WorldWideScience

Sample records for fecal residues environmental

  1. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, disinfection of inanimate objects, in addition to good handwashing, may be important in controlling the spread of enteric diseases in day care centers. PMID:6830225

  2. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  3. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Samanta

    Full Text Available Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder and prebiotic (inulin as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline, ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI. The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.

  4. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  5. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented.

  6. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  7. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  8. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential use of laser-induced fluorescence imaging techniques was investigated for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on poultry carcasses. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging f...

  9. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  10. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  11. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  12. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  13. Frequent detection of a human fecal indicator in the urban ocean: environmental drivers and covariation with enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wiley C; Chern, Eunice C; O'Donohue, Diane; Kellogg, Michael G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2018-03-01

    Fecal pollution of surface waters presents a global human health threat. New molecular indicators of fecal pollution have been developed to address shortcomings of traditional culturable fecal indicators. However, there is still little information on their fate and transport in the environment. The present study uses spatially and temporally extensive data on traditional (culturable enterococci, cENT) and molecular (qPCR-enterococci, qENT and human-associated marker, HF183/BacR287) indicator concentrations in marine water surrounding highly-urbanized San Francisco, California, USA to investigate environmental and anthropogenic processes that impact fecal pollution. We constructed multivariable regression models for fecal indicator bacteria at 14 sampling stations. The human marker was detected more frequently in our study than in many other published studies, with detection frequency at some stations as high as 97%. The odds of cENT, qENT, and HF183/BacR287 exceeding health-relevant thresholds were statistically elevated immediately following discharges of partially treated combined sewage, and cENT levels dissipated after approximately 1 day. However, combined sewer discharges were not important predictors of indicator levels typically measured in weekly monitoring samples. Instead, precipitation and solar insolation were important predictors of cENT in weekly samples, while precipitation and water temperature were important predictors of HF183/BacR287 and qENT. The importance of precipitation highlights the significance of untreated storm water as a source of fecal pollution to the urban ocean, even for a city served by a combined sewage system. Sunlight and water temperature likely control persistence of the indicators via photoinactivation and dark decay processes, respectively.

  14. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  15. Environmental Accounting Evidence in Organic Solid Residue Treatment Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Batista Padilha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern with natural resources and the environment brings out the true dimension of these issues. The awareness of society causes companies to adopt environmentally correct policies and attitudes, so as to contribute with the preservation of the environment. Accounting, as a social science which studies the patrimony and its affectations, has adapted to the need of its users and has started to care about proper presentation and measurement of environmental items, for effective publication to society. With this premise, this study aims to identify and describe the contributions of Environmental Accounting to the process of environmental accounting disclosure of a company, which deals with organic solid residues from agriculture. Using a case study, it has been intended to analyze the production process and to list the environmental items and events that could benefit the company through their disclosure. It was intended, with this study, to highlight the contribution that the environmental accounting may add to the company, with proper measurement and presentation proposals. We have been able to verify that, indeed, there are events of an environmental nature resulting from the production process and also of the investment that it carries out periodically to preserve nature; however, there re faults in the accounting records from an environmental point of view. The application of environmental accounting in the organization allows for a broad view of environmental management and sustainable development adopted by the entity, registering all events that may generate economic and financial changes.

  16. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  17. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette A; Ibsen, Ida B; Hau, Jann; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-05-15

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal study, fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were quantified during periods of rest and exposure to hypothesized stressors. FCM quantification was combined with behavioral analysis to further contextualize the measured increases. It was shown that both daily 5-minute handling/restraint, as well as housing devoid of climbing opportunity, resulted in increased FCM excretion. Behavioral analysis suggested that the iguanas were chronically stressed by the lack of climbing opportunity, whereas handling may have induced only a transient stress response. The experimental design, using repeated periods of stressor-exposure, also revealed a facilitating effect, where the two stressors potentiated one another. Furthermore, the order of the two stressors was found to be important. The study provides insight into the functioning of the hormonal stress response in green iguanas, and to the refining of their housing and handling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fecal indicator organism modeling and microbial source tracking in environmental waters: Chapter 3.4.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely applied to surface waters to estimate rates of settling, resuspension, flow, dispersion, and advection in order to calculate movement of particles that influence water quality. Of particular interest are the movement, survival, and persistence of microbial pathogens or their surrogates, which may contaminate recreational water, drinking water, or shellfish. Most models devoted to microbial water quality have been focused on fecal indicator organisms (FIO), which act as a surrogate for pathogens and viruses. Process-based modeling and statistical modeling have been used to track contamination events to source and to predict future events. The use of these two types of models require different levels of expertise and input; process-based models rely on theoretical physical constructs to explain present conditions and biological distribution while data-based, statistical models use extant paired data to do the same. The selection of the appropriate model and interpretation of results is critical to proper use of these tools in microbial source tracking. Integration of the modeling approaches could provide insight for tracking and predicting contamination events in real time. A review of modeling efforts reveals that process-based modeling has great promise for microbial source tracking efforts; further, combining the understanding of physical processes influencing FIO contamination developed with process-based models and molecular characterization of the population by gene-based (i.e., biological) or chemical markers may be an effective approach for locating sources and remediating contamination in order to protect human health better.

  19. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  1. Reduction of negative environmental impact generated by residues of plant tissue culture laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleidys Cortés Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the activity developed by teaching and research laboratories for biotechnology purposes with an environmental approach to determine potential contamination risk and analyze the residuals generated. The physical - chemical characterization of the residuals was carried out from contamination indicators that can affect the dumping of residual water. In order to identify the environmental risks and sources of microbial contamination of plant material propagated by in vitro culture that generate residuals, all the risk activities were identified, the type of risk involved in each activity was analyzed, as well as whether or not the standards were met of aseptic normative. The dilution and neutralization was proposed for residuals with extreme values of pH. Since the results of the work a set of measures was proposed to reduce the negative environmental impact of the laboratory residuals. Key words: biosafety, environmental management, microbial contamination

  2. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  3. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  4. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  5. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  6. Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Saroj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.

  7. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal Pollution Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, cr...

  8. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  9. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  10. Feeding livestock food residue and the consequences for the environmental impact of meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Moll, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The environmental impact of meat is high mainly due to the feed required by livestock in combination with the impacts of cultivating, transporting and processing of feed crops such as tapioca and grains. Like regular feed crops, livestock also feed on residue from the food industry, such as pulp,

  11. Environmental interpretation using insoluble residues within reef coral skeletons: problems, pitfalls, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Ann F.; Mann, Keith O.; Guzmán, Hector M.

    1993-03-01

    Insoluble residue concentrations have been measured within colonies of four massive reef corals from seven localities along the Caribbean coast of Panama to determine if detrital sediments, incorporated within the skeletal lattice during growth, record changes in sedimentation over the past twenty years. Amounts of resuspended sediment have increased to varying degrees at the seven localities over the past decades in response to increased deforestation in nearby terrestrial habitats. Preliminary results of correlation and regression analyses reveal few consistent temporal trends in the insoluble residue concentration. Analyses of variance suggest that amounts of insoluble residues, however, differ among environments within species, but that no consistent pattern of variation exists among species. D. strigosa and P. astreoides possess high concentrations at protected localities, S. siderea at localities with high amounts of resuspended sediment, and M. annularis at the least turbid localities. Little correlation exists between insoluble residue concentration and growth band width within species at each locality. Only in two more efficient suspension feeders ( S. siderea and D. strigosa) do weak negative correlations with growth band width exist overall. These results indicate that insoluble residue concentrations cannot be used unequivocally in environmental interpretation, until more is known about tissue damage, polyp behavior, and their effects on the incorporation of insolubles in the skeleton during growth in different coral species. Insoluble residue data are highly variable; therefore, large sample sizes and strong contrasts between environments are required to reveal significant trends.

  12. Economic valuation of the environmental impact of logging residue recovery and nutrient compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the environmental impact of logging residue recovery (LRR) and nutrient compensation (NC) in Sweden is analysed and evaluated economically. Logging reside recovery and recirculation of wood ash can generate local environmental benefits, such as reduced soil acidification and, primarily in southern Sweden, also improved nitrogen balance and reduced nutrient leaching from forest land. Recovery of residues leads to a slight increase in net emissions of carbon dioxide, compared with on site decomposition, but this increase is small compared with the net emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel cycles. The impact of toxic compounds is estimated to be insignificant, as is that on biodiversity, when current guidelines for forestry management methods are followed. The total cost, including direct costs and environmental costs/benefits, of LRR and NC is estimated to be about 1.1, 3.3 and 4.6 US dollars/GJ in southern, central and northern Sweden, respectively. For comparison, the current direct cost of LRR, excluding NC, is, on average, about 4.0 US dollars/GJ in Sweden. Almost one-third of the Swedish forest fuel potential is estimated to be located in the south, but this potential varies from about 50 to over 100 PJ per year depending on the assumptions made. Thus, when local environmental benefits are also considered, the overall economic benefit derived from the utilisation of forest fuels could increase significantly in southern Sweden, where large quantities of logging residues are available. (author)

  13. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  14. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007703.htm Fecal microbiota transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) helps to replace some of the " ...

  15. Aligning environmental and regulatory procedures with a holistic project management approach for residue deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, BJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ). 1.1 Legislative responses in South Africa The advent of a democratic South Africa has brought about the promulgation of new environmental legislation. This was necessary to give legal effect to the principles of sustainability as laid down.... Often project delays can be ascribed to non-conformance to the legal and regulatory processes, because: • The South African EIA legislative process that is applicable to mine residue deposition does not focus on project management procedures, project...

  16. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  17. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  18. Rebaselining of the plutonium residue elimination project at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, W.C.; Catlett, D.S.; Burns, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Value Engineering principles were put into practice in rebaselining the Pu Residue Stabilization and Elimination Project at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Tradeoff studies were conducted as to how to best rebaseline the system under the new Safeguards Termination Limits (STSs) issued by the Department of Energy. Through the use of a computerized database, the means by which Stakeholder values and other high-level requirements have been included in the tradeoff studies were documented. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Rebaselining of the plutonium residue elimination project at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, W.C.; Catlett, D.S.; Burns, T.P. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Systems Engineering and Value Engineering principles were put into practice in rebaselining the Pu Residue Stabilization and Elimination Project at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Tradeoff studies were conducted as to how to best rebaseline the system under the new Safeguards Termination Limits (STSs) issued by the Department of Energy. Through the use of a computerized database, the means by which Stakeholder values and other high-level requirements have been included in the tradeoff studies were documented. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An evaluation on the environmental consequences of residual CFCs from obsolete household refrigerators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiangyang; Duan Huabo; Li Jinhui

    2011-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contained in household refrigerators consist mainly of CFC-11 and CFC-12, which will be eventually released into the environment. Consequentially, environmental releases of these refrigerants will lead to ozone depletion and contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect, if waste refrigerators are not disposed of properly. In the present paper, the potential release of residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China is examined, and their contributions to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect are compared with those of other recognized ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The results imply that annual potential amounts of released residual CFC-11 and CFC-12 will reach their maximums at 4600 and 2300 tons, respectively in 2011, and then decrease gradually to zero until 2020. Meanwhile, the amounts of their most widely used substitutes HCFC-141b and HFC-134a will keep increasing. Subsequently, the contribution ratio of these CFCs and their substitutes to ozone depletion will remain at 25% through 2011, and reach its peak value of 34% by 2018. The contribution to greenhouse effect will reach its peak value of 0.57% by 2010. Moreover, the contribution ratio of these CFCs to the total global release of CFCs will steadily increase, reaching its peak of 15% by 2018. Thus, this period from 2010 to 2018 is a crucial time during which residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China will contribute significantly to ozone depletion.

  1. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  2. Environmental assessment of mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residues into fermentable sugars for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneshiudu, Ikechukwu C; Ganguly, Indroneil; Pierobon, Francesca; Bowers, Tait; Eastin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Sugar production via pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstock, in this case softwood harvest residues, is a critical step in the biochemical conversion pathway towards drop-in biofuels. Mild bisulfite (MBS) pretreatment is an emerging option for the breakdown and subsequent processing of biomass towards fermentable sugars. An environmental assessment of this process is critical to discern its future sustainability in the ever-changing biofuels landscape. The subsequent cradle-to-gate assessment of a proposed sugar production facility analyzes sugar made from woody biomass using MBS pretreatment across all seven impact categories (functional unit 1 kg dry mass sugar), with a specific focus on potential global warming and eutrophication impacts. The study found that the eutrophication impact (0.000201 kg N equivalent) is less than the impacts from conventional beet and cane sugars, while the global warming impact (0.353 kg CO2 equivalent) falls within the range of conventional processes. This work discusses some of the environmental impacts of designing and operating a sugar production facility that uses MBS as a method of treating cellulosic forest residuals. The impacts of each unit process in the proposed facility are highlighted. A comparison to other sugar-making process is detailed and will inform the growing biofuels literature.

  3. Effects of environmental conditions, human activity, reproduction, antler cycle and grouping on fecal glucocorticoids of free-ranging Pampas deer stags (Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Pereira, Ricardo José; Barbanti Duarte, José Maurício; Negrão, João Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated in detecting glucocorticoids in Pampas deer feces, in order to investigate the influence of several factors on the adrenocortical function. Fecal samples, behavioral data and information concerning male grouping and antlers status were collected at a monthly basis during a 1 year period from free-ranging stags living at Emas National Park, Brazil (18 degrees S/52 degrees W). The results revealed that concentrations of fecal glucocorticoids in winter were significantly higher than those corresponding to spring and summer. In addition, dry season data presented higher levels than during the wet season. Significant difference was found between fecal levels of breeding stags in summer and nonbreeding stags, whereas no difference was observed between breeding stags in winter and nonbreeding stags. On the other hand, males from areas with frequent human disturbance exhibited higher glucocorticoid concentrations and flight distances than individuals from areas of lower human activity. Males with antlers in velvet had elevated levels compared with animals in hard antler or antler casting. Also, we found that glucocorticoid levels were higher in groups with three or more males than in groups with only one male. The flight distances showed positive correlation with fecal glucocorticoid. These data indicate that fecal glucocorticoid provides a useful approach in the evaluation of physiological effects of environment, inter-individuals relationship and human-induced stressors on free-ranging Pampas deer stags.

  4. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO 2 -e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO 4 3 -e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO 2 -e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO 2 -e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental fate and transport of nitroglycerin from propellant residues at firing positions in the unsaturated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellavance-Godin, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Eau, Terre et Environnement; Martel, R. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Varennes, PQ (Canada). Eau, Terre et Environnement, Earth Sciences

    2008-07-01

    In response to environmental concerns, the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) have initiated studies to better evaluate the impact of various military activities. This paper presented the results of a study in which the fate of propellant residues on large soil columns was investigated. The sites selected for the study were the antitank ranges at Garrison Valcartier, Quebec and those at the CFB Petawawa, Ontario. The shoulder rockets fired on those ranges were propelled by solid propellants based on a nitrocellulose matrix in which nitroglycerine and ammonium perchlorate were dispersed as oxidizer and energetic materials. Propellant residues accumulated in the surface soils because the combustion processes in the rockets was incomplete. This study evaluated the contaminants transport through the unsaturated zone. Sampling was conducted in 2 steps. The first involved collecting uncontaminated soil samples representative of the geological formations of the 2 sites. The second step involved collecting soils containing high levels of propellant residues behind antitank firing positions, which was later spread across the surface of the uncontaminated soil columns and which were representative of the contaminated zone. The soils were watered in the laboratory following the precipitation patterns of the respective regions and interstitial water output of the columns was also sampled. The compounds of interest were nitroglycerine and its degradation metabolites, dinitroglycerine, mononitroglycerine and nitrates as well as perchlorate and bromides. Results presented high concentrations of nitrites, nitrates and perchlorates. Both the NG and its degradation products were monitored using a newly developed analytical method that provides for a better understanding of NG degradation pathways in anaerobic conditions. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of three microbial source tracking quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays from fecal-source and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.

    2012-01-01

    During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.

  8. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance

  9. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  10. Modeling of the residue transport of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, malathion and endosulfan in three different environmental compartments in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Senoro, Delia B.; Maravillas, Sharon L.; Ghafari, Nima; Rivera, Clarissa C.; Quiambao, Erwin C.; Lorenzo, Maria Carmina M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the environmental transport and fate of the residue of four Philippines priority chemicals; i.e., lambda cyhalothrin (L-cyhalothrin), cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion, in three different environmental compartments (air, water and soil). In the Philippines, pesticide application is the most common method of controlling pests and weeds in rice and vegetable farming. This practice aided the agricultural industry to minimize losses and increase yield. However, i...

  11. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  12. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Lopez, G.; Ibanez-Burgos, A. M.; Colombas, M.; Negree, A.; Reolid, C.; Lobo, M. C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment of dewatered drinking water treatment residue for environmental recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Wendling, Laura A; Pei, Yuansheng

    2017-09-01

    The beneficial recycle of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) in environmental remediation has been demonstrated in many reports. However, the lack of information concerning the potential toxicity of dewatered DWTR hinders its widespread use. The present study examined the ecotoxicity of dewatered aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) DWTR leachates to a green alga, Chlorella vulgaris. Data from the variations of cell density and chlorophyll a content suggested that algal growth in DWTR leachates was inhibited. The algal cellular oxidation stress was initially induced but completely eliminated within 72 h by antioxidant enzymes. The expression of three photosynthesis-related algae genes (psaB, psbC, and rbcL) also temporarily decreased (within 72 h). Moreover, the algal cells showed intact cytomembranes after exposure to DWTR leachates. Further investigation confirmed that inhibition of algal growth was due to DWTR-induced phosphorus (P) deficiency in growth medium, rather than potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and Al) contained in DWTR. Interestingly, the leachates could potentially promote algal growth via increasing the supply of new components (e.g. calcium, kalium, magnesium, and ammonia nitrogen) from DWTR. In summary, based on the algae toxicity test, the dewatered Fe/Al DWTR was nontoxic and its environment recycling does not represent an ecotoxicological risk to algae.

  14. Renewable energy from pyrolysis using crops and agricultural residuals: An economic and environmental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines pyrolysis-based electricity generation and ethanol production using various crops and agricultural residuals in Taiwan. It analyzes the net economic and environmental effects within the framework of the Extended Taiwanese Agricultural Sector Model by incorporating ongoing and potential gasoline, coal and GHG (greenhouse gas) prices. The study discusses the effects of agricultural shifts, which have several important implications for the Taiwanese bioenergy development. First, the cost of collecting rice straw is much lower than the production cost of other energy crops, implying that the efficient use of agricultural waste may eventually result in positive social effects in terms of farmers' revenue, the renewable energy supply and GHG emissions offset. Second, farmers with idle land usually suffer a lower steady income. Encouraging the development of the renewable energy industry increases the demand of raw feedstocks, which involves converting the idle land into cultivation and increasing farmers' revenue. Third, agricultural waste is usually burned and emits CO_2, which accelerates the global climate shift. Approximately one third of emissions could be offset by rice straw-based bioenergy in certain cases. Turning this waste into bioenergy, which offsets net GHG emissions, has positive effects on the climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • Pyrolyzing rice straw provides considerable energy supply (max 4.68 billion kWh). • High emission offset when combined with rice straw (max 2.73 million tons). • Affordable government subsidy ($204 million a year). • Collection and transportation costs of wastes could impact the result significantly.

  15. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  16. Evaluation and optimization of nutritional and environmental impact of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichti, Fabian Heribert

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the dynamic growth of biogas plants in Germany the fertilization with biogas residues has obtained an important role for recirculation of plant nutrients, particularly with regard to nitrogen. In this work the effect of N nutrition with biogas residues was assessed in a 3-year on-field trial conducted at four sites throughout Bavaria. The fertilizing effects were tested by varying rate and time of biogas residues application, using different application techniques and the addition of nitrification inhibitors on several crops. The biogas residues achieved mineral fertilizer equivalents of 30 - 45 %. Overall, the untreated biogas residues showed a slightly increased N efficiency compared to cattle manure, whereas particularly site-dependent differences resulted in large differences in N efficiency of biogas residues.

  17. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  18. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  19. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    biomass, environmental savings from fossil fuel displacement can be completely out-balanced by iLUC, depending on the feed value of the biomass residues. This was the case of industrial residues brewer's grain, beet residues, potato pulp, and whey. Overall, the GHGs from iLUC impacts were quantified to 4...... pathway, in a short-term context. Focusing on transport fuels, bioethanol was generally preferable to biomethane considering conventional biogas upgrading technologies. Based on the results, agro-industrial residues cannot be considered burden-free simply because they are a residual biomass and careful...

  20. Build Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site production prototype modular treatment system for stand alone core capability for residue unpack, sort, assay, repack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, R.A.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes a portable and modular suit of equipment that upfront and near-term accomplishes a sorting process that documents and removes Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) residue and waste from site inventory

  1. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental assessment of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification: The case study of Barcelona metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puy, Neus; Rieradevall, Joan; Bartroli, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    An energy and environmental analysis of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification in metropolitan areas is carried out to determine the most critical stages of their life cycle. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology is used to identify the environmental load of three defined scenarios: (1) Post-consumer wood from recycling points; (2) Post-consumer wood from bulky wastes; and (3) Forest residues. The stages considered are biomass pre-treatment, transport and gasification. Biomass pre-treatment comprise different steps: separation, chipping, sifting, post-chipping for all the scenarios; except for the drying step which is only entailed to Scenario 3. The midpoint impact categories taken into account are: abiotic depletion (AD), global warming (GW), ozone layer depletion (ODP), human toxicity (HT), acidification (A) and eutrophication (E). Results show that, due to the high physical requirements for biomass gasification, the most appropriate biomass is that of Scenario 1, since forest residues require a drying stage, which involves high energy consumption and high environmental impact. Energy consumption in biomass pre-treatment and transport stages is low compared to the energy obtained from gasification, which represents the 5% in Scenario 1; 7% in Scenario 2; and 13% in Scenario 3. Biomass pre-treatment is associated to an important contribution in AD and ODP impact categories, calculated as 71% and 98% of the overall impact. The transport stage is of no significant influence either in the scenarios or in the impact categories (less than 24% of the overall impact). Finally, gasification represents an impact of 3-78% of the different impact categories. (author)

  3. USE OF ORGANIC RESIDUES FOR THE RECOVERY OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Galvez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different organic residues on soil fertility and climate change, through the evaluation of soil organic matter mineralisation, greenhouse gas emission, nutrient availability and soil microbial biomass content and activity. A degraded agricultural soil was amended with three different organic residues (pig slurry digestate, rapeseed meal, and compost at three different doses (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% w/w and incubated for 30 days at 20 ºC. During incubation, soil CO2 and N2O emissions, K2SO4 extractable organic C, N, NH4+, NO3- and P, soil microbial biomass and some enzymatic activities were determined. Results obtained showed that rapeseed meal and pig slurry are best suited to improve soil chemical and biological fertility, while compost is more appropriate for the enhancement of soil organic matter content and to promote soil C sequestration.

  4. The residues and environmental risks of multiple veterinary antibiotics in animal faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Xue-Lian; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To understand the residues and ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in animal faeces from concentrated animal feeding operations in northeastern China, 14 VAs were identified by high performance liquid chromatography, and the preliminary risks of six antibiotics were assessed using the hazard quotient (HQ). The investigated VAs occurred in 7.41 to 57.41 % of the 54 samples, and the levels ranged from 0.08 to 56.81 mg kg(-1). Tetracyclines were predominant with a maximum level of 56.81 mg kg(-1) mostly detected in pig faeces. Sulfonamides were common and detected with the highest concentration of 7.11 mg kg(-1). Fluoroquinolones were more widely detected in chicken faeces rather than in pig or cow faeces, which contained the dominant antibiotic enrofloxacin. In comparison, the residue of tylosin was less frequently found. The risk evaluations of the six antibiotics revealed that tetracyclines, especially oxytetracycline, displayed the greatest ecological risk because of its high HQ value of 15.75. The results of this study imply that multiple kinds of VAs were jointly used in animal feeding processes in the study area. These medicine residues in animal faeces may potentially bring ecological risks if the animal manure is not treated effectively.

  5. Incontinencia fecal del adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara A,M. Teresa; Suárez M,Juan; Orellana G,Hernán; Cofré L,Pamela; Germain P,Fernando; Stanley E,William; Sivori H,Javiera; Cruz M,Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de esta revisión es actualizar los conocimientos sobre esta patología, destacando su evolución clínica, estudio y tratamiento, aspectos que ameritan un enfoque multidisciplinario, ya que, además de su compleja fisiopatología, puede asociarse a incontinencia urinaria y prolapso de los tres compartimentos de la pelvis. La incontinencia fecal (IF) constituye una patología altamente prevalente que afecta al menos un 2% de la población y hasta el 45% de los pacientes en casas de repos...

  6. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  7. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. → BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. → Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. → At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. → The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but

  8. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  9. Nutrient removal capacity of wood residues for the Agro-environmental safety of ground and surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Dumont

    2014-07-01

    in the adsorption of nutrients from nutrient-rich effluents. The results also showed that some wood residues (G30 had great capacity to adsorb NH4+-N to levels up to nearly 90% whilst demonstrating low desorption capacity of NH4+-N (less than 1%. These are ideal relevant features for an adsorbent material for the removal of nutrients (or heavy metals from contaminated waters such us farm o industrial effluents, or for the depuration of eutrophic watercourses. This could help reduce the concentration of farm effluents making them more manageable, subsequently contributing towards the compliance of new environmental regulations.

  10. Environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB boilers for MSW combustion -- Analysis of gaseous emissions and solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, M.; Hagman, U.; Andersson, B.A.; Olofsson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Kvaerner Pulping AB (formerly Kvaerner EnviroPower AB) has, due to the stringent demands on emissions performance, developed a state-of-the-art bubbling fluidized bed boiler (BFB) designed for waste fuel firing with very low emissions to the air. A complete evaluation of the environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB technique for MSW combustion is now possible thanks to a thorough characterization study of the solid residues from the Lidkoeping plant. This paper gives an overall mapping of the emissions performance. Data from the operating plants on solid residue characteristics and leachability, heavy metal and dioxin emissions, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, acid gases, and other emissions to air are presented. Comparisons are made with legislative limits and data from the mass burning technique. It is concluded that the emissions are low compared both with data from traditional mass burn incinerators and with legislative limits in the USA and Europe. Furthermore, the bottom and cyclone ash characteristics are shown not to cause any particular problem from an environmental point of view, and that the leachability is well below the existing legislative limits in Europe and the USA. The results show that fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste is a very competitive alternative to the traditional mass burning technique in every respect

  11. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO x emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO 2 -eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO 2 -eq, with 294 kg CO 2 -eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO x process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  12. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  13. Pathophysiology of pediatric fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric fecal incontinence in 4 main categories: (1) Functional fecal retention, the withholding of feces because of fear of painful defecation, results in constipation and overflow soiling. Treatment includes dietary changes, use of laxatives,

  14. Economic evaluation of technical, environmental and institutional barriers on biomass residue collection cost in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Tiangco, V.; Dee, V.; Simons, G.; Lee, Y.; Yomogida, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic impacts of the technical, environmental, and institutional barriers in the production, harvesting, and processing of various biomass fuels in California. For each biomass fuel, a base case scenario was developed to characterize the procedures of harvesting, processing and transporting. An economic model was utilized to project the biomass production costs supplied to direct-combustion power plants for each technical, environmental, and institutional barrier. These results will enable the California Energy Commission to identify the most significant barriers to economical biomass energy production (production, harvesting, and processing). (author)

  15. Mineralogy of Air-Pollution-Control Residues from a Secondary Lead Smellter: Environmental Implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Johan, Z.; Baronnet, A.; Jankovský, F.; Gilles, C.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Strnad, L.; Bezdička, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 23 (2005), s. 9309-9316 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP205/01/D132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : mineralogy * environmental aplications Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2005

  16. Behaviour of bound residues of carbon-14 labelled organic environmental chemicals in vegetable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallnoefer, P.; Koeniger, M.; Ziegler, W.

    1991-01-01

    Growing cultures of cell suspensions of tomato and maize were capable of partly integrating (radioactively labelled) chemicals like 4-nitrophenol or 2-nitroaniline into the cell wall structure. The rates of integration found range from 1.1 per cent (4-NP in tomato) to 7.7 per cent (2-NA in maize). Maize is more prone to form bound residues than tomato; moreover, the results point to a dependence on the chemical structure of the xenobiotic substance. Enzymatic-chemical disaggregation of the cell wall material revealed an uneven distribution of radioactivity in the individual fractions: Tomato cells stored 4-NP above all in the starch fraction and to a smaller extent in the protein fraction, while storage of 2-NA in starch, protein and hemicellulose was about equal. Maize cells integrated both substances preferably into lignin and to a distinctly smaller extent also into starch and protein. (orig.) [de

  17. Modeling of the residue transport of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, malathion and endosulfan in three different environmental compartments in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia B. Senoro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the environmental transport and fate of the residue of four Philippines priority chemicals; i.e., lambda cyhalothrin (L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion, in three different environmental compartments (air, water and soil. In the Philippines, pesticide application is the most common method of controlling pests and weeds in rice and vegetable farming. This practice aided the agricultural industry to minimize losses and increase yield. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides resulted to adverse effects to public health and environment. Studies showed that 95% of the applied pesticides went to non-target species. Data from previous studies in Pagsanjan Laguna, Philippines were used as input data. Dispersion, Gaussian plume, and regression equations were employed to simulate the behavior of L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion in air, water and soil. Substance decay was calculated using first order reaction. This study showed how L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan, and malathion behaved in the environment after release from nozzle spray, and its possible duration of stay in the environment. It will also show a tool in determining the percolation depth through soil by endosulfan. This tool can be utilized in determining the depth of contaminated soil during remediation strategic planning and project implementation of similar environmental condition.

  18. Environmental performance, mechanical and microstructure analysis of concrete containing oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis residues of shale gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qiang; Lin, Xiao-Yan; He, Ming; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Si-Lan

    2017-09-15

    The overall objective of this research project is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis residues (ODPR) and fly ash serve as replacements for fine aggregates and cementitious materials in concrete. Mechanical and physical properties, detailed environmental performances, and microstructure analysis were carried out. Meanwhile, the early hydration process and hydrated products of ODPR concrete were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results indicated that ODPR could not be categorize into hazardous wastes. ODPR had specific pozzolanic characteristic and the use of ODPR had certain influence on slump and compressive strength of concrete. The best workability and optimal compressive strength were achieved with the help of 35% ODPR. Environmental performance tests came to conclusion that ODPR as recycled aggregates and admixture for the preparation of concrete, from the technique perspective, were the substance of mere environmental contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH 4 /g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental sustainability assessment of fruit cultivation and processing using fruit and cocoa residues for bioenergy and compost. Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    and electricity production using farming and processing residues and by recycling of nutrients and carbon to soil. Cocoa shells are used as a co-substrate in the biogas production. Estimating the environmental impact of cocoa shell residues exposes the multifunctionality issue, continuously debated in ESA......, particularly concerning bioenergy production. We compare the use of allocation of cocoa production impacts and system expansion that includes cocoa production as possible methods to manage multifunctionality of inputs. Inassessments of residue-based production, we recommend using the latter method. Applying......Agro-industrial businesses often have easy access to agricultural and processing residues with whichthey may reduce costs and pollution by integrating their production with bioenergy production. In regionswith unreliable power supply, on-site electricity generation is a means to secure stable...

  2. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  3. Pre-concentration of pesticide residues in environmental water samples using Silica nanoparticles and identification of residues By GC-MS method

    OpenAIRE

    Tentu. Nageswara Rao; A. Muralidhar Reddy; SNVS. Murthy; Prathipati Revathi; K. Suneel Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The silica nanoparticles prepared by stober’s mechanism by reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with ammonia was tested for their adsorption capacity in the pre-concentration of residues of pesticides in water. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The size of the silica nanoparticles were 50 to 250 nm. The solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were prepared by filling...

  4. Environmental status of groundwater affected by chromite ore processing residue (COPR) dumpsites during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, Katrin; Weigand, Harald; Singh, Abhas; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) is generated by the roasting of chromite ores for the extraction of chromium. Leaching of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from COPR dumpsites and contamination of groundwater is a key environmental risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate Cr(VI) contamination in groundwater in the vicinity of three COPR disposal sites in Uttar Pradesh, India, in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Groundwater samples (n = 57 pre-monsoon, n = 70 monsoon) were taken in 2014 and analyzed for Cr(VI) and relevant hydrochemical parameters. The site-specific ranges of Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater were Rania), <0.005 to 115 mg L -1 (Chhiwali), and <0.005 to 2.0 mg L -1 (Godhrauli). Maximum levels of Cr(VI) were found close to the COPR dumpsites and significantly exceeded safe drinking water limits (0.05 mg L -1 ). No significant dependence of Cr(VI) concentration on monsoons was observed.

  5. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  6. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  7. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  8. Influence of agricultural residues interpretation and allocation procedures on the environmental performance of bioelectricity production – A case study on woodchips from apple orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschiero, Martina; Kelderer, Markus; Schmitt, Armin O.; Andreotti, Carlo; Zerbe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An LCA of bioelectricity production from apple woody residues (AWRs) is performed. • Two AWRs interpretation are investigated: by-products and co-products. • Different allocation procedures are used for upstream and downstream emissions. • AWRs guarantee significant environmental benefits, when interpreted as by-products. - Abstract: Agricultural woody residues are available in massive quantities and provide a considerable potential for energy production. However, to encourage environmentally sustainable bioenergy strategies, it is necessary to assess the environmental performance of each specific bioenergy chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized to be one of the best methodologies to evaluate the environmental burdens of bioenergy chains. The application of LCA to bioenergy from agricultural residues requires practitioners to make choices on how to interpret agricultural residues (i.e. by-products or co-products) and on how to allocate emissions among the different products generated along the bioenergy chain. These are among the most debated issues in the LCA community, given their potentially large influence on final LCA outcomes. A uniform consensus on these issues is still lacking, and no single method is equally suitable for all solutions. The aim of this paper is to assess how different ways of agricultural residue interpretation and different allocation methods (both of upstream and downstream emissions), affect the environmental performance of bioenergy production fed by agricultural residues. In order to address the issue, we perform a full attributional LCA of the electricity production in a combustion combined heat and power plant (CHP) fed with woody residues from apple orchards (AWRs), as a case study. Bioelectricity production from CHP fed with agricultural residues is a good example of a multifunctional process, since multiple products (e.g. grain, fruit, straw, wood, etc.) and energy (e.g. heat and power) are co

  9. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... by easyMag® from the same fecal samples. Furthermore, DNA extracts obtained using easyMag® seemed to contain inhibitory compounds, since in order to perform a successful PCR-analysis, the sample should be diluted at least 10 times. DGGE performed on PCR from DNA extracted by QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA...

  10. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura; Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed

  11. Salmonella detection in poultry samples. Comparison of two commercial real-time PCR systems with culture methods for the detection of Salmonella spp. in environmental and fecal samples of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, D; Enderlein, D; Antakli, A; Schönenbrücher, H; Slaghuis, J; Redmann, T; Lierz, M

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of two commercial PCR methods based on real-time technology, the foodproof® Salmonella detection system and the BAX® PCR Assay Salmonella system was compared to standardized culture methods (EN ISO 6579:2002 - Annex D) for the detection of Salmonella spp. in poultry samples. Four sample matrices (feed, dust, boot swabs, feces) obtained directly from poultry flocks, as well as artificially spiked samples of the same matrices, were used. All samples were tested for Salmonella spp. using culture methods first as the gold standard. In addition samples spiked with Salmonella Enteridis were tested to evaluate the sensitivity of both PCR methods. Furthermore all methods were evaluated in an annual ring-trial of the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory of Germany. Salmonella detection in the matrices feed, dust and boot swabs were comparable in both PCR systems whereas the results from feces differed markedly. The quality, especially the freshness, of the fecal samples had an influence on the sensitivity of the real-time PCR and the results of the culture methods. In fresh fecal samples an initial spiking level of 100cfu/25g Salmonella Enteritidis was detected. Two-days-dried fecal samples allowed the detection of 14cfu/25g. Both real- time PCR protocols appear to be suitable for the detection of Salmonella spp. in all four matrices. The foodproof® system detected eight samples more to be positive compared to the BAX® system, but had a potential false positive result in one case. In 7-days-dried samples none of the methods was able to detect Salmonella likely through letal cell damage. In general the advantage of PCR analyses over the culture method is the reduction of working time from 4-5 days to only 2 days. However, especially for the analysis of fecal samples official validation should be conducted according to the requirement of EN ISO6579:2002 - Annex D.

  12. Effects of hydrologic, biological, and environmental processes on sources and concentrations of fecal bacteria in the Cuyahoga River, with implications for management of recreational waters in Summit and Cuyahoga Counties, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, Donna S.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges of fecal bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli ) to the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River from storm water, combined sewers, and incompletely disinfected wastewater have resulted in frequent exceedances of bacteriological water-quality standards in a 23-mile reach of the river that flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Contamination of the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River by bacteria of fecal origin and subsequent transport to downstream areas where water-contact recreation is an important use of the river are a concern because of the potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Independent field investigations of bacterial decay, dilution, dispersion, transport, and sources, and bacterial contamination of streambed sediments, were completed in 1991-93 during periods of rainfall and runoff. The highest concentration of fecal coliform bacteria observed in the middle main stem during three transport studies exceeded the single-sample fecal coliform standard applicable to primary-contact recreation by a factor of approximately 1,300 and exceeded the Escherichia coli standard by a factor of approximately 8,000. The geometric-mean concentrations of fecal bacteria in the middle main stem were 6.7 to 12.3 times higher than geometric-mean concentrations in the monitored tributaries, and 1.8 to 7.0 times larger than the geometric-mean concentrations discharged from the Akron Water Pollution Control Station. Decay rates of fecal bacteria measured in field studies in 1992 ranged from 0.0018 per hour to 0.0372 per hour for fecal coliform bacteria and from 0.0022 per hour to 0.0407 per hour for Escherichia coli. Most of the decay rates measured in June and August were significantly higher than decay rates measured in April and October. Results of field studies demonstrated that concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria were 1.2 to 58 times higher in streambed sediments than in the overlying

  13. Potential of household environmental resources and practices in eliminating residual malaria transmission: a case study of Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi and Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Henry M; Song, Guobao; Zhang, Shushen; Achuu, Simon P

    2015-09-01

    The increasing protection gaps of insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual spraying methods against malaria have led to an emergence of residual transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and thus, supplementary strategies to control mosquitoes are urgently required. To assess household environmental resources and practices that increase or reduce malaria risk among children under-five years of age in order to identify those aspects that can be adopted to control residual transmission. Household environmental resources, practices and malaria test results were extracted from Malaria Indicators Survey datasets for Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi and Liberia with 16,747 children from 11,469 households utilised in the analysis. Logistic regressions were performed to quantify the contribution of each factor to malaria occurrence. Cattle rearing reduced malaria risk between 26%-49% while rearing goats increased the risk between 26%-32%. All piped-water systems reduced malaria risk between 30%-87% (Tanzania), 48%-95% (Burundi), 67%-77% (Malawi) and 58%-73 (Liberia). Flush toilets reduced malaria risk between 47%-96%. Protected-wells increased malaria risk between 19%-44%. Interestingly, boreholes increased malaria risk between 19%-75%. Charcoal use reduced malaria risk between 11%-49%. Vector control options for tackling mosquitoes were revealed based on their risk levels. These included cattle rearing, installation of piped-water systems and flush toilets as well as use of smokeless fuels.

  14. Can cadaverous pollution from environmental lead misguide to false positive results in the histochemical determination of gunshot residues? Study on cadaveric skin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boracchi, Michele; Andreola, Salvatore; Collini, Federica; Gentile, Guendalina; Maciocco, Francesca; Maghin, Francesca; Zoja, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Histochemical determination of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) raises the question of possible environmental contamination by heavy metals. Authors assess the specificity of the Sodium Rhodizonate Test in the search of lead derived from environmental pollution. Sodium Rhodizonate Test and 5% HCl Sodium Rhodizonate test were applied to skin samples taken from two groups of victims, whose cause of death was not related to gunshot wounds: group A included 25 corpses found in open spaces after a long time; group B included 16 corpses exhumed after a period of 11 years. The use of these histochemical tests to skin samples from these two groups did not show metal debris histochemically similar to the lead present in GSR. These tests were confirmed to be specific in highlighting the GSR coming from gunshot, without being affected by the potential environmental contamination of the heavy metal pollutants, coming from air or soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Do wood-based panels made with agro-industrial residues provide environmentally benign alternatives? An LCA case study of sugarcane bagasse addition to particle board manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco; Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    environmental impacts? Could it substitute wood as raw material? Accordingly, this paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of particle board manufactured with sugarcane bagasse residues.The cradle-to-gate assessment of 1 m3 of particle board made with sugarcane bagasse (PSB) considered three main...... subsystem was 9.08 % (economic base). The potential environmental impact phase was assessed by applying the CML and USEtox methods. PSB was compared with the conventional particle board manufactured in Brazil by the categories of the CML and USETox, and including land use indicators. Finally, two scenarios......, it is suggested that the sugarcane bagasse be mixed up to 75 % during particle board manufacturing so that good quality properties and environmental performance of panels can be provided....

  16. Determining Sources of Fecal Contamination in Two Rivers of Northumberland County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Szeles, Cheryl Lynne

    2003-01-01

    DETERMINING SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN TWO RIVERS OF NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA By Cheryl Lynne Szeles Dr. Charles Hagedorn III, Chairman Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences (ABSTRACT) The goal of monitoring the water quality of shellfish beds is to provide protection against transmission of water-borne infectious diseases. The Coan River and the Little Wicomico River contain shellfish beds that are closed to harvest due to contamination with fecal ...

  17. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area

  18. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on chemical form, behavior and environmental risk of Zn, Pb and Cd in biochar produced from phytoremediation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Yao, Wenlin; Li, Ronghua; Ali, Amjad; Du, Juan; Guo, Di; Xiao, Ran; Guo, Zhanyu; Zhang, Zengqiang; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical forms, behavior and environmental risk of heavy metal (HMs) Zn, Pb and Cd in phytoremediation residue (PMR) pyrolyzed at 350 °C, 550 °C and 750 °C, respectively. The behavior of HMs variation during the PMR pyrolysis process was analyzed and the potential HMs environmental risk of phytoremediation residue biochars (PMB) was assessed which was seldom investigated before. The results showed that the pyrolysis temperature increase decreased the soluble/exchangeable HMs fraction and alleviated the HMs bioavailability. When the temperature was over 550 °C, the adsorbed Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were turned into oxides forms and concentrated in PMB with more stable forms exhibiting lower risk assessment code and potential ecological risk index. The ecotoxicity test showed higher pyrolysis temperature favored the reduction of PMB ecotoxicity. It is suggested that pyrolysis temperature above 550°C may be suitable for thermal treatment of PMR with acceptable environmental risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  20. Measurement of fecal glucocorticoids in parrotfishes to assess stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J.W.; Nemeth, R.; Rogers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide from a combination of natural and human forces. The environmental compromises faced by coral reef habitats and their associated fishes are potentially stressful, and in this study we examined the potential for assessing stress levels in coral reef fish. We determined the feasibility of using fecal casts from parrotfishes for remote assessment of stress-related hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), and the response of these hormones to the stress of restraint and hypoxia. Measurement of these hormones in fecal extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated using mass spectrometry, chemical derivitization, and radioactive tracer methods. In aquarium-adapted parrotfish, baseline levels of cortisol and corticosterone averaged 3.4??1.1 and 14.8??2.8ng/g feces, respectively, across 32 days. During 13 days of periodic stress these hormones, respectively, average 10.8-fold and 3.2-fold greater than baseline, with a return to near baseline during a 23-day follow-up. Testosterone was also measured as a reference hormone which is not part of the stress-response axis. Levels of this hormone were similar across the study. These fecal hormones were also measured in a field study of parrotfish in 10 fringing coral reef areas around the Caribbean Island of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Extracts of remotely collected fecal casts of three parrotfish species revealed no difference in respective average hormone levels among these species. Also, there was no difference in respective hormone levels between aquarium and field environments. However, levels of both cortisol and corticosterone, but not testosterone, were elevated in two of the 10 reef sites surveyed. This study demonstrates that parrotfish fecals can be collected in aquarium and field conditions and that steroid hormones in these fecals can be extracted and reliably measured. The study also demonstrates that cortisol and corticosterone in parrotfish fecals can

  1. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelmann, S.; Buenger, T.; Fusban, H.U.; Ruehle, H.; Viertel, H.; Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs [de

  2. Isotopic nitrogen in fecal fiber as an indicator of winter diet in caribou and muskoxen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Addison, Jennifer; Shively, Rachel; Oliver, Lola

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N values) in excreta have been used to examine aspects of trophic and nutritional ecology across taxa. Nitrogen fractions in feces of herbivores include endogenous (e.g., sloughed intestinal cells, unresorbed digestive secretions, and microbial debris) and dietary sources. For animals such as large herbivores, that have diets and feces with high concentrations of indigestible fiber, endogenous 15N may constrain the use of fecal δ15N values to estimate dietary δ15N values and reconstruct diets. METHODS: We compared two techniques (detergent and detergent-free) to isolate fractions of plant fibers in the forages of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus); estimated the discrimination factors between the δ15N values of fecal fiber residues and of the diets of captive animals; and used the more effective isotopic tracer of dietary δ15N values to examine the relationships between the δ15N values of fecal residues and diet composition in several populations of wild caribou and muskoxen throughout North America in winter. RESULTS: The detergent-based approach contaminated the fractions of plant fibers in forages and feces with 14N, whereas the detergent-free method was a good proxy to estimate δ15N values of plant fibers (r2= 0.92) and provided a better estimate of the fecal-fiber to diet discrimination factor for both species (caribou = 3.6‰; muskoxen = 2.8‰). In wild populations, the δ15N values of fecal fibers reflected diet composition in muskoxen (adjusted R2= 0.43) but not caribou (adjusted R2= 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Contamination from detergent residues prohibited the use of detergent extraction in isolating forage 15N from endogenous 15N in the feces of herbivores. Although δ15N values in fecal fibers can be used to track dietary δ15N values in wild herbivores, discrimination between fecal extracts and diet may vary with the contribution of endogenous nitrogen (N), and

  3. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Feasibility study on energy saving and environmental improvement via utilization of residual oil at Petron Bataan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on reduction of global warming gas emission at Bataan Refinery of Petron Company in the Republic of the Philippines by utilizing residual oil in the refinery at high efficiency. In the project, installation will be implemented on thermal power generation equipment using a low-speed diesel engine that uses residual oil as fuel, and a waste heat recovered steam generation system having NOx removing equipment at Bataan Revinary of Petron Company, in addition to the existing boiler-turbine power generation system. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving effect in 8 years after the installation will correspond to crude oil of 50,409 tons, and in 20 years cumulatively, it will correspond to 1,017,224 tons. The annual reduction of the global warming gas emission in 8 years after the installation will be 131,698 t-CO2, or 2,657,599 t-CO2 for 20 years cumulatively. The total investment amount for these facilities is about 4.1 billion yen, whereas the investment and energy saving effects were 10.7 tons of crude oil equivalent/year-one million yen. In addition, the investment and global warming gas emission reducing effects were 28.1 t-CO2/year-one million yen. (NEDO)

  5. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  6. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Fecal Source Identification in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the Tillamook Basin play a vital role in supporting a thriving dairy and cheese-making industry, as well as providing a safe water resource for local human and wildlife populations. Historical concentrations of fecal bacteria in these waters are at times too high to allow for safe use leading to economic loss, endangerment of local wildlife, and poor conditions for recreational use. In this study, we employ host-associated qPCR methods for human (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2), ruminant (Rum2Bac), cattle (CowM2 and CowM3), canine (DG3 and DG37), and avian (GFD) fecal pollution combined with high-resolution geographic information system (GIS) land use data and general indicator bacteria measurements to elucidatewater quality spatial and temporal trends. Water samples (n=584) were collected over a 1-year period at 29 sites along the Trask, Kilchis, and Tillamook rivers and tributaries (Tillamook Basin, OR). A total of 16.6% of samples (n=97) yielded E. coli levels considered impaired based on Oregon Department of Environmental Quality bacteria criteria (406 MPN/100mL). Hostassociated genetic indicators were detected at frequencies of 39.2% (HF183/BacR287), 16.3% (HumM2), 74.6% (Rum2Bac), 13.0% (CowM2), 26.7% (CowM3), 19.8% (DG3), 3.2% (DG37), and 53.4% (GFD) across all water samples (n=584). Seasonal trends in avian, cattle, and human fecal pollution sources were evident over the study area. On a sample site basis, quantitative fecal source identification and

  7. Use of residues of cattle in Lagoa da Prata, MG, Brazil as an energy source and its environmental implication; Aproveitamento de residuos de gado leiteiro em Lagoa da Prata-MG como fonte de energia e sua implicacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Flavio Soares [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Cienciaas e Tecnologia Nuclear], E-mail: flaviosol@gmail.com; Ferreira, Joao Coutinho; Egute, Nayara dos Santos; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Carvalho, Fatima Maria Sequeira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Abrao, Alcidio

    2009-07-01

    The environmental and energy gains with the use of milk cattle residues in the Lagoa da Prata, MG, Brazil are investigated. Nine farms were visited and a questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant energy and environmental data. The data from the field were correlated to the productive process of the cattle and the energy consumption. It was obtained, as the result of the field research, a generation average of 3 ton of residues a day, an electric energy average monthly consumption of 2.500 kWh, a set of energy intensive equipment and an daily consumption average of 27 m{sup 3} of water day. The use of the cattle residues can solve the problem of residues, effluents and several pollutants generated in the region and bring an energy gain with the production of biogas, that can be converted in energy.

  8. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine and Freshwater Fecal Indicators and Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicators are organisms or chemical constituents found in fecal material or wastewater that can be measured to demonstrate the presence of fecal pollution. Fecal waste from humans and other animals can contaminant surface waters and pose a serious threat to the environmen...

  10. Beneficiary role of grapes residue, an organic waste of agro-based industry causing environmental pollution - a new concept of crop production in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, S.J.; Varis, S.

    2005-01-01

    The world is facing a serious threat of environmental pollution as a result of which our soils, air and water are becoming highly contaminated with the passage of time. Many epidemics have engulfed a number of countries in various diseases causing the loss of hundreds of thousands of human lives. The wastes of agro-based industries are mostly organic in nature, and if not properly handled, usually become nuisance and also the source of food for pathogens and other harmful microorganisms thus the surrounding becomes polluted. It has been reported that grapes residue (also called grapes marc or pressed grapes) was a serious environmental problem Tekirdag city of Turkey. This waste material was thrown out of the factory (Tekil Fabrikasi) after the extraction of grape juices used for different products. With dual objective, a plan was made to remove the waste material from polluted area subsequently managed to use it a source of soilless growing medium for the production horticultural crops through hydroponics system in the unheated greenhouse. The use of grapes residue for crop production is rare and hardly documented in the literature thus the idea is innovative in its nature that may lead to open the vista of new avenues. A trial of bag culture was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of use of grapes marc as a pure growing substrate for the production of lettuce and tomato crops. Quite encouraging results of a number of parameters of both the crops appeared against the soil-mixture (control). The studied characteristics were relating to vegetative, reproductive, yield physical and chemical performances and sensory traits. It is predicted that grapes marc possesses a great potential of organic rooting medium for growth and development of commercial crops, provided the climatic, nutritional and management activities scheduled in view of the kind and nature of crop cultivar to be grown under unheated glass house conditions. (author)

  11. Establishment of fecal bioassay facility at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, H.; Yuvaraj, Ramani; Mohanty, B.N.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an unusual occurrence, occupational radiation workers employed in fuel reprocessing/fuel fabrication facilities have potential risk of acquiring internal contamination, in spite of implementation of efficient engineering and administrative control measures. Quantification of internally deposited radionuclides is achieved either by (i) direct methods and/or (ii) indirect methods. In general, urinalysis is preferred for moderately absorbing (Type M-compounds of Americium) compounds, while analysis of fecal samples are preferred for slow absorption (Type S - Oxides of Plutonium) compounds. The predicted clearance of Type S and Type M compounds deposited in respiratory tract via fecal is about three to five orders higher than urinary excretion. In view of this, a facility for ashing fecal samples was established and standardization of radioanalytical procedure for quantification of Pu/Am using synthetic fecal (SF) samples was carried out

  12. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  13. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  14. Fecal microbiota transplantation: facts and controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Speelman, Peter; Nieuwdorp, Max; Keller, Josbert

    2014-01-01

    To review the current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a randomized trial confirmed the efficacy of this treatment strategy in patients with recurrent CDI. For

  15. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of donor feces infusion, also called Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), are investigated. Historically, FMTs are given mainly for antibiotic associated diarrhea, caused by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are

  16. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    that defining a relationship among sources and fecal sterols levels is highly difficult and this could be the result of the absorption or migration through an intricate conduit, crack, or fracture karst system. Nevertheless, the “source-levels approach”, used in this study, was consistent for the northeast edge and the middle western part of the RC. New and more extensive research should be done to assess the environmental fate of fecal sterols, especially considering the intricate karstic system and its compound retention capacity.

  17. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  18. QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Checchini, Leonardo; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Orlandini, Serena; Rivoira, Luca; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data.

  19. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  20. Occurrence of sulfonamide residues along the Ebro River basin: removal in wastewater treatment plants and environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M Jesús; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2011-02-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have become one of the antibiotic families most frequently found in all kind of environmental waters. In the present work, the presence of 16 SAs and one of their acetylated metabolites in different water matrices of the Ebro River basin has been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in 2007 and 2008. Influent and effluent samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), together with a total of 28 river water samples were analyzed by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromathography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS). Sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the SAs most frequently detected in WWTPs (96-100%), showing also the highest concentrations, ranging from 27.2 ng L(-1) to 596 ng L(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and from 3.7 ng L(-1) to 227 ng L(-1) for sulfapyridine. Sulfamethoxazole was also the SA most frequently detected in surface waters (85% of the samples) at concentrations between 11 ng L(-1) and 112 ng L(-1). In order to assess the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment in degrading SAs, removal efficiencies in the seven WWTPs were calculated for each individual SA (ranging from 4% to 100%) and correlated to the corresponding hydraulic retention times or residence times of the SAs in the plants. SAs half-lives were also estimated, ranging from to 2.5 hours (sulfadimethoxine) to 128 h (sulfamethazine). The contribution of the WWTPs to the presence of SAs depends on both the load of SAs discharging on the surface water from the WWTP effluent but also on the flow of the receiving waters in the discharge sites and the dilution exerted; WWTP4 exerts the highest pressure on the receiving water course. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by SAs was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target organisms in effluent and river water. The degree of susceptibility resulted in algae>daphnia>fish. Sulfamethoxazole was the only SA posing a risk to algae in

  1. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  2. Genetic parameters for fecal egg count and body weight in Katahdin lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fecal egg count at weaning (WFEC) and post weaning (PWFEC), and weights at birth (BW), weaning (WW) and post weaning (PWW) in Katahdin lambs by investigating direct additive, maternal additive, maternal permanent environmental and ma...

  3. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlations of Fecal Metabonomic and Microbiomic Changes Induced by High-fat Diet in the Pre-Obesity State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; An, Yanpeng; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Obesity resulting from interactions of genetic and environmental factors becomes a serious public health problem worldwide with alterations of the metabolic phenotypes in multiple biological matrices involving multiple metabolic pathways. To understand the contributions of gut microbiota to obesity development, we analyzed dynamic alterations in fecal metabonomic phenotype using NMR and fecal microorganism composition in rats using pyrosequencing technology during the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 81 days (pre-obesity state). Integrated analysis of these two phenotypic datasets was further conducted to establish correlations between the altered rat fecal metabonome and gut microbiome. We found that one-week HFD feeding already caused significant changes in rat fecal metabonome and such changes sustained throughout 81-days feeding with the host and gut microbiota co-metabolites clearly featured. We also found that HFD caused outstanding decreases in most fecal metabolites implying enhancement of gut absorptions. We further established comprehensive correlations between the HFD-induced changes in fecal metabonome and fecal microbial composition indicating contributions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and progression of the HFD-induced obesity. These findings provided essential information about the functions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders which could be potentially important for developing obesity prevention and treatment therapies.

  5. Core fecal microbiota of domesticated herbivorous ruminant, hindgut fermenters, and monogastric animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, Michelle M; Harris, Hugh M B; Ross, R Paul; O'Toole, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    In this pilot study, we determined the core fecal microbiota composition and overall microbiota diversity of domesticated herbivorous animals of three digestion types: hindgut fermenters, ruminants, and monogastrics. The 42 animals representing 10 animal species were housed on a single farm in Ireland and all the large herbivores consumed similar feed, harmonizing two of the environmental factors that influence the microbiota. Similar to other mammals, the fecal microbiota of all these animals was dominated by the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. The fecal microbiota spanning all digestion types comprised 42% of the genera identified. Host phylogeny and, to a lesser extent, digestion type determined the microbiota diversity in these domesticated herbivores. This pilot study forms a platform for future studies into the microbiota of nonbovine and nonequine domesticated herbivorous animals. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Application of environmental management system for a energetic plant with oil residual biomass; Aplicacion de un sistema de gestion medio ambiental a una planta generadora de energia que utiliza la biomasa residual del olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Veganzones, M.J.; Soca Olazabal, N.; Pizarro Camacho, D

    1998-12-01

    Being the alpechin one of the most contaminant residues by the mediterranean agrarian industry, as of today there is no integral depuration procedure. In this paper we show the innovative approach being used to eliminate the alpechin along with the oil miller residual biomass. What it more, the only agroindustrial complex which has introduced such approach is using an EMAS so that actual achievements could be realistically measured. (Author) 12 refs.

  7. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  8. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  9. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  10. The environmental impacts of production and use of energy. Part IV - The comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of energy sources. Phase I - Comparative data on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources. Report of the Executive Director

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, Mostafa K [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1985-01-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland and will represent Phase Two of the Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Energy Sources. The intention of this report is to provide basic information on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources in a comparative way. It is hoped that this report, together with its complementary Phase Two study and the planned Phase Three, on tools and methods for incorporating the environmental factor in the energy decision-making process, will provide information on environmental data and environmental costs and benefits of commercial sources of energy and assist those responsible for decisions to evaluate these factors in a rational way. It is essential that adequate account is taken of environmental factors before a decision is made to adopt a certain policy or to develop an energy mix to satisfy a country's needs. It is also our intention to bring into focus the inadequacies in our knowledge of the environmental impacts of production and use of energy so that these can be given priority by the scientific community.

  11. The environmental impacts of production and use of energy. Part IV - The comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of energy sources. Phase I - Comparative data on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources. Report of the Executive Director

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, Mostafa K.

    1985-01-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland and will represent Phase Two of the Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Energy Sources. The intention of this report is to provide basic information on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources in a comparative way. It is hoped that this report, together with its complementary Phase Two study and the planned Phase Three, on tools and methods for incorporating the environmental factor in the energy decision-making process, will provide information on environmental data and environmental costs and benefits of commercial sources of energy and assist those responsible for decisions to evaluate these factors in a rational way. It is essential that adequate account is taken of environmental factors before a decision is made to adopt a certain policy or to develop an energy mix to satisfy a country's needs. It is also our intention to bring into focus the inadequacies in our knowledge of the environmental impacts of production and use of energy so that these can be given priority by the scientific community

  12. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-10-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples. Data were analyzed using Bayesian models, estimating the environmental and behavioral factors associated with exposure to fecal contamination. These estimates were applied in exposure models simulating sequences of behaviors and transfers of fecal indicators. This approach allows us to identify the contribution of any sources of fecal contamination in the environment to child exposure and use dynamic fecal microbe transfer networks to track fecal indicators from the environment to oral ingestion. The contributions of different sources to exposure were categorized into four types (high/low by dose and frequency), as a basis for ranking pathways by the potential to reduce exposure. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (10 8 -10 16 CFU/day for Escherichia coli ) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food (contributing > 99.9% to total exposure). Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion. The fecal microbe transfer network constructed here provides a systematic approach to study the complex interaction between contaminated environment and human behavior on exposure to fecal contamination.

  13. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  14. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more accurate community profiles for fecal source tracking.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  16. Evaluation and optimization of nutritional and environmental impact of biogas residues; Bewertung und Optimierung der Naehrstoff- und Umweltwirkung von Gaerrueckstaenden aus der Biogasgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichti, Fabian Heribert

    2013-04-29

    On the basis of the dynamic growth of biogas plants in Germany the fertilization with biogas residues has obtained an important role for recirculation of plant nutrients, particularly with regard to nitrogen. In this work the effect of N nutrition with biogas residues was assessed in a 3-year on-field trial conducted at four sites throughout Bavaria. The fertilizing effects were tested by varying rate and time of biogas residues application, using different application techniques and the addition of nitrification inhibitors on several crops. The biogas residues achieved mineral fertilizer equivalents of 30 - 45 %. Overall, the untreated biogas residues showed a slightly increased N efficiency compared to cattle manure, whereas particularly site-dependent differences resulted in large differences in N efficiency of biogas residues.

  17. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Bojanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool. Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool, archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool, viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool, fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool, protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  18. Functional fecal retention with encopresis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The most common cause of encopresis in children is functional fecal retention (FFR). An international working team suggested that FFR be defined by the following criteria: a history of >12 weeks of passage of encopresis; to compare these patients to those identified as having FFR by historical symptoms or physical examination; to determine whether 1-year treatment outcome varied depending on which definition for FFR was used; and to suggest improvements to the ROME II criteria, if necessary. Data were reviewed from the history and physical examination of 213 children with encopresis. One-year outcomes identified were failure, successful treatment, or full recovery. Only 88 (41%) of the patients with encopresis fit the ROME II criteria for FFR, whereas 181 (85%) had symptoms of FFR by history or physical examination. Thirty-two (15%) patients did not fit criteria for FFR, but only 6 (3%) appeared to have nonretentive fecal soiling. Rates of successful treatment (50%) and recovery (39%) were not significantly different in the two groups. The ROME II criteria for FFR are too restrictive and do not identify many children with encopresis who have symptoms of FFR. The author suggests that the ROME II criteria for FFR could be improved by including the following additional items: a history of BMs that obstruct the toilet, a history of chronic abdominal pain relieved by enemas or laxatives, and the presence of an abdominal fecal mass or rectal fecal mass.

  19. [Biofeedback effectiveness in patients with fecal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Buenrostro-Acebes, José María; Erciga-Vergara, Nancy; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Mosqueda, Maria Elena; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; González-Alvarado, Carlos; Villanueva-Saenz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined as an involuntary bowel movement through the anal canal in inadequate time and place. There are different types of therapies for the management of fecal incontinence, being biofeedback therapy one of the most effective techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessary number of sessions of biofeedback electromyographyc therapy to achieve the maximum sphincteric complex contraction. Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study. 65 patients with fecal incontinence were included. Weekly electromyographyc biofeedback therapies were applied, with a maximum of 6, in which the sphincteric complex contraction was measured. A two ways Friedman analysis was made to determine the significant differences between the sessions. A total of 65 patients were evaluated for fecal incontinence. The values for pelvic floor contraction were significantly higher in the third session, and did not show any significant difference in posterior sessions. The maximum contraction of the sphicnteric complex was achieved in the third weekly biofeedback session, without any significant differences in the posterior sessions.

  20. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Agrawal, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  1. Animal Feces Contribute to Domestic Fecal Contamination: Evidence from E. coli Measured in Water, Hands, Food, Flies, and Soil in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Kwong, Laura H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Kullmann, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Colford, John M

    2017-08-01

    Fecal-oral pathogens are transmitted through complex, environmentally mediated pathways. Sanitation interventions that isolate human feces from the environment may reduce transmission but have shown limited impact on environmental contamination. We conducted a study in rural Bangladesh to (1) quantify domestic fecal contamination in settings with high on-site sanitation coverage; (2) determine how domestic animals affect fecal contamination; and (3) assess how each environmental pathway affects others. We collected water, hand rinse, food, soil, and fly samples from 608 households. We analyzed samples with IDEXX Quantitray for the most probable number (MPN) of E. coli. We detected E. coli in source water (25%), stored water (77%), child hands (43%), food (58%), flies (50%), ponds (97%), and soil (95%). Soil had >120 000 mean MPN E. coli per gram. In compounds with vs without animals, E. coli was higher by 0.54 log 10 in soil, 0.40 log 10 in stored water and 0.61 log 10 in food (p food increased with increasing E. coli in soil, ponds, source water and hands. We provide empirical evidence of fecal transmission in the domestic environment despite on-site sanitation. Animal feces contribute to fecal contamination, and fecal indicator bacteria do not strictly indicate human fecal contamination when animals are present.

  2. Strategy of administration of the environmental education to mitigate the inadequate handling of residuals in the community Raúl Maqueira in Consolación del Sur, Pinar del Rio province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Marina Lezcano Gil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the environment has been present in the humanity for all the generations and the current environmental problems constitute one of the biggest political, economic and social concerns, depending its solution of the own human existence. It was presented in the community Raúl Maqueira of the municipality Consolación del Sur an unfavorable environmental situation regarding to the handling of residuals, to those which, according to the preliminary diagnosis that was carried out, it was not given the appropriate treatment, for the lack of knowledge, convocation and cohesion among the factors. Under this context a process of administration of the environmental education was promoted in the community that propitiated the cognitive development on the handling of residuals, the integration of the different efforts in the attainment of the strategic objectives and to elevate the protagonism of the social actors by means of the participative practices. In the diagnosis of the current state of the selected community the necessity of elaborating a Strategy of administration of the environmental education was evidenced to mitigate the inadequate handling of residuals in the community and its application, raise levels of communication, commitment, participation and integration of its members as a contribution to local development. This research is validated by the experience in the framework of the community; the process ensured the solution of the problem through transformative results.

  3. MR colonography with fecal tagging: comparison between 2D turbo FLASH and 3D FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Grammatikakis, John; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare inversion recovery turbo 2D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and 3D FLASH sequences for fecal-tagged MR colonography studies. Fifteen consecutive patients with indications for colonoscopy underwent MR colonography with fecal tagging. An inversion recovery turbo-FLASH sequence was applied and compared in terms of artifacts presence, efficiency for masking residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity with a fat-saturated 3D FLASH sequence. Both sequences were acquired following administration of paramagnetic contrast agent. Contrast-to-noise ratio and relative contrast between colonic wall and lumen were calculated and compared for both sequences. Turbo 2D FLASH provided fewer artifacts, higher efficiency for masking the residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity equivalent to 3D FLASH. An inversion time of 10 ms provided homogeneously low signal intensity of the colonic lumen. Contrast to noise between colonic wall and lumen was significantly higher in the 3D FLASH images, whereas differences in relative contrast were not statistically significant. An optimized inversion-recovery 2D turbo-FLASH sequence provides better fecal tagging results and should be added to the 3D FLASH sequence when designing dark-lumen MR colonography examination protocols. (orig.)

  4. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  5. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  6. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  7. Weight gain after fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Neha; Kelly, Colleen R

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We report a case of a woman successfully treated with FMT who developed new-onset obesity after receiving stool from a healthy but overweight donor. This case may stimulate further studies on the mechanisms of the nutritional-neural-microbiota axis and reports of outcomes in patients who have used nonideal donors for FMT.

  8. Dietary effects on human fecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of microbial populations in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract is a complex process, involving microbial and host interactions eventually resulting in a dense and stable population. Recently, the identification of microbial species from fecal samples has become more accurate with the use of 16S RNA gene-based methods. However, although these molecular-based detection methods have apparent benefits over culture-based techniques, they involve potential pitfalls that should be tak...

  9. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    pathway, in a short-term context. Focusing on transport fuels, bioethanol was generally preferable to biomethane considering conventional biogas upgrading technologies. Based on the results, agro-industrial residues cannot be considered burden-free simply because they are a residual biomass and careful...... of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced.......1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing...

  10. Sample preparation optimization in fecal metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Fasoula, Stella; Palachanis, Dimitris; Raikos, Νicolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Gika, Helen G

    2017-03-15

    Metabolomic analysis of feces can provide useful insight on the metabolic status, the health/disease state of the human/animal and the symbiosis with the gut microbiome. As a result, recently there is increased interest on the application of holistic analysis of feces for biomarker discovery. For metabolomics applications, the sample preparation process used prior to the analysis of fecal samples is of high importance, as it greatly affects the obtained metabolic profile, especially since feces, as matrix are diversifying in their physicochemical characteristics and molecular content. However there is still little information in the literature and lack of a universal approach on sample treatment for fecal metabolic profiling. The scope of the present work was to study the conditions for sample preparation of rat feces with the ultimate goal of the acquisition of comprehensive metabolic profiles either untargeted by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS or targeted by HILIC-MS/MS. A fecal sample pooled from male and female Wistar rats was extracted under various conditions by modifying the pH value, the nature of the organic solvent and the sample weight to solvent volume ratio. It was found that the 1/2 (w f /v s ) ratio provided the highest number of metabolites under neutral and basic conditions in both untargeted profiling techniques. Concerning LC-MS profiles, neutral acetonitrile and propanol provided higher signals and wide metabolite coverage, though extraction efficiency is metabolite dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  12. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  13. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  14. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS)

  15. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  16. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  17. EVALUATION OF SELECTED DNA-BASED TECHNOLOGY IN IMPAIRED WATERSHEDS IMPACTED BY FECAL CONTAMINATION FROM DIVERSE SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution of surface waters is a top reason for impairment, as listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s report on the quality of the Nation's waters. To be able to develop and implement TMDLs in impaired aquatic resources, it is imperative to determine the sourc...

  18. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, B. thetaiotaomic...

  19. Comparison of Cultural and Molecular Fecal Indicator Measurements in Surface Water and Periphyton Biofilms in Artificial Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies suggest that periphyton in streambeds can harbor fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and, under certain circumstances, can be transferred from the periphyton biofilm into the surface water. An indoor mesocosm study was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Expe...

  20. Fecal incontinence after single-stage Soave's pull-through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2012) > ... Demographic, clinical data, preoperative investigations, operative records, postoperative ... Keywords: fecal continence, Hirschsprung's disease, Soave's operation, transanal endorectal pull-through ...

  1. Assessment of sources of human pathogens and fecal contamination in a Florida freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Reckhow, Kenneth H; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the potential for a variety of environmental reservoirs to harbor or contribute fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), DNA markers of human fecal contamination, and human pathogens to a freshwater lake. We hypothesized that submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), sediments, and stormwater act as reservoirs and/or provide inputs of FIB and human pathogens to this inland water. Analysis included microbial source tracking (MST) markers of sewage contamination (Enterococcus faecium esp gene, human-associated Bacteroides HF183, and human polyomaviruses), pathogens (Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and enteric viruses), and FIB (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci). Bayesian analysis was used to assess relationships among microbial and physicochemical variables. FIB in the water were correlated with concentrations in SAV and sediment. Furthermore, the correlation of antecedent rainfall and major rain events with FIB concentrations and detection of human markers and pathogens points toward multiple reservoirs for microbial contaminants in this system. Although pathogens and human-source markers were detected in 55% and 21% of samples, respectively, markers rarely coincided with pathogen detection. Bayesian analysis revealed that low concentrations (<45 CFU × 100 ml(-1)) of fecal coliforms were associated with 93% probability that pathogens would not be detected; furthermore the Bayes net model showed associations between elevated temperature and rainfall with fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations, but not E. coli. These data indicate that many under-studied matrices (e.g. SAV, sediment, stormwater) are important reservoirs for FIB and potentially human pathogens and demonstrate the usefulness of Bayes net analysis for water quality assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  3. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  4. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  5. Combining land use information and small stream sampling with PCR-based methods for better characterization of diffuse sources of human fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peed, Lindsay A; Nietch, Christopher T; Kelty, Catherine A; Meckes, Mark; Mooney, Thomas; Sivaganesan, Mano; Shanks, Orin C

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between human and other animal sources of fecal pollution making it difficult to identify diffuse pollution sources. Human-associated quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods in combination with low-order headwatershed sampling, precipitation information, and high-resolution geographic information system land use data can be useful for identifying diffuse source of human fecal pollution in receiving waters. To test this assertion, this study monitored nine headwatersheds over a two-year period potentially impacted by faulty septic systems and leaky sanitary sewer lines. Human fecal pollution was measured using three different human-associated qPCR methods and a positive significant correlation was seen between abundance of human-associated genetic markers and septic systems following wet weather events. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed with sanitary sewer line densities suggesting septic systems are the predominant diffuse source of human fecal pollution in the study area. These results demonstrate the advantages of combining water sampling, climate information, land-use computer-based modeling, and molecular biology disciplines to better characterize diffuse sources of human fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  6. Utility of Helicobacter spp. associated GFD markers for detecting avian fecal pollution in natural waters of two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Harwood, V J; Nguyen, K; Young, S; Hamilton, K; Toze, S

    2016-01-01

    Avian fecal droppings may negatively impact environmental water quality due to the presence of high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens. This study was aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics and utility of a Helicobacter spp. associated GFD marker by screening 265 fecal and wastewater samples from a range of avian and non-avian host groups from two continents (Brisbane, Australia and Florida, USA). The host-prevalence and -specificity of this marker among fecal and wastewater samples tested from Brisbane were 0.58 and 0.94 (maximum value of 1.00). These values for the Florida fecal samples were 0.30 (host-prevalence) and 1.00 (host-specificity). The concentrations of the GFD markers in avian and non-avian fecal nucleic acid samples were measured at a test concentration of 10 ng of nucleic acid at Brisbane and Florida laboratories using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The mean concentrations of the GFD marker in avian fecal nucleic acid samples (5.2 × 10(3) gene copies) were two orders of magnitude higher than non-avian fecal nucleic acid samples (8.6 × 10(1) gene copies). The utility of this marker was evaluated by testing water samples from the Brisbane River, Brisbane and a freshwater creek in Florida. Among the 18 water samples tested from the Brisbane River, 83% (n = 18) were positive for the GFD marker, and the concentrations ranged from 6.0 × 10(1)-3.2 × 10(2) gene copies per 100 mL water. In all, 92% (n = 25) water samples from the freshwater creek in Florida were also positive for the GFD marker with concentrations ranging from 2.8 × 10(1)-1.3 × 10(4) gene copies per 100 mL water. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the GFD marker is highly specific to avian host groups, and could be used as a reliable marker to detect the presence and amount of avian fecal pollution in environmental waters. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative environmental evaluation of three different waste treating methods for bio-degradable organic waste and residual waste from the six municipalities cooperating in Biogasanlaeg I/S and I/S Nordforbraending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cour Jansen, J. la.

    1997-03-01

    A comparative environmental evaluation has been made for three systems for processing household refuse. The first system (1) comprises thermofilic treatment of the organic waste. The inorganic parts of the waste from both systems is combusted in a cogeneration plant. The third system (3) is a cogeneration plant combusting all the wastes. The most essential issue in comparing the three waste processing systems is the possibility to use the residual products from the bio-gasification system (1) and the composting system in the agriculture as fertilizers. Without such a use it is estimated that the systems (1) and (2) will be very unfeasible, both environmentally and economically. The contents of heavy metals, organic chemicals, and plasticizers in the residual products are at present above the Danish threshold values. This problem can only be solved by reducing the contents of these pollutants in the household wastes. Based on these findings it is therefore very doubtful whether the residual waste products from bio-gasification and probably also from composting can be used in the agriculture in the future. However, it is for the other parts of the environmental analysis assumed that the problem will eventually be solved. Differences in resource utilization in the waste processing are very small in the three systems. When comparing the net energy production system (1) and (3) show the best results. The three systems are almost equal related to emissions of HC1, NO x , and SO 2 , the composting system performing the best. The three systems emit the same amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Composting, however, results in a smaller energy susbstituion and is therefore marginally a poorer solution. For reducing the heavy metals and plasticizers in the environment combustion of the organic wastes is the best system. (LN)

  9. Global Distribution of Human-Associated Fecal Genetic Markers in Reference Samples from Six Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, René E; Reischer, Georg H; Ixenmaier, Simone K; Derx, Julia; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Ebdon, James E; Linke, Rita; Egle, Lukas; Ahmed, Warish; Blanch, Anicet R; Byamukama, Denis; Savill, Marion; Mushi, Douglas; Cristóbal, Héctor A; Edge, Thomas A; Schade, Margit A; Aslan, Asli; Brooks, Yolanda M; Sommer, Regina; Masago, Yoshifumi; Sato, Maria I; Taylor, Huw D; Rose, Joan B; Wuertz, Stefan; Shanks, Orin C; Piringer, Harald; Mach, Robert L; Savio, Domenico; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2018-05-01

    Numerous bacterial genetic markers are available for the molecular detection of human sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, widespread application is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding geographical stability, limiting implementation to a small number of well-characterized regions. This study investigates the geographic distribution of five human-associated genetic markers (HF183/BFDrev, HF183/BacR287, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and Lachno2) in municipal wastewaters (raw and treated) from 29 urban and rural wastewater treatment plants (750-4 400 000 population equivalents) from 13 countries spanning six continents. In addition, genetic markers were tested against 280 human and nonhuman fecal samples from domesticated, agricultural and wild animal sources. Findings revealed that all genetic markers are present in consistently high concentrations in raw (median log 10 7.2-8.0 marker equivalents (ME) 100 mL -1 ) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log 10 4.6-6.0 ME 100 mL -1 ) regardless of location and population. The false positive rates of the various markers in nonhuman fecal samples ranged from 5% to 47%. Results suggest that several genetic markers have considerable potential for measuring human-associated contamination in polluted environmental waters. This will be helpful in water quality monitoring, pollution modeling and health risk assessment (as demonstrated by QMRAcatch) to guide target-oriented water safety management across the globe.

  10. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  11. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  12. Effects of supplementing lactic acid bacteria on fecal microbiota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum strain L.p X3-2B increased fecal lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Bifidobacterium while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Viable counts of LAB and Bifidobacterium reached 8 log cfu/mL after feeding for 14 days. Fecal pH in the control group was high in ...

  13. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Roberto; Shi, Jianxin; Fuhrman, Barbara; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D; Gail, Mitchell H; Gajer, Pawel; Ravel, Jacques; Goedert, James J

    2012-12-21

    High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM), and their sum (total estrogens) were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences), high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM) were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003). These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57-0.70, P=0.03-0.002). Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with functional activity of fecal β-glucuronidase (R=0.36, P=0

  14. Fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N

    2001-07-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement 6 hr/day for 7 days. On day 8, each bird's jugular vein was catheterized, blood samples were drawn, and each crane was confined for 6 hr. Using a randomized, restricted cross-over design, cranes were injected intravenously with either 0.9% NaCl solution or ACTH (cosyntropin; Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). During the 6 hr of confinement, fecal samples (feces and urine) were collected from each of five cranes immediately after defecation. Individual fecal samples were collected approximately at hourly intervals and assayed for corticosterone. We showed previously that serum corticosterone did not vary significantly following saline injection, but peaked significantly 60 min after ACTH injection. Maximal fecal corticosterone concentrations (ng/g) were greater (P cranes under controlled conditions, fecal corticosterone concentration reflects serum corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone, Grus canadensis pratensis, sandhill cranes, serum corticosterone levels.

  15. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  17. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  19. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First...... quotients (RQDD: DD/CDD; RQBR: BR/CBR; ≥1 indicates risk). The results showed that risk quotients for reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects were significantly lowest in the control group (p... on body residues (RQBR) (all preproductive and immunotoxic effects while those for liver histopathological effects ranged from 0.7-3.0. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlordanes were the dominant driver behind high immune and reproductive RQs...

  20. Longitudinal relationship between fecal culture, fecal quantitative PCR, and milk ELISA in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infected cows from low-prevalence dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, A; Sweeney, R W; Hovingh, E; Wolfgang, D R; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2017-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant Johne's disease, presents a particular challenge with regard to infection mitigation on dairy farms. Diagnostic testing strategies to identify and quantify MAP and associated antibodies are imperfect, and certain facets of the relationship between diagnostic tests remain to be explored. Additional repeated-measures data from known infected animals are needed to complement the body of cross-sectional research on Johne's disease-testing methods. Statistical models that accurately account for multiple diagnostic results while adjusting for the effects of individual animals and herds over time can provide a more detailed understanding of the interplay between diagnostic outcomes. Further, test results may be considered as continuous wherever possible so as to avoid the information loss associated with dichotomization. To achieve a broader understanding of the relationship between diagnostic tests, we collected a large number of repeated fecal and milk samples from 14 infected cows, in addition to bulk milk samples, from 2 low-prevalence dairy herds in the northeast United States. Predominately through the use of mixed linear modeling, we identified strong associations between milk ELISA optical density, fecal quantitative PCR, and fecal culture in individual animals while concurrently adjusting for variables that could alter these relationships. Notably, we uncovered subtleties in the predictive abilities of fecal shedding level on milk ELISA results, with animals categorized as disease progressors reaching higher ELISA optical density levels. Moreover, we observed that spikes in fecal shedding could predict subsequent high ELISA values up to 2 mo later. We also investigated the presence of MAP in individual milk samples via PCR and noted an association between poor udder hygiene and MAP positivity in milk, suggesting some level of environmental contamination. The paucity of positive milk

  1. Environmental evaluations of chemical processes by using environmental indexes - case study: the hydroconversion of residues; Avaliacao de processos quimicos com o uso de indicadores ambientais - estudo de caso: a hidroconversao de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, Montserrat Motas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: montserrat@petrobras.com.br; Guirardello, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Processos Quimicos]. E-mail: guira@feq.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The environmental evaluation of a chemical process during its development, design or retrofit is important to reduce environmental impacts of industrial processes. This is called design for the environment (DfE) and has been done through the development and use of environmental indicators. This paper presents a brief literature review, discussing the main characteristics and comparing two selected environmental indicators. The paper also presents the 'Heinzle et al. (1998) modified method', adapted for the use in the evaluation of petroleum refining process. The environmental indicator is based on mass balances through defined regions and qualitative scales to consider the environmental aspects of: availability of raw materials resources, environmental impacts in the synthesis of raw materials, air and water pollution and special problems for disposal. This indicator helps in the identification of major loss and environmental problems in process components, streams or schemes so that process alternatives can be proposed and evaluated, leading to the development of environmentally friendly processes. The Heinzle et al. modified method is applied to the hydroconversion reaction balance region, showing the calculation of the environmental factor of the pseudo components. (author)

  2. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  3. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Schulz, John H.; Jones, Susan B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  4. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 ( p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  5. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line

    2017-01-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence...... and 35% (n = 25) were titrated to daily sessions. Of the 63 children who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of constipation, 46 (73%) showed full response with complete remission of incontinence episodes. Eleven (17%) showed partial response (≥50% reduction). Of nine children with FNRFI, four (44%) showed...

  6. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  7. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on regulatory approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in most material. The most common naturally occurring radionuclides in material are those of the uranium and thorium series and potassium-40. This material is commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some material the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides are significantly higher, to the extent that regulatory control may be required for radiation protection purposes. Regulation of NORM presents a range of new challenges for both regulators and operators. Unlike more traditional industries dealing with radionuclides, NORM industries have generally not had any radiological oversight and, for example, are not equipped for radiological monitoring. Some consumer goods containing NORM, which have not traditionally been considered as a radiological problem (such as some fertilizers), may require regulation and this may have social and economic consequences. The transport and disposal of NORM are also a concern, particularly due to the large volumes, which may need to be considered. For the majority of NORM, disposal has been by conventional means in the same way as for non-hazardous waste with no specific attention to radiological aspects. In some cases, there may be a need for intervention into existing NORM disposal sites. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published ICRP No. 82, Protection of the Public in Situations of Prolonged Radiation Exposure in 2000. This document provides guidance on managing residues, such as those arising from NORM industries, with potential impact on the public. However, with NORM residual waste there may be three different situations: residual waste created as the result of a past practice, residual waste created by an ongoing practice and waste which will arise from future activities. Regulation of NORM may therefore be consistent with consideration of a practice, an intervention or a combination of both. Different regulatory

  8. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on regulatory approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in most material. The most common naturally occurring radionuclides in material are those of the uranium and thorium series and potassium-40. This material is commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some material the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides are significantly higher, to the extent that regulatory control may be required for radiation protection purposes. Regulation of NORM presents a range of new challenges for both regulators and operators. Unlike more traditional industries dealing with radionuclides, NORM industries have generally not had any radiological oversight and, for example, are not equipped for radiological monitoring. Some consumer goods containing NORM, which have not traditionally been considered as a radiological problem (such as some fertilizers), may require regulation and this may have social and economic consequences. The transport and disposal of NORM are also a concern, particularly due to the large volumes, which may need to be considered. For the majority of NORM, disposal has been by conventional means in the same way as for non-hazardous waste with no specific attention to radiological aspects. In some cases, there may be a need for intervention into existing NORM disposal sites. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published ICRP No. 82, Protection of the Public in Situations of Prolonged Radiation Exposure in 2000. This document provides guidance on managing residues, such as those arising from NORM industries, with potential impact on the public. However, with NORM residual waste there may be three different situations: residual waste created as the result of a past practice, residual waste created by an ongoing practice and waste which will arise from future activities. Regulation of NORM may therefore be consistent with consideration of a practice, an intervention or a combination of both. Different regulatory

  9. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Palmer, A; Beale, D J; Toze, S

    2015-10-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on the sources of fecal pollution in waterways. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology

  10. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  12. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... on production of hydrogen sulphide by bacteria that are associated with fecal contamination. This rapid fields test needs no technical staff and the cost is lower than ..... Sources and Potable Water Supplies in Peru.

  13. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  14. Mountain Papaya Seeds Causing Fecal Impaction in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    Fecal impaction is a common gastrointestinal disorder and a source of ... coprostasis or inspissated stool syndrome (1). Stool ... history of abdominal distension, abdominal pain, .... functional constipation, poor dietary fiber intake or it may be ...

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonization associated with fecal microbiota treatment failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) has emerged as the gold standard for treatment of persistent, symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that does not respond to conventional antimicrobial treatment. Probiotics are commonly recommended in addition to antimicrobial treatment for CD...

  16. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  17. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  18. Schelpdierkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in september 2005 (fecale coliformen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.; Gool, van A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In september van 2005 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier) waterkwaliteit in de Nederlandse kustwatergebieden. Hierbij werd gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen, ten einde de schelpdierwaterkwaliteit te kunnen beoordelen. Er werd gekeken naar de aanwezigheid van

  19. Four-dimensional data coupled to alternating weighted residue constraint quadrilinear decomposition model applied to environmental analysis: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Shutao; Cui, Yaoyao; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Lingfei; Yang, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combining with Alternating Weighted Residue Constraint Quadrilinear Decomposition (AWRCQLD). The experimental subjects were acenaphthene (ANA) and naphthalene (NAP). Firstly, in order to solve the redundant information of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral data, the wavelet transform was used to compress data in preprocessing. Then, the four-dimensional data was constructed by using the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra of different concentration PAHs. The sample data was obtained from three solvents that are methanol, ethanol and Ultra-pure water. The four-dimensional spectral data was analyzed by AWRCQLD, then the recovery rate of PAHs was obtained from the three solvents and compared respectively. On one hand, the results showed that PAHs can be measured more accurately by the high-order data, and the recovery rate was higher. On the other hand, the results presented that AWRCQLD can better reflect the superiority of four-dimensional algorithm than the second-order calibration and other third-order calibration algorithms. The recovery rate of ANA was 96.5% 103.3% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.04 μgL- 1. The recovery rate of NAP was 96.7% 115.7% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.06 μgL- 1.

  20. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erbayrak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses.

  1. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  2. Fluoroquinolones and qnr genes in sediment, water, soil, and human fecal flora in an environment polluted by manufacturing discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgersson, Carolin; Fick, Jerker; Marathe, Nachiket; Kristiansson, Erik; Janzon, Anders; Angelin, Martin; Johansson, Anders; Shouche, Yogesh; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2014-07-15

    There is increasing concern that environmental antibiotic pollution promotes transfer of resistance genes to the human microbiota. Here, fluoroquinolone-polluted river sediment, well water, irrigated farmland, and human fecal flora of local villagers within a pharmaceutical industrial region in India were analyzed for quinolone resistance (qnr) genes by quantitative PCR. Similar samples from Indian villages farther away from industrial areas, as well as fecal samples from Swedish study participants and river sediment from Sweden, were included for comparison. Fluoroquinolones were detected by MS/MS in well water and soil from all villages located within three km from industrially polluted waterways. Quinolone resistance genes were detected in 42% of well water, 7% of soil samples and in 100% and 18% of Indian and Swedish river sediments, respectively. High antibiotic concentrations in Indian sediment coincided with high abundances of qnr, whereas lower fluoroquinolone levels in well water and soil did not. We could not find support for an enrichment of qnr in fecal samples from people living in the fluoroquinolone-contaminated villages. However, as qnr was detected in 91% of all Indian fecal samples (24% of the Swedish) it suggests that the spread of qnr between people is currently a dominating transmission route.

  3. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  4. Assessment of Fecal Microbiota and Fecal Metabolome in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Elisei, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo; Capuani, Giorgio; Tomassini, Alberta; Campagna, Giuseppe; Picchio, Marcello; Giorgetti, GianMarco; Fabiocchi, Federica; Brandimarte, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess fecal microbiota and metabolome in a population with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). Whether intestinal microbiota and metabolic profiling may be altered in patients with SUDD is unknown. Stool samples from 44 consecutive women [15 patients with SUDD, 13 with asymptomatic diverticulosis (AD), and 16 healthy controls (HCs)] were analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify targeted microorganisms. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis with partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied on the metabolite data set. The overall bacterial quantity did not differ among the 3 groups (P=0.449), with no difference in Bacteroides/Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli subgroups. The amount of Akkermansia muciniphila species was significantly different between HC, AD, and SUDD subjects (P=0.017). PLS-DA analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance -based metabolomics associated with microbiological data showed significant discrimination between HCs and AD patients (R=0.733; Q=0.383; Pcolonic bacterial overgrowth, but a significant difference in the levels of fecal A. muciniphila was observed. Moreover, increasing expression of some metabolites as expression of different AD and SUDD metabolic activity was found.

  5. Evaluation of the immune responses of the brown mussel Perna perna as indicators of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Fernanda; Neves, Raquel Almeida Ferrando; Carvalho, Wanderson Fernandes de; Krepsky, Natascha; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2018-06-01

    The mussel Perna perna is an intertidal bivalve that is widely distributed, cultivated and consumed in South Africa, Brazil and Venezuela. Among marine resources, bivalve mollusks are one of the most impacted by anthropogenic pollution, as they can accumulate pathogenic bacteria and water pollutants. Hemocytes are molluscan defense cells, and their abundance and functions can be affected in response to contaminants, such as bacterial load. However, no previous study has investigated the immune response of P. perna hemocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate several immune parameters in P. perna as indicators of fecal pollution in mussel hemolymph and in seawater. We collected mussels and adjacent seawater from beaches with different levels of fecal contamination in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil): Vermelha Beach (VB); Icaraí Beach (IB); Urca Beach (UB); and Jurujuba Beach (JB). Hemocyte parameters (density, morphology, phagocytic activity and production of Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS) were evaluated using flow cytometry. We quantified Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) in seawater by the multiple tubes technique for each beach and for hemolymph by the spread-plate technique. In agreement with historical evaluation of fecal contamination levels, UB presented the highest FIB abundance in seawater (thermotolerant coliforms, TEC = 1600 NMP 100 mL -1 ), whereas VB exhibited the lowest (TEC = 17 NMP 100 mL -1 ). UB mussels had six and eight times higher hemocyte density and phagocytic activity, respectively, than mussels from VB. Mussels from VB and IB presented a significantly lower number of total coliforms in hemolymph and a significantly higher relative internal complexity of hemocytes than those from UB and JB (p ≤ 0.01, PERMANOVA). ROS production by hemocytes was significantly lower in mussels from VB compared to those from JB (p = 0.04, ANOVA). Our results indicate a significant relationship between the level of fecal contamination in

  6. Fecal microbiota variation across the lifespan of the healthy laboratory rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemer, Burkhardt; Gaci, Nadia; Borrel, Guillaume; Sanderson, Ian R; Chaudhary, Prem P; Tottey, William; O'Toole, Paul W; Brugère, Jean-François

    2017-09-03

    Laboratory rats are commonly used in life science research as a model for human biology and disease, but the composition and development of their gut microbiota during life is poorly understood. We determined the fecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 weeks to 2 y of age, kept under controlled environmental and dietary conditions. Additionally, we determined fecal short-chain fatty acid profiles, and we compared the rat fecal microbiota with that of mice and humans. Gut microbiota and to a lesser extent SCFAs profiles separated rats into 3 different clusters according to age: before weaning, first year of life (12- to 26-week-old animals) and second year of life (52- to 104-week-old). A core of 46 bacterial species was present in all rats but its members' relative abundance progressively decreased with age. This was accompanied by an increase of microbiota α-diversity, likely due to the acquisition of environmental microorganisms during the lifespan. Contrastingly, the functional profile of the microbiota across animal species became more similar upon aging. Lastly, the microbiota of rats and mice were most similar to each other but at the same time the microbiota profile of rats was more similar to that of humans than was the microbiota profile of mice. These data offer an explanation as to why germ-free rats are more efficient recipients and retainers of human microbiota than mice. Furthermore, experimental design should take into account dynamic changes in the microbiota of model animals considering that their changing gut microbiota interacts with their physiology.

  7. Quality-of-life assessment in children with fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Humberto S; Mastroti, Roberto A; Klug, Wilmar A

    2015-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is a clinical condition that causes embarrassment and changes the perception of quality of life. The absence of a specific tool for assessing fecal incontinence in children led us to adapt an instrument originally developed for adults, which has already been validated into Portuguese. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of life of children with fecal incontinence. This is a single-center, prospective study based on the application of survey. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire was modified by eliminating 2 questions related to sexuality and by substituting the word "depressed" with "sad" in the statement, "I feel depressed." The study took place at a tertiary academic medical center. Forty-one children >5 years of age, with incontinence of organic etiology and preserved cognition but without stomy, were interviewed with the use of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life modified questionnaire. To evaluate the discrimination validity, 28 healthy children were interviewed as control subjects. As to reproducibility, a test/retest was performed, involving 25 children. For construct validation, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life modified was correlated with the generic instrument Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé with the continence index São Paulo Score of Continence. The average values by scale included lifestyle, 3.1; emotional, 2.8; behavior, 2.3; and embarrassment, 1.6. The average values for the control group included lifestyle, 3.7; emotional, 4.0; behavior, 3.6; and embarrassment, 3.6. The instrument showed a general reliability of 0.78, measured by the Cronbach α. Reproducibility was also >0.90 according to the Cronbach α. The intrinsic characteristics of children include their constant growth, and this presented a challenge in our search for an instrument that permitted us to identify and measure these variations. The experiment showed a reduction in all of the scale values, particularly

  8. Background as a residual radioactivity criterion for decommissioning: Appendix A to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffert, A.M.; Meck, R.A.; Miller, K.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report was originally published as an appendix to the draft U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) document entitled, open-quotes Generic Environmental Impact Statement in Support of Rulemaking on Radiological Criteria for Decommissioning of NRC-Licensed Nuclear Facilities.close quotes Because of the great interest in this report by members of the public, citizen and environmental organizations, academicians, licensees, and regulators, the NRC staff is publishing this report separately, so that it can be readily available to a diverse audience. This report was created to assist both the NRC staff and interested members of the public in evaluating background radiation (background) as a decommissioning criterion, by serving as a primer on background and providing information on the existing applications of background in regulatory criteria and standards. This report also discusses some of the methods available to measure and distinguish between the very low radiation levels associated with background and man-made sources of radiation. Two approaches are considered for applying background as a decommissioning criterion; these are the use of background dose rates and background radionuclide concentrations. This report concludes that the temporal and spatial variability of background produces a wide range of doses to United States residents, which prevents the application of background dose rates as a decommissioning criterion. Instead, this report recommends that local background radionuclide concentrations serve as a benchmark for decommissioning criteria, while taking into account the concept of reducing residual radioactivity to a level as low as is reasonably achievable

  9. Use of Bioassay test for the environmental evaluation of mining residues and their leachates: the singular case of the Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Tudela, Maria Luz; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    conductivity was 8.4 ds m-1. Mean heavy metal content in leachates from Portman Bay was 6.8 ppm for Pb, 0.1 ppm for Zn, 17 ppb for Cd, 5.6 ppb for Cu, 3.7 ppb for As and 0.6 ppm for Fe. The bioassays showed different sensitivities to the target metals. The Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition assay showed less sensitivity to the toxicants in the sediments than phytotoxicity assay. According to our results it is highly advisable to complement chemical analyses with environmental toxicity testing to characterise the risks presented by contaminated soils. Finally, these methods satisfy the requirements of environmental toxicology in their reliability, sensitivity, reproducibility, rapidity and low cost.

  10. Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome following bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoruts, A.; Dicksved, J.; Jansson, J.K.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2009-08-15

    CDAD is the major known cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis, and the disease is thought to result from persistent disruption of commensal gut microbiota. Bacteriotherapy by way of fecal transplantation can be used to treat recurrent CDAD and is thought to re-establish the normal colonic microflora. However, limitations of conventional microbiologic techniques have until recently precluded testing of this idea. In this study we used T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches to characterize the bacterial composition of the colonic microflora in a patient suffering from recurrent CDAD, before and after treatment by fecal transplantation from a healthy donor. While the patient's residual colonic microbiota, prior to therapy, was deficient in members of the bacterial divisions-Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes, transplantation had a dramatic impact on the composition of the patient's gut microbiota. By 14 days post transplantation, the fecal bacterial composition of the recipient was highly similar to the donor and was dominated by Bacteroides spp. strains and an uncharacterized butyrate producing bacterium. The change in bacterial composition was accompanied by resolution of the patient's symptoms. The striking similarity of the recipient's and donor's intestinal microbiota following bacteriotherapy suggests that the donor's bacteria quickly occupied their requisite niches, resulting in restoration of both the structure and function of the microbial communities present.

  11. Alcohol extract of Schinu sterebinthifolius raddi (anacardiaceae) as a local antimicrobial agent in severe autogenously fecal peritonitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria Cecília Santos Cavalcanti; Gadelha, Diego Nery Benevides; Oliveira, Thárcia Kiara Beserra; Brandt, Carlos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    To develop an alcoholic extract of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi and to test its impact on autogenously fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats. The inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi was kept for seven days in 70% ethanol alcohol. The total elimination of the solvent was performed in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at 55-60°C. Four milliliter of this extract was injected, after 24 h, into the abdominal cavity of six out of eight survival rats that underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis with five milliliter of 10% filtered fecal suspension. They were clinically followed up for 45 days when they were euthanized. The necropsy findings (inventory) of the abdominal and thorax cavities were inspected and the main findings were recorded and photographed. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee. Two out of six survival rats that were critically ill after 24 h died within the 12 h after the extract injection into the abdominal cavity. Four rats that were also critically ill recovered and gradually became healthy, eating well, regaining weight and moving normally in the cage. At 45 days post severe peritonitis the necropsy findings revealed few signs of residual infection on the abdominal and thorax cavities. There were no bowel adhesions. The impact of alcoholic extract of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi was considered very positive and promising as natural local antiseptic against very severe peritonitis in Wistar rats.

  12. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates ( P panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  13. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  14. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  15. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  16. Economic, environmental and social assessment of briquette fuel from agricultural residues in China – A study on flat die briquetting using corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianjun; Lei, Tingzhou; Wang, Zhiwei; Yan, Xiaoyu; Shi, Xinguang; Li, Zaifeng; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Quanguo

    2014-01-01

    Biomass can be relatively easily stored and transported compared with other types of renewable energy sources. Crop straw can be converted into densified solid biofuel via briquette fuel technology to expand its possible applications and enhance its utilisation efficiency. However, the potential economic, environmental and social impacts of crop straw briquette fuel need to be assessed before its large-scale use. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of these impacts for a fully-operating 2 × 10 4 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China. The results show that with a life time of 15 years, a purchase price of 150 RMB/t for corn stalk and the current sales price of 400 RMB/t for briquette fuel, the plant has a net present value of 9.6 million RMB or 1.5 million USD, an internal rate of return of 36% and a short investment payback period of 4.4 years. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are found to be 323 t CO 2 ,e/year or 1 kg CO 2 ,e/GJ, much lower than that of coal. Additionally, the process reduces pollution by decreasing the amount of corn stalk that is discarded or burnt directly in the field. In terms of social impacts, the use of corn stalk briquetting fuel plant is expected to play an important role in increasing local residents' income, improving rural ecological environments, alleviating energy shortages, guaranteeing energy security, and promoting socialism new rural reconstruction. - Highlights: • A fully-operating 2 × 10 4 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China is analysed. • The plant has net present value of $1.5 million and payback period of 4.4 years. • Life cycle GHG emissions are 323 t CO 2 ,e/year or 1 kg CO 2 ,e/GJ, much lower than coal. • The plant will also have significant social benefits

  17. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  18. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  19. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  20. Correlation of crAssphage-based qPCR markers with culturable and molecular indicators of human fecal pollution in an impacted urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Elyse; Akyon, Benay; Aquino de Carvalho, Nathalia; Ference, Christian; Bibby, Kyle

    2018-06-06

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health. Many previously developed human-specific fecal pollution indicators lack adequate sensitivity to be reliably detected in environmental waters or do not correlate well with viral pathogens. Recently, two novel human sewage-associated source tracking qPCR markers were developed based on the bacteriophage crAssphage, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064. These assays are highly human specific, abundant in sewage, and are viral-based, suggesting great promise for environmental application as human fecal pollution indicators. A 30-day sampling study was conducted in an urban stream impacted by combined sewer overflows to evaluate the crAssphage markers' performance in an environmental system. The crAssphage markers were present at concentrations of 4.02-6.04 log10 copies/100 mL throughout the study period, indicating their high abundance and ease of detection in polluted environmental waters. In addition, the crAssphage assays were correlated with rain events, molecular markers for human polyomavirus and HF183, as well as culturable E. coli, enterococci, and somatic coliphage. The CPQ_064 assay correlated strongly to a greater number of biological indicators than the CPQ_056 assay. This study is the first to evaluate both crAssphage qPCR assays in an extended environmental application of crAssphage markers for monitoring of environmental waters. It is also the first study to compare crAssphage marker concentration with other viral-based indicators.

  1. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  2. Fecal impaction causing pelvic venous compression and edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Naramore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema.

  3. Development of a SERS aptasensor for detection of medical residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    Low levels of medical residues in environmental, industrial and domestic water systems is a growing concern. The biosensor industry is trying to accomodate the need of sensitive and specific sensor systems capable of ultra-low level detection of medical residues. In this PhD project a surface...... for sensitive and selective capture of medical residues....

  4. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... table. 158.1410 Section 158.1410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... example, most products used in or near kitchens require residue data for risk assessment purposes even... NR PAIRA 7 Analytical methods 860.1340 Residue analytical methods R R R CR CR Residue of concern 1, 3...

  5. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.67 Section 279.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or...

  6. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section 279.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must...

  7. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.59 Section 279.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re...

  8. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2017-01-01

    physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study......The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10− 5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different...... attempts to fit a QMRA model to genome copies of norovirus data. The model estimates the risk of norovirus infection from the intake of vegetables irrigated with wastewater from different sources. The results were compared to the results of a corresponding model using the fecal indicator conversion ratio...

  9. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  10. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  11. Fractionation of fecal neutral steroids by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.M.; Kloss, C.A.; Weintraub, S.T.; Mott, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Fecal neutral steroids were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into three major fractions: 5 beta-H, 3-keto steroids; 5 beta-H, 3 beta-hydroxy steroids; and 5 alpha-H and delta 5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids. This separation was achieved in about 10 minutes, with greater than 97% recovery of standards in each fraction. Gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of fecal steroids fractionated by either HPLC or thin-layer chromatography gave nearly identical results. A method using both C18 reverse phase and silica HPLC to purify radiolabeled sterols is also described

  12. Classification of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Kang, Sukwon; Chan, Diane E.; Lefcourt, Alan

    2010-04-01

    This paper reported the development of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system using ultraviolet-A excitation (320-400 nm) for detection of bovine fecal contaminants on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. Six spots of fecal contamination were applied to each of 40 lettuce and 40 spinach leaves. In this study, the wavebands at 666 nm and 680 nm were selected by the correlation analysis. The two-band ratio, 666 nm / 680 nm, of fluorescence intensity was used to differentiate the contaminated spots from uncontaminated leaf area. The proposed method could accurately detect all of the contaminated spots.

  13. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  14. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  15. Alteration of the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy.

  16. Alteration of the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy. PMID:25531678

  17. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  18. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  19. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment, until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of

  20. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  1. Research of pathogenic bacteria and bacteriophages in the residuals of wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathlouthi, Soumaya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the pathogenic bacteria Listeria and Salmonella and to detect of bacterial (fecal coliforms) and viral indicators (bacteriophage) of fecal contamination in the residues of three sewage treatment plants in Greater Tunis: Charguia, Jdaida and Wardia. Three types of samples were analyzed: raw sewage, treated wastewater and sludge. The study showed the presence of pathogenic bacteria in some samples with a frequency of 7 pour cent for Listeria and 21 pour cent for Salmonella. However, none of these organisms has been detected in treated water of Jdaida and Chargia reflecting the efficiency of the purification process in these stations. Furthermore, all samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and bacteriophages with important titles: up to 8.23 log10 (CFU/L) for coliforms and 8.36 log10 (pfu/L) for bacteriophages.

  2. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  3. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, L.; Budding, A. E.; de Korte, N.; Eck, A.; Bogaards, J. A.; Stockmann, H. B.; Consten, E. C.; Savelkoul, P. H.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general

  4. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  5. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Girón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33. It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1 UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis; and (2 UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis. Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

  6. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk management. The transition from a research subject to a management tool requires the integration of standardized water sampling, laboratory, and data analysis procedures. In this study, a standardized HF183/BacR287 qPCR method was combined with a water sampling strategy and Bayesian data algorithm to establish a human fecal contamination index that can be used to rank impaired recreational water sites polluted with human waste. Stability and bias of index predictions were investigated under various parameters including siteswith different pollution levels, sampling period time range (1-15 weeks), and number of qPCR replicates per sample (2-14 replicates). Sensitivity analyses were conducted with simulated data sets (100 iterations) seeded with HF183/BacR287 qPCR laboratory measurements from water samples collected from three Southern California sites (588 qPCR measurements). Findings suggest that site ranking is feasible and that all parameters tested influence stability and bias in human fecal contamination indexscoring. Trends identified by sensitivity analyses will provide managers with the information needed to design and conduct field studies to rank impaired recreational water sites based

  7. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  8. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  9. Prospective assessment of interobserver agreement for defecography in fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, Annette C.; Wiersma, Tjeerd G.; Janssen, Lucas W. M.; de Vos, Rien; Terra, Maaike P.; Baeten, Cor G.; Stoker, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The primary aim of our study was to determine the interobserver agreement of defecography in diagnosing enterocele, anterior rectocele, intussusception, and anismus in fecal-incontinent patients. The subsidiary aim was to evaluate the influence of level of experience on interpreting

  10. Schelpdierwaterkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in december 2004 (fecale coliformen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.; Gool, van A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In december van 2004 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier)waterkwaliteit in de kustwatergebieden. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen. Er wordt gekeken naar de aanwezigheid in gebieden waar schelpdieren worden gekweekt, waar schelpdieren in het wild

  11. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  12. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The Me...

  13. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal isolates of salmonella and shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis and Shigellosis coupled with increased levels of multidrug resistances are public health problems, especially in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of fecal Salmonella and Shigella spp and its antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted on ...

  15. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. F.; Frissen, M. N.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial

  16. Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Maukonen, Johanna; Mattila, Ismo; Rissanen, Aila; Saarela, Maria; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Orešič, Matej

    2014-09-01

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (body mass index difference >3 kg/m(2)). Nine concordant monozygotic pairs were examined as control pairs. Fecal samples were analyzed to assess diversity of the major bacterial groups by using 5 different validated bacterial group specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. No differences in fecal bacterial diversity were detected when comparing co-twins discordant for weight (ANOVA, P<0.05). We found that within-pair similarity is a dominant factor in the metabolic postprandial response, independent of acquired obesity. Branched chain amino acids were increased in heavier as compared with leaner co-twins in the fasting state, but their levels converged postprandially (paired t tests, FDR q<0.05). We also found that specific bacterial groups were associated with postprandial changes of specific metabolites. Our findings underline important roles of genetic and early life factors in the regulation of postprandial metabolite levels. © FASEB.

  17. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    The bacterial diversity in fecal samples from Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ... Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the fecal bacteria of R. bieti distributed ... and conservation genetics, but research on fecal bacterial ... The large number of microorganisms in the intestine of .... There was high evolutional relativity between.

  18. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  19. Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula

    2016-09-20

    The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.

  20. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  1. Handling of wet residues in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro

    is fundamental in most disposal routes for clarifying the possibility of treating the residue. The better the characterisation from the start is, the easier the assessment of the feasible disposal alternatives becomes. The decision about the handling/disposal solution for the residue is a trade-off between......, and can depend on factors such as the investment capacity, the relationships with the stakeholders, or the promotion of its environmental profile....

  2. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH, EtOH −20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs and frozen at −20 °C, storage time (one, three and six months, fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO and false allele (FA rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05. The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  3. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  4. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  5. Fecal parasite identification by microscopy and PCR in scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, managed at two sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, Cassandra Dawn; Oller, Anna R; Jackson, Victoria

    2016-12-01

    The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah , an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on O. dammah feces collected seasonally using the modified McMaster method, and microscopy provided additional identification of parasite genera ova and oocysts. To identify parasites to species level, homogenized fecals provided DNA subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus specific primers. Microscopy and sequencing results indicated the presence of Strongylus (Strongylus vulgaris, Angiostrongylus cantonensis) , Trichostrongylus (Haemonchus contortus, Camelostrongylus mentulatus) , Trichuris (T. leporis, T. ovis, and T. discolor) , Isospora (Isospora gryphoni) and Eimeria (E. zuernii and E. bovis) , with Strongylus being the most common. Nematodirus was identified through microscopy at FRWC. Fecal egg counts were significantly higher in (FRWC) than in (KCZ) in all samplings (P = <0.001). No significant difference was seen between parasite load and seasons (P = 0.103), nor site and season (P = 0.51). Both study sites maintained most animals within commonly accepted FEC levels found in domestic livestock. Individuals with high numbers of EPG or OPG were subordinate males, pregnant females, or neonates. Several significant interactions were found between genera of parasites, age, sex, season, and pregnancy status in the FRWC herd. Sampling limitations prevented further analysis of the KCZ herd. Understanding interactions between parasite loads and

  6. Fecal parasite identification by microscopy and PCR in scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, managed at two sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Dawn Pauling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ. Fecal egg counts (FEC were performed on O. dammah feces collected seasonally using the modified McMaster method, and microscopy provided additional identification of parasite genera ova and oocysts. To identify parasites to species level, homogenized fecals provided DNA subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific primers. Microscopy and sequencing results indicated the presence of Strongylus (Strongylus vulgaris, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Trichostrongylus (Haemonchus contortus, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Trichuris (T. leporis, T. ovis, and T. discolor, Isospora (Isospora gryphoni and Eimeria (E. zuernii and E. bovis, with Strongylus being the most common. Nematodirus was identified through microscopy at FRWC. Fecal egg counts were significantly higher in (FRWC than in (KCZ in all samplings (P = <0.001. No significant difference was seen between parasite load and seasons (P = 0.103, nor site and season (P = 0.51. Both study sites maintained most animals within commonly accepted FEC levels found in domestic livestock. Individuals with high numbers of EPG or OPG were subordinate males, pregnant females, or neonates. Several significant interactions were found between genera of parasites, age, sex, season, and pregnancy status in the FRWC herd. Sampling limitations prevented further analysis of the KCZ herd. Understanding interactions between parasite loads and

  7. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  8. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  9. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  10. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  11. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  12. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Current Applications, Effectiveness, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

  13. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some...... of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU...... Campylobacter in all the clinical samples. Sensitivity in diagnostic metagenomics is improving and has reached a clinically relevant level. There are still challenges to overcome before real-time diagnostic metagenomics can replace quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture-based surveillance...

  14. [Colonic duplication revealed by intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahouani, A; Hida, M; Benhaddou, H

    2015-12-01

    Colonic duplications are very rare in children. With rectal duplications, they are the rarest locations of alimentary tract duplications, most often diagnosed in the first years of life. We report an unusual case of colic duplication with fecal impaction in a 9-month-old boy revealed by intestinal obstruction. We discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this malformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  16. Neuromodulation for fecal incontinence: An effective surgical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Asteria, Corrado R; Whitehead, William E

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a disabling symptom with medical and social implications, including fear, embarrassment, isolation and even depression. Most patients live in seclusion and have to plan their life around the symptom, with secondary impairment of their quality of life. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy are reported to benefit a good percentage of those affected. However, surgery must be considered in the non-responder population. Recently, sacral nerve electrostimulation, la...

  17. 40 CFR 158.270 - Experimental use permit data requirements for residue chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for residue chemistry. 158.270 Section 158.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for residue chemistry. All residue chemistry data, as described in... section 408(r) is sought. Residue chemistry data are not required for an experimental use permit issued on...

  18. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Domínguez-Bello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M, tet(S, tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O and tet(W, but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q. Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota.

  19. Indicadores bacteriológicos de contaminación fecal en la Bahía de la Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisse López Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Cuantifi car los indicadores bacteriológicos de contaminación fecal en la Bahía deLa Habana. Metodología. En muestreos realizados desde abril/2010 hasta febrero/2011, mediantemétodos de fermentación en tubos múltiples (NMP, se determinaron las concentraciones de coliformestermotolerantes (CTT, Escherichia coli, estreptococos fecales (EF, enterococos intestinales (ENTen agua, y Clostridium perfringens en los sedimentos superfi ciales. Resultados. Las concentracionesde CTT y E. coli excedieron los valores límites de la normativa cubana para contacto indirecto con lasaguas de la bahía, lo que demuestra la infl uencia negativa de los vertimientos de drenajes albañales yríos de la ciudad. EF y ENT fueron buenos indicadores bacterianos, medidos en el lugar y al momentode la descarga del residual proveniente de los drenajes, aunque estos resultados desafían su usocomo indicadores para evaluar la calidad microbiológica de la bahía. Este resultado se deriva desu bien conocida inactivación por la luz solar en zonas tropicales y la aparente presencia de ácidoshúmicos en las aguas de la bahía. Conclusiones. Los indicadores bacterianos y la relación estadísticaencontrada entre ellos resultaron indicativos de una gran contaminación fecal reciente y crónica enla bahía y zonas costeras, que ha permanecido así desde años anteriores.

  20. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  1. Design and Investigation of PolyFermS In Vitro Continuous Fermentation Models Inoculated with Immobilized Fecal Microbiota Mimicking the Elderly Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlbaum, Sophie; Chassard, Christophe; Haug, Martina C; Fourmestraux, Candice; Derrien, Muriel; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In vitro gut modeling is a useful approach to investigate some factors and mechanisms of the gut microbiota independent of the effects of the host. This study tested the use of immobilized fecal microbiota to develop different designs of continuous colonic fermentation models mimicking elderly gut fermentation. Model 1 was a three-stage fermentation mimicking the proximal, transverse and distal colon. Models 2 and 3 were based on the new PolyFermS platform composed of an inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota and used to continuously inoculate with the same microbiota different second-stage reactors mounted in parallel. The main gut bacterial groups, microbial diversity and metabolite production were monitored in effluents of all reactors using quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing, and HPLC, respectively. In all models, a diverse microbiota resembling the one tested in donor's fecal sample was established. Metabolic stability in inoculum reactors seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota was shown for operation times of up to 80 days. A high microbial and metabolic reproducibility was demonstrated for downstream control and experimental reactors of a PolyFermS model. The PolyFermS models tested here are particularly suited to investigate the effects of environmental factors, such as diet and drugs, in a controlled setting with the same microbiota source.

  2. Design and Investigation of PolyFermS In Vitro Continuous Fermentation Models Inoculated with Immobilized Fecal Microbiota Mimicking the Elderly Colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fehlbaum

    Full Text Available In vitro gut modeling is a useful approach to investigate some factors and mechanisms of the gut microbiota independent of the effects of the host. This study tested the use of immobilized fecal microbiota to develop different designs of continuous colonic fermentation models mimicking elderly gut fermentation. Model 1 was a three-stage fermentation mimicking the proximal, transverse and distal colon. Models 2 and 3 were based on the new PolyFermS platform composed of an inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota and used to continuously inoculate with the same microbiota different second-stage reactors mounted in parallel. The main gut bacterial groups, microbial diversity and metabolite production were monitored in effluents of all reactors using quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing, and HPLC, respectively. In all models, a diverse microbiota resembling the one tested in donor's fecal sample was established. Metabolic stability in inoculum reactors seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota was shown for operation times of up to 80 days. A high microbial and metabolic reproducibility was demonstrated for downstream control and experimental reactors of a PolyFermS model. The PolyFermS models tested here are particularly suited to investigate the effects of environmental factors, such as diet and drugs, in a controlled setting with the same microbiota source.

  3. Development and small-scale validation of a novel pigeon-associated mitochondrial DNA source tracking marker for the detection of fecal contamination in harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-15

    The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0.96. Harvested rainwater samples (n=60) were screened for the prevalence of the marker with the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker detected in 78% of the samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to calculate the conditional probability of the marker detecting true pigeon contamination and the marker subsequently displayed a 99% probability of detecting true pigeon contamination in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker displayed high concurrence frequencies versus heterotrophic bacteria (78.3%), E. coli (73.3%), total coliforms (71.1%) and fecal coliforms (66.7%). This study thus validates that targeting mtDNA for the design of source tracking markers may be a valuable tool to detect avian fecal contamination in environmental waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time pcr protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, O.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Peed, L.; Kelty, C.A.; Blackwood, A.D.; Greene, M.R.; Noble, R.T.; Bushon, R.N.; Stelzer, E.A.; Kinzelman, J.; Anan'Eva, T.; Sinigalliano, C.; Wanless, D.; Griffith, J.; Cao, Y.; Weisberg, S.; Harwood, V.J.; Staley, C.; Oshima, K.H.; Varma, M.; Haugland, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    Environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides has evoked major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment. The quantitative distribution of chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments from...

  6. Development of a swine-specific fecal pollution marker based on host differences in methanogen mcrA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, Jennifer A; Ufnar, David F; Wang, Shiao Y; Ellender, R D

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testing. Only one mcrA sequence (P23-2) showed specificity for swine and therefore was used for environmental testing. PCR primers for the P23-2 clone mcrA sequence were developed and evaluated for swine specificity. The P23-2 primers amplified products in P23-2 plasmid DNA (100%), pig feces (84%), and swine waste lagoon surface water samples (100%) but did not amplify a product in 47 bacterial and archaeal stock cultures and 477 environmental bacterial isolates and sewage and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon and a polluted creek. Amplification was observed in only one sheep sample out of 260 human and nonswine animal fecal samples. Sequencing of PCR products from pig feces demonstrated 100% similarity to pig mcrA sequence from clone P23-2. The minimal amount of DNA required for the detection was 1 pg for P23-2 plasmid, 1 ng for pig feces, 50 ng for swine waste lagoon surface water, 1 ng for sow waste influent, and 10 ng for lagoon sludge samples. Lower detection limits of 10(-6) g of wet pig feces in 500 ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(-4) g of lagoon waste in estuarine water were established for the P23-2 marker. This study was the first to utilize methanogens for the development of a swine-specific fecal contamination marker.

  7. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots in Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed tha...

  8. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  9. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  10. Unburned carbon in combustion residues from mainly solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem H; Lind B; Lagerkvist A

    2012-02-15

    Unburned carbon in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels is investigated using several methods of analysis (a.o. LOI and TOC), as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results are used to discuss the distribution of unburned carbon in the residues from the different combustion plants and its nature (organic or elemental). The consequences of the elemental nature of carbon for environmental properties of the residue are noted

  11. SPACE/TIME ANALYSIS OF FECAL POLLUTION AND RAINFALL IN AN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA ESTUARY

    OpenAIRE

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Money, Eric S.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Newport River Estuary (NPRE) is a high priority shellfish harvesting area in eastern North Carolina (NC) that is impaired due to fecal contamination, specifically exceeding recommended levels for fecal coliforms. A hydrologic-driven mean trend model was developed, as a function of antecedent rainfall, in the NPRE to predict levels of E. coli (EC, measured as a proxy for fecal coliforms). This mean trend model was integrated in a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework to produce informat...

  12. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  13. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 3. In vitro fermentability using human fecal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Wong, King-Yee; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    The in vitro fermentability of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, was investigated and compared with that of the cellulose control. All DF samples (0.5 g each) were fermented in vitro with a human fecal homogenate (10 mL) in a batch system (total volume, 50 mL) under strictly anaerobic conditions (using oxygen reducing enzyme and under argon atmosphere) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. All three novel sclerotial DFs exhibited notably higher dry matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 8.56%; P. rhinocerus, 13.5%; and W. cocos, 53.4%) and organic matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 9.82%; P. rhinocerus, 14.6%; and W. cocos, 57.4%) when compared with those of the cellulose control. Nevertheless, only the W. cocos DF was remarkably degraded to produce considerable amounts of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (5.23 mmol/g DF on organic matter basis, with a relatively higher molar ratio of propionate) that lowered the pH of its nonfermented residue to a slightly acidic level (5.89). Variations on the in vitro fermentability among the three sclerotial DFs might mainly be attributed to their different amounts of interwoven hyphae present (different amounts of enzyme inaccessible cell wall components) as well as the possible different structural arrangement (linkage and degree of branching) of their beta-glucans.

  14. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  15. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This report is the first publication in the field of environmental-contaminant effects on wildlife to tell the reader how to interpret the results of analytical chemical results. Specifically, the publication describes how to interpret residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues. Pollutant oil residues in avian species are emphasized

  16. Research Progress on Furfural Residues Recycling : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Chun'ai; Liu, Bo; Girisuta, B.; Heeres, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of tons of furfural residues from the furfural industry are produced every year in China. Proper recycling of these residues is highly desirable as it may reduce associated environmental problems and increase the economic viability of the furfural industry. Research progress on furfural

  17. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.

  18. Feeding on copepod fecal pellets: a new trophic role of dinoflagellates as detritivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Moldrup, M.; Berge, T.

    2011-01-01

    Recent field studies indicate that dinoflagellates are key degraders of copepod fecal pellets. This study is the first to publish direct evidence of pellet grazing by dinoflagellates. Feeding and growth on copepod fecal pellets were studied for both heterotrophic (4 species) and mixotrophic...... dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium spirale, Diplopsalis lenticula, Protoperidinium depressum) studied fed on fecal pellets. Using natural concentrations of dinoflagellates and copepod fecal pellets, average ingestion rates of 0.2 and 0.1 pellets cell−1 d−1 and clearance rates of between 0.2 and 0...

  19. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  20. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  1. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  2. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hald, Tine

    2017-12-01

    The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10 -5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study attempts to fit a QMRA model to genome copies of norovirus data. The model estimates the risk of norovirus infection from the intake of vegetables irrigated with wastewater from different sources. The results were compared to the results of a corresponding model using the fecal indicator conversion ratio to estimate the norovirus count. In all scenarios of using different water sources, the application of the fecal indicator conversion ratio underestimated the norovirus disease burden, measured by the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), when compared to results using the genome copies norovirus data. In some cases the difference was >2 orders of magnitude. All scenarios using genome copies met the 10 -4 DALY per person per year for consumption of vegetables irrigated with wastewater, although these results are considered to be highly conservative risk estimates. The fecal indicator conversion ratio model of stream-water and drain-water sources of wastewater achieved the 10 -6 DALY per person per year threshold, which tends to indicate an underestimation of health risk when compared to using genome copies for estimating the dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery T. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides. No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status. However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  4. Methodology for Evaluating Encapsulated Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this document is to present an evaluation methodology developed by the EPA for making determinations about environmental releases from encapsulated products containing coal combustion residuals.

  5. Aerial energetic residue data from JBER C4 testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aerially-collected energetic residues from surface detonation of C4. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Walsh, M., B. Gullett, M. Walsh, M....

  6. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared...... = 0.99 and R-2 = 1.00). In conclusion, silica-membrane, columns can provide a more convenient and less hazardous alternative to the conventional phenol-based method. The results have implication for further improvement of sensitive amplification methods for laboratory diagnosis....

  7. Electrophysiological Basis of Fecal Incontinence and Its Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The majority of patients with neuropathic incontinence and other pelvic floor conditions associated with straining at stool have damage to the pudendal nerves distal to the ischial spine. Sacral nerve stimulation appears to be a promising innovation and has been widely adopted and currently considered the standard of care for adults with moderate to severe fecal incontinence and following failed sphincter repair. From a decision-to-treat perspective, the short-term efficacy is good (70%–80%), but the long-term efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation is around 50%. Newer electrophysiological tests and improved anal endosonography would more effectively guide clinical decision making. PMID:29159162

  8. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  9. Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of syngas electricity from woody biomass residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration and fire suppression activities in the western United States have resulted in large volumes of low-to-no value residues. An environmental assessment would enable greater use while maintaining environmental sustainability of these residues for energy products. One internationally accepted sustainable metric tool that can assess environmental impacts...

  10. Application of fecal near-infrared spectroscopy and nutritional balance software to monitor diet quality and body condition in beef cows grazing Arizona rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleson, D R; Schafer, D W

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of range cows is difficult. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of feces has been used to predict diet quality in cattle. When fecal NIRS is coupled with decision support software such as the Nutritional Balance Analyzer (NUTBAL PRO), nutritional status and animal performance can be monitored. Approximately 120 Hereford and 90 CGC composite (50% Red Angus, 25% Tarentaise, and 25% Charolais) cows grazing in a single herd were used in a study to determine the ability of fecal NIRS and NutbalPro to project BCS (1 = thin and 9 = fat) under commercial scale rangeland conditions in central Arizona. Cattle were rotated across the 31,000 ha allotment at 10 to 20 d intervals. Cattle BCS and fecal samples (approximately 500 g) composited from 5 to 10 cows were collected in the pasture approximately monthly at the midpoint of each grazing period. Samples were frozen and later analyzed by NIRS for prediction of diet crude protein (CP) and digestible organic matter (DOM). Along with fecal NIRS predicted diet quality, animal breed type, reproductive status, and environmental conditions were input to the software for each fecal sampling and BCS date. Three different evaluations were performed. First, fecal NIRS and NutbalPro derived BCS was projected forward from each sampling as if it were a "one-time only" measurement. Second, BCS was derived from the average predicted weight change between 2 sampling dates for a given period. Third, inputs to the model were adjusted to better represent local animals and conditions. Fecal NIRS predicted diet quality varied from a minimum of approximately 5% CP and 57% DOM in winter to a maximum of approximately 11% CP and 60% DOM in summer. Diet quality correlated with observed seasonal changes and precipitation events. In evaluation 1, differences in observed versus projected BCS were not different (P > 0.1) between breed types but these values ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 BCS in Herefords and 0.0 to 0.9 in CGC. In

  11. Low residual diet and hydration improving double contrast examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkki, R.; Maekelae, P.

    1983-01-01

    Light food diet and low residual diet with hydration, both combined with Proctosal and Bisacodyl cleansing, were compared in 268 patients in the preparation of the colon for double contrast examination. Low residual diet with hydration resulted in significantly less residual fecal material, no flocculation of the barium coating and significantly denser mucosal coating. The examination had to be repeated more often (8.6%) after light food diet than after low residual diet with hydration (1.7%), but there was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy. The hydration is important in avoiding patient discomforts and flocculation of the barium coating. Despite the use of laxatives, a strict diet restriction is needed to obtain consistently clean colon. (orig.)

  12. Effects of high- and low-fiber diets on fecal fermentation and fecal microbial populations of captive chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Pristaš, P.; Piknová, M.; Nigutová, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Schovancová, Kateřina; Kamler, Jiří; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2009), s. 548-557 ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0009/08; MVTS(SK) SK-CZ-0086-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : chimpanzee * fiber * diet * in vitro fecal fermentation * DGGE * archaea * eubacteria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2009

  13. Next generation sequencing reveals distinct fecal pollution signatures in aquatic sediments across gradients of anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Luna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sediments are the repository of a variety of anthropogenic pollutants, including bacteria of fecal origin, that reach the aquatic environment from a variety of sources. Although fecal bacteria can survive for long periods of time in aquatic sediments, the microbiological quality of sediments is almost entirely neglected when performing quality assessments of aquatic ecosystems. Here we investigated the relative abundance, patterns and diversity of fecal bacterial populations in two coastal areas in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy: the Po river prodelta (PRP, an estuarine area receiving significant contaminant discharge from one of the largest European rivers and the Lagoon of Venice (LV, a transitional environment impacted by a multitude of anthropogenic stressors. From both areas, several indicators of fecal and sewage contamination were determined in the sediments using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of 16S rDNA amplicons. At both areas, fecal contamination was high, with fecal bacteria accounting for up to 3.96% and 1.12% of the sediment bacterial assemblages in PRP and LV, respectively. The magnitude of the fecal signature was highest in the PRP site, highlighting the major role of the Po river in spreading microbial contaminants into the adjacent coastal area. In the LV site, fecal pollution was highest in the urban area, and almost disappeared when moving to the open sea. Our analysis revealed a large number of fecal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU, 960 and 181 in PRP and LV, respectively and showed a different fecal signature in the two areas, suggesting a diverse contribution of human and non-human sources of contamination. These results highlight the potential of NGS techniques to gain insights into the origin and fate of different fecal bacteria populations in aquatic sediments.

  14. An occurrence of sepsis during inpatient fecal disimpaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Cory J; Devito, Justin F

    2014-01-01

    Functional constipation is a common pediatric problem that is often treated through well-established algorithms. Fecal disimpaction is the initial therapeutic step, and severe cases require hospitalization for intensive therapies. We describe a significant unexpected complication of this common clinical situation. An 8-year-old boy with suspected chronic functional constipation was hospitalized for disimpaction by continuous nasogastric administration of polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG-E) solution. On the sixth day of disimpaction, the patient abruptly developed fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Evaluation included blood culture, which grew Escherichia coli, and treatment with a course of appropriate antibiotics was provided. The safety of PEG-E solutions has been shown in studies of children with constipation, which made this patient's illness surprising. Several potential etiologies of his infection were considered, including bacterial translocation (BT). BT is defined as the passage of live microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites, such as the bloodstream. It has been shown to occur in a variety of clinical conditions but is of unclear clinical significance. In this case, physical damage to the intestinal mucosa was thought to contribute to the potential occurrence of BT, and prolonged disimpaction was considered as a risk factor. E coli sepsis in a child undergoing inpatient nasogastric fecal disimpaction with PEG-E represents a clinical problem never before reported in the literature and should increase clinicians' indices of suspicion for uncommon complications of common procedures.

  15. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Gomes de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC, such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36 aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children and controls (40 nonconstipated children. We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool (p=0.015 than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool (p=0.323 and the intake of fruits, vegetables (p=0.563, and junk food (p=0.093 of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (0.45±0.8; p>0.001, were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%, were weaned earlier (median: 120; 60Q1–240Q3, and had a family history of constipation (71.8%. Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products.

  16. Control of the gut microbiome by fecal microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the early 90s, microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, have mainly been associated with posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression on a cell-autonomous level. Recent evidence has extended this role by adding inter-species communication to the manifold functional range. In our latest study [Liu S, et al., 2016, Cell Host & Microbe], we identified miRNAs in gut lumen and feces of both mice and humans. We found that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and Hopx+ cells were the two main sources of fecal miRNA. Deficiency of IEC-miRNA resulted in gut dysbiosis and WT fecal miRNA transplantation restored the gut microbiota. We investigated potential mechanisms for this effect and found that miRNAs were able to regulate the gut microbiome. By culturing bacteria with miRNAs, we found that host miRNAs were able to enter bacteria, specifically regulate bacterial gene transcripts and affect bacterial growth. Oral administration of synthetic miRNA mimics affected specific bacteria in the gut. Our findings describe a previously unknown pathway by which the gut microbiome is regulated by the host and raises the possibility that miRNAs may be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome for the treatment of disease.

  17. The Development of a Curriculum for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues for Environmental Literacy of Secondary School Students at Samaki Wittaya Municipality School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klakayan, Jagree; Singseewo, Adisak

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to (1) design a curriculum on Production of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues, (2) implement the designed curriculum, and (3) study and compare the learning achievements of Matthayomsuksa 3 students at Samakee Wittaya Municipality School in terms of knowledge, learning skills, and participation in the production of…

  18. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Luísa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples.

  19. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  20. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  1. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hayley T.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  2. Using Remote Sensing to Identify Changes in Land Use and Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Support a Watershed Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Butler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of shellfish harvesting areas by fecal bacteria in the Annapolis Basin of Nova Scotia, Canada, is a recurring problem which has consequences for industry, government, and local communities. This study contributes to the development of an integrated water quality forecasting system to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of industry management. The proposed integrated forecasting framework is composed of a database containing contamination sources, hydrodynamics of the Annapolis Basin, Escherichia coli (E. coli loadings and watershed hydrology scenarios, coupled with environmental conditions of the region (e.g., temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and ultraviolet light. For integration into this framework, this study presents a viable methodology for assessing the contribution of fecal bacteria originating from a watershed. The proposed methodology investigated the application of high resolution remote sensing, coupled with the commercially available product, MIKE 11, to monitor watershed land use and its impact on water quality. Remote sensing proved to be an extremely useful tool in the identification of sources of fecal bacteria contamination, as well as the detection of land use change over time. Validation of the MIKE 11 model produced very good agreement (R2 = 0.88, E = 0.85 between predicted and observed river flows, while model calibration of E. coli concentrations showed fair agreement (R2 = 0.51 and E = 0.38 between predicted and observed values. A proper evaluation of the MIKE 11 model was constrained due to limited water sampling. However, the model was very effective in predicting times of high contamination for use in the integrated forecasting framework, especially during substantial precipitation events.

  3. Application of SELECT and SWAT models to simulate source load, fate, and transport of fecal bacteria in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of fate and transport of fecal bacteria in a watershed is a processed based approach that considers releases from manure, point sources, and septic systems. Overland transport with water and sediments, infiltration into soils, transport in the vadose zone and groundwater, die-off and growth processes, and in-stream transport are considered as the other major processes in bacteria simulation. This presentation will discuss a simulation of fecal indicator bacteria source loading and in-stream conditions of a non-tidal watershed (Cedar Bayou Watershed) in South Central Texas using two models; Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool (SELECT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Furthermore, it will discuss a probable approach of bacteria source load reduction in order to meet the water quality standards in the streams. The selected watershed is listed as having levels of fecal indicator bacteria that posed a risk for contact recreation and wading by the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The SELECT modeling approach was used in estimating the bacteria source loading from land categories. Major bacteria sources considered were, failing septic systems, discharges from wastewater treatment facilities, excreta from livestock (Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goat), excreta from Wildlife (Feral Hogs, and Deer), Pet waste (mainly from Dogs), and runoff from urban surfaces. The estimated source loads from SELECT model were input to the SWAT model, and simulate the bacteria transport through the land and in-stream. The calibrated SWAT model was then used to estimate the indicator bacteria in-stream concentrations for future years based on regional land use, population and household forecast (up to 2040). Based on the reductions required to meet the water quality standards in-stream, the corresponding required source load reductions were estimated.

  4. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Waveband selection and algorithm development to distinguish fecal contamination using multispectral imaging with solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce fields caused by animals or livestock entering the fields can lead to outbreaks of foodbourne illnesses. E.coli O157:H7 originating in the intestines of animals can transfer onto leafy greens via fecal matter. Leafy greens are often eaten fresh without thermal tr...

  6. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF COW FECAL POLLUTION WITH REAL-TIME PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with cow fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described cow-specific g...

  7. Can the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence be predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Terra (Maaike); M. Deutekom (Marije); A.C. Dobben (Annette); C.G.M.I. Baeten; L.W.M. Janssen (Lucas); G.E. Boeckxstaens (Guy); A.F. Engel (Alexander); R.J.F. Felt-Bersma; J.F.W. Slors; M.F. Gerhards (Michael); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); E. Everhardt; W.R. Schouten (Ruud); B. Berghmans; P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); J. Stoker (Jacob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Pelvic-floor rehabilitation does not provide the same degree of relief in all fecal incontinent patients. We aimed at studying prospectively the ability of tests to predict the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence. Materials and methods: Two

  8. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  9. Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Eduardo Lopes; Henrique, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

  10. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  11. INDICADORES DE CONTAMINACIÓN FECAL EN BIOSÓLIDOS APLICADOS EN AGRICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guzmán

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de aguas residuales genera como subproducto lodos cuyas características dependen del origen del agua y del tratamiento utilizado para su depuración. El uso de este material en campos como la agricultura, recuperación de canteras, reforestación y producción de materiales de construcción, entre otros, son alternativas a su disposición final en rellenos sanitarios, en el océano o por incineración. Su aplicación en agricultura está condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos, así como a la presencia de sustancias tóxicas y metales pesados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración de coliformes fecales (indicadores de contaminación bacteriana, fagos somáticos y fagos F-específicos (indicadores de contaminación viral y huevos viables de helminto (indicadores de contaminación parasitaria, en biosólidos producidos en una planta depuradora de aguas residuales domésticas, estabilizados por digestión anaeróbica mesofílica. La media geométrica de las concentraciones de los indicadores bacterianos y virales es de 1,6 x 105 UFC/g peso seco para coliformes fecales, 5,0 x 103 PFP/g peso seco para fagos somáticos y 7,9 x 101 PFP/g peso seco para fagos F-específicos. La concentración promedio de huevos viables de helminto fue 0.14/4 g peso seco. En este último grupo, los huevos de Ascaris sp. fueron los que presentaron el mayor porcentaje de viabilidad junto con los huevos de origen no humano (Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium sp. y Stephanarus sp., entre otros. De acuerdo con la norma EPA/625/R-92/013 (1999 que regula el control de patógenos y la atracción de vectores en lodo residual, este lodo se clasifica como B, por presentar concentraciones de coliformes fecales <2 x 106 UFC/g sólidos totales. Sin embargo, la concentración de huevos viables de helminto en el biosólido es <1 huevo viable/4 g peso seco, lo cual cumple con la clasificación de un lodo tipo A (autorizado para

  12. Detection and persistence of fecal Bacteroidales as water quality indicators in unchlorinated drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Aaron Marc; Kristiansen, Anja; Lund, Marie Braad

    2009-01-01

    doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2008.11.004 The results of this study support the use of fecal Bacteroidales qPCR as a rapid method to complement traditional, culture dependent, water quality indicators in systems where drinking water is supplied without chlorination or other forms of disinfection. A SYBR...... green based, quantitative PCR assay was developed to determine the concentration of fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene copies. The persistence of a Bacteroides vulgatus pure culture and fecal Bacteroidales from a wastewater inoculum was determined in unchlorinated drinking water at10°C. B. vulgatus 16S r......RNA gene copies persisted throughout the experimental period (200 days) in sterile drinking water but decayed faster in natural drinking water, indicating that the natural microbiota accelerated decay. In a simulated fecal contamination of unchlorinated drinking water, the decay of fecal Bacteroidales 16S...

  13. Physical Therapy for Fecal Incontinence in Children with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddasani, Swathi; Moe, Amanda; Semmelrock, Caitlin; Gilbert, Caroyl Luan; Enemuo, Valentine; Chiou, Eric Howard; Chumpitazi, Bruno Pedro

    2017-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of physical therapy (PT) for fecal incontinence in children with pelvic floor dyssynergia (PFD). Retrospective chart review of children with PFD completing >1 PT session for fecal incontinence at a quaternary children's hospital. The frequency of fecal incontinence (primary outcome), constipation-related medication use, number of bowel movements (in those with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function were captured at baseline and at the final PT visit. Outcomes were categorized as excellent (complete continence), good (>50% decrease in fecal incontinence frequency), fair (not worsening but Pelvic floor PT is effective in the majority of children with fecal incontinence related to PFD. Factors associated with PT efficacy include improved PFM functioning, good compliance with PT, and history of tethered cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High turnover rates of copepod fecal pellets due to Noctiluca scintillans grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellet production and vertical flux, as well as vertical distributions of copepods, fecal pellets and the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were monitored in an upwelling plume off the coast of Brazil during 5 d in austral spring. Less than half (20 to 45%) of the p......Copepod fecal pellet production and vertical flux, as well as vertical distributions of copepods, fecal pellets and the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were monitored in an upwelling plume off the coast of Brazil during 5 d in austral spring. Less than half (20 to 45...... for fecal pellets at about 0.6 l cell-1 d-1. A simple encounter model suggests that such high clearance rates are feasible. Since N. scintillans occurs at typical abundances of about 106 cells m-2 in temperate seas during spring, summer and autumn, it may contribute significantly to the recycling of rapidly...

  15. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  16. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  17. Storm loads of culturable and molecular fecal indicators in an inland urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Cully Hession, W; Benitez, Romina; Sawyer, Richard; Schaberg, Erin; von Wagoner, Emily; Badgley, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria in receiving waters during wet-weather flows are a considerable public health concern that is likely to be exacerbated by future climate change and urbanization. Knowledge of factors driving the fate and transport of fecal indicator bacteria in stormwater is limited, and even less is known about molecular fecal indicators, which may eventually supplant traditional culturable indicators. In this study, concentrations and loading rates of both culturable and molecular fecal indicators were quantified throughout six storm events in an instrumented inland urban stream. While both concentrations and loading rates of each fecal indicator increased rapidly during the rising limb of the storm hydrographs, it is the loading rates rather than instantaneous concentrations that provide a better estimate of transport through the stream during the entire storm. Concentrations of general fecal indicators (both culturable and molecular) correlated most highly with each other during storm events but not with the human-associated HF183 Bacteroides marker. Event loads of general fecal indicators most strongly correlated with total runoff volume, maximum discharge, and maximum turbidity, while event loads of HF183 most strongly correlated with the time to peak flow in a hydrograph. These observations suggest that collection of multiple samples during a storm event is critical for accurate predictions of fecal indicator loading rates and total loads during wet-weather flows, which are required for effective watershed management. In addition, existing predictive models based on general fecal indicators may not be sufficient to predict source-specific genetic markers of fecal contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  19. Dynamic changes of the respiratory microbiota and its relationship to fecal and blood microbiota in healthy young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Ericsson, Aaron C; Rindt, Hansjorg; Grobman, Megan E; Graham, Amber; Bishop, Kaitlin; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol R

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of metagenomics using culture-independent methods of microbial identification have allowed characterization of rich and diverse communities of bacteria in the lungs of healthy humans, mice, dogs, sheep and pigs. These data challenge the long held belief that the lungs are sterile and microbial colonization is synonymous with pathology. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate differences in the composition of airway microbiota in health versus disease suggesting respiratory dysbiosis occurs. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rectal and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and blood, our objective was to characterize the fecal, OP, blood, and lower airway microbiota over time in healthy cats. This work in healthy cats, a species in which a respiratory microbiota has not yet been characterized, sets the stage for future studies in feline asthma in which cats serve as a comparative and translational model for humans. Fecal, OP and BALF samples were collected from six healthy research cats at day 0, week 2, and week 10; blood was collected at week 10. DNA was extracted, amplified via PCR, and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and microbial richness and diversity were assessed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to visualize relatedness of samples and PERMANOVA was used to test for significant differences in microbial community composition. Fecal and OP swabs provided abundant DNA yielding a mean±SEM of 65,653±6,145 and 20,6323±4,360 sequences per sample, respectively while BALF and blood samples had lower coverage (1,489±430 and 269±18 sequences per sample, respectively). Oropharyngeal and fecal swabs were significantly richer than BALF (mean number OTUs 93, 88 and 36, respectively; p < 0.001) with no significant difference (p = 0.180) in richness between time points. PCA revealed site-specific microbial

  20. Dynamic changes of the respiratory microbiota and its relationship to fecal and blood microbiota in healthy young cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindt, Hansjorg; Grobman, Megan E.; Graham, Amber; Bishop, Kaitlin; Cohn, Leah A.; Reinero, Carol R.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of metagenomics using culture-independent methods of microbial identification have allowed characterization of rich and diverse communities of bacteria in the lungs of healthy humans, mice, dogs, sheep and pigs. These data challenge the long held belief that the lungs are sterile and microbial colonization is synonymous with pathology. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate differences in the composition of airway microbiota in health versus disease suggesting respiratory dysbiosis occurs. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rectal and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and blood, our objective was to characterize the fecal, OP, blood, and lower airway microbiota over time in healthy cats. This work in healthy cats, a species in which a respiratory microbiota has not yet been characterized, sets the stage for future studies in feline asthma in which cats serve as a comparative and translational model for humans. Fecal, OP and BALF samples were collected from six healthy research cats at day 0, week 2, and week 10; blood was collected at week 10. DNA was extracted, amplified via PCR, and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and microbial richness and diversity were assessed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to visualize relatedness of samples and PERMANOVA was used to test for significant differences in microbial community composition. Fecal and OP swabs provided abundant DNA yielding a mean±SEM of 65,653±6,145 and 20,6323±4,360 sequences per sample, respectively while BALF and blood samples had lower coverage (1,489±430 and 269±18 sequences per sample, respectively). Oropharyngeal and fecal swabs were significantly richer than BALF (mean number OTUs 93, 88 and 36, respectively; p < 0.001) with no significant difference (p = 0.180) in richness between time points. PCA revealed site-specific microbial

  1. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M

    2017-05-04

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.

  2. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  3. ANCA Vasculitis and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis following a Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Amlani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old female with antisynthetase syndrome, a history of multiple recurrent infections, and documented previous negative titres for anti-neutrophil cystoplasmic antibody (ANCA suddenly developed a de novo MPO-ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis three weeks after a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Six months following her FMT and less than two weeks following treatment for urosepsis, she developed severe cholestasis, a markedly elevated ferritin and hypertriglyceridemia. An initial liver biopsy was suggestive of drug-induced liver injury and thus she was treated with supportive care. After she failed to improve, a second liver biopsy supported the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. This case highlights difficulties surrounding the early diagnosis of HLH and also questions the role of FMT and/or recurrent infections as a trigger for ANCA-associated vasculitis.

  4. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...... subsamples and repeated egg counts on the same subsamples, whereas the variability of FECs between following days can be considered negligible. The findings of this study have implication for designing and performing field surveillance of strongyle FEC levels and applying the FEC reduction test...

  5. Step-up fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bota; Li, Pan; Xu, Lijuan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Xiang, Jie; He, Zhi; Zhang, Ting; Ji, Guozhong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut dysbiosis is a characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy to restore intestinal microbial diversity and has been reported to have a potential therapeutic value in IBD. Our recent study reported a holistic integrative therapy called “step-up FMT strategy,” which was beneficial in treating steroid-dependent IBD patients. This strategy consists of scheduled FMTs combined with steroids, anti-TNF-α antibody treatment or enteral nutrition. Herein, we will elaborate the strategy thoroughly, introducing the concept, potential indication, methodology, and safety of “step-up FMT strategy” in detail. PMID:26939622

  6. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  8. Abordaje quirúrgico de la incontinencia fecal

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Ceciliano-Romero; Silvia Cordero-Castro

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: los pacientes con incontinencia fecal enfrentan graves problemas sociales y psicológicos, por lo que el propósito fue analizar la evolución de 27 pacientes operados con la técnica de Malone, de Neo-apéndice y botón de Chait, para hacerles enemas anterógrados, así como evaluar la repercusión en su calidad de vida. Metodología: la investigación es descriptiva-retrospectiva. Los datos se obtuvieron de los expedientes clínicos del periodo 2000-2010. Para la definición de caso fue ne...

  9. Hypogonadism alters cecal and fecal microbiota in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Hanada, Kazuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-11-01

    Low testosterone levels increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in men and lead to shorter life spans. Our recent study showed that androgen deprivation via castration altered fecal microbiota and exacerbated risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, impaired fasting glucose, excess hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and thigh muscle weight loss only in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice. However, when mice were administered antibiotics that disrupted the gut microbiota, castration did not increase cardiovascular risks or decrease the ratio of dried feces to food intake. Here, we show that changes in cecal microbiota (e.g., an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and number of Lactobacillus species) were consistent with changes in feces and that there was a decreased cecal content secondary to castration in HFD mice. Castration increased rectal body temperature and plasma adiponectin, irrespective of diet. Changes in the gut microbiome may provide novel insight into hypogonadism-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  11. Development of Real-Time PCR to Monitor Groundwater Contaminated by Fecal Sources and Leachate from the Carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused about 4,054 carcass burial sites to dispose the carcasses. Potential environmental impacts by leachate of carcass on groundwater have been issued and it still needs to be studied. Therefore, we tried to develop robust and sensitive tool to immediately determine a groundwater contamination by the leachate from carcass burial. For tracking both an agricultural fecal contamination source and the leachate in groundwater, competitive real-time PCR and PCR method were developed using various PCR primer sets designed to detect E. Coli uidA gene and mtDNA(cytochrome B, cytB) of the animal species such as ovine, porcine, caprine, and bovine. The designed methods were applied to tract the animal species in livestock wastewater and leachate of carcass under appropriate PCR or real-time PCR condition. In the result, mtDNA primer sets for individual (Cow or Pig) and multiple (Cow and Pig) amplification, and E. Coli uidA primers for fecal source amplification were specific and sensitive to target genes. To determine contamination source, concentration of amplified mtDNA and uidA was competitively quantified in Livestock wastewater, leachate of carcass, and groundwater. The highest concentration of mtDNA and uidA showed in leachate of carcass and livestock wastewater, respectively. Groundwater samples possibly contaminated by leachate of carcass were analyzed by this assay and it was able to prove contamination source.

  12. Prospective assessment of interobserver agreement for defecography in fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobben, Annette C; Wiersma, Tjeerd G; Janssen, Lucas W M; de Vos, Rien; Terra, Maaike P; Baeten, Cor G; Stoker, Jaap

    2005-11-01

    The primary aim of our study was to determine the interobserver agreement of defecography in diagnosing enterocele, anterior rectocele, intussusception, and anismus in fecal-incontinent patients. The subsidiary aim was to evaluate the influence of level of experience on interpreting defecography. Defecography was performed in 105 consecutive fecal-incontinent patients. Observers were classified by level of experience and their findings were compared with the findings of an expert radiologist. The quality of the expert radiologist's findings was evaluated by an intraobserver agreement procedure. Intraobserver agreement was good to very good except for anismus: incomplete evacuation after 30 sec (kappa, 0.55) and puborectalis impression (kappa, 0.54). Interobserver agreement for enterocele and rectocele was good (kappa, 0.66 for both) and for intussusception, fair (kappa, 0.29). Interobserver agreement for anismus: incomplete evacuation after 30 sec was moderate (kappa, 0.47), and for anismus: puborectalis impression was fair (kappa, 0.24). Agreement in grading of enterocele and rectocele was good (kappa, 0.64 and 0.72, respectively) and for intussusception, fair (kappa, 0.39). Agreement separated by experience level was very good for rectocele (kappa, 0.83) and grading of rectoceles (kappa, 0.83) and moderate for intussusception (kappa, 0.44) at the most experienced level. For enterocele and grading, experience level did not influence the reproducibility. Reproducibility for enterocele, anterior rectocele, and severity grading is good, but for intussusception is fair to moderate. For anismus, the diagnosis of incomplete evacuation after 30 sec is more reproducible than puborectalis impression. The level of experience seems to play a role in diagnosing anterior rectocele and its grading and in diagnosing intussusception.

  13. Application of preservatives for residual fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozpe y Munoz, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Due to the high costs of the combust oils (fuel oil 6) used in generators of vapor and in other treatments, makes important consider the use of preservatives that improve the operation of the units from the operative point of view and of environmental control. The author enumerates several of the problems of corrosion, of efficiency in the combustion and of thermal efficiency; in a same way it enumerates several useful preservatives, to be used in residual fuel

  14. Application of industrial wood residues for combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrzycka, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from industrial wood residues. The system will be powered by wood residues generated during manufacturing process of wooden floor panels. Based on power and heat demands of the plant and wood residues potential, the CHP system was selected. Preliminary analysis of biomass conversion in CHP system and environmental impact was performed.

  15. Advances in Nonylphenols Residues and Their Behaviors in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ting-yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol, a kind of substances similar to environmental hormone, has biological toxicity, and prevalent in various environ-mental media, such as water, sludge and sediment. It can pose a threat to food safety, but we still lack of knowledge about the residual level of nonylphenol in soil. In this paper, the sources and residual status of nonylphenol in soil and other environmental media were summarized. The behavior processes of nonylphenol in soil were also analyzed, including adsorption and desorption, metabolic degradation, leaching and mi-gration, etc. Future work were also proposed to provide reference for further soil pollution survey and evaluation studies.

  16. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; O'Donnell, Colm P.

    2016-05-01

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer avoid harvesting fecal contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil, and spinach leaves are compared. A common aperture imager designed with two identical monochromatic cameras, a beam splitter, and optical filters was used to simultaneously capture two-spectral images of leaves contaminated with both fecal matter and soil. The optical filters where 10 nm full width half maximum bandpass filters, one at 690 nm and the second at 710 nm. These were mounted in front of the object lenses. New images were created using the ratio of these two spectral images on a pixel by pixel basis. Image analysis results showed that the fecal matter contamination could be distinguished from soil and leaf on the ratio images. The use of this technology has potential to allow detection of fecal contamination in produce fields which can be a source of foodbourne illnesses. It has the added benefit of mitigating cross-contamination during harvesting and processing.

  17. Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Keller, Monika; Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian; Pehl, Christian; Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina; Busch, Raymonde; Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for ≤1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

  18. Fecal microbiota of lambs fed purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianqian; Holman, Devin B; Alexander, Trevor; Hu, Tianming; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhongjun; McAllister, Tim A; Acharya, Surya; Zhao, Guoqi; Wang, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of purple prairie clover (PPC) and PPC condensed tannins (CT) on the fecal microbiota of lambs using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 18 individual lambs were randomly divided into three groups and fed either green chop alfalfa (Alf), a 40:60 (DM basis; Mix) mixture of Alf and PPC, or Mix supplemented with polyethylene glycol (Mix-P) for 18 days. Fecal samples were collected on days 13 through 18 using digital rectal retrieval. The DNA of fecal samples was extracted and the microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Regardless of diet, the bacterial community was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with many sequences unclassified at the genus level. Forage type and CT had no effect on the fecal microbial composition at the phylum level or on α-diversity. Compared to the Alf diet, the Mix diet reduced the relative abundance of Akkermansia (P = 0.03) and Asteroleplasma (P = 0.05). Fecal microbial populations in Alf and Mix-P clustered separately from each other when assessed using unweighted UniFrac (P < 0.05). These results indicate that PPC CT up to 36 g/kg DM in the diet had no major effect on fecal microbial flora at the phyla level and exerted only minor effects on the genera composition of fecal microbiota in lambs.

  19. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  20. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn's disease and in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malíčková, Karin; Francová, Irena; Lukáš, Milan; Kolář, Martin; Králíková, Eva; Bortlík, Martin; Ďuricová, Dana; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Pánková, Alexandra; Zima, Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc). Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations). No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL) compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL), p zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn's disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers.

  1. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  2. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  3. Predictive Power of Clean Bed Filtration Theory for Fecal Indicator Bacteria Removal in Stormwater Biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E.; Rippy, M.; Mehring, A.; Winfrey, B.; Ambrose, R. F.; Levin, L. A.; Grant, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. Here we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%). Our analysis suggests that, with the exception of shrubs, plants affect FIB removal indirectly by changing the infiltration rate, not directly by changing the FIB removal mechanisms or altering filtration rates in ways not already accounted for by CBFT. The analysis presented here represents a significant step forward in our understanding of how physicochemical theories (such as CBFT) can be melded with hydrology, engineering design, and ecology to improve the water quality benefits of green infrastructure.

  4. Fecal sludge management in developing urban centers: a review on the collection, treatment, and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odey, Emmanuel Alepu; Li, Zifu; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Kalakodio, Loissi

    2017-10-01

    The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting. However, human feces are considerably liable to spread microorganisms to other persons. Thus, sanitation, stabilization, and composting should be the main objectives of FS treatment to minimize the risk to public and environmental health. This review presents an improved FS management (FSM) and technology option for soil amendment that is grouped into three headings, namely, (1) collection, (2) treatment, and (3) composting. On the basis of the literature review, the main problems associated with the collection and treatment of FS, such as inadequate tools and improper treatment processes, are summarized, and the trends and challenges that concern the applicability of each of the technologies in developing urban centers are critically reviewed. Stabilization during pretreatment before composting is suggested as the best method to reduce pathogens in FS. Results are precisely intended to be used as a support for decisions on policies and strategies for FSM and investments for improved treatment facilities.

  5. Seasonal and social correlates of fecal testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E; Wittwer, D J

    1999-04-01

    Fecal testosterone and cortisol levels were analyzed from six wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) over a 19-month period at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate the hormonal correlates of seasonal sexual behavior and environmental conditions. Group mean testosterone levels based on weekly samples from the six males did not differ between copulatory and noncopulatory periods or between rainy and dry seasons. Cortisol levels did change with copulatory periods, and were significantly higher during the second dry season, when mating continued following an exceptionally heavy rainy season, than during the first dry season, when mating ceased. Males exhibited individual variation in the timing of their hormone shifts relative to their sexual activity, but neither hormone levels nor sexual activity were related to male age. Despite individual differences in the timing of testosterone fluctuations around the onset and offset of the copulatory season, all males exhibited elevated cortisol concentrations following a slight increase in testosterone at the beginning of the copulatory season. Both the lack of significant changes in testosterone levels with the onset of the rainy and copulatory season and the lack of prebreeding increases in cortisol may be related to the low levels of overt aggression displayed by male muriquis over access to mates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  7. Dual-energy index value of luminal air in fecal-tagging computed tomography colonography: findings and impact on electronic cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Zhang, Da; Lee, June-Goo; Shirai, Yu; Kim, Se Hyung; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to measure the dual-energy index (DEI) value of colonic luminal air in both phantom and clinical fecal-tagging dual-energy computed tomography (CT) colonography (DE-CTC) images and to demonstrate its impact on dual-energy electronic cleansing. For the phantom study, a custom-ordered colon phantom was scanned by a dual-energy CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) at two photon energies: 80 and 140 kVp. Before imaging, the phantom was filled with a 300-mL mixture of simulated fecal materials tagged by a nonionic iodinated contrast agent at three contrast concentrations: 20, 40, and 60 mg/mL. Ten regions-of-interest (ROIs) were randomly placed in each of the colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, bony structure, and tagged material in each scan. For the clinical study, 22 DE-CTC (80 and 140 kVp) patient cases were collected, who underwent a low-fiber, low-residue diet bowel preparation and orally administered iodine-based fecal tagging. Twenty ROIs were randomly placed in each of the colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, abdominal soft tissue, and tagged fecal material in each scan. For each ROI, the mean CT values in both 80- and 140-kVp images were measured, and then its DEI was calculated. In the phantom study, the mean DEI values of luminal air were 0.270, 0.298, 0.386, and 0.402 for the four groups of tagging conditions: no tagged material and tagged with three groups of contrast concentrations at 20, 40, and 60 mg/mL. In the clinical study, the mean DEI values were 0.341, -0.012, -0.002, and 0.188 for colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, abdominal soft tissue, and tagged fecal material, respectively. In our study, we observed that the DEI values of colonic luminal air in DE-CTC images (>0.10) were substantially higher than the theoretical value of 0.0063. In addition, the observed DEI values of colonic luminal air were significantly higher than those of soft tissue. These findings have an important

  8. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eherer, A J; Fordtran, J S

    1992-08-01

    Although the osmotic gap of fecal fluid is often used to distinguish osmotic diarrhea from secretory diarrhea, there has never been a scientific evaluation of the validity of this concept. Similarly, although a low fecal fluid pH value is used to indicate that diarrhea is mediated by carbohydrate malabsorption, the validity of this method is unproven. Therefore, in the present study, diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by different mechanisms and fecal fluid osmotic gap (using an assumed fecal fluid osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg) and pH were measured. In secretory diarrhea caused by phenolphthalein, the osmotic gap was always less than 50 mOsm/kg, whereas in osmotic diarrhea caused by polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, and sorbitol, the osmotic gap always exceeded 50 mOsm/kg. In osmotic diarrhea caused by sodium sulfate, the fecal fluid osmotic gap was less than 50 mOsm/kg, but phenolphthalein-induced secretory diarrhea could be distinguished from sodium sulfate-induced osmotic diarrhea by the fecal chloride concentration. When diarrhea was caused by carbohydrate malabsorption (lactulose or sorbitol), the fecal fluid pH was always less than 5.6 and usually less than 5.3; by contrast, other causes of diarrhea rarely caused a fecal pH as low as 5.6 and never caused a pH less than 5.3. It is concluded that measurement of fecal fluid osmotic gap and pH can distinguish various mechanisms of experimental diarrhea in normal subjects. The concepts on which these tests are based are therefore verified experimentally.

  9. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  10. Comparison of direct boiling method with commercial kits for extracting fecal microbiome DNA by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Deng, Guan-Hua; Jiang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Low cost and high throughput capacity are major advantages of using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to determine metagenomic 16S rRNA tag sequences. These methods have significantly changed our view of microorganisms in the fields of human health and environmental science. However, DNA extraction using commercial kits has shortcomings of high cost and time constraint. In the present study, we evaluated the determination of fecal microbiomes using a direct boiling method compared with 5 different commercial extraction methods, e.g., Qiagen and MO BIO kits. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) using UniFrac distances and clustering showed that direct boiling of a wide range of feces concentrations gave a similar pattern of bacterial communities as those obtained from most of the commercial kits, with the exception of the MO BIO method. Fecal concentration by boiling method affected the estimation of α-diversity indices, otherwise results were generally comparable between boiling and commercial methods. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined through direct boiling showed highly consistent frequencies with those determined through most of the commercial methods. Even those for the MO BIO kit were also obtained by the direct boiling method with high confidence. The present study suggested that direct boiling could be used to determine the fecal microbiome and using this method would significantly reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of the sample preparation for studying gut microbiome diversity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-Comparison of Human Wastewater-Associated Molecular Markers in Relation to Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Enteric Viruses in Recreational Beach Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B; Beale, D J; Dennis, P G; Cook, S; Ahmed, W

    2017-04-15

    Detection of human wastewater contamination in recreational waters is of critical importance to regulators due to the risks posed to public health. To identify such risks, human wastewater-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been developed. At present, however, a greater understanding of the suitability of these markers for the detection of diluted human wastewater in environmental waters is necessary to predict risk. Here, we compared the process limit of detection (PLOD) and process limit of quantification (PLOQ) of six human wastewater-associated MST markers ( Bacteroides HF183 [HF183], Escherichia coli H8 [EC H8], Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH , human adenovirus [HAdV], human polyomavirus [HPyV], and pepper mild mottle virus [PMMoV]) in relation to a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), Enterococcus sp. 23S rRNA (ENT 23S), and three enteric viruses (human adenovirus serotypes 40/41 [HAdV 40/41], human norovirus [HNoV], and human enterovirus [EV]) in beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater. Among the six MST markers tested, HF183 was the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution and was quantifiable up to dilutions of 10 -6 and 10 -4 for beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater, respectively. Other markers and enteric viruses were detected at various dilutions (10 -1 to 10 -5 ). These MST markers, FIB, and enteric viruses were then quantified in beach water ( n = 12) and sand samples ( n = 12) from South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia, to estimate the levels of human fecal pollution. Of the 12 sites examined, beach water and sand samples from several sites had quantifiable concentrations of HF183 and PMMoV markers. Overall, our results indicate that while HF183 is the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution, it should be used in conjunction with a conferring viral marker to avoid overestimating the risk of gastrointestinal illness. IMPORTANCE MST is an effective tool to

  12. The Malone antegrade continence enema for neurogenic and structural fecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, M A; Kaji, D M; Duque, M; Wild, J; Galansky, S H

    1995-08-01

    Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor and tap water appears to be a safe solution for the antegrade continence enema. A nonrefluxing, imbricated appendicocecostomy is preferable to prevent cutaneous fecal or gas leaks.

  13. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment with 20 15 N-labelled growing rats the excretion of amino acids as well as of metabolic fecal amino acids were investigated after feeding of soybean oil meal as sole protein source. A low, yet statistically significant increase of the excretion of amino acids and metabolic fecal amino acids was ascertained in accordance with a growing quota of soybean oil meal in the ration. The true digestibility of amino acids ascertained according to conventional methods is above 90% and, under consideration of the increase of metabolic fecal amino acids, on the average increases by 3.5 digestibility units (1.4 to 6.2). (author)

  14. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  15. Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée M Moore

    Full Text Available Emerging antibiotic resistance threatens human health. Gut microbes are an epidemiologically important reservoir of resistance genes (resistome, yet prior studies indicate that the true diversity of gut-associated resistomes has been underestimated. To deeply characterize the pediatric gut-associated resistome, we created metagenomic recombinant libraries in an Escherichia coli host using fecal DNA from 22 healthy infants and children (most without recent antibiotic exposure, and performed functional selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics from eight drug classes. Resistance-conferring DNA fragments were sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000, and reads assembled and annotated with the PARFuMS computational pipeline. Resistance to 14 of the 18 antibiotics was found in stools of infants and children. Recovered genes included chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductases, rRNA methyltransferases, transcriptional regulators, multidrug efflux pumps, and every major class of beta-lactamase, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, and tetracycline resistance protein. Many resistance-conferring sequences were mobilizable; some had low identity to any known organism, emphasizing cryptic organisms as potentially important resistance reservoirs. We functionally confirmed three novel resistance genes, including a 16S rRNA methylase conferring aminoglycoside resistance, and two tetracycline-resistance proteins nearly identical to a bifidobacterial MFS transporter (B. longum s. longum JDM301. We provide the first report to our knowledge of resistance to folate-synthesis inhibitors conferred by a predicted Nudix hydrolase (part of the folate synthesis pathway. This functional metagenomic survey of gut-associated resistomes, the largest of its kind to date, demonstrates that fecal resistomes of healthy children are far more diverse than previously suspected, that clinically relevant resistance genes are present even without recent selective

  16. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using fecal microbiota transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rahul Pathak,1 Hill Ambrose Enuh,1 Anish Patel,1 Prasanna Wickremesinghe21Department of Internal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USABackground: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global concern over the last decade. In the United States, CDI escalated in incidence from 1996 to 2005 from 31 to 64/100,000. In 2010, there were 500,000 cases of CDI with an estimated mortality up to 20,000 cases a year. The significance of this problem is evident from the hospital costs of over 3 billion dollars annually. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT was first described in 1958 and since then about 500 cases have been published in literature in various small series and case reports. This procedure has been reported mainly from centers outside of the United States and acceptance of the practice has been difficult. Recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA labeled FMT as a biological drug; as a result, guidelines will soon be required to help establish it as a mainstream treatment. More US experience needs to be reported to popularize this procedure here and form guidelines.Method: We did a retrospective review of our series of patients with relapsing CDI who were treated with FMT over a 3-year period. We present our experience with FMT at a community hospital as a retrospective review and describe our procedure.Results: There were a total of 12 patients who underwent FMT for relapsing C. difficile. Only one patient failed to respond and required a second FMT. There were no complications associated with the transplant and all patients had resolution of symptoms within 48 hours of FMT.Conclusion: FMT is a cheap, easily available, effective therapy for recurrent CDI; it can be safely performed in a

  17. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  18. A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (≥97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in

  19. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  20. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  1. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  2. Environmental and stewardship implications for the large scale conversion of municipal and agricultural organic waste to energy in Canada[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falletta, P.; Zhu, H. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre; Oleszkiewicz, J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The move towards environmental sustainability in the Canadian industrial, agricultural and municipal sectors coupled with the requirements for Canada to meet its Kyoto obligations for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to the need to examine the feasibility of harvesting the energy contained in waste biomass. This paper discussed the current and projected Canadian inventories of municipal biosolids, municipal solid waste, food industry wastes and animal manure; anaerobic digestion; considerations and challenges in the management of waste biomass; and current technologies available for energy recovery for each of these waste streams. The paper also discussed the environmental, technical, economic, societal and regulatory issues which are likely to be triggered as alternative methods to traditional disposal practices. The research and action needed to bring Canada to the forefront of environmental sustainability in waste biomass management was also discussed. The paper made several recommendations in terms of regulations, demonstration projects and public education. It was concluded that the biggest factor in the adoption of technologies for waste management is cost. It was concluded that there is no one perfect solution to the management of organic wastes in Canada. A detailed analysis that takes into consideration all of the technical, societal, environmental, economic, and regulatory issues must be performed to determine the right choice of technology. 4 tabs.

  3. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  4. Impact of antimicrobial use during beef production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the impact of typical antimicrobial use during cattle production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance by culture, quantitative PCR, and metagenomic sequencing. Experimental Design & Analysis: Feces were recovered from colons of 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) ca...

  5. Physicians Must Discuss Potential Long-Term Risks of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation to Ensure Informed Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunnik (Eline); N. Aarts (Nikkie); L.A. Chen (Lea Ann)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients with multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections despite standard medical treatment is considered both effective, with approximately 90% cured (Aroniadis et al. 2016), and acceptable regarding short-term

  6. The Microbial Fecal Indicator Paradigm: Tools in the Toolbox Applications in Recreational Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of ORD’s recent research to develop tools for assessing microbial water quality in recreational waters. Methods discussed include the development of health associations between microbial fecal indicators and the development of culture, and molecular methods for fec...

  7. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  9. Fecal Carriage of Extended‑spectrum Beta‑lactamase and AmpC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems were 31.2%, 33.3%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The relative high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL‑producing bacteria in community warrants further study in this field including developing policies ...

  10. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  11. Interactions of Insolation and Shading on Ability to Use Fluorescence Imaging to Detect Fecal Contaminated Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Lefcourt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal contamination of produce in fields is a recognized food safety risk, and it is a requirement that fields be surveyed for evidence of fecal contamination. It may be possible to increase the efficacy of such surveys using imaging techniques that rely on detection of fluorescence responses of fecal material to UV excitation. However, fluorescence responses are easily masked by ambient illumination. This study investigated the potential of using a shroud to reduce the impact of ambient illumination on responses measured using relatively inexpensive optical components. During periods of near peak insolation, even with full shrouding, results indicate that reliable detection would be problematic. Towards dusk, effective imaging could be accomplished even with a gap of 250 cm at the bottom of the shroud. Results suggest that imaging using relatively inexpensive components could provide the basis for detection of fecal contamination in produce fields if surveys were conducted during dawn or dusk, or at night.

  12. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  13. Prospective regenerative medicine therapies for obstetric trauma-induced fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Nina; Kumar, Lalit; Emmanuel, Anton; Day, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a major public health issue that has yet to be adequately addressed. Obstetric trauma and injury to the anal sphincter muscles are the most common cause of fecal incontinence. New therapies are emerging aimed at repair or regeneration of sphincter muscle and restoration of continence. While regenerative medicine offers an attractive option for fecal incontinence there are currently no validated techniques using this approach. Although many challenges are yet to be resolved, the advent of regenerative medicine is likely to offer disruptive technologies to treat and possibly prevent the onset of this devastating condition. This article provides a review on regenerative medicine approaches for treating fecal incontinence and a critique of the current landscape in this area.

  14. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by a variety of conditions, including: Polyps Hemorrhoids Diverticulosis Ulcers Colitis , a type of inflammatory bowel ... on a fecal occult blood test include ulcers, hemorrhoids, polyps, and benign tumors. If your test results ...

  15. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  16. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of fecal microflora of healthy full-term Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... In this study fecal microflora of human infants born through vaginal delivery (VB) and through ... their study they have investigated the development of the gut .... from both libraries were deposited to NCBI GenBank with.

  18. Patient-Controlled Biofeedback Device for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damin, Daniel C; Hommerding, Felipe; Schirmer, Delber; Sanches, Paulo R S; Silva Junior, Danton P; Müller, André F; Thome, Paulo R O

    2017-06-01

    Although biofeedback has been used as a first-line therapy for fecal incontinence, it is known to be time consuming and demands attendance to a hospital during the whole period of treatment. In this study, we describe a new biofeedback device specifically developed for home treatment of fecal incontinence, which consists of a microprocessor controlled unit able to register and store the anal pressure waves corresponding to exercises performed by patients at home. In order to test the new device, a pilot study including ten patients with fecal incontinence was conducted. Evaluation of patients before and after the biofeedback training showed significant improvement in manometric and clinical parameters of anal continence. The new method may improve compliance of patients with the training program and reduce their need to be supervised during the treatment. It might represent a new alternative for the treatment of fecal incontinence.

  19. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  20. Durable coexistence of donor and recipient strains after fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Simone S.; Zhu, Ana; Benes, Vladimir; Costea, Paul I.; Hercog, Rajna; Hildebrand, Falk; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Nieuwdorp, Max; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Voigt, Anita Y.; Zeller, Georg; Sunagawa, Shinichi; de Vos, Willem M.; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is increasingly being applied to other gastrointestinal disorders, yet the fate of native and introduced microbial strains remains largely unknown. To quantify the extent of donor

  1. Fecal microbiota transplantation against intestinal colonization by extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Ramandeep; Groot, de Pieter F.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Hodiamont, Caspar J.; Belzer, Clara; Berge, ten Ineke J.M.; Vos, de Willem M.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Infections with multidrug-resistant microorganisms are associated with increased hospitalization, medication costs and mortality. Based on our fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experience for Clostridium difficile infection, we treated 15 patients carrying ESBL-producing

  2. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  3. Comparison of fecal pooling strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S L B; Ritter, C; Dohoo, I; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W

    2018-05-23

    In herds with typical moderate to low within-herd prevalence, testing for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the infectious agent of Johne's disease, will be more cost-effective if individual fecal samples are cultured in composite pools. However, sensitivity to classify a pool containing 1 or more positive individual samples as positive may depend on pool size and number of individual positive samples within a pool. Fecal samples collected from 994 dairy cows sampled at slaughter were cultured to detect MAP. Culturing was done both individually and as composite pooled samples using the TREK ESP Culture System II broth medium (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Composite samples consisted of pools containing feces from 3, 5, 8, 10, or 15 cows. The number of individual fecal culture-positive cows within each pool ranged from 0 to 4. Culture of individual fecal samples detected MAP in 36 (3.6%) of the 994 cows. Individual samples that were detected within the first 50 d by TREK ESP Culture System II were more likely to lead to a positive pool result. In total, 840 pooled fecal samples were examined for presence of MAP, and of those, 272 pools actually contained feces from fecal culture-positive cows. The crude sensitivity (proportion of pools that contained at least 1 fecal-positive cow that tested positive) for pools of 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15 was 47, 67, 44, 59, and 39%, respectively. Across pools, an increase of the number of fecal culture-positive samples from 1 to 2 enhanced overall crude sensitivity from 44 to 71%. However, sensitivity did not further increase for pools with 3 or 4 fecal culture-positive samples (63 and 60%, respectively). Additionally, a simulation analysis assessing probability of pooled fecal samples being positive in herds of 50 and 100 cows was conducted. The simulation assumed that 1, 2, or 5 cows per herd were MAP fecal culture-positive and that pools of 5 and 10 were used. This low

  4. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  5. Predicting fecal indicator organism contamination in Oregon coastal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettus, Paul; Foster, Eugene; Pan, Yangdong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used publicly available GIS layers and statistical tree-based modeling (CART and Random Forest) to predict pathogen indicator counts at a regional scale using 88 spatially explicit landscape predictors and 6657 samples from non-estuarine streams in the Oregon Coast Range. A total of 532 frequently sampled sites were parsed down to 93 pathogen sampling sites to control for spatial and temporal biases. This model's 56.5% explanation of variance, was comparable to other regional models, while still including a large number of variables. Analysis showed the most important predictors on bacteria counts to be: forest and natural riparian zones, cattle related activities, and urban land uses. This research confirmed linkages to anthropogenic activities, with the research prediction mapping showing increased bacteria counts in agricultural and urban land use areas and lower counts with more natural riparian conditions. - Highlights: • We modeled fecal indicator pathogens in Oregon Coast range streams. • We used machine learning tools with only publicly available data. • These models demonstrate the importance of riparian land use on water quality. • Regional water quality was characterized in streams with little to no monitoring. - A desktop approach to predict stream pathogens from exclusively publicly available data sets on a regional scale.

  6. Fecal incontinence in operated cases for anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondelli, P.; Taccone, A.; Martucciello, G.; Dodero, P.; Caffarena, P.

    1989-01-01

    In spite of great progress in surgical treatment of anorectal malformations, fecal incontinence is still, in variable degrees, a frequent and unpleasant postsurgical sequela. The most frequent causes of incontinence are: 1) the incorrect placement of the pulled-through colon in the levator ani and sphincteric muscular complex during abdomino-perineal surgical procedures; 2) the poor development of sphinteric musculature; 3) the associated sacral anomalies. Postoperative CT helps to evaluate all the above-mentioned conditions, in view of possible new surgical procedure for improving continence (besides postoperative CT can help in choosing the more suitable surgical technique). Nine patients, aged 3 to 13 years (2 with good continence and 7 with various degrees of incontinence), were studied with pelvic postoperative CT. In the cases (2) with good continence the CT picture was: good development of sphincteric musculature and neo-anorectum correctly placed into sphinteric musculature; in the cases (3) with low degree of continence: neoanorectum correctly placed, but hypoplasic puborectal muscle; in the case (4) with complete incontinence, neo-anorectum incorrectly placed and poor development of sphinteric musculature. A further Posterior Sagittal Anorectoplasty (according Pena) is only suitable in the incontinence cases with: 1) neo-anorectum seriously misplaced; 2) good development of sphinteric musculature; 3) absence of sacral anomalies. Postoperative CT is a valid mean for demostrating all the above-mentioned conditions and for chooosing the best surgical technique in each case

  7. Design and validation of a comprehensive fecal incontinence questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra K; Merrie, Arend E H; Marshall, Roger J; Parry, Bryan R

    2008-10-01

    Fecal incontinence can have a profound effect on quality of life. Its prevalence remains uncertain because of stigma, lack of consistent definition, and dearth of validated measures. This study was designed to develop a valid clinical and epidemiologic questionnaire, building on current literature and expertise. Patients and experts undertook face validity testing. Construct validity, criterion validity, and test-retest reliability was undertaken. Construct validity comprised factor analysis and internal consistency of the quality of life scale. The validity of known groups was tested against 77 control subjects by using regression models. Questionnaire results were compared with a stool diary for criterion validity. Test-retest reliability was calculated from repeated questionnaire completion. The questionnaire achieved good face validity. It was completed by 104 patients. The quality of life scale had four underlying traits (factor analysis) and high internal consistency (overall Cronbach alpha = 0.97). Patients and control subjects answered the questionnaire significantly differently (P validity testing. Criterion validity assessment found mean differences close to zero. Median reliability for the whole questionnaire was 0.79 (range, 0.35-1). This questionnaire compares favorably with other available instruments, although the interpretation of stool consistency requires further research. Its sensitivity to treatment still needs to be investigated.

  8. Colite de derivação fecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto Júnior

    Full Text Available A colite de derivação fecal (CD é um processo inflamatório que ocorre no segmento colorretal desfuncionalizado, após uma cirurgia de desvio do trânsito intestinal. As principais características dessa entidade clínica são: apresenta-se na desfuncionalização do cólon ou reto; não há doença inflamatória intestinal preexistente; nunca acomete o sítio proximal à colostomia e ocorre resolução do processo após a restauração do trânsito intestinal. Diversas são as hipóteses postuladas para explicar o seu aparecimento; todavia, a deficiência nutricional do epitélio colônico, pela ausência dos ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC, no segmento desfuncionalizado, é a mais aceita na atualidade. Os autores fazem uma revisão da literatura enfocando os aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e terapêuticos desta doença.

  9. Fecal Glucocorticoid Analysis: Non-invasive Adrenal Monitoring in Equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Purcell, Rebecca S; Walker, Susan L

    2016-04-25

    Adrenal activity can be assessed in the equine species by analysis of feces for corticosterone metabolites. During a potentially aversive situation, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is released from the hypothalamus in the brain. This stimulates the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland. In horses the glucocorticoid corticosterone is responsible for several adaptations needed to support equine flight behaviour and subsequent removal from the aversive situation. Corticosterone metabolites can be detected in the feces of horses and assessment offers a non-invasive option to evaluate long term patterns of adrenal activity. Fecal assessment offers advantages over other techniques that monitor adrenal activity including blood plasma and saliva analysis. The non-invasive nature of the method avoids sampling stress which can confound results. It also allows the opportunity for repeated sampling over time and is ideal for studies in free ranging horses. This protocol describes the enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) used to assess feces for corticosterone, in addition to the associated biochemical validation.

  10. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Magariños, O. E.; Alderete, C. E.; Arias, L. E.; Lucca, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate) as a partial substitute of arids (sand) in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand...

  11. Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Barger, Kathryn; Fu, Xueyan; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B; Meydani, Simin N; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined. Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8. Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation

  12. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  13. Sticholonche zanclea (Protozoa, Actinopoda in fecal pellets of copepods and Euphausia sp. in Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eskinazi-Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Fecal pellets produced by mesozooplanktonic copepods (Centropages velificatus and Paracalanus parvus and macrozooplanktonic Euphausiacea (Euphausia sp. were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Fragments of the protozoan Sticholonche zanclea were found in both copepod and in Euphausia sp. fecal pellets, even when the abundance of the protozoan in the water was low. The results suggest that S. zanclea is an important food resource for different trophic levels, including meso- and macrozooplankton, in Brazilian coastal waters.

  14. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Shira R; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  15. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn’s disease and in cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Malíčková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Design and methods: Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc. Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Results: Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn’s disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations. No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Fecal and serum zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn’s disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers. Keywords: Zonulin, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Smoking

  16. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fecal calprotectin levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Rehab; Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Kamel, Noha; Elsharqawy, Sonia Elsharqawy

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of fecal calprotectin in preterm neonates with feeding intolerance, as well as to evaluate it as a marker of feeding intolerance and to determine a cut-off level of fecal calprotectin in feeding intolerance. Analytical, multicenter, case-control study, which was carried out in neonatal intensive care units in Egypt, in a period from August 1, 2014 to March 1, 2015 on 52 preterm neonates. Neonates were classified into two groups; a study group including 26 neonates who met inclusion criteria and a control group including 26 neonates for comparison. Fecal calprotectin levels ranged from 3.9μg/g to 971.8μg/g, and there was a significant increase in fecal calprotectin in the study group when compared to the control group (334.3±236.6μg/g vs. 42.0±38.2μg/g, respectively) with moderate inverse significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and birth weight. Furthermore, there was moderate, significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and duration of breastfeeding range. On the other hand, there was no correlation between fecal calprotectin and post-natal age, gestational age, or volume of feeding. A cut-off at the 67.0μg/g level, with 100.0% sensitivity and 76.9% specificity, was considered. Fecal calprotectin level increased significantly in neonates with feeding intolerance; it can be used to detect early cases with necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, but this subject still needs more investigations on more patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  19. Temporary Fecal Diversion in the Management of Colorectal and Perianal Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mennigen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the results of temporary fecal diversion in colorectal and perianal Crohn’s disease. Method. We retrospectively identified 29 consecutive patients (14 females, 15 males; median age: 30.0 years, range: 18–76 undergoing temporary fecal diversion for colorectal (n=14, ileal (n=4, and/or perianal Crohn’s disease (n=22. Follow-up was in median 33.0 (3–103 months. Response to fecal diversion, rate of stoma reversal, and relapse rate after stoma reversal were recorded. Results. The response to temporary fecal diversion was complete remission in 4/29 (13.8%, partial remission in 12/29 (41.4%, no change in 7/29 (24.1%, and progress in 6/29 (20.7%. Stoma reversal was performed in 19 out of 25 patients (76% available for follow-up. Of these, the majority (15/19, 78.9% needed further surgical therapies for a relapse of the same pathology previously leading to temporary fecal diversion, including colorectal resections (10/19, 52.6% and creation of a definitive stoma (7/19, 36.8%. At the end of follow-up, only 4/25 patients (16% had a stable course without the need for further definitive surgery. Conclusion. Temporary fecal diversion can induce remission in otherwise refractory colorectal or perianal Crohn’s disease, but the chance of enduring remission after stoma reversal is low.

  20. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  2. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  3. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  4. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette; Ibsen, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal...

  5. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  7. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  8. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and number of lambs weaned (NLW)] and ewe peri-parturient rise (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and at 30-d post lambing (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep were estim...

  9. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study estimated genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW) per ewe lambing] and peri-parturient (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and 30 d postpartum (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep. Th...

  10. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  11. Shifts in the Fecal Microbiota Associated with Adenomatous Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Vanessa L; Chen, Jun; Johnson, Stephen; Harrington, Sean C; Yab, Tracy C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Nelson, Heidi; Boardman, Lisa A; Druliner, Brooke R; Levin, Theodore R; Rex, Douglas K; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lance, Peter; Ahlquist, David A; Chia, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n = 233) and without (n = 547). Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, proinflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species. Patients without adenomas had greater abundances of Veillonella, Firmicutes (Order Clostridia), and Actinobacteria (family Bifidobacteriales). Our findings were consistent with previously reported shifts in the gut microbiota of colorectal cancer patients. Importantly, the altered adenoma profile is predicted to increase primary and secondary bile acid production, as well as starch, sucrose, lipid, and phenylpropanoid metabolism. These data hint that increased sugar, protein, and lipid metabolism along with increased bile acid production could promote a colonic environment that supports the growth of bile-tolerant microbes such as Bilophilia and Desulfovibrio In turn, these microbes may produce genotoxic or inflammatory metabolites such as H 2 S and secondary bile acids, which could play a role in catalyzing adenoma development and eventually colorectal cancer. This study suggests a plausible biological mechanism to explain the links between shifts in the microbiota and colorectal cancer. This represents a first step toward resolving the complex interactions that shape the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer and may facilitate personalized therapeutics focused on the microbiota. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 85-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. The Use of Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Fontan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos; Taqatqa, Anas; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Holton, Jacob P; Awad, Sawsan M

    2018-03-01

    The Fontan procedure was first performed in the seventies as a palliation for patients with single ventricle physiology. A feared complication after a Fontan procedure is the development of protein losing enteropathy (PLE). Systemic inflammation has a negative effect on the intestinal barrier integrity, which has supported the use of steroids in this setting. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies linking intestinal inflammation in patients with PLE after Fontan. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of intestinal inflammation measured by FC in patients with PLE after a Fontan procedure. A cross-sectional analysis was performed examining 23 stool samples from 23 Fontan patients for both Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (FA1AT) and FC with and without PLE. The median FC was 21 mcg/gm of stool (IQR: 15.7-241 mcg/gm of stool), and the median FA1AT was 40 mg/dL (IQR: 30-220 mg/dL). The median FC and FA1AT were significantly higher in the PLE group than in the Non-PLE group (p = 0.002 and p PLE, which correlated with the elevated levels of FA1AT. Inversely, levels of FC in Fontan patients without suspected PLE were within the normal range. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate intestinal inflammation using FC in the setting of PLE within this cohort, and may prove to be useful as a diagnostic tool in its treatment.

  13. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  14. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU aos solos destinados a pastagens, ainda escassamente utilizada no País, contribui, com frequência, para melhorar os níveis de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de alguns nutrientes das plantas e para diminuir o risco de erosão, pelo aumento da cobertura vegetal. Todavia, a presença eventual de níveis elevados de metais pesados, compostos orgânicos poluentes e organismos patogénicos nas LRU condiciona a dose a aplicar e torna imprescindível o controlo desses factores nos solos aos quais foram incorporadas. Também o teor elevado de azoto que por vezes contêm pode inibir a actividade simbiótica do rizóbio, prejudicando a sobrevivência das leguminosas na pastagem. Neste trabalho, examinaram-se a produção de matéria seca, a composição florística e o teor de cobre (Cu na biomassa vegetal, em dois anos consecutivos de um ensaio com uma mistura pratense semeada para cortes sucessivos, instalado, no Outono de 2001, num Luvissolo Háplico de baixa fertilidade, em Mértola, ao qual foi aplicado LRU secundária proveniente da ETAR de Évora, com um elevado teor de Cu. No mesmo período, apreciou-se a evolução, na camada superficial do solo, dos teores de M.O., de alguns macronutrientes e do Cu extraível por água régia. Avaliouse, ainda, a grandeza da população rizobiana que nodula o trevo (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii e procedeu-se à prospecção de indicadores de contaminação fecal (bactérias coliformes e enterococos. No ano seguinte à aplicação da LRU, examinou-se a evolução, no solo, de 11 compostos bifenilospoliclorados (PCBs, 13 pesticidas organoclorados e 16 hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (PAHs. O ensaio, de blocos casualizados, teve como modalidades três níveis de LRU (L 0 = 0, L1 = 12 e L2 = 24 t/ha e duas repetições. A mistura semeada incluiu azevém anual, panasco, cinco espécies de trevo, bisserula e serradela. Além de muito maiores produ

  15. Fecal impaction: a cause of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigian, Drew A.; Levine, Marc S.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs in patients with colonic fecal impaction and also to elucidate the cause of this finding. Methods: A computerized search of radiology files revealed 515 patients with colonic fecal impaction on abdominal radiographs. The radiologic reports described isolated small bowel dilatation not related to other known causes of ileus or obstruction in 18 (3.5%) of the 515 patients. The films were reviewed to determine the distribution of fecal impaction and the degree and extent of small bowel dilatation. In 16 cases, medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical presentation, treatment, and course. Finally, follow-up radiographs were reviewed in four cases to determine the response to treatment of the impaction. Results: All 16 patients with available medical records had abdominal symptoms. The average diameter of the dilated small bowel on abdominal radiographs was 3.7 cm. Fourteen patients (78%) had a diffuse colonic fecal impaction (nine) or a predominantly right-sided fecal impaction (five) that involved the cecum, and the remaining four (22%) had a left-sided colonic fecal impaction. All 12 patients with clinical follow-up had resolution of symptoms and all four with follow-up radiographs had resolution of small bowel dilatation after treatment of the underlying impaction. Conclusion: Fecal impaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs, as treatment of the underlying impaction usually produces a dramatic clinical response with resolution of the small bowel dilatation on follow-up radiographs

  16. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  17. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: model sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Whelan, Gene; Yakirevich, Alexander M; Guber, Andrey; Gish, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evaluate best management practices that reduce the microbial pollution in ecosystems and water sources and thus help to predict the risk of food and waterborne diseases. In this study we performed a sensitivity analysis for the KINEROS/STWIR model developed to predict the FIOs transport out of manured fields to other fields and water bodies in order to identify input variables that control the transport uncertainty. The distributions of model input parameters were set to encompass values found from three-year experiments at the USDA-ARS OPE3 experimental site in Beltsville and publicly available information. Sobol' indices and complementary regression trees were used to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the model and to explore the interactions between model input parameters on the proportion of FIO removed from fields. Regression trees provided a useful visualization of the differences in sensitivity of the model output in different parts of the input variable domain. Environmental controls such as soil saturation, rainfall duration and rainfall intensity had the largest influence in the model behavior, whereas soil and manure properties ranked lower. The field length had only moderate effect on the model output sensitivity to the model inputs. Among the manure-related properties the parameter determining the shape of the FIO release kinetic curve had the largest influence on the removal of FIOs from the fields. That underscored the need to better characterize the FIO release kinetics. Since the most sensitive model inputs are available in soil and weather databases or can be obtained using soil water models, results indicate the opportunity of obtaining large-scale estimates of FIO

  18. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  19. Meerkat close calling patterns are linked to sex, social category, season and wind, but not fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mausbach

    Full Text Available It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing. The aim of this study was to identify proximate factors that influence variation in call rate and acoustic structure of meerkat close calls. Specifically, we investigated whether close calling behavior is associated with sex, age and rank, or stress hormone output (i.e., measured as fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM concentrations as individual traits of the caller, as well as with environmental conditions (weather and reproductive seasonality. To disentangle the effects of these factors on vocal behavior, we analyzed sound recordings and assessed fGCM concentrations in 64 wild but habituated meerkats from 9 groups during the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. Dominant females and one-year old males called at significantly higher rates compared to other social categories during the reproductive season. Additionally, dominant females produced close calls with the lowest mean fundamental frequencies (F0 and the longest mean pulse durations. Windy conditions were associated with significantly higher call rates during the non-reproductive season. Fecal GCM concentrations were unrelated to close calling behavior. Our findings suggest that meerkat close calling behavior conveys information regarding the sex and social category of the caller, but shows no association with f

  20. Long-Term Patterns in Production and Export of Fecal Pellets by Krill and Salps along the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D. K.; Ruck, K. E.; Cope, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and where climate-induced changes in zooplankton abundance and species composition could dramatically affect the pelagic food web and biogeochemical cycling. We examined long-term (1993 to the present) and spatial trends in summer abundance of, and fecal pellet production (FPP) by, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and gelatinous salps (Salpa thompsoni) and their relationship with physical and other environmental parameters. Zooplankton were collected as part of the Palmer, Antarctica Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PAL LTER) from the epipelagic zone in a region divided into latitudinal (North, South, and Far South) and cross-shelf (coastal, shelf, slope) sub-regions. Beginning in 2009, FPP and sinking rate experiments were conducted at representative stations along these gradients. FPP peaks occurred every 4-6 years in both species in the north and south, but alternated such that some years were characterized by high krill-mediated export, and others by high salp-mediated export. In the far south (where perennial sea ice still persists), and in both coastal and shelf sub-regions, krill FFP exceeded that of salps. Conversely, off the slope, salp FPP exceeded that of krill. Variability in krill FPP was strongly and positively influenced by primary production 2-years prior, and negatively correlated with sea surface temperature (no lag). Salp FPP was most significantly correlated with sea ice parameters, with highest FPP in years of lowest sea-ice extent, duration, and area. Warmer water and ice-free conditions favored salps over krill, which also increased overall potential export of fecal pellet carbon to depth. We discuss the implications of this potential increase in biological pump efficiency as the climate warms.

  1. Application of empirical predictive modeling using conventional and alternative fecal indicator bacteria in eastern North Carolina waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul; Conn, Kathleen E.; Crosswell, Joey; Noble, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine waters are the site of intense anthropogenic influence with concomitant use for recreation and seafood harvesting. Therefore, coastal and estuarine water quality has a direct impact on human health. In eastern North Carolina (NC) there are over 240 recreational and 1025 shellfish harvesting water quality monitoring sites that are regularly assessed. Because of the large number of sites, sampling frequency is often only on a weekly basis. This frequency, along with an 18–24 h incubation time for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) enumeration via culture-based methods, reduces the efficiency of the public notification process. In states like NC where beach monitoring resources are limited but historical data are plentiful, predictive models may offer an improvement for monitoring and notification by providing real-time FIB estimates. In this study, water samples were collected during 12 dry (n = 88) and 13 wet (n = 66) weather events at up to 10 sites. Statistical predictive models for Escherichiacoli (EC), enterococci (ENT), and members of the Bacteroidales group were created and subsequently validated. Our results showed that models for EC and ENT (adjusted R2 were 0.61 and 0.64, respectively) incorporated a range of antecedent rainfall, climate, and environmental variables. The most important variables for EC and ENT models were 5-day antecedent rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. These models successfully predicted FIB levels over a wide range of conditions with a 3% (EC model) and 9% (ENT model) overall error rate for recreational threshold values and a 0% (EC model) overall error rate for shellfish threshold values. Though modeling of members of the Bacteroidales group had less predictive ability (adjusted R2 were 0.56 and 0.53 for fecal Bacteroides spp. and human Bacteroides spp., respectively), the modeling approach and testing provided information on Bacteroidales ecology. This is the first example of a set of successful statistical

  2. High prevalence of fecal carriage of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost eHordijk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0% and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and P. mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly blaCTX-M-1, but also blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-52-StPaul, blaSHV-12 and blaCMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.

  3. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Marisi Sinaga; Mark Gregory Robson; Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Adonia Getse Halel; Dian Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC), mercury conce...

  4. Dry preparation for virtual CT colonography with fecal tagging using water-soluble contrast medium: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielen, Didier; Thomeer, Maarten; Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; Marchal, Guy; Kiss, Gabriel; Maes, Frederik; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a dry bowel preparation, i.e. without laxative fluids, for virtual CT colonography (VCTC), and its impact on patient acceptance compared with conventional colonoscopy (CC). A randomly chosen patient population scheduled for CC (n=11) was first submitted to VCTC after a dry preparation, consisting of low-residue meals combined with a small amount of a iodinated water-soluble contrast medium during each meal 3 days before VCTC. In different colon segments and between different persons, the degree of tagging in VCTC was evaluated and graded. Patient acceptance and future preference were assessed for both preparations as well as for both investigations. The mixing of the contrast with the intestinal content results in contrast impregnated stool, the tagged feces. The degree of fecal tagging was good in the majority of the patients and the colonic segments, especially in the descending colon and sigmoid. Furthermore, patient acceptance and preference were clearly in favour of VCTC compared with CC merely because of the non-invasiveness of the dry preparation. Dry bowel preparation and VCTC is a promising approach towards a patient-friendly colon cancer-screening setup. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  6. Iohexol versus diatrizoate for fecal/fluid tagging during CT colonography performed with cathartic preparation: comparison of examination quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun; Park, Seong Ho; Hong, Gil-Sun; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hee [National Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to compare iohexol vs. diatrizoate as fecal/fluid tagging agents for computed tomography colonography (CTC) regarding examination quality. Forty prospective patients (M:F = 23:17; 63 ± 11.6 years) received CTC using 50 mL (350 mgI/mL) oral iohexol for tagging. Forty other indication-matched, age-matched, and sex-matched patients who underwent CTC using 100 mL diatrizoate for tagging and otherwise the same technique, were retrospectively identified. Two groups were compared regarding overall examination quality, per-patient and per-segment scores of colonic bubbles (0 [no bubbles] to 5 [the largest amount]), and the volume, attenuation, and homogeneity (untagged, layered, and homogeneous) of the residual colonic fluid. The iohexol group demonstrated a greater amount of colonic bubbles than the diatrizoate group: mean per-patient scores ± SD of 1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.6, respectively (p = 0.003); and rates of segments showing ≥ grade 3 bubbles of 12.9 % (85/659) vs. 1.6 % (11/695), respectively (p = 0.001). Residual colonic fluid amount standardized to the colonic volume did not significantly differ: 7.2 % ± 4.2 vs. 7.8 % ± 3.7, respectively (p = 0.544). Tagged fluid attenuation was mostly comparable between groups and the fluid was homogeneously tagged in 98.7 % (224/227) vs. 99.5 % (218/219) segments, respectively (p = 0.344). Iohexol caused more colonic bubbles when used during cathartic CTC. Otherwise, examination quality was similarly adequate with both iohexol and diatrizoate. (orig.)

  7. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  8. Influence of sphincter defect on biofeedback outcomes in patients with fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Kaiser, Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effect of sphincter defect (SD on biofeedback (BF response in patients with fecal incontinence. Methods: two hundred and forty-two patients with fecal incontinence undergoing BF as exclusive treatment were identified from a BF database. Patients were evaluated with fecal incontinence score (Cleveland Clinic Florida – Fecal Incontinence Score, CCF-FI and anorectal physiology tests. The pre- and immediate post-treatment outcomes were obtained from the chart, and the long-term outcomes by CCF-FI score that was sent by mail. Results: 242 patients underwent BF for fecal incontinence. 143 (59.1% underwent ultrasonography, 43 (30.1% of whom had sphincter defect detected on US. The immediate outcomes were not affected by the presence of absence of SD. The second CCF-FI questionnaire was mailed after a mean of 6.1 years after treatment. 31 (57.4% exhibited improvement, 4 (7.4% remained unchanged, and 19 (35.2% had worsening function, which was significantly inferior in patients with SD (p = 0.021. Electromyography demonstrated increased electrical activity in the contraction phase after BF in both groups. Conclusions: the majority of patients experience improvement in fecal incontinence after BF. However, patients with SD detected on US prior to treatment seem to have worse function at long term. Resumo: Objetivos: avaliar a influência do defeito esfincteriano (DE na resposta ao biofeedback (BF em pacientes com incontinência fecal. Métodos: 242 pacientes com incontinência fecal, submetidos exclusivamente ao BF como forma de tratamento, foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao escore de incontinência fecal (Cleveland Clinic Flórida-Escore de Incontinência Fecal, CCF-IF e testes de investigação da fisiologia anorretal. O pré e pós-tratamento imediato foram obtidos do prontuário e para avaliação a longo prazo foi enviado o CCF-IF pelo correio. Resultados: 242 pacientes realizaram BF. 143 (59

  9. Incidence of anismus in fecal incontinence patients evaluated at a Coloproctology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Sokol Rotta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fecal incontinence is defined as a loss of bladder and bowel control. Anismus is characterized by a paradoxical contraction or inappropriate relaxation of pelvic floor muscles while trying to evacuate, being usually associated with constipation (60%. However, anismus can be present in 46% of patients with fecal incontinence. Objective: To analyze the incidence of anismus in patients diagnosed with fecal incontinence in an outpatient Coloproctology Clinic of Paraná. Methodology: A retrospective study of 66 patients diagnosed with fecal incontinence at Coloproctology Clinic, Hospital São Lucas, from February 2012 to October 2013. Patients were evaluated by clinical history and examination by anorectal electromanometry. Results: The mean age of participants was 56 years. Regarding the evaluation by anorectal electromanometry, mean resting pressure, contraction pressure and sustained contraction pressure were, respectively, 35.18 mmHg, 90.53 mmHg and 58 mmHg. Anismus was seen in 42.42% of patients. Conclusion: Through this study, it can be inferred that the incidence of anismus has a relevant impact on patients diagnosed with fecal incontinence. Our results corroborate the importance of the concomitant management of anorectal continence mechanism changes, in order to emphasize the clinical benefits and improved quality of life for patients with fecal incontinence. Resumo: Introdução: Incontinência fecal (IF é definida como a perda do controle esfincteriano. O anismus caracteriza-se como contração paradoxal ou relaxamento inadequado da musculatura do assoalho pélvico durante a tentativa de evacuar, estando geralmente associado à obstipação intestinal (60%. No entanto, pode estar presente em 46% dos pacientes com IF. Objetivo: Analisar a incidência de anismus em pacientes diagnosticados com incontinência fecal em um ambulatório de Coloproctologia do Paraná. Metodologia: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo 66 pacientes com

  10. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  11. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II and fluoride from a real flue gas desulfurization wastewater by electrocoagulation using Fe/C/Al electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinian Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of anions and heavy metals coexist in flue gas desulfurization (FGD wastewater originating from coal-fired power plants, which cause serious environmental pollution. Electrocoagulation (EC with Fe/C/Al hybrid electrodes was investigated for the separation of fluoride and nickel ions from a FGD wastewater. The study mainly focused on the technology parameters including anode electrode type, time, inter-electrode distance (5–40 mm, current density (1.88–6.25 mA/cm2 and initial pH (4–10. The results showed that favorable nickel and fluoride removal were obtained by increasing the time and current density, but this led to an increase in energy consumption. Eighty-six percent of fluoride and 98% of Ni(II were removed by conducting the Fe/C/Al EC with a current density of 5.00 mA/cm2 and inter-electrode distance of 5 mm at pH 4 for 25 min and energy consumption was 1.33 kWh/m3. Concomitant pollutants also achieved excellent treatment efficiency. The Hg, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, SS and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 90%, 89%, 92%, 88%, 98%, 99.9% and 89%, respectively, which met stringent environmental regulations.

  12. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-08

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity.

  13. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Michaelsen, Kim F; Forssten, Sofia D; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-12-01

    This study is a part of the clinical trials with probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 conducted in obese adolescents. Previously reported clinical studies showed no effect of Ls-33 consumption on the metabolic syndrome in the subject group. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of L. salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents. The study was a double-blinded intervention with 50 subjects randomized to intake of L. salivarius Ls-33 or placebo for 12 weeks. The fecal microbiota was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR before and after intervention. Concentrations of fecal short chain fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group to Firmicutes belonging bacteria, including Clostridium cluster XIV, Blautia coccoides_Eubacteria rectale group and Roseburia intestinalis, were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after administration of Ls-33. The cell numbers of fecal bacteria, including the groups above as well as Clostridium cluster I, Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, the Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium were not significantly altered by intervention. Similarly, short chain fatty acids remained unaffected. L. salivarius Ls-33 might modify the fecal microbiota in obese adolescents in a way not related to metabolic syndrome. NCT 01020617. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  15. Diet and environment shape fecal bacterial microbiota composition and enteric pathogen load of grizzly bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. CONCLUSION: This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens.

  16. Diet and environment shape fecal bacterial microbiota composition and enteric pathogen load of grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens.

  17. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  18. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Wu, Yih-Yiing; Yang, Ruey-Neng; Huang, Chi-Jung; Yang, Shung-Haur; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Hung; Pan, Shiann; Lee, Chia-Long; Lin, Chih-Ming; Sun, Hsiao-Lun; Huang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19) transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis) and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years) revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001) and patients at the M0 stage (p = 0.004). Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042). These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients

  20. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hsiao-Lun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19 transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. Methods The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. Results The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.004. Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042. Conclusion These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients.

  1. Fecal Contamination on Produce from Wholesale and Retail Food Markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela R; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Unicomb, Leanne; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J

    2018-01-01

    Fresh produce items can become contaminated with enteric pathogens along the supply chain at the preharvest (e.g., irrigation water, soil, fertilizer) or postharvest (e.g., vendor handling or consumer handling) stages. This study assesses the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli , enterococci (ENT), and Bacteriodales on surfaces of carrots, eggplants, red amaranth leaves, and tomatoes obtained from both a wholesale market (recently harvested) and neighborhood retail markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We detected E. coli in 100% of carrot and red amaranth rinses, 92% of eggplant rinses, and 46% of tomato rinses. Using a molecular microbial source tracking assay, we found that 32% of produce samples were positive for ruminant fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria were more likely to be detected on produce collected in retail markets compared with that in the wholesale market; retail market produce were 1.25 times more likely to have E. coli detected ( P = 0.03) and 1.24 times more likely to have ENT detected ( P = 0.03) as compared with wholesale market produce. Bacteriodales was detected in higher concentrations in retail market produce samples compared with wholesale market produce samples (0.40 log 10 gene copies per 100 cm 2 higher, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that ruminant and general fecal contamination of produce in markets in Dhaka is common, and suggest that unsanitary conditions in markets are an important source of produce fecal contamination postharvest.

  2. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  3. Design aspects of automation system for initial processing of fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Prabhu, Supreetha P.; Suja, A.; Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Das, A.P.; Badodkar, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    The procedure for initial handling of the fecal samples at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is as follows: overnight fecal samples are collected from the worker in a kit consisting of a polythene bag placed in a wide mouth polythene container closed with an inner lid and a screw cap. Occupational worker collects the sample in the polythene bag. On receiving the sample, the polythene container along with the sample is weighed, polythene bag containing fecal sample is lifted out of the container using a pair of tongs placed inside a crucible and ashed inside a muffle furnace at 450℃. After complete ashing, the crucible containing white ash is taken-up for further radiochemical processing. This paper describes the various steps in developing a prototype automated system for initial handling of fecal samples. The proposed system for handling and processing of fecal samples is proposed to automate the above. The system once developed will help eliminate manual intervention till the ashing stage and reduce the biological hazard involved in handling such samples mentioned procedure

  4. Disparities in the receipt of fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy among Filipino American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia; Garcia, Gabriel M; Bastani, Roshan

    2008-08-01

    This report examines disparities associated with the type of colorectal screening test, fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy, within a particular racial/ethnic group, Filipino American immigrants. Between July 2005 and October 2006, Filipino Americans aged 50 to 75 years from 31 community organizations in Los Angeles completed a 15-minute survey in English (65%) or Filipino (35%). Of the 487 respondents included in this analysis, 257 (53%) had never received any type of colorectal cancer screening. Among the 230 subjects who had ever received a routine screening test, 78 had fecal occult blood test only (16% of the total sample), and 152 had endoscopy with or without fecal occult blood test (31% of the total sample). After controlling for access to care and key demographic variables in a multivariate analysis, only two characteristics distinguished between respondents who had fecal occult blood test only versus those who had endoscopy: acculturation, assessed by percent lifetime in the United States and language of interview, and income. Our data suggest a two-tier system, fecal occult blood test for less acculturated Filipino Americans with lower income versus endoscopy for Filipino immigrants with higher levels of acculturation and income. The disparity persists after adjusting for access to care. Instead of treating minority groups as monolithic, differences within groups need to be examined so that interventions can be appropriately targeted.

  5. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  6. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  7. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  8. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  9. Dose response of PEG 3350 for the treatment of childhood fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nader N; Peters, John M; Henderson, Wendy; Shultz-Peters, Sandra; Lockhart, Danielle K; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in the treatment of childhood fecal impaction. This was a prospective, double-blind, parallel, randomized study of 4 doses of PEG 3350; 0.25 g/kg per day, 0.5 g/kg per day, 1 g/kg per day, 1.5 g/kg per day, given for 3 days in children with constipation for >3 months and evidence of fecal impaction. Forty patients completed the study (27 boys, median age 7.5, range 3.3-13.1 years). Disimpaction occurred in 75% of children, with a significant difference between the two higher doses and the lower doses (95% vs 55%, P PEG 3350 is safe and effective in the treatment of childhood fecal impaction at doses of 1 and 1.5 g/kg per day.

  10. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239 240 Pu, 238 U, 232 Th, and 210 Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  11. Use of Anal Acoustic Reflectometry in the Evaluation of Men With Passive Fecal Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Benjamin R; Telford, Karen J; Carlson, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    with greater sensitivity and discriminatory ability than conventional anal manometry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether men with fecal leakage have an abnormality in anal sphincter function that is detectable by anal acoustic reflectometry. DESIGN: This was an age-matched study......BACKGROUND: Men with passive fecal leakage represent a distinct clinical entity in which the pathophysiology remains unclear. Standard anorectal investigations fail to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in this group. Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new test of anal sphincter function...... of continent and incontinent men. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Male patients with isolated symptoms of fecal leakage were recruited. Anal acoustic reflectometry, followed by conventional anal manometry, was performed. Results were then compared with those from...

  12. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Discriminatory potential of C-reactive protein, cytokines, and fecal markers in infectious gastroenteritis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weh, Julia; Antoni, Christoph; Weiß, Christel; Findeisen, Peter; Ebert, Matthias; Böcker, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates potential markers in blood and stools for their ability to distinguish bacterial from viral gastroenteritis. A total of 108 patients were prospectively recruited, of which 27 showed bacterial, 30 viral, and 51 no detectable pathogen, respectively. Cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells as well as the 2 fecal markers lactoferrin and calprotectin were determined. Statistics comprised Kruskal-Wallis test and U test in addition to an assessment of receiver operating characteristic. Interferon γ (IFNγ) levels were significantly increased in the viral group compared to the bacterial and nonspecific group. For the bacterial group, both fecal markers lactoferrin and calprotectin as well as CRP were significantly higher in comparison to the other 2 groups. To differentiate between bacterial and viral gastroenteritis, CRP, serum IFNγ, and the fecal proteins lactoferrin and calprotectin may be useful. A corresponding algorithm should be evaluated prospectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium-Water Treatment Residual Adsorption And Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) have the ability to adsorb tremendous quantities of soil-borne P, and have been shown to adsorb other anions, such as As (V), As (III), and ClO4-. Environmental issues associated with Se in the Western US led us to study W...

  15. Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

  16. Evaluation of Patterns and Spatial Trends of Pesticide Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    PCA of the data sets for pesticide residues in water, soil and sediments samples from ..... J. Sci. 38(3), 2012. 189. 0.00. 0.20. 0.40. 0.60. 0.80. 1.00. Comp[1]. Comp[2]. R. 2. X. (c u m. ) & ..... Environmental Management, 60: 215-. 225. Wiberg K ...

  17. Hazardous properties of paint residues from the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajasaari, Kati; Kulovaara, Maaret; Joutti, Anneli; Schultz, Eija; Soljamo, Kari

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this study was to screen nine excess paint residues for environmental hazard and to evaluate their disposability in a non-hazardous or hazardous-waste landfill. These residues were produced in the process of spray-painting furniture. Residues were classified according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties. Leaching properties were determined with the European standard SFS-EN 12457-2 leaching-test. The toxicity of the leaching-test eluates was measured with plant-, bacteria- and enzyme-inhibition bioassays. Total organic carbon, formaldehyde and solvent concentrations in the solid wastes and in the leaching-test eluates were analysed. It seemed likely that leached formaldehyde caused very high acute toxicity in leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues. This hypothesis was based on the fact that the formaldehyde concentrations in the leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues were 62-75 times higher than the EC50 value reported in the literature for formaldehyde. The results of the water-curtain booth residues showed that the samples with the highest TOC and aromatic solvent concentrations were also the most toxic. The studied excess paint residues were complex organic mixtures and contained large amounts of compounds not identifiable from chemical data. Therefore, the evaluation of the hazard based solely on available chemical data is unlikely to be sufficient, as evidenced by our study. Our results show that harmful compounds remain in the solid waste and the toxicity results of their leaching-test eluates show that toxicity may leach from residues in contact with water at landfill sites. They also confirm the benefit of combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays in assessing the potential environmental hazard of complex organic mixtures found in wastes. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  19. Manual for implementing residual radioactivity guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Hansen, W.R.; Healy, J.W.; Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Solday, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently issued guidelines for residual radioactivity at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and remote Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites. A manual for implementing these guidelines has been prepared jointly by four DOE laboratories (ANL, LANL, ORNL, and PNL) and is being issued as a supplement to the guidelines. The manual presents procedures and tables for deriving site-specific guidelines for levels of residual radionuclide concentrations in soil that must not be exceeded if a site is to be released for unrestricted use. Guidance for implementing DOE ALARA policy for remedial actions is also included. The concentration factor method is used in the pathway analysis for deriving soil guidelines. The analysis has been structured in a manner that explicitly identifies all of the factors involved. Tables are provided for dose-conversion factors and pathway factors from which environmental transport factors for each radionuclide and pathway may be calculated. The scenarios used for deriving the environmental transport factors and dose conversion factors, and the manner in which the information provided in the manual is used to derive site-specific soil guidelines will be presented

  20. Low-residue euthanasia of stranded mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; McLellan, William A; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Clarke, Elsburgh O; Thayer, Victoria G; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Euthanasia of stranded large whales poses logistic, safety, pharmaceutical, delivery, public relations, and disposal challenges. Reasonable arguments may be made for allowing a stranded whale to expire naturally. However, slow cardiovascular collapse from gravitational effects outside of neutral buoyancy, often combined with severely debilitating conditions, motivate humane efforts to end the animal's suffering. The size of the animal and prevailing environmental conditions often pose safety concerns for stranding personnel, which take priority over other considerations. When considering chemical euthanasia, the size of the animal also necessitates large quantities of euthanasia agents. Drug residues are a concern for relay toxicity to scavengers, particularly for pentobarbital-containing euthanasia solutions. Pentobarbital is also an environmental concern because of its stability and long persistence in aquatic environments. We describe a euthanasia technique for stranded mysticetes using readily available, relatively inexpensive, preanesthetic and anesthetic drugs (midazolam, acepromazine, xylazine) followed by saturated KCl delivered via custom-made needles and a low-cost, basic, pressurized canister. This method provides effective euthanasia while moderating personnel exposure to hazardous situations and minimizing drug residues of concern for relay toxicity.

  1. In vivo selection of resistant E. coli after ingestion of milk with added drug residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance represents a major global threat to modern medicine. In vitro studies have shown that very low concentrations of drugs, as frequently identified in the environment, and in foods and water for human and animal consumption, can select for resistant bacteria. However, limited information is currently available on the in vivo impact of ingested drug residues. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of feeding preweaned calves milk containing antimicrobial drug residues (below the minimum inhibitory concentration, similar to concentrations detected in milk commonly fed to dairy calves, on selection of resistant fecal E. coli in calves from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 µg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment until 6 weeks of age. A significantly greater proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, streptomycin and tetracycline was observed in DR calves when compared to NR calves. Additionally, isolates from DR calves had a significant decrease in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftiofur when compared to isolates from NR calves. A greater proportion of E. coli isolates from calves in the DR group were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial drugs when compared to calves in the ND group. These findings highlight the role that low concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have on the evolution and selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs in vivo.

  2. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G; Hoyt, David W; Howsmon, Daniel P; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites-caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate-may potentially function as a modest biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of phylotypes most closely related to Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further

  3. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P 0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  4. Factors associated with fecal incontinence in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Chen; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Chen, Chi-Hau; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.   Data regarding clinical and urodynamic parameters and history of fecal incontinence of 1334 women with lower urinary tract symptoms who had previously undergone urodynamic evaluation were collected and subjected to univariate, multivariate, and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis to identify significant associations between these parameters and fecal incontinence.   Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.05, P=0.005), presence of diabetes (OR=2.10, 95%CI=1.22-3.61, P=0.007), presence of urodynamic stress incontinence (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.24-2.91, P=0.003), pad weight (OR=1.01, 95%CI=1.00-1.01, P=0.04), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03, P=0.003) as independent risk factors for fecal incontinence. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified age≥55years, detrusor pressure at maximum flow≥35 cmH(2) O, and pad weight≥15g as having positive predictive values of 11.4%, 11.5%, and 12.4%, respectively, thus indicating that they are the most predictive values in concomitant fecal incontinence.   Detrusor pressure at maximum flow and pad weight may be associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, but require confirmation as indicators by further study before their use as screening tools. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  6. Delayed gastric emptying in children with chronic constipation and fecal impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, M.L.C.M.; Daher, S.F.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pinto, E.A.L.C.; Silva, J.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms such as nausea, fullness and early satiety in constipated children may be associated with delayed gastric emptying. Aim: To evaluate the gastric emptying in children with post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying studies were performed in 12 children with functional constipation (mean age 9 years; mean duration of symptoms: 5.5 years), fecal impaction and soiling. In 12 of them the studies were performed only before fecal impaction removal and in 7 of them the study was repeated after impaction removal and recovery from constipation. After an overnight fast, the patients received 300 ml/m 2 of water added to 37 MBq of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system with a low energy all purpose collimator. Images were acquired at 1 minute per frame for 30 minutes. When gastric emptying was delayed for more than 30 minutes, additional static images with 500,000 counts were performed for no more than 1 hour until a T1/2 was obtained. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed (21.4 ± 7 minutes; normal 12 ± 3 minutes) in 10/12 patients studied prior to fecal impaction removal. In the group of seven patients who repeated the study after fecal impaction removal, gastric emptying remained prolonged (22 ±7.9 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference between the gastric emptying time before and after fecal impaction removal (p 0,612; Wilcoxon test). Conclusion: The gastric emptying time of a liquid test meal was delayed in constipated children before and after fecal impaction removal. Maintenance of prolonged emptying time after impaction removal and recovery from constipation may indicate an alteration in gastrointestinal motility

  7. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G.; Hoyt, David W.; Howsmon, Daniel P.; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites- caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate- may potentially function as a biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further investigation of metabolites in larger cohorts.

  8. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION....gov or at the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Docket (OPPT Docket), Environmental Protection... that would produce broad environmental benefits and increase global competitiveness (Ref. 2). ISRI...

  10. Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Seibersdorf: Discrimination of honey of different floral origins by a combination of various chemical parameters; Stable Isotopes Applied to Authenticating Honey; The use of analyte protectants in pesticide residue analytical work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zora Jandrić, Zora; Frew, Russell; Abrahim, Aiman; Maestroni, Britt; Ochoa, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    honey valued for its non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (NPA).The NPA is thought to be due to high levels of methyl glyoxal (MGO) and it is the manuka honey with high levels of MGO that fail the C4 sugar adulteration test. Work by FEPL indicates that this is partly due to the beekeeping practice of feeding sugar to bees during the winter. However, that does not explain the late season failures, or that the extent of failure increases as manuka honey ages. The MGO levels in manuka increase with age and it has been shown that high MGO is correlated with high apparent C4 sugar content. Current research in this field in FEPL is focused on modifying the AOAC method to overcome these false positives in the C4 sugar adulteration. A method has been developed for the removal of MGO prior to the purification of the protein that is measured as internal standard. It is hoped that the removal of the MGO will eliminate the interference in the isotope test. Tests are now underway to establish the optimum conditions for the removal of MGO and to show that the additional procedure does not affect the isotopic composition of the purified protein. Once those tasks are completed the work will move to the validation stage and involve other laboratories to test the procedure. The FEPL is currently carrying out a study on method validation for the detection of several pesticides in potato samples. The extraction and clean-up method used is known as the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEchERS) for pesticide residue determination, and uses a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector (GC-MSD) for analyte separation and detection. According to the SANCO document (SANCO/12571/2013), matrix effects should be assessed at the initial method validation stage. Therefore as part of the calibration strategies for our method both matrix-matched and solvent calibrators were prepared

  11. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  12. Epidemiology of Salmonella sp. in California cull dairy cattle: prevalence of fecal shedding and diagnostic accuracy of pooled enriched broth culture of fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran A. Abu Aboud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the crude, seasonal and cull-reason stratified prevalence of Salmonella fecal shedding in cull dairy cattle on seven California dairies. A secondary objective was to estimate and compare the relative sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp for pools of 5 and 10 enriched broth cultures of fecal samples for Salmonella sp. detection. Methods Seven dairy farms located in the San Joaquin Valley of California were identified and enrolled in the study as a convenience sample. Cull cows were identified for fecal sampling once during each season between 2014 and 2015, specifically during spring, summer, fall, and winter, and 10 cows were randomly selected for fecal sampling at the day of their sale. In addition, study personnel completed a survey based on responses of the herd manager to questions related to the previous four month’s herd management. Fecal samples were frozen until testing for Salmonella. After overnight enrichment in liquid broth, pools of enrichment broth (EBP were created for 5 and 10 samples. All individual and pooled broths were cultured on selective media with putative Salmonella colonies confirmed by biochemical testing before being serogrouped and serotyped. Results A total of 249 cull cows were enrolled into the study and their fecal samples tested for Salmonella. The survey-weighted period prevalence of fecal shedding of all Salmonella sp. in the cull cow samples across all study herds and the entire study period was 3.42% (N = 249; SE 1.07. The within herd prevalence of Salmonella shed in feces did not differ over the four study seasons (P = 0.074. The Se of culture of EBP of five samples was 62.5% (SE = 17.12, which was not statistically different from the Se of culture of EBP of 10 (37.5%, SE = 17.12, P = 0.48. The Sp of culture of EBP of five samples was 95.24% (SE = 3.29 and for pools of 10 samples was 100.00% (SE = 0. There was no statistical

  13. Modeling the Transport and Fate of Fecal Pollution and Nutrients of Miyun Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.; Wang, G.

    2009-12-01

    Miyun Reservoir, a mountain valley reservoir, is located 100 km northeast of Beijing City. Besides the functions of flood control, irrigation and fishery for Beijing area, Miyun Reservoir is the main drinking water storage for Beijing city. The water quality is therefore of great importance. Recently, the concentration of fecal pollution and nutrients in the reservoir are constantly rising to arrest the attention of Beijing municipality. Fecal pollution from sewage is a significant public health concern due to the known presence of human viruses and parasites in these discharges. To investigate the transport and fate of the fecal pollution and nutrients at Miyun reservoir and the health risks associated with drinking and fishery, the reservoir and two tributaries, Chaohe river and Baihe river discharging into it are being examined for bacterial, nutrients and other routine pollution. To understand the relative importance of different processes influencing pollution transport and inactivation, a finite-element model of surf-zone hydrodynamics (coupled with models for temperature, fecal pollution, nutrients and other routine contaminants) is used. The developed models are being verified by the observed water quality data including water temperature, conductivities and dissolved oxygen from the reservoir and its tributaries. Different factors impacting the inactivation of fecal pollution and the transport of nutrients such as water temperature, sedimentation, sunlight insolation are evaluated for Miyun reservoir by a sensitivity analysis analogized from the previous research of Lake Michigan (figure 1, indicating that solar insolation dominates the inactivation of E. Coli, an indicator of fecal pollution, Liu et al. 2006). The calibrated modeling system can be used to temporally and spatially simulate and predict the variation of the concentration of fecal pollution and nutrients of Miyun reservoir. Therefore this research can provide a forecasting tool for the

  14. Factors affecting fecal glucocorticoid levels in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2008-11-01

    Subordinate female cercopithecine primates often experience decreased reproductive success in comparison with high-ranking females, with a later age at sexual maturity and first reproduction and/or longer interbirth intervals. One explanation that has traditionally been advanced to explain this is high levels of chronic social stress in subordinates, resulting from agonistic and aggressive interactions and leading to higher basal levels of glucocorticoids. We assessed the relationships among fecal cortisol levels and reproductive condition, dominance rank, degree of social support, and fertility in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semi-free-ranging colony in Franceville, Gabon. Lower-ranking females in this colony have a reproductive disadvantage relative to higher-ranking females, and we were interested in determining whether this relationship between dominance rank and reproductive success is mediated through stress hormones. We analyzed 340 fecal samples from 19 females, collected over a 14-month period. We found that pregnant females experienced higher fecal cortisol levels than cycling or lactating females. This is similar to results for other primate species and is likely owing to increased metabolic demands and interactions between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, estrogen, and placental production of corticotrophin releasing hormones during pregnancy. There was no influence of dominance rank on fecal cortisol levels, suggesting that subordinate females do not suffer chronic stress. This may be because female mandrills have a stable social hierarchy, with low levels of aggression and high social support. However, we found no relationship between matriline size, as a measure of social support, and fecal cortisol levels. Subordinates may be able to avoid aggression from dominants in the large enclosure or may react only transiently to specific aggressive events, rather than continuously expecting them. Finally, we found no relationship

  15. In vitro effect of dietary protein level and nondigestible oligosaccharides on feline fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, C; Stefanelli, C; Biagi, G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of some prebiotic substances and 2 dietary protein levels on the composition and activity of feline fecal microbiota. Two in vitro studies were conducted. First, 6 nondigestible oligosaccharides were studied; treatments were control diet (CTRL), gluconic acid (GA), carrot fiber (CF), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol (LAC), and pectins from citrus fruit (PEC). Substrates were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Compared with the CTRL, ammonia had been reduced (Pmicrobiota and that high dietary protein levels in a cat's diet can have negative effects on the animal intestinal environment.

  16. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  17. Different Fecal Microbiotas and Volatile Organic Compounds in Treated and Untreated Children with Celiac Disease▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Gagliardi, Francesca; Ricciuti, Patrizia; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta; Crecchio, Carmine; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiotas of children with celiac disease (CD) before (U-CD) and after (T-CD) they were fed a gluten-free diet and of healthy children (HC). Brothers or sisters of T-CD were enrolled as HC. Each group consisted of seven children. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis with V3 universal primers revealed a unique profile for each fecal sample. PCR-DGGE analysis with group- or genus-specific 16S rRNA gene primers showed that the ...

  18. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry....... Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth...

  19. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  20. Oral fecal parasites and personal hygiene of food handlers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ingestion of infective eggs and cysts of faecal orally transmissible parasites has been linked with the level of environmental and personal hygiene. The possibility of contamination of food with eggs and cysts by infected food vendors has also been recorded. Objectives and methods: This study was aimed at ...