The dansyl-modified dimer 9 complexes strongly with the steroidal bile salts. Relative to native -cyclodextrin, the binding of cholate (1 a) and deoxycholate (1 b) salts is especially enhanced. These steroids bind exclusively in a 1:1 fashion. For other bile salts (1 c-1 e) both 1:1 and 1:2

  6. Metabolic Action Of Sex Steroids: The Effects Of Testosterone and ...

    It has been widely reported that sex steroids affect carbohydrate metabolism and may have influences on hepatic enzymes. There have also been reports that glucocorticoids and sex steroids sometimes bind to similar receptors. All these suggest possible functional similarities or antagonism between glucocorticoids and ...

  7. Steroid sulfatase and sulfuryl transferase activities in human brain tumors

    Kříž, L.; Bičíková, M.; Mohapl, M.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Hampl, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 31-39 ISSN 0960-0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dehydroepiandrosterone * steroid sulfatase * steroid sulfuryl transferase * brain Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008

  8. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU...

  9. Separation of pair housed roosters is associated with transient increased corticosteroid excretion

    Hau, Jann; Carlsson, H E; Royo, F

    2009-01-01

    the second day after separation indicating that the separation and relocation is associated with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The excretion of ICCM in droppings was not correlated to the concentration of ICCM in droppings. It is thus important that excretion of ICCM be expressed...

  10. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    Christiansen, MS; Hesse, D; Ekbom, P

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  11. The effect of taurocholate on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    Toetterman, S.; Santavirta, S.; Mankinen, P.; Antila, H.; Lukkari, E.; Goethlin, J.; Korpi-Tommola, T.

    1983-01-01

    The bile acid taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of organic anions, such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP), bilirubin and iopanoic acid. In the present study has been investigated the effect of taurocholate on 1. Canine biliary excretion and concentration of the i.v. contrast medium ioglycamide and 2. Canine bile flow. The experimental model consisted of cholecystectomized, anaesthetized dogs with a fistula, through which the common bile duct could be catheterized and drained. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at a rate of 4 μmol/min./kg. was started. Two hours after the infusion start a control group received i.v. infusion of saline, while in another a 1.5% sodium taurocholate infusion was started with stepwise increases with 30 min. intervals from 0.4 to 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 μmol/min./kg. Compared with control, all rates of taurocholate infusion increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although the bile flow with increasing taurocholate infusion rates was enhanced, the biliary ioglycamide excretion did not increase. The results indicate that ioglycamide and taurocholate are excreted into bile by separate excretion mechanisms. As taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of some other organic anions, it supports the hypothesis that organic anions are excreted into bile by more than two excretion mechanisms, taurocholate affecting only some of them. (orig.)

  12. Ivermectin excreted in cattle dung after subcutaneous injection or pour-on treatment

    Sommer, C.; Steffansen, B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    Heifers were treated with the recommended doses of ivermectin: 0.2 mg/kg bw by subcutaneous injection or 0.5 mg/kg bw by pour-on. An analytic procedure is described and used for the detection of ivermectin residues excreted in dung. A large amount of the higher pour-on dose was excreted during th...

  13. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S

    1989-01-01

    ) and from the splanchnic region 0.012 +/- 0.013 mumol/min. These releases of 3MH constitute 27% +/- 2% and 8% +/- 6% of the individual urinary excretions, respectively. With increasing degree of catabolism, measured as individual 3MH increase above baseline excretion or as the 3MH to creatinine ratio (3MH...

  14. Influence of spironolactone on the excretion of 203Hg2+ in rats

    Cikrt, M.; Tichy, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of spironolactone (SPL) on 203 Hg 2+ excretion was studied in rats with a special emphasis in biliary excretion. No correlation was found between the number of doses of SPL pretreatment (1-5 doses of 5 mg/100 g body weight) and the biliary excretion of 203 Hg 2+ within 6 hours after intravenous administration of 120 μg Hg 2+ per rat. After the SPL pretreatment there was a significantly increased mercury stool excretion 24 hours after intravenous administration. Concurrent oral administration of SH-groups containing sorbent had no effect on mercury stool excretion. Repeated administration of 203 Hg 2+ (5 hours after the first dose) induced significantly increased biliary excretion of mercury in rats pretreated with SPL. On the other hand, repeated administration of SPL (4 hours after intravenous administration of mercury) did not influence the biliary excretion of mercury. The results indicate that the effect of SPL on biliary excretion of mercury could be limited by the level of ''mercury available'' in the organism and might be determined by a direct interaction of mercury molecule with the molecule of SPL

  15. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Myrup, B.; Hansen, P.M.; Jensen, T.; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.; Deckert, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU

  16. Homicide and Associated Steroid Acute Psychosis: A Case Report

    G. Airagnes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an old man treated with methylprednisolone for chronic lymphoid leukemia. After two months of treatment, he declared an acute steroid psychosis and beat his wife to death. Steroids were stopped and the psychotic symptoms subsided, but his condition declined very quickly. The clinical course was complicated by a major depressive disorder with suicidal ideas, due to the steroid stoppage, the leukemia progressed, and by a sudden onset of a fatal pulmonary embolism. This clinical case highlights the importance of early detection of steroid psychosis and proposes, should treatment not be stopped, a strategy of dose reduction combined with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic treatment. In addition have been revised the risks of the adverse psychiatric effects of steroids.

  17. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    Daya, S.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  18. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia.

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H; Gabelish, Candace L; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that natural and synthetic chemicals, in the form of excreted hormones and pharmaceuticals, as well as a vast array of compounds with domestic and industrial applications, can enter the environment via wastewater treatment plants and cause a wide variety of environmental and health problems even at very low concentrations, suggests the need for improvement of water recycling. Three Australian wastewater recycling schemes, two of which employ reverse osmosis (RO) technology, the other applying ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, have been studied for their ability to remove trace organic contaminants including 11 pharmaceutically active compounds and two non-steroidal estrogenic compounds. Contaminant concentrations were determined using a sensitive analytical method comprising solid phase extraction, derivatization and GC with MS using selected ion monitoring. In raw wastewater, concentrations of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications were comparable to those found in wastewaters around the world. Remarkably, removal efficiencies for the three schemes were superior to literature values and RO was responsible for the greatest proportion of contaminant removal. The ability of RO membranes to concentrate many of the compounds was demonstrated and highlights the need for continued research into monitoring wastewater treatment, concentrate disposal, improved water recycling schemes and ultimately, safer water and a cleaner environment.

  19. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  20. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  1. Human excretion behaviour in a schistosomiasis endemic area of the Geizira, Sudan

    Cheesmond, A.K.; Fenwick, A.

    1981-06-01

    A 12-month study of the excretory behaviour of resident and migrant labourers in Gezira, Sudan, was undertaken to contribute base-line information towards the development of a new control strategy. Of 398 observed acts of excretion 70% of urinations and 93% of defaecations occurred in sites far removed from any water body. After excretion only 31% people washed themselves (and only 7.1% actually washed their genital region directly into a water body). People excreting far from water were as likely to wash afterwards as those excreting near a water body. This finding contradicted previous expectations based on the hygienic precepts of Islam. The results show that privacy is a more important consideration than proximity of water in the selection of a site for excretion, and suggest that there is only limited regular contamination by S. mansoni eggs under the observed conditions.

  2. Diagnostic value of determination of amount of urinary excretion of proteins for early diabetic nephropathy

    Li Zhuocheng; Chen Jianxiong; Yan Dewen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of changes of the amount of usinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, Tamm- Horsfall protein and α 1 -m for diagnosis of early diabetic nephropathy. Methods: The amounts of 24h urinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, Tamm-Horsfall protein and α 1 -m were determined with RIA in 78 patients with diabetes mellitus and 40 controls. Results: The amounts of 24h urinary excretion of albumin, β 2 -m, α 1 -m in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01 ), while the amount of Tamm-Horsfall protein was significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the changes of the amount of protein excretion were more pronounced in those with advanced impairment of renal function. Conclusion: Determination of amount of urinary excretion of proteins was helpful for diagnosis and assessment of early diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  3. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice.

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Yin, X M; Zhang, X; Wang, Q Z

    2000-12-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  4. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice

    Wang, X.; Tian, J. E-mail: tianjun@public.lz.gs.cn; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q.Z

    2000-12-15

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon {sup 40}Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  5. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice

    Wang, X.; Tian, J.; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2000-01-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice

  6. Interplay of biopharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics drug disposition and salivary excretion classification systems

    Idkaidek, Nasir M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this commentary is to investigate the interplay of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). BCS first classified drugs based on permeability and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug absorption. Then BDDCS linked permeability with hepatic metabolism and classified drugs based on metabolism and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug disposition. On the other hand, SECS classified drugs based on permeability and protein binding for the purpose of predicting the salivary excretion of drugs. The role of metabolism, rather than permeability, on salivary excretion is investigated and the results are not in agreement with BDDCS. Conclusion The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion based on permeability (not metabolism) and protein binding. PMID:24493977

  7. Excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Zulfiya Raisovna Alimetova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus depending on gestational ageand albuminuria level. Materials and methods. A total of 60 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were examined. Proximal and distal tubular function was estimatedfrom daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia respectively. Results. Daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus was lower than in healthycontrols in the 2nd trimester regardless of albuminuria and in the 3rd trimester in patients with microalbuminuria (MAU and proteinuria (PU.Ammonia excretion was twice lower than normal in the 2nd trimester in women with MAU and PU, and in the 3rd trimester in patients with PU.Healthy pregnant women showed significant correlation between ammonia and amine nitrogen excretion throughout pregnancy (r?0.833,p

  8. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  9. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  10. Keto-supplemented Low Protein Diet: A Valid Therapeutic Approach for Patients with Steroid-resistant Proteinuria during Early-stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Zhang, J; Xie, H; Fang, M; Wang, K; Chen, J; Sun, W; Yang, L; Lin, H

    2016-04-01

    Low protein diets supplemented with keto acid (sLPD) are recommended for patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study assessed whether sLPD is beneficial for patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria during early-stage CKD. A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. In this study, 108 proteinuric patients who were steroid-resistant were assigned to a sLPD group (0.6 g/kg/d with 0.09 g/kg/d keto acids) or a normal protein diet group (NPD, 1.0 g/kg/d). Estimated dietary protein intake, urinary protein excretion, remission rate, renal function, nutritional status, and blood pressure were measured. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the sLPD group (47 patients) and the NPD group (49 patients). Urinary protein excretion significantly decreased in sLPD compared to NPD in months 6, 9, and 12 (P<0.05). Proteinuria reduction was higher in sLPD than in NPD (P<0.001) at the end of the study. Complete remission and partial remission rates were higher in sLPD than in NPD. Serum albumin and pre-albumin levels were higher in sLPD than in NPD in months 9 and 12 (P<0.05). Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels declined more significantly in sLPD than in NPD (P<0.01) at the end of the study. There were no differences in nutritional status, renal function, hemoglobin, or blood pressure between the two groups. sLPD is both nutritionally safe and beneficial, providing nephroprotective effects for early-stage CKD patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria.

  11. Steroid acne vs. Pityrosporum folliculitis: the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antifungal drugs in steroid acne.

    Yu, H J; Lee, S K; Son, S J; Kim, Y S; Yang, H Y; Kim, J H

    1998-10-01

    Steroid acne is a folliculitis that can result from systemic or topical administration of steroid, and has been described as showing a similar clinical picture to Pityrosporum folliculitis, but there have been few reports about the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antimycotic drugs in steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions. Our purpose was to describe the association between steroid acne and P. ovale, and to confirm the superior efficacy of oral antifungal drugs over anti-acne drugs in the treatment of steroid acne. The history, clinical features direct microscopy, histopathologic analysis, and therapeutic results of 125 cases with steroid acne or other acneiform eruptions were described and compared. Over 80% of patients with acneiform eruption receiving systemic steroid revealed significant numbers of P. ovale in the lesional follicle. Furthermore, oral antifungal drug (itraconazole) showed significantly better clinical and mycologic effects than any other group of medications used in this study. Steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions showing discrete follicular papules and/or pustules localized to the upper trunk and acneiform facial skin lesions associated with multiple acneiform lesions on the body in the summer period should be suspected as Pityrosporum folliculitis. In addition, oral antifungal drugs recommended for Pityrosporum folliculitis; however, it will require a larger case-control study to confirm the superiority of antifungal therapy over anti-acne treatment.

  12. Uptake and excretion of 110mAg by Mud carp Cirrhina molitorella

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation, excretion and tissue distribution of 110m Ag from both labeled food and water pathways in juvenile mud carp Cirrhina molitorella were investigated. Results indicated that the excretion rate of 110m Ag uptaken from artificial food pathway was very fast. 24 hours after feeding, the radioactivity of the fish decreased rapidly to 2.62% of the initial one and maintained the similar level afterwards in the 7 days excretion experiment. On the 7th day of excretion, the fish were dissected to separate the organs and tissues. The distribution of 110m Ag in the fish was uneven. Radioactivity of 110m Ag in the organs and tissues was in the order as liver>intestine>gall bladder>eye>gill>remainder>muscle. The radioactivity in liver, intestine and gall bladder were 48.14%, 18/43% and 15.43% of the total radioactivity of the fish, respectively. The accumulation of waterborne 110m Ag by mud carp showed that 110m Ag was easy to be uptaken by the fish. the concentration factors at 8th hour and 13th day were 23.8 and 208.6 respectively. Excretion of 110m Ag uptaken from water pathway was slower than that from food pathway. The radioactivity decreased to 20.1% and 16.7% on 15th and 28th day, respectively. The excretion procedure was composed of fast excretion phase (0-2d) and slow excretion phase (2-28d). The half-life of 110m Ag in mud carp in the slow excretion phase was 22d during the slow excretion phase. The distribution of 110m Ag in organs and tissues was mainly in viscera, which accounted for about 80% of the total radioactivity of the fish

  13. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  14. Use of [125I]-iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives as radioligands for radioimmunoassay of natural and synthetic steroids

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    [ 125 I]-Iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives were prepared and utilized as radioligands in radioimmunoassays of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, estriol-16α-glucuronide, levonorgestrel, norethindrone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The binding of these iodinated radioligands was compared to that of the corresponding tritiated steroids and their effect on the sensitivity and slope of standard curves was examined. The results demonstrate that much higher antibody dilutions could be used with iodinated than with tritiated radioligands. In general, standard curves obtained with iodinated radioligands were more sensitive than those obtained with tritiated steroids, but standard curves had steeper slopes when tritiated rather than iodinated radioligands were used. The data, summarizing our 5-year experience with steroid-[ 125 I]-iodohistamine derivatives, indicate that these tracers play an important role in radioimmunoassay systems for both natural and synthetic steroids. (author)

  15. Efficacy of steroidal vs non-steroidal agents in oral lichen planus: a randomised, open-label study.

    Singh, A R; Rai, A; Aftab, M; Jain, S; Singh, M

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal agents for treating oral lichen planus. Forty patients with clinical and/or histologically proven oral lichen planus were randomly placed into four groups and treated with topical triamcinolone, oral dapsone, topical tacrolimus or topical retinoid for three months. Pre- and post-treatment symptoms and signs were scored for each patient. Patients in all treatment groups showed significant clinical improvement after three months (p 0.05) and for topical retinoid vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05). Non-steroidal drugs such as dapsone, tacrolimus and retinoid are as efficacious as steroidal drugs for treating oral lichen planus, and avoid the side effects associated with steroids.

  16. Topical steroids in the current clinical practice

    T. A. Belousova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to current criteria for selection of glucocorticosteroids for external use as the basic therapy for a great number of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. The authors emphasize that non-fluorinated GCSs having the best efficacy-to-safety ratio must be the drugs of first choice. The article provides data on a positive clinical experience of using a non-halogenated glucocorticosteroid for external use - hydrocortisone 17-butyrate (Laticort - for treatment of steroid-sensitive dermatoses in children and adults. The drug has a high anti-inflammatory action and minimum risk of the development of side effects, which is sufficient for using it in sensitive areas of skin (face, neck, folds, genitals both in children and in adults. The availability of three forms of the drug (solution, cream and ointment ensures the expedience and convenience of its application at any stage of the inflammatory process and for any localization.

  17. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid......At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species......-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4...

  18. Breakthroughs in neuroactive steroid drug discovery.

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; La, Daniel; Coughlin, Quinn; Newman, Caitlin A; Griffin, Andrew M; Harrison, Boyd L; Salituro, Francesco G

    2018-01-15

    Endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids (NASs) or neurosteroids are effective modulators of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) and glutamate, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). These receptors are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), and there is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in numerous neurological disorders. The significant unmet medical need for treatment of CNS disorders has increased the interest for these types of compounds. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the clinical development of NAS drug candidates, in addition to preclinical breakthroughs in the identification of novel NASs, mainly for GABA A and NMDA receptor modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  20. Corticosteroids and obesity in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    Nina Lestari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with nephrotic syndrome need high-dose corticosteroids to achieve remission. Studies have estimated a 35-43% risk of obesity in these patients after corticosteroid treatment. Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity in children who received corticosteroids for nephrotic syndrome, and to compare the risk of obesity in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 50 children with SSNS or SRNS who received corticosteroid treatment. Obesity was defined to be a BMI-for-age Z-score above +2.0 SD, according to the WHO Growth Reference 2007. Central obesity was defined to be a waist-to-height ratio > 0.50. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was 22%, with 29% and 14% in the SSNS and SRNS groups, respectively. The overall prevalence of central obesity was 50%, with 54% and 46% in the SSNS and SRNS groups, respectively. The cumulative steroid doses in this study were not significantly different between the SSNS and SRNS groups. There were also no significant differences between groups for risk of obesity (RR 2.53; 95%CI 0.58 to 10.99 or central obesity (RR 1.39; 95%CI 0.45 to 4.25. Conclusion In children with nephrotic syndrome who received corticosteroids, the prevalence of obesity is 22% and of central obesity is 50%. In a comparison of SSNS and SRNS groups, cumulative steroid dose as well as risks of obesity and central obesity do not significantly differ between groups.

  1. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sarma, Hiren N.; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Steckler, Teresa L.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an estrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive / metabolic deficits manifested as cycle defects, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine / ovarian defects, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Furthermore, the severity of reproductive dysfunction is amplified by excess postnatal weight gain. The constellation of adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep is similar to features seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to result in similar phenotype suggesting that many effects of prenatal testosterone excess are likely facilitated via aromatization to estradiol. Similarly, exposure to environmental steroid imposters such as bisphenol A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC) from days 30-90 of gestation had long-term but differential effects. Exposure of sheep to BPA, which resulted in maternal levels of 30-50 ng/ml BPA, culminated in low birth-weight offspring. These female offspring were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and characterized by severely dampened preovulatory LH surges. Prenatal MXC-treated females had normal birth weight and manifested delayed but normal amplitude LH surges. Importantly, the effects of BPA were evident at levels, which approximated twice the highest levels found in human maternal circulation of industrialized nations. These findings provide evidence in support of developmental origin of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases and highlight the risk posed by exposure to environmental endocrine

  2. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic lipid nanoparticles targeting steroid organs

    Merian, Juliette; Boisgard, Raphael; Theze, Benoit; Decleves, Xavier; Texier, Isabelle; Tavitian, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Lipidots are original nano-particulate lipid delivery vectors for drugs and contrast agents made from materials generally regarded as safe. Here, we characterized the in vivo stability, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of lipidots. Lipidots 55 nm in diameter and coated with a phospholipid/poly(ethyleneglycol) surfactant shell were triply labeled with 3 H-cholesteryl-hexadecyl-ether, cholesteryl- 14 C-oleate, and the 1,19-dioctadecyl-3,3,39,39-tetramethyl-indo-tri-carbocyanine infrared fluorescent dye and injected intravenously into immunocompetent Friend virus B-type mice. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of lipidots were analyzed quantitatively in serial samples of blood and tissue and with in vivo optical imaging and were refined by microscopic examination of selected target tissues. The plasmatic half-life of lipidots was approximately 30 min. Radioactive and fluorescent tracers displayed a similar nanoparticle-driven biodistribution, indicative of the lipidots' integrity during the first hours after injection. Lipidots distributed in the liver and, surprisingly, in the steroid-rich organs adrenals and ovaries, but not in the spleen. This tropism was confirmed at the microscopic level by histologic detection of 1,19-dioctadecyl- 3,3,39,39-tetramethyl-indo-tri-carbocyanine. Nanoparticle loading with cholesterol derivatives increased accumulation in ovaries in a dose dependent manner. This previously unreported distribution pattern is specific to lipidots and attributed to their nano-metric size and composition, conferring on them a lipoprotein-like behavior. The affinity of lipidots for steroid hormone-rich areas is of interest to address drugs and contrast agents to lipoprotein-receptor-over-expressing cancer cells found in hormone-dependent tumors. (authors)

  4. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Methods Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbio-logical results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Results Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P=.04) and deeper infiltrates (P=.04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P=.002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n=366, 72%). Conclusions The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. PMID:21987581

  5. Gastrointestinal blood loss induced by three different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Bidlingmaier, A; Hammermaier, A; Nagyiványi, P; Pabst, G; Waitzinger, J

    1995-04-01

    A clinical study was performed on 18 healthy volunteers to compare the gastrointestinal daily blood loss induced by oral intake of three different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lysine clonixinate (CAS 55837-30-4), ibuprofen (CAS 15687-27-1) and acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2 ASA). For quantitative determination of gastrointestinal blood loss, autologous erythrocytes were radiolabelled in vitro with 51Cr and reinfused at study start. The amount of radioactivity excreted in faeces was measured during a placebo baseline phase of three days, a treatment phase of five days with thrice daily dosing of ASA, ibuprofen or lysine clonixinate and a subsequent wash-out phase of five days. The highest increase of mean daily blood loss over baseline was observed after treatment with ASA (+ 1.66 ml/d versus baseline). Treatment with ibuprofen led to an increase of mean daily blood loss by + 0.52 ml/d. During treatment with lysine clonixinate the mean increase of daily blood loss was +0.32 ml/d versus baseline. In the ibuprofen and lysine clonixinate treatment groups the values of mean daily blood loss decreased during the wash-out phase with respect to the verum phase, whereas the mean daily blood loss during the wash-out phase after treatment with ASA even increased in comparison to the verum phase (mean daily blood loss: +2.07 ml/d versus baseline.

  6. Effects of night shift on the cognitive load of physicians and urinary steroid hormone profiles - a randomized crossover trial.

    Osterode, Wolf; Schranz, Sandra; Jordakieva, Galateja

    2018-03-21

    Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2). In both conditions, physicians collected a 24 h urine sample for steroid hormone concentration analysis and further completed psychological tests, including the sleep questionnaire (SF-A), the questionnaire for mental state (MDBF) and the computer-assisted visual memory test (FVW) before and at the end of their shifts, respectively. Although mean sleep deprivation during night shift was relatively small (~1.5 h) the impairment in participants' mental state was high in all three dimensions (mood, vigilance and agitation, p ≤ 0.001). Sleep quality (SQ), feeling of being recovered after sleep and mental balance decreased (p ≤ 0.001), whereas mental exhaustion increased (p night shift (p = 0.011), however, mostly in incorrectly identified items and not in correctly identified ones (FVW). SQ and false identified items were negatively correlated, whereas SQ and time of reaction were positively associated. It is assumed that after night shift, a tendency exists to make faster wrong decisions. SQ did not influence correctly identified items in FVW. In contrast to previous investigations, we found that only excretion rates for pregnanetriol and androsterone/etiocholanolone ratios (p night shift. A considerable stimulation of the

  7. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  8. Sugammadex Improves Neuromuscular Function in Patients Receiving Perioperative Steroids.

    Ozer, A B; Bolat, E; Erhan, O L; Kilinc, M; Demirel, I; Toprak, G Caglar

    2018-02-01

    Sugammadex has steroid-encapsulating effect. This study was undertaken to assess whether the clinical efficacy of sugammadex was altered by the administration of steroids. Sixty patients between 18 and 60 years of age with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-IV and undergoing elective direct laryngoscopy/biopsy were included in this study. Patients were assigned to two groups based on the intraoperative steroid use: those who received steroid (Group S) and who did not (Group C). After standard general anesthesia, patients were monitored with the train of four (TOF) monitoring. The preferred steroid and its dose, timing of steroid administration, and TOF value before and after sugammadex as well as the time to recovery (TOF of 0.9) were recorded. SPSS software version 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. There is no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of age, gender, preoperative medication use, and TOF ratio just before administering sugammadex. The reached time to TOF 0.9 after sugammadex administration was significantly shorter in Group S than Group C (P sugammadex as well as the dose of sugammadex in those who received prednisolone; time to TOF 0.9 was higher in prednisolone receivers as compared to dexamethasone receivers (P sugammadex was found, in contrast with what one expect. Further studies are required to determine the cause of this effect which is probably due to a potential interaction between sugammadex and steroids.

  9. SPACE/TIME ANALYSIS OF FECAL POLLUTION AND RAINFALL IN AN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA ESTUARY

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Money, Eric S.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Newport River Estuary (NPRE) is a high priority shellfish harvesting area in eastern North Carolina (NC) that is impaired due to fecal contamination, specifically exceeding recommended levels for fecal coliforms. A hydrologic-driven mean trend model was developed, as a function of antecedent rainfall, in the NPRE to predict levels of E. coli (EC, measured as a proxy for fecal coliforms). This mean trend model was integrated in a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework to produce informat...

  10. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  11. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    compared to the stanol diet. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets excreted significantly more fecal cholesterol compared to the coconut oil and CO diets. In summary, CFO reduces plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations and increases fecal cholesterol excretion greater than CO through some other mechanism(s) in addition to increase dietary sterols and stanols-possibly oryzanols.

  12. Effect of calf age and dam breed on intake, energy expenditure, and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus, and methane of beef cows with calves.

    Estermann, B L; Sutter, F; Schlegel, P O; Erdin, D; Wettstein, H R; Kreuzer, M

    2002-04-01

    The effects of calf age and dam breeds of different milk yield potential on turnover of energy and nutrients were followed in 16 Simmental and 16 Angus beef cows with Angus-sired calves. Calf ages investigated were 1, 4, 7, and 10 mo. The forage offered for ad libitum access consisted of hay for the calves and of a constant mixture of grass silage, meadow hay, and straw (1:0.7:0.3 on a DM basis) for the cows. Calves of 10 mo of age received an additional 2.6 kg DM/d of crushed barley. The animals were kept in groups of four cows and four calves except in the respiration chambers, where only one cow (tethered) and her calf (loose) were grouped together. Indicator techniques were applied to obtain individual data on feces and urine volumes during group housing. In the Simmental cows, heavier on average by 22 kg, voluntary DMI was higher than in the Angus cows (14.0 vs 12.3 kg/d). In calves, DMI from supplementary feeds was 1.6, 3.9, and 6.3 kg/d, on average, at 4, 7, and 10 mo of age, respectively. Dam breed had no significant effect on DMI and ADG of calves and on BW changes of cows. System retention of energy, N, and P showed a curvilinear development with calf age. System energy expenditure, which linearly increased with calf age, was higher with Simmental than with Angus dams (11%), even when adjusted for metabolic BW (8%). Energy loss through methane linearly increased with NDF intake and, consequently, with calf age from 18 to 30 MJ/d (446 to 751 L/d) for cows and calves together. Similarly, fecal and urinary N excretion and fecal P excretion steadily increased with calf age. In calves, the easily volatile N percentage of manure N rapidly decreased from very high levels in young calves. The resulting changes in inclination to gaseous N loss during manure storage for 8 wk were more than compensated by alterations in N intake of the calves, resulting in an increased total system N loss with progressing lactation. Overall, the present results indicate a difference

  13. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in hens

    Ulfvarson, U.

    1969-01-01

    Young white Leghorn cocks, were given intravenously Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (I), methylmercury hydroxide (II), methoxyethylmercury hydroxide (III), and phenylmercury hydroxide (IV), all containing /sup 203/Hg. Doses were approx. 20% of LD/sub 50/ (0.5 mg/kg body wt of I and 5 mg/kg body wt of the other compounds). Feces was analyzed by scintillation techniques, and the various organs were investigated after killing some of the animals. With I, III, and IV, the Hg-concentration in the kidneys and the liver did not exceed 10 times the av. concentration in the body, whereas II was evenly distributed over all organs. The excretion is best described by the hyperbolic function 1/x = kt + 1/x/sub 0/, where x is the av. Hg-concn. in the body after t days, x/sub 0/ is the original concentration, and k is a rate constant having the value 10/sup 5/ (g Hg/g body wt)/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ for I, III, and IV, and only 4% of this value for II. Similar results were obtained when cocks were fed with grain containing 16 mg Hg/kg for 3 weeks.

  15. Patient Specific Dosimetry based in excreted urine measurements

    Barquero, R.; Nunez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Valverde, J.; Basurto, F.

    2006-07-01

    One of the limiting factors in utilising therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the I-131 thyroid therapy is the potential hazard to the bone marrow, kidneys, and other internal organs. In this work, by means of daily dose rate measurements at a point in contact of the can with the urine excreted by the patient undergoing radio-iodine therapy, activities and associated absorbed doses in total body are calculated. The urine can is characterised by a geometric and materials model for MC simulation with MCNP. Knowing the conversion factor from activity in urine to dose rate in the measurement point of the can for each filling volume, the urine and patient activity can be obtained at each measurement time. From the fitting of these activities, the time evolution, the effective half life in the patient and the cumulative whole body activity are calculated. The emission characteristics of I-131 are using after to estimate the maximum whole body absorbed dose. The results for 2 hyperthyroidism and 4 carcinoma treatments are presented. The maximum total body absorbed dose are 673 and 149 Gy for the carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The corresponding range of T1/2 eff is o.2 to 2.5 days (carcinoma) and 5.4 to 6.6 days (hyperthyroidism). (Author)

  16. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  17. Trace metal excretion in patients with homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    Jackson, G E; Blewet, R; Rodgers, A L; Wood, L; Jacobs, P

    1999-07-01

    In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia regular therapeutic apheresis is acknowledged to have long-term benefit. A previously unrecognised complication of such intervention is the development of anaemia that reflects a sub-optimal dietary iron intake coupled with accelerated loss of this trace metal in the fluid discarded after each procedure. Additional contributions result from enhanced urinary excretion as a result of chelation to citrate used as an anticoagulant and frequent blood sampling. The underlying pathophysiologic process appears to be reduced deformability. We now document similar and significant losses of zinc, copper and chromium in these circumstances. In the case of the latter three elements, no associated clinical syndromes have thus far been identified, probably because deficiency states are less well-recognised than that due to iron loss and, additionally, because critical reductions are avoided by their replenishment during a normal food intake. These studies are, nevertheless, relevant since they are the basis for recommending prophylactic supplementation during this form of management.

  18. Variation of 210Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of 210 Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted 210 Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of 210 Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of 210 Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of 210 Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  19. The influence of some thiols on biliary excretion of methyl mercury

    Refsvik, T.

    1983-01-01

    N-Acetylpenicillamine and thiola increased biliary excretion of methyl mercury and sulfhydryl right after administration. Cysteine increased excretion of methyl mercury in bile after a temporary decrease following administration. During the interval of decreased mercury excretion biliary excretion of cysteine passed through a maximum. This indicates the existence of a common factor of the excretory systems for cysteine and methyl mercury and illustrates that cysteine cannot carry methyl mercury from liver to bile. Relatively large proportions of unchanged thiola and N-acetylpenicillamine were excreted in bile. Bile collected after administration of one of these compounds, in addition to thiola or N-acetylpenicillamine, contained other methyl mercury carrying components not present in control bile. From the experiments undertaken it cannot be stated whether these components play any role in the increased excretion of methyl mercury in bile caused by thiola and N-acetylpenicillamine. The mechanisms of increased biliary excretion of methyl mercury following administration of N-acetylpenicillamine, thiola and cysteine are discussed. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916