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Sample records for fecal coliform bacteria

  1. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  2. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.

  3. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  4. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Marisi Sinaga; Mark Gregory Robson; Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Adonia Getse Halel; Dian Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC), mercury conce...

  5. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

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    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  6. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  7. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  8. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Marisi Sinaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC, mercury concentration, inorganic nitrogen compounds (represent as ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite, total phosphorus (TP, dissolved oxygen (D, pH, and salinity. The concentration of the parameters was then compared to the safe limit set by World Health Organization (WHO. Results: The results indicated that the drinking water resources at the Sekotong regency were contaminated by coliform and mercury. One location with low mercury concentration was recorded with E. coli contamination. Residence, agriculture, and animal livestock were subjected as the sources of coliform contamination. Mercury concentrations may inverse the growth of FC. No apparent relationship was found between total phosphorous and inorganic nitrogen compounds to FC growth. However, we recognized the FC growth responded positively to the level of phosphorous in waters, but associated negatively to nitrate concentration. An inverse correlation was also found between coliform survival and salinity in this study. The pH range at 6.05 – 6.50 supported FC survival. Conclusion: The drinking water resources at the Sekotong shallow wells were contaminated by coliform and mercury. It is important for local government to inform drinking water protection and treatment.

  9. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  10. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  11. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  12. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, disinfection of inanimate objects, in addition to good handwashing, may be important in controlling the spread of enteric diseases in day care centers. PMID:6830225

  13. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  14. Estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentrations using near real-time continuous water-quality and streamflow data from five stream sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2007–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2017-09-15

    Several streams used for recreational activities, such as fishing, swimming, and boating, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, are known to have periodic elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, a type of bacteria used to indicate the potential presence of fecally related pathogens that may pose health risks to humans exposed through water contact. The availability of near real-time continuous stream discharge, turbidity, and other water-quality data for some streams in the county presents an opportunity to use surrogates to estimate near real-time concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria and thus provide some information about associated potential health risks during recreational use of streams.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department (CCHD) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), has collected discrete stream samples for analysis of FC concentrations during March–October annually at or near five gaging stations where near real-time continuous data on stream discharge, turbidity, and water temperature have been collected since 2007 (or since 2012 at 2 of the 5 stations). In 2014, the USGS, in cooperation with the CCWRA and CCHD, began to develop regression equations to estimate FC concentrations using available near real-time continuous data. Regression equations included possible explanatory variables of stream discharge, turbidity, water temperature, and seasonal factors calculated using Julian Day with base-10 logarithmic (log) transformations of selected variables.The regression equations were developed using the data from 2007 to 2015 (101–106 discrete bacteria samples per site) for three gaging stations on Brandywine Creek (West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, and Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford) and from 2012 to 2015 (37–38 discrete bacteria samples per site) for one station each on French Creek near Phoenixville and

  15. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  16. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  17. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  18. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  20. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  1. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  2. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  3. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  4. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... on production of hydrogen sulphide by bacteria that are associated with fecal contamination. This rapid fields test needs no technical staff and the cost is lower than ..... Sources and Potable Water Supplies in Peru.

  5. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  6. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  7. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  8. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  9. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  10. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig...... by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracyclineresistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated...

  11. Evaluation of standard and modified M-FC, MacConkey, and Teepol media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliforms in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; Hilner, C A; Coubrough, P

    1981-08-01

    MacConkey agar, standard M-FC agar, M-FC agar without rosolic acid, M-FC agar with a resuscitation top layer, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth, were evaluated as growth media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliform bacteria in water. In comparative tests on 312 samples of water from a wide variety of sources, including chlorinated effluents, M-FC agar without rosolic acid proved the medium of choice because it generally yielded the highest counts, was readily obtainable, easy to prepare and handle, and yielded clearly recognizable fecal coliform colonies. Identification of 1,139 fecal coliform isolates showed that fecal coliform tests cannot be used to enumerate Escherichia coli because the incidence of E. coli among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 51% for river water to 93% for an activated sludge effluent after chlorination. The incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 4% for the activated sludge effluent after chlorination to 32% for the river water. The advantages of a standard membrane filtration procedure for routine counting of fecal coliforms in water using M-FC agar without rosolic acid as growth medium, in the absence of preincubation or resuscitation steps, are outlined.

  12. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  13. Limitations of the A-1M method for fecal coliform enumeration in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Weagant, S D

    1987-01-01

    Use of the A-1M method, which was originally devised for testing water samples, has recently been extended for enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish and other food products. Results of our study indicate that while this method is reliable for analysis of growing waters, the use of the A-1M method for testing Pacific oysters may be less reliable because bacteria not belonging to the coliform group but which are sometimes present in these animals also give a positive reaction.

  14. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  15. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  16. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  17. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya

    2015-06-26

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  18. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  19. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) and Most Probable Number (MPN) test for coliform, respectively. In comparisons with MPN the H2S test showed 84% correlation with open well water, 80% with tube well water and 94% with hotels and restaurants water at room temperature, indicating decrease in efficacy of this test with ...

  20. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  1. Comparison of selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; De Villiers, J C; Schildhauer, C I

    1992-09-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

  2. Distribución y concentración de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli Y Enterococos en el agua y sedimento en el estero salado (tramos B, D, E Y G)

    OpenAIRE

    Baños Cruz, Luís Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos muestreos en marea roja, uno en Diciembre del 2009 y el otro en Enero del 2010, para determinar los microorganismos en el Estero Salado como indicadores de contaminación. El análisis incluyó parámetros fisicoquímicos como pH, salinidad, temperatura y oxígeno disuelto, y además la medición de las bacterias coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli y enterococos. Se obtuvieron altos niveles de contaminación bacteriana en el agua. La mayor contaminación está...

  3. Interlaboratory evaluation of the AOAC method and the A-1 procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R; Poelma, P L; Bullock, L K; McClure, F D; Gentile, D E

    1981-09-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation was made of the 96 h AOAC method and the 24 h A-1 procedure for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in samples of yellow corn meal, rye flour, mung beans, raw ground beef, and raw oyster homogenate. Results indicated that the efficiency of the A-1 procedure, measured in terms of recovery of fecal coliforms, and the reproducibility of that recovery were dependent on the particular food being analyzed. Accordingly, until its efficiency can be more fully demonstrated, the A-1 procedure is recommended only as a screening procedure for fecal coliforms in foods.

  4. Yeasts and coliform bacteria of water accumulated in bromeliads of mangrove and sand dune ecosystems of southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, A N; Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Franco, G M; Araujo, F V; Soares, C A

    1993-10-01

    Yeasts and coliform bacteria were isolated from water that accumulated in the central cups and adjacent leaf axilae of two bromeliads, Neoregelia cruenta of a coastal sand dune and Quesnelia quesneliana of a mangrove ecosystem near the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean total coliform counts were above 10,000 per 100 mL for waters of both plants, but the mean fecal coliform counts were only 74 per 100 mL for Q. quesneliana and mostly undetected in water from N. cruenta. Of 90 fecal coliform isolates, 51 were typical of Escherichia coli in colony morphology and indol, methyl red, Volges-Proskauer, and citrate (IMViC) tests. Seven representatives of the typical E. coli cultures were identified as this species, but the identifications of nine other coliform bacteria were mostly dubious. The yeast community of N. cruenta was typical of plant surfaces with basidiomycetous yeasts anamorphs, and the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans was prevalent. Quesnelia quesneliana had a substantial proportion of ascomycetous yeasts and their anamorphs, including a probable new biotype of Saccharomyces unisporus. Our results suggested that the microbial communities in bromeliad waters are typically autochtonous and not contaminants.

  5. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  6. Comparison of Methods of Sampling for Toxocara Species and Fecal Coliforms in an Outdoor Day Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment.

  7. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  8. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  9. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment-mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on selection of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4-7 weeks of age) were treated...... with oxytetracycline against Lawsonia intracellularis induced diarrhea in five pig herds. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with (i) high (20 mg/kg), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg) and (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dosage, (iv) oral-pen-wise (small group) treatment (10 mg...... significant changes in number or proportion of tetracycline resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant, but not to cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, difference in dose of oxytetracycline...

  10. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis -induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  11. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in

  12. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  13. A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mogharabi, M. S.; Khyami-Horani, H.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Irradiation effect for the control of coliform bacteria in spices and dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yin; Li Xiangling

    2001-01-01

    lrradiation of 6 kGy could make the MPN of coliform bacteria in irradated spices and dehydrated vegetables meet the demands of the national microbiological examination of food hygiene. No new irradiation-resistance organism in coliform bacteria was found in 188 spices samples treated. The mistake in the MPN of coliform bacteria detection was caused mainly by operation. The main cause was that the detected bacteria for lactose refermentation and Gram-stain tests were not picked from the same colony. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of Standard and Modified M-FC, MacConkey, and Teepol Media for Membrane Filtration Counting of Fecal Coliforms in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, W. O. K.; Hilner, C. A.; Coubrough, P.

    1981-01-01

    MacConkey agar, standard M-FC agar, M-FC agar without rosolic acid, M-FC agar with a resuscitation top layer, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth, were evaluated as growth media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliform bacteria in water. In comparative tests on 312 samples of water from a wide variety of sources, including chlorinated effluents, M-FC agar without rosolic acid proved the medium of choice because it generally yielded the highest counts, was readily obtai...

  16. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  17. Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Tariq M.; Buazzi, Mahmoud M.; Jamil, Ahmad Y.

    2007-01-01

    240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 10 3 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x10 3 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

  18. [Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  19. Synthetic Culture Media Evaluated for the Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Milk, Cheese and Egg Melange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple synthetic culture media of liquid and solid form (X broth and X agar were tested for selective isolation of coliform bacteria. Selectivity is based on the ability of coliform bacteria to grow when the minimal medium contains simple inorganic substances as nitrogen and carbon supply. Selectivity of the media was tested by inoculation of pure cultures of different microbes belonging to the genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas and the family Enterobacteriaceae and was found to be complete in this range. The comparative investigation of milk, camembert cheese and egg melange samples in the traditional and new media proved good applicability of X broth and X agar for an effective and selective detection of coliform bacteria. When testing pasteurized milk samples, X agar detected coliforms in significantly higher counts than violet red-bile-lactose agar.

  20. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  1. Effects of supplementing lactic acid bacteria on fecal microbiota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum strain L.p X3-2B increased fecal lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Bifidobacterium while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Viable counts of LAB and Bifidobacterium reached 8 log cfu/mL after feeding for 14 days. Fecal pH in the control group was high in ...

  2. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  3. A study of fecal coliform sources at a coastal site using colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as a water source tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Catherine D; O'Connor, Adam P; Foley, Denise M; de Bruyn, Warren J

    2007-09-01

    Optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured as a tracer of polluted waters in a Southern California surf-zone with consistently high levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Salinity, temperature, fecal coliform, absorbance (200-700nm) and fluorescence (lambda(excitation)=350nm; lambda(emission)=360-650nm) were measured in the creek and surf-zone during a dry and rain event. Fluorescence to absorption ratios for CDOM were used to distinguish water masses, with two distinct CDOM end-members identified as creek (flu/abs=8.7+/-0.8x10(4)) and coastal (flu/abs=2.2+/-0.3x10(4)). Waters containing the same CDOM end-member had highly variable bacterial levels during the dry event, suggesting intermittent sources of bacteria added to a uniform water source, consistent with marine birds. During the rain event, increased levels of the creek end-member and bacteria indicated a second bacteria source from runoff.

  4. Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, H.; Ali, W.

    2011-01-01

    A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

  5. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  6. SOLAIR disinfection of coliform bacteria in hand-drawn drinking water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specifically UV-A and UV-B radiation) and oxygen (from atmospheric air) to damage, inactivate and / or kill the coliform bacteria found in contaminated water. It is a natural process (virtually self-purification) with no need to add any potentially hazardous ...

  7. Analysis of Coliform Bacteria in WSPs at ALSCON Using Macconkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods where used for this analysis namely: the membrane Filtration Technique (MFT) and the Multiple Tube Technique (MTT). The MFT was more precise, simple and faster in enumerating coliofrm bacteria per 100ml as compared with the MTT method. The two methods (MTT and MFT) was used to determine the ...

  8. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coliform bacteria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 40 sites sampled during both the wet and dry seasons, 11 contained colifrorm bacteria during the wet season, while only 2 contained the microbes during the dry season. The microbes were detected only in the wells. DOC was detected in 37 sites during the wet season and in 31 sites during the dry season within ...

  9. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  10. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  12. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  14. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL−1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  15. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A....... coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water...... for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters....

  16. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  17. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  18. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Bibi, S.; Javed, T.; Shah, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1993-12-01

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  19. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Survival and detection of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-negative bacteria in Greek yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervert, C J; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2017-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of coliforms as indicator bacteria, increasing evidence suggests that the Enterobacteriaceae (EB) and total gram-negative groups more accurately reflect the hygienic status of high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk and processing environments. If introduced into milk as postpasteurization contamination, these bacteria may grow to high levels and produce a wide range of sensory-related defects. However, limited information is available on the use and survival of bacterial hygiene indicators in dairy products outside of pasteurized fluid milk and cheese. The goal of this study was to (1) provide information on the survival of a diverse set of bacterial hygiene indicators in the low pH environment of Greek yogurt, (2) compare traditional and alternative detection methods for their ability to detect bacterial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt, and (3) offer insight into optimal hygiene indicator groups for use in low-pH fermented dairy products. To this end, we screened 64 bacterial isolates, representing 24 dairy-relevant genera, for survival and detection in Greek yogurt using 5 testing methods. Before testing, isolates were inoculated into plain, 0% fat Greek yogurt (pH 4.35 to 4.65), followed by a 12-h hold period at 4 ± 1°C. Yogurts were subsequently tested using Coliform Petrifilm (3M, St. Paul, MN) to detect coliforms; Enterobacteriaceae Petrifilm (3M), violet red bile glucose agar and the D-Count (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France) to detect EB; and crystal violet tetrazolium agar (CVTA) to detect total gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the non-EB gram-negative isolates showed significantly larger log reductions 12 h after inoculation into Greek yogurt (based on bacterial numbers recovered on CVTA) compared with the coliform and noncoliform EB isolates tested. The methods evaluated varied in their ability to detect different microbial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt. Crystal violet tetrazolium agar detected the highest

  1. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  2. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  3. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  4. Elimination of fecal coliforms and F-specific RNA coliphage from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) relaid in floating containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kator, H; Rhodes, M

    2001-06-01

    Declining oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production in the Chesapeake Bay has stimulated aquaculture based on floats for off-bottom culture. While advantages of off-bottom culture are significant, the increased use of floating containers raises public health and microbiological concerns, because oysters in floats may be more susceptible to fecal contamination from storm runoff compared to those cultured on-bottom. We conducted four commercial-scale studies with market-size oysters naturally contaminated with fecal coliforms (FC) and a candidate viral indicator, F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphage. To facilitate sampling and to test for location effects, 12 replicate subsamples, each consisting of 15 to 20 randomly selected oysters in plastic mesh bags, were placed at four characteristic locations within a 0.6- by 3.0-m "Taylor" float, and the remaining oysters were added to a depth not exceeding 15.2 cm. The float containing approximately 3,000 oysters was relaid in the York River, Virginia, for 14 days. During relay, increases in shellfish FC densities followed rain events such that final mean levels exceeded initial levels or did not meet an arbitrary product end point of 50 FC/100 ml. FRNA coliphage densities decreased to undetectable levels within 14 days (16 to 28 degrees C) in all but the last experiment, when temperatures fell between 12 and 16 degrees C. Friedman (nonparametric analysis of variance) tests performed on FC/Escherichia coli and FRNA densities indicated no differences in counts as a function of location within the float. The public health consequences of these observations are discussed, and future research and educational needs are identified.

  5. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process in the Removal of Total Coliform and Hetrotrophic Bacteria from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Derayat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method for the treatment of water and wastewater. The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the removal efficiency of total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria from surface water using the process. For this purpose, water samples were taken from the drinking water intake at Suleiman-Shahsonghur Dam. The electrocoagulation process was carried out in a Plexiglas reactor in the batch mode with Al and Fe used electrodes. The experiment design was carried out using the Design Expert Software (Stat-Ease Inc., Ver. 6.0.6. After each run, the values of metals dissolved due to anode electrode dissolution were measured using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP and the results were analyzed using the RSM model. Results revealed maximum removal efficiencies of 100% and 89.1% for total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the Al electrode, respectively. Also, maximum removal efficiencies using the Fe electrode for the same pollutants were 100% and 76.1%. The measurements clearly indicate that the quantities of Al and Fe released in water were higher than the recommended values. While the electrocoagulation process showed to be effective in removing microbial agents from surface waters, the high concentrations of dissolved metals due to the dissolution of the anode electrode seem to remain a health problem that requires optimal conditions to be determined for acheiving standard concentrations of the dissolved metals.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  7. COMPARISON OF NON-COLIFORM BACTERIA IN BALI CATTLE FAECES BASED ON LEVEL OF MATURITY AND MAINTENANCE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Andre Sulaksana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to determine the effect of maintenance type and maturity level of bali cattle to the total of non coliform bacteria in bali cattle. A total of 24 samples of bali cattle’s feces were used. This study was a Factorial 2 x 3 of group-randomised design, contained of two type maintenance (TPA Suwung and Sobangan and three levels of cattle maturity (calves, heifers, and adult. The groups were based on time sampling. The data then analyzed using Analysis of Variance Test and continued by using Least Significant Different test. The results showed that the amount of non-coliform bacteria in adult bali cattle feces were higher then heifers and calves. Total of non coliform bacteria in bali cattle in  landfill was higher then the cattle that reared in captivity in Bali Cattle Breeding Center, the Sobangan village of Mengwi Badung regency.

  8. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this study the potential application of TiO 2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  9. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Luigi, E-mail: l.rizzo@unisa.it [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    In this study the potential application of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  10. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  11. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  12. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  13. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Rochelle-Newall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms e.g. fecal indicator bacteria (FIB such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  14. Polyacrylamide+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E

    2003-03-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min{sup -1} flowed over PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH{sub 4}{sup +} and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater.

  15. Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Phillips, Ian; Stratton, Helen; Sojka, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min -1 flowed over PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH 4 + and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH 4 + , NO 3 - , ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

  16. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  17. Coliform bacteria isolated from recreational lakes carry class 1 and class 2 integrons and virulence-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczura, R; Krysiak, N; Taraszewska, A; Mokracka, J

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the integron-harbouring Gram-negative bacteria in recreational lakes, with focus on the genetic content of integrons, antimicrobial resistance profiles and virulence-associated genes. The presence and structure of integrons in coliform bacteria isolated from the water of four recreational lakes located in Poznań, Poland, was determined by PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done by disc diffusion method. Virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing Escherichia coli isolates were detected by PCR. A total of 155 integron-bearing strains of coliform bacteria were cultured. Sequence analysis showed the presence of dfrA7, aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette arrays in class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 in class 2 integrons. Higher frequency of integron-positive bacteria and higher antimicrobial resistance ranges were noted in colder months (January and November) compared with spring and summer months. The integron-harbouring E. coli carried up to nine virulence-associated genes, with the highest frequency of kpsMT (84.6%) and traT (783%), coding for group 2 capsule and determining human serum resistance respectively. Integron-bearing multidrug resistant coliform bacteria carrying virulence genes are present in waters of recreational lakes. This study presents antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing coliform bacteria present in the waters of recreational lakes, which showed that multidrug resistant bacteria with virulence traits might pose a threat to public health. Moreover, the presence of genes typical for enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is a concern. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  19. Presencia de los géneros Vibrio y Salmonella, y detección de coliformes fecales en almejas del Golfo de México

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Pedroche, Francisco F.; Moreno-Sepúlveda, L.; Rodas-Suárez, O. R.

    2000-01-01

    Los moluscos bivalvos, por su tipo de alimentación y por las zonas elegidas para su cultivo, pueden ser un vehículo de transmisión de microorganismos patógenos. Un total de 260 muestras de almejas obtenidas a lo largo de un ciclo anual, en la porción norte del Estado de Veracruz, Golfo de México, se estudiaron para determinar la presencia de Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae y organismos coliformes fecales. La metodología usada fue la recomendada por el Manual de Bacteriología Analítica de la ...

  20. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  1. Comparative study of methods for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G P

    1978-12-01

    Violet red bile agar and Coli-Count Sampler (Millipore Corp.) procedures were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the standard most-probable-number method for monitoring relative coliform levels in oysters.

  2. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  4. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Fecal Coliforms Entering the Environment Due to Inadequate Sanitation Treatment Technologies in 108 Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmeister, Erica R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Julian, Timothy R

    2015-10-06

    Understanding the excretion and treatment of human waste (feces and urine) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is necessary to design appropriate waste management strategies. However, excretion and treatment are often difficult to quantify due to decentralization of excreta management. We address this gap by developing a mechanistic, stochastic model to characterize phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fecal coliform pollution from human excreta for 108 LMICs. The model estimates excretion and treatment given three scenarios: (1) use of existing sanitation systems, (2) use of World Health Organization-defined "improved sanitation", and (3) use of best available technologies. Our model estimates that more than 10(9) kg/yr each of phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD are produced. Of this, 22(19-27)%, 11(7-15)%, 17(10-23)%, and 35 (23-47)% (mean and 95% range) BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms, respectively, are removed by existing sanitation systems. Our model estimates that upgrading to "improved sanitation" increases mean removal slightly to between 17 and 53%. Under the best available technology scenario, only approximately 60-80% of pollutants are treated. To reduce impact of nutrient and microbial pollution on human and environmental health, improvements in both access to adequate sanitation and sanitation treatment efficiency are needed.

  6. Effects of hot water application after defeathering on the levels of Campylobacter, coliform bacteria, and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Dickens, J A; Musgrove, M T

    2000-11-01

    Scalding has been found to lower the levels of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses. However, the numbers recovered from whole-carcass rinse samples increase following defeathering. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a second scald applied after defeathering on microbial levels recovered from carcass rinses. Four treatments were evaluated: 1) immersion at 60 C for 28 s 30 min after defeathering, 2) immersion at 60 C for 28 s immediately after defeathering, 3) spray at 73 C for 20 s 30 min after defeathering, and 4) spray at 71 C for 20 s immediately after defeathering. As reported earlier, a significant increase in Campylobacter counts per mL whole carcass rinse was noted after carcasses were defeathered. However, when applied 30 min after defeathering, neither the immersion nor the spray second scald treatments lowered the Campylobacter counts. Likewise, neither treatment had any affect on Escherichia coli or coliform bacteria counts, even though total counts were slightly reduced by the treatments. When the second scald treatment immediately followed defeathering, the same trends were observed. Campylobacter counts after the second scald remained at the postpick levels, as did counts for E. coli and coliform bacteria, but total plate counts were slightly reduced. Overall, it would appear that a postscald treatment gentle enough not to alter the carcass appearance or meat quality would not effectively lower Campylobacter, E. coli, or coliform bacteria counts.

  7. Fecal-indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli pathogen data collected near a novel sub-irrigation water-treatment system in Lenawee County, Michigan, June-November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Beeler, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lenawee County Conservation District in Lenawee County, Mich., conducted a sampling effort over a single growing season (June to November 2007) to evaluate the microbiological water quality around a novel livestock reservoir wetland sub-irrigation system. Samples were collected and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and six genes from pathogenic strains of E. coli.A total of 73 water-quality samples were collected on nine occasions from June to November 2007. These samples were collected within the surface water, shallow ground water, and the manure-treatment system near Bakerlads Farm near Clayton in Lenawee County, Mich. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from 10 to 1.26 million colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL). E. coli bacteria concentrations ranged from 8 to 540,000 CFU/100 mL. Data from the E. coli pathogen analysis showed that 73 percent of samples contained the eaeA gene, 1 percent of samples contained the stx2 gene, 37 percent of samples contained the stx1 gene, 21 percent of samples contained the rfbO157 gene, and 64 percent of samples contained the LTIIa gene.

  8. Coliform bacteria as indicators of diarrheal risk in household drinking water: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Ercumen, Ayse; Colford, John M

    2014-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant ("fecal") coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the results of the previous review with newly available evidence, to explore differences between EC and FC indicators, and to assess the quality of available evidence. We searched major databases using broad terms for household water quality and diarrhea. We extracted study characteristics and relative risks (RR) from relevant studies. We pooled RRs using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, and used standard methods to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias. We identified 20 relevant studies; 14 studies provided extractable results for meta-analysis. When combining all studies, we found no association between EC or FC and diarrhea (RR 1.26 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.63]). When analyzing EC and FC separately, we found evidence for an association between diarrhea and EC (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37, 1.74]) but not FC (RR: 1.07 [95% CI: 0.79, 1.45]). Across all studies, we identified several elements of study design and reporting (e.g., timing of outcome and exposure measurement, accounting for correlated outcomes) that could be improved upon in future studies that evaluate the association between drinking water contamination and health. Our findings, based on a review of the published literature, suggest that these two coliform groups have different associations with diarrhea in household drinking water. Our results support the use of EC as a fecal indicator in household drinking water.

  9. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: During each of the 10 test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak capacity...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  10. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: During each of the 10-test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle, and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  11. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r 2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r 2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  12. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  13. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all

  14. Next-generation sequencing identification of pathogenic bacterial genes and their relationship with fecal indicator bacteria in different water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaju Shrestha, Rajani; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Malla, Bikash; Bhandari, Dinesh; Tandukar, Sarmila; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Haramoto, Eiji

    2017-12-01

    Bacteriological analysis of drinking water leads to detection of only conventional fecal indicator bacteria. This study aimed to explore and characterize bacterial diversity, to understand the extent of pathogenic bacterial contamination, and to examine the relationship between pathogenic bacteria and fecal indicator bacteria in different water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Sixteen water samples were collected from shallow dug wells (n=12), a deep tube well (n=1), a spring (n=1), and rivers (n=2) in September 2014 for 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing. A total of 525 genera were identified, of which 81 genera were classified as possible pathogenic bacteria. Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Clostridium were detected with a relatively higher abundance (>0.1% of total bacterial genes) in 16, 13, and 5 of the 16 samples, respectively, and the highest abundance ratio of Acinetobacter (85.14%) was obtained in the deep tube well sample. Furthermore, the bla OXA23-like genes of Acinetobacter were detected using SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR in 13 (35%) of 37 water samples, including the 16 samples that were analyzed for next-generation sequencing, with concentrations ranging 5.3-7.5logcopies/100mL. There was no sufficient correlation found between fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and total coliforms, and potential pathogenic bacteria, as well as the bla OXA23-like gene of Acinetobacter. These results suggest the limitation of using conventional fecal indicator bacteria in evaluating the pathogenic bacteria contamination of different water sources in the Kathmandu Valley. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  16. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  17. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic Escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  18. COMPORTAMIENTO DE COLIFORMES FECALES COMO INDICADORES BACTERIANOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN FECAL EN DIFERENTES MEZCLAS DE BIOSÓLIDO Y ESTÉRILES UTILIZADOS PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA DE LA CANTERA SORATAMA, BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fuccz-Gamboa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El biosólido de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, contiene una importante concentración de materia orgánica y nutrientes, los cuales pueden ser utilizados como enmienda orgánica en la agricultura, reforestación y recuperación de terrenos disturbados por el hombre. Su aplicación se encuentra condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos presentes, ya que generan un riesgo sanitario para las personas que lo manipulan o entran en contacto directo con él. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de los coliformes fecales, como indicadores bacterianos de contaminación fecal en mezclas de biosólido y estériles en diferentes proporciones utilizadas para la restauración ecológica de la cantera de “Soratama” en un período de 60 días. Se realizaron tres tratamientos (T1 8:1; T2 4:1 y T3 2:1, v/v de estériles-biosólido con tres réplicas cada uno y un control negativo, únicamente con estériles. Se tomaron un total de 60 muestras y se analizaron de acuerdo con el protocolo de la EPA/625/R92/013(1999, técnica de filtración por membrana. La concentración final de coliformes fecales fue de 2.3 x 103UFC/g de PS para T1, 1.6 x 102 UFC/g de PS para T2 y 1.2 x 101 UFC/g de PS para T3; con un porcentaje de reducción de 38,1, 53,8 y 78,5% respectivamente. La radiación solar, la temperatura ambiente, la humedad y la precipitación influyeron significativamente en la reducción de la concentración de colifor- mes fecales.

  19. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  20. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  1. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Evolving Role of Coliforms as Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Helen Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 hours at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella and Serratia are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play

  3. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  4. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  5. Coliform and human pathogenic bacteria in tourism affected water bodies in North Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    forms of biota. Thus, bacteria as a community are useful and reliable indicators of ecosystem alterations. Through careful planning, choice, and analysis of relevant bacteriological parameters, deeper insights on quality, health, and stability of natural...

  6. Estado actual de contaminación con coliformes fecales de los cuerpos de agua de la Península de Osa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mora

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de los cuerpos de aguaen Costa Rica y en todo el mundo es unode los principales problemas ambientales,debido a la importancia estratégicade este recurso. El recurso hídrico esun elemento esencial no solo para lapreservación de la vida, sino también parala conservación de la flora y fauna de laregión.Su conservación y su calidad estánestrechamente vinculadas, prácticamente,a todas las actividades económicas ysociales en forma ineludible, así como a lasalud de su población.La Península de Osa se ha caracterizadopor ser una zona con una exuberantebiodiversidad, tanto en su flora comoen su fauna, raramente encontrada enuna zona pequeña.En 1975, se creó elParque Nacional de Corcovado,el más importante parque de Costa Rica y queprotege a un tercio de la península. Esteexótico territorio que es la Península deOsa no está exento de amenazas, debido ala fragmentación y destrucción del hábitat,la deforestación por la explotación de lamadera y el mal planeamiento en el uso dela tierra, la extracción ilegal de recursos,entre ellos el oro, y el crecimiento de lapoblación en sus alrededores.El Reglamento para la evaluación y laclasificación de la calidad de cuerpos deagua superficiales establece como límiteen el contenido de coliformes fecalesen el agua para actividades recreativasde contacto primario, un valor de 1000(NMP/100mL. Este mismo valor máximose aplica para el riego de hortalizas yotros alimentos que se consumen crudos;mientras que para el uso en abrevaderosy actividades pecuarias el valor máximopermisible de coliformes fecales es de2000, por mencionar algunos casos.Se realizó un estudio sobre la contaminaciónmicrobiológica, utilizando como indicador                                                          el contenido de coliformes fecales                                                   

  7. EFEKTIVITAS KAPORIT PADA PROSES KLORINASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN BAKTERI Coliform DARI LIMBAH CAIR RUMAH SAKIT X SAMARINDA (The Effectiveness of Calcium Hypochlorite to Chlorination Process in Decreasing the Amount of Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater of X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Busyairi

    2016-07-01

    bacteria is calculated by using Most Probable Number (MPN method. Calculation of calcium hypochlorite dose is based on the optimum dose at Breakpoint Chlorination (BPC in order to maintain the residual chlorine from the addition of increasing doses. The research result has an impact on the average of organic substance in wastewater sample, it is about 137,26 ppm, so the dose of calcium hypochlorite needed is between 130-165 ppm. BPC curve occurs at 160 ppm of active chlorine for both contact time 30 and 40 minutes. At the BPC point of 30 minutes contact time obtained a mean percentage reduction of Coliform value is 98.21% which is 2,899 MPN/100 mL with residual chlorine 88 ppm. Besides, at 40 minutes contact time obtained the percentage reduction of Coliform bacteria up to 98.83%, it is from >160,000/100 mL to 1,866.67/100 mL with residual chlorine 97.5 ppm.

  8. The removal of thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by immobilized waste stabilization pond algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, H W; Marcon, A E; Melo, H N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of laboratory- scale columns of immobilized micro-algae to disinfect effluents using thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) as a model system. Cells of a Chlorella species isolated from a waste stabilization pond complex in Northeast Brazil were immobilized in calcium alginate, packed into glass columns and incubated in contact with TTC suspensions for up to 24 hours. Five to six log removals of TTC were achieved in 6 hours and 11 log removals in 12 hours contact time. The results were similar under artificial light and shaded sunlight. However little or no TTC removal occurred in the light in columns of alginate beads without immobilized algae present or when the immobilized algae were incubated in the dark suggesting that the presence of both algae and light were necessary for TTC decay. There was a positive correlation between K(b) values for TTC and increasing pH in the effluent from the immobilized algal columns within the range pH 7.2 and 8.9. The potential of immobilized algal technology for wastewater disinfection may warrant further investigation.

  9. Effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on survival of fecal and other bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    McCambridge, J; McMeekin, T A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on the survival of bacteria of fecal and plant origin was studied. The decline in the numbers of Escherichia coli cells in estuarine water samples was found to be significantly greater in the presence of both naturally occurring microbial predators and solar radiation than when each of these factors was acting independently. The effect of solar radiation on microbial predators was negligible, whereas the susceptibility of bacteria to...

  10. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  11. DNA analysis of fecal bacteria to augment an epikarst dye trace study at Crump's Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rainfall simulation experiment was performed to investigate the transport behavior of fecal-derived bacteria through shallow karst soils and through the epikarst. The experiment was conducted at Cave Springs Cavern located just south of Mammoth Cave National Park on the Sinkhole Plain of South Cen...

  12. Lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect.

  13. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    . and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms...

  14. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  15. Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S; Kellogg, C; Shinn, E A

    1995-01-01

    Sewage waste disposal facilities in the Florida Keys include septic tanks and individual package plants in place of municipal collection facilities in most locations. In Key Largo, both facilities discharge into the extremely porous Key Largo limestone. To determine whether there was potential contamination of the subsurface aquifer and nearby coastal surface waters by such waste disposal practices, we examined the presence of microbial indicators commonly found in sewage (fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) and aquatic microbial parameters (viral direct counts, bacterial direct counts, chlorophyll a, and marine vibriophage) in injection well effluent, monitoring wells that followed a transect from onshore to offshore, and surface waters above these wells in two separate locations in Key Largo in August 1993 and March 1994. Effluent and waters from onshore shallow monitoring wells (1.8- to 3.7-m depth) contained two or all three of the fecal indicators in all three samples taken, whereas deeper wells (10.7- to 12.2-m depth) at these same sites contained few or none. The presence of fecal indicators was found in two of five nearshore wells (i.e., those that were or = 2.1 to 5.7 miles [aquifer, parts of the nearshore aquifer, and certain surface waters has occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793943

  16. Development of a sensitive chemiluminometric assay for the detection of beta-galactosidase in permeabilized coliform bacteria and comparison with fluorometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

    1995-01-01

    We developed a chemiluminometric assay of beta-galactosidase in coliform bacteria, using a phenylgalactose-substituted 1,2-dioxetane derivative as a substrate. Permeabilization of cells is required to ensure the efficient cellular uptake of this compound. By this method, one coliform seeded in 100 ml of sterile water can be detected after a 6- to 9-h propagation phase followed by a 45-min enzyme assay in the presence of polymyxin B. Compared with fluorometry and colorimetry, chemiluminometry afforded 4- and 1,000-fold increases in sensitivity and 1- and 6-h increases in the speed of detection, respectively. PMID:8534120

  17. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p bacterial count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  18. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  19. MinION Nanopore Sequencing Enables Correlation between Resistome Phenotype and Genotype of Coliform Bacteria in Municipal Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs functioned as the intersection between the human society and nature environment, are receiving increasingly more attention on risk assessment of the acquisition of environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs by pathogenetic populations during treatment. However, because of the general lack of robust resistome profiling methods, genotype, and resistance phenotype is still poorly correlated in human pathogens of sewage samples. Here we applied MinION sequencing to quantify the resistance genes of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR coliform bacteria, a common indicator for human enteric pathogens in sewage samples. Our pipeline could deliver the results within 30 h from sample collection and the resistome quantification was consistent to that based on the Illumina platform. Additionally, the long nanopore reads not only enabled a simultaneous identification of the carrier populations of ARGs detected, but also facilitated the genome reconstruction of a representative MAR strain, from which we identified an instance of chromosomal integration of environmental resistance gene obtained by plasmid exchange with a porcine pathogen. This study demonstrated the utilization of MinION sequencing in quick monitoring and simultaneous phylogenetic tracking of environmental ARGs to address potential health risk associated with them.

  20. MinION Nanopore Sequencing Enables Correlation between Resistome Phenotype and Genotype of Coliform Bacteria in Municipal Sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Li, An-Dong; Deng, Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Li, Li-Guan; Zhang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) functioned as the intersection between the human society and nature environment, are receiving increasingly more attention on risk assessment of the acquisition of environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by pathogenetic populations during treatment. However, because of the general lack of robust resistome profiling methods, genotype, and resistance phenotype is still poorly correlated in human pathogens of sewage samples. Here we applied MinION sequencing to quantify the resistance genes of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) coliform bacteria, a common indicator for human enteric pathogens in sewage samples. Our pipeline could deliver the results within 30 h from sample collection and the resistome quantification was consistent to that based on the Illumina platform. Additionally, the long nanopore reads not only enabled a simultaneous identification of the carrier populations of ARGs detected, but also facilitated the genome reconstruction of a representative MAR strain, from which we identified an instance of chromosomal integration of environmental resistance gene obtained by plasmid exchange with a porcine pathogen. This study demonstrated the utilization of MinION sequencing in quick monitoring and simultaneous phylogenetic tracking of environmental ARGs to address potential health risk associated with them.

  1. Effects of hydrologic, biological, and environmental processes on sources and concentrations of fecal bacteria in the Cuyahoga River, with implications for management of recreational waters in Summit and Cuyahoga Counties, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, Donna S.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges of fecal bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli ) to the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River from storm water, combined sewers, and incompletely disinfected wastewater have resulted in frequent exceedances of bacteriological water-quality standards in a 23-mile reach of the river that flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Contamination of the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River by bacteria of fecal origin and subsequent transport to downstream areas where water-contact recreation is an important use of the river are a concern because of the potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Independent field investigations of bacterial decay, dilution, dispersion, transport, and sources, and bacterial contamination of streambed sediments, were completed in 1991-93 during periods of rainfall and runoff. The highest concentration of fecal coliform bacteria observed in the middle main stem during three transport studies exceeded the single-sample fecal coliform standard applicable to primary-contact recreation by a factor of approximately 1,300 and exceeded the Escherichia coli standard by a factor of approximately 8,000. The geometric-mean concentrations of fecal bacteria in the middle main stem were 6.7 to 12.3 times higher than geometric-mean concentrations in the monitored tributaries, and 1.8 to 7.0 times larger than the geometric-mean concentrations discharged from the Akron Water Pollution Control Station. Decay rates of fecal bacteria measured in field studies in 1992 ranged from 0.0018 per hour to 0.0372 per hour for fecal coliform bacteria and from 0.0022 per hour to 0.0407 per hour for Escherichia coli. Most of the decay rates measured in June and August were significantly higher than decay rates measured in April and October. Results of field studies demonstrated that concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria were 1.2 to 58 times higher in streambed sediments than in the overlying

  2. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  3. Fecal bacteria from treatment-naive Crohn's disease patients can skew helper T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Xing, Junjie; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Ling; Weng, Hao; Wu, Xiangsong; Walker, Emma; Wang, Zhongchuan

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease (CD) patients presented a disturbed gut commensal community, and the shift in microbial composition and species variety is associated with disease severity. To establish a link between changes in the intestinal bacterial composition and the alteration of inflammation, we obtained fecal bacteria from CD patients and non-CD controls. The bacteria were then used to stimulate the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from one non-CD individual. We found that the frequency of IFN-γ- and IL-17-expressing CD4 T cells was significantly higher after stimulation with CD bacteria than with non-CD bacteria, while the frequency of IL-4- and IL-10-expressing CD4 T cells was significantly decreased after stimulation with CD bacteria. A similar trend was observed in the level of cytokine expression and transcription expression. However, this difference was not clear-cut, as overlapping regions were observed between the two groups. With longer stimulation using CD bacteria, the skewing toward Th1/Th17 responses were further increased. This increase depended on the presence of monocytes/macrophages. Interestingly, we also found that B cells presented an inhibitory effect in CD bacteria-mediated skewing toward Th1/Th17 cells and promoted IL-10 secretion in CD bacteria-stimulated PBMCs. Together, our results demonstrated that CD bacteria could promote Th1/Th17 inflammation in a host factor-independent fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  5. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  6. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  7. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  8. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. An assessment of fecal indicator and other bacteria from an urbanized coastal lagoon in the City of Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carmona-Galindo, Víctor D; Leary, Christopher; Huh, Julie; Valdez, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    A study was performed in Del Rey Lagoon, City of Los Angeles, to determine if the lagoon was as a source or sink for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and to screen for the presence of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. The lagoon receives tidal flows from the adjacent Ballona Estuary whose water usually is contaminated with FIB originating from the highly urbanized Ballona Creek Watershed. During 16 sampling events from February 2008 through March 2009, replicate water samples (n = 3) were collected 1 h prior to the high tide and 1 h prior to the following low tide. FIB concentrations were measured by the defined substrate method (IDEXX, Westbrook, Me) followed by culturing of bacterial isolates sampled from positive IDEXX Quanti-Tray wells and were identified using the Vitek 2 Compact (bioMérieux, Durham, NC). Mean concentrations of FIB often differed by an order of magnitude from flood to ebb flow conditions. The lagoon tended to act as a sink for total coliforms based on the ratio of mean flood to ebb densities (R (F/E)) >1.0 during 56 % of the sampling events and during ebb flows, as a source for E. coli and enterococci (R (F/E) <1.69 % of events). Approximately 54 species were identified from 277 isolates cultured from the IDEXX Quanti-Trays. Of these, 54 % were species known to include pathogenic strains that can be naturally occurring, introduced in runoff, or originated from other sources. Diversity and cluster analyses indicated a dynamic assemblage that changes in species composition with day-to-day fluctuations as well as tidal action. The concept of monitoring the lagoon and estuary as a sentinel habitat for pathogenic assemblages is discussed.

  10. Detection of coliform bacteria, determination of phylogenetic typing and antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli in qanats and springs of East-Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shabani Lokarani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a fecal contamination and is considered as an index in water. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of E. coli and antibiotic resistance of the isolates collected from qanats and springs in East-Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, 118 samples were selected from above mentioned area and examined by MPN method. The positive coliform samples were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Afterwards, to determine the genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, phylogenetic typing we conducted by means of multiplex PCR. To determine the antibiotic resistance profile, antibiotic discs of Nalidixic Acid, Co-trimoxazol, Amoxicillin, Gentamaicin Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Imipenem, Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime antibiogram were used. Based on results, 48% of the samples were evaluated as positive for coliform including 40% for E. coli and 19% for Klebsiella. Amongst 23 isolates confirmed as E. coli by PCR. Phylogenetic typing revealed  that 44% of E. coli strains belonged to type D and B2 and 56% belonged to A and B1 phylotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed that 92% of E. coli isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin. All E. coli isolates were sensitive to Imipenem. It was concluded that presence of pathogenic E. coli with high rate of antibacterial resistance in waters source could be considered as a human health hazard.

  11. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more accurate community profiles for fecal source tracking.

  12. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  13. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  14. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  15. Continuous, low-dose oral exposure to sodium chlorate reduces fecal Enterobacteriaceae coliforms in sheep feces without inducing subclinical chlorate toxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to determine a minimal daily dose of sodium chlorate, to be included in the drinking water for 5 days, that is safe yet maintains efficacy in reducing fecal shedding of Escherichia coli in mature ewes. In a complete randomized experimental design, 25 Targhee ewes (age = 18- to 20...

  16. Bathing littoral water pollution related to ditches fecal coliform concentration and load (first stage); Inquinamento delle acque litorali adibite alla balneazione in relazione alla concentrazione e al carico di coliformi fecali dei fossi (prima fase di studio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, Franco [ARPAT, Lucca (Italy). Dipt. Provinciale U.O. Biologia Ambientale; Quilici, Mariachiara; Brunelli, Iacopo

    1997-08-01

    Fecal coliforms concentration and load, and flow of four ditches (Burlamacca, Abate, Motrone, Fiumetto) with mouth into Versilia coast have been studied. Superficial water environmental impact on surrounding sea-water (according to DPR 470/82) has been evaluated. During the study period (from April to September) these mouths behave like lagoons, showing negative positive or no flow, in relation both to the sea and to affluent waters hydrodynamic force. Positive correlation between mm of rain fallen during the week before the drawing and the number of FC/100 ml of ditches water has been pointed out, while there is no correlation with FC/100 ml of sea-water. Sea-water pollution is influenced by ditches flow a nd load of FC s{sup -1}; these two parameters are not correlated to rain, because it is often associated with sea-land wind. Fiumetto ditch is an exception, with its significant correlation index (r = 0.64). The correlation between the number of FC s{sup -1} of the ditches and the number of FC/100 ml of littoral water is significant for Burlamacca and Abate ditches (r > 0.63, p < 0.05). Burlamacca ditch produces greater fecal pollution (FC s{sup -1} = 247077332) than Motrone (FC {sup -1} = 5406436), Abate (FCs{sup -1} = 4114183) and Fiumetto (FCs{sup -1} 2201103) ditches.

  17. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  18. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  19. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily by periodic tidal flooding and possibly by major rain events. Release of coliforms during resuspension of subtidal sediments was estimated to be a minor source in this system (<1.5 x 1012 FC yr-1 or < 3% of annual input), primarily associated with large storm events in the fall and winter. Based upon the relative source strengths and the spatial and temporal patterns of FC input

  20. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  1. Biochemical fingerprinting of water coliform bacteria, a new method for measuring phenotypic diversity and for comparing different bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Stenström, T A; Möllby, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple, automated microplate system for biochemical characterization of water isolates can be used to obtain fingerprints of the bacterial flora from various water samples. Mathematical models for calculating the diversities and similarities between bacterial populations are described for such fingerprints. The diversity may give information on whether an indigenous or allochthonous flora is present, and the similarities between bacterial populations, as calculated by using a population similarity coefficient (Sp), may indicate contaminations between different water samples. The system was demonstrated on coliform bacterial populations from various water samples, with or without suspected intercontamination. For unrelated water samples, the Sps were close to 0, whereas repeated samples of the same source showed Sps of 0.64 to 0.74. The Sp values from several water samples were also clustered to form a dendrogram, thus indicating the relative similarities between the bacterial populations to confirm suspected common sources of pollution. PMID:1781680

  2. Application of SELECT and SWAT models to simulate source load, fate, and transport of fecal bacteria in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of fate and transport of fecal bacteria in a watershed is a processed based approach that considers releases from manure, point sources, and septic systems. Overland transport with water and sediments, infiltration into soils, transport in the vadose zone and groundwater, die-off and growth processes, and in-stream transport are considered as the other major processes in bacteria simulation. This presentation will discuss a simulation of fecal indicator bacteria source loading and in-stream conditions of a non-tidal watershed (Cedar Bayou Watershed) in South Central Texas using two models; Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool (SELECT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Furthermore, it will discuss a probable approach of bacteria source load reduction in order to meet the water quality standards in the streams. The selected watershed is listed as having levels of fecal indicator bacteria that posed a risk for contact recreation and wading by the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The SELECT modeling approach was used in estimating the bacteria source loading from land categories. Major bacteria sources considered were, failing septic systems, discharges from wastewater treatment facilities, excreta from livestock (Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goat), excreta from Wildlife (Feral Hogs, and Deer), Pet waste (mainly from Dogs), and runoff from urban surfaces. The estimated source loads from SELECT model were input to the SWAT model, and simulate the bacteria transport through the land and in-stream. The calibrated SWAT model was then used to estimate the indicator bacteria in-stream concentrations for future years based on regional land use, population and household forecast (up to 2040). Based on the reductions required to meet the water quality standards in-stream, the corresponding required source load reductions were estimated.

  3. Bacteria of fecal origin in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) in the Cocó River estuary, Ceará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Ana I.M.; Vieira,Regine H.S.F.; Menezes,Francisca G.R.; Fonteles-Filho,Antonio A.; Torres,Regina C.O.; Sant'Anna,Ernani S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected at a natural oyster bed in the estuary of Cocó river (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil). MPN values were used for estimating the total (TC) and fecal (FC) coliforms and Enterococcus spp. TC and FC MPN values in the whole muscle and intervalve liquid ranged from 1,600/g and from

  4. Predictive Power of Clean Bed Filtration Theory for Fecal Indicator Bacteria Removal in Stormwater Biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E.; Rippy, M.; Mehring, A.; Winfrey, B.; Ambrose, R. F.; Levin, L. A.; Grant, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. Here we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%). Our analysis suggests that, with the exception of shrubs, plants affect FIB removal indirectly by changing the infiltration rate, not directly by changing the FIB removal mechanisms or altering filtration rates in ways not already accounted for by CBFT. The analysis presented here represents a significant step forward in our understanding of how physicochemical theories (such as CBFT) can be melded with hydrology, engineering design, and ecology to improve the water quality benefits of green infrastructure.

  5. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff.

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time pcr protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, O.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Peed, L.; Kelty, C.A.; Blackwood, A.D.; Greene, M.R.; Noble, R.T.; Bushon, R.N.; Stelzer, E.A.; Kinzelman, J.; Anan'Eva, T.; Sinigalliano, C.; Wanless, D.; Griffith, J.; Cao, Y.; Weisberg, S.; Harwood, V.J.; Staley, C.; Oshima, K.H.; Varma, M.; Haugland, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  8. Survival of Manure-borne Escherichia coli and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the a...

  9. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  10. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  11. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    From March through October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted a study to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen gene markers and densities of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in 22 tributaries to the Great Lakes. This project was funded as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) and included sampling at 22 locations throughout 6 states that border the Great Lakes.

  12. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  14. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  15. Research of pathogenic bacteria and bacteriophages in the residuals of wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathlouthi, Soumaya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the pathogenic bacteria Listeria and Salmonella and to detect of bacterial (fecal coliforms) and viral indicators (bacteriophage) of fecal contamination in the residues of three sewage treatment plants in Greater Tunis: Charguia, Jdaida and Wardia. Three types of samples were analyzed: raw sewage, treated wastewater and sludge. The study showed the presence of pathogenic bacteria in some samples with a frequency of 7 pour cent for Listeria and 21 pour cent for Salmonella. However, none of these organisms has been detected in treated water of Jdaida and Chargia reflecting the efficiency of the purification process in these stations. Furthermore, all samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and bacteriophages with important titles: up to 8.23 log10 (CFU/L) for coliforms and 8.36 log10 (pfu/L) for bacteriophages.

  16. Using Remote Sensing to Identify Changes in Land Use and Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Support a Watershed Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Butler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of shellfish harvesting areas by fecal bacteria in the Annapolis Basin of Nova Scotia, Canada, is a recurring problem which has consequences for industry, government, and local communities. This study contributes to the development of an integrated water quality forecasting system to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of industry management. The proposed integrated forecasting framework is composed of a database containing contamination sources, hydrodynamics of the Annapolis Basin, Escherichia coli (E. coli loadings and watershed hydrology scenarios, coupled with environmental conditions of the region (e.g., temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and ultraviolet light. For integration into this framework, this study presents a viable methodology for assessing the contribution of fecal bacteria originating from a watershed. The proposed methodology investigated the application of high resolution remote sensing, coupled with the commercially available product, MIKE 11, to monitor watershed land use and its impact on water quality. Remote sensing proved to be an extremely useful tool in the identification of sources of fecal bacteria contamination, as well as the detection of land use change over time. Validation of the MIKE 11 model produced very good agreement (R2 = 0.88, E = 0.85 between predicted and observed river flows, while model calibration of E. coli concentrations showed fair agreement (R2 = 0.51 and E = 0.38 between predicted and observed values. A proper evaluation of the MIKE 11 model was constrained due to limited water sampling. However, the model was very effective in predicting times of high contamination for use in the integrated forecasting framework, especially during substantial precipitation events.

  17. Fate of coliforms and pathogenic parasite in four full-scale sewage treatment systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Sahoo, B K; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, A A; Ahmad, Z; Chopra, A K

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of fecal indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS)) and pathogens (helminthes eggs) were studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes (UASB + FPU, ASP, EA, WSP). The reductions in TC and FC concentrations were usually between 2.0 and 2.5 log units in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor incorporated with final polishing unit (UASB + FPU). Almost similar reduction was observed in activated sludge process system (ASP) and waste stabilization ponds system (WSP), while it was log 3.0 in extended aeration system (EA). UASB + FPU and WSP systems were observed more efficient to reduce helminthes eggs at almost 100%, whereas only 97% removal was observed in case of ASP and EA system. In addition to monitoring of indicator organisms, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were used as indirect measure of the potential presence of microorganisms. Interrelationship of BOD, SS, and turbidity with fecal indicator bacteria concentration in influent and effluent manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of BOD and SS.

  18. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, Ryan A., E-mail: rblauste@ufl.edu [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hill, Robert L. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Micallef, Shirley A. [Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shelton, Daniel R.; Pachepsky, Yakov A. [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9 cm h{sup −1} of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10 cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. - Highlights: • Release and removal of indicator bacteria from manure was evaluated in soil boxes. • Rainfall intensity did not impact runoff-removal kinetics in three tested models. • Rainfall intensity had positive/inverse effects on bacterial release to runoff

  19. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  20. Relationships between transit time in man and in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber by fecal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufir, L E; Barry, J L; Flourié, B; Cherbut, C; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P

    2000-08-01

    To assess the effects of drug-induced changes in mean transit time (MTT) on the activity of human fecal flora in vitro. The activity of fecal flora was estimated by the ability of a fecal inoculum to ferment a substrate (beet fiber) in vitro in a batch system for 24 h. The inoculum was collected from 8 healthy volunteers studied during three 3-week randomized periods, who received a controlled diet alone (control period) or the same diet with either cisapride or loperamide. Cisapride and loperamide were adjusted in order to halve and double MTT measured during the control period. At the end of each period, the percentage disappearance of the initial added substrate and the concentration and the profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), were determined. In the control period, the pH of the inoculum and SCFA concentration were inversely related to MTT (P=0.0001). Individual SCFA production was also significantly related to MTT (P<0.01). Cisapride-reduced transit time was associated with a significant rise in the concentrations of total SCFAs (P<0.05), propionic and butyric acids (P<0.05) and the percentage substrate disappearance (P<0.05). Inverse relations were observed during the loperamide period. Moreover, MTT was inversely related to the percentage substrate disappearance (P<0.001), SCFA production (P<0.001) and butyrate production (P<0.0005). Changes in MTT alter bacterial activity and modify the bacterial pathways affecting the proportion of individual SCFAs. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 603-609

  1. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, James A. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)]. E-mail: jentry@nwisrl.ars.usda.gov; Leytem, April B. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States); Verwey, Sheryl [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects.

  2. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, James A.; Leytem, April B.; Verwey, Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects

  3. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water (ASM 2017 Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  4. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, microbial source tracking markers, and associated waterborne pathogen occurrence in stream water and sediments in a mixed land use watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial ...

  5. Condições sanitárias das águas de irrigação de hortas do município de São Paulo: I. Determinação da intensidade de poluição fecal através NMP de coliformes e de E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacio de Almeida Christovão

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Águas de irrigação de onze hortas do município de São Paulo foram examinadas bacteriològicamente. Em cada horta foram colhidas cinco amostras em pontos diferentes; para cada uma delas fizeram-se duas determinações do NMP/100 ml tanto para bactérias coliformes como para Escherichia coli. Tôdas as amostras revelaram poluição fecal em intensidade considerável, mostrando o estado sanitário inteiramente insatisfatório dessas águas e a necessidade de se estabelecerem medidas mais rigorosas para o seu contrôle.Samples of irrigation water taken from eleven vegetable gardens of the city of São Paulo were submitted to bacteriological examination. Five samples were taken from five different points in each case; MPN per 100 ml were determined both for coliforms and Escherichia coli. All samples revealed heavy fecal polution, showing completely unsatisfactory sanitary conditions of the irrigation water and the need severe control measures of water for irrigation.

  6. Long-term monitoring of molecular markers can distinguish different seasonal patterns of fecal indicating bacteria sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Timothy E; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Dagit, Rosi; Krug, Jenna; Hanley, Kaitlyn T; Adamek, Krista; Ebentier, Darcy L; Torres, Robert; Cobian, Uriel; Peterson, Sophie; Jay, Jennifer A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have been observed at Topanga Beach, CA, USA. To identify the FIB sources, a microbial source tracking study using a dog-, a gull- and two human-associated molecular markers was conducted at 10 sites over 21 months. Historical data suggest that episodic discharge from the lagoon at the mouth of Topanga Creek is the main source of bacteria to the beach. A decline in creek FIB/markers downstream from upper watershed development and a sharp increase in FIB/markers at the lagoon sites suggest sources are local to the lagoon. At the lagoon and beach, human markers are detected sporadically, dog marker peaks in abundance mid-winter, and gull marker is chronically elevated. Varied seasonal patterns of FIB and source markers were identified showing the importance of applying a suite of markers over long-term spatial and temporal sampling to identify a complex combination of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial communities and fecal indicator bacteria associated with Cladophora mats on beach sites along Lake Michigan shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade, Ola A; Depas, Morgan M; Jensen, Erika T; McLellan, Sandra L

    2006-03-01

    A high biomasses of Cladophora, a filamentous green alga, is found mainly during the summer along the shores of Lake Michigan. In this study, the abundance and persistence of the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on Cladophora mats collected at Lake Michigan beaches were evaluated using both culture-based and molecular analyses. Additionally, 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used to examine the bacterial community composition. Overall, E. coli was detected in all 63 samples obtained from 11 sites, and the average levels at most beaches ranged from 2,700 CFU/100 g (wet weight) of Cladophora to 7,500 CFU/100 g of Cladophora. However, three beaches were found to have site average E. coli densities of 12,800, 21,130, and 27,950 CFU/100 g of Cladophora. The E. coli levels in the lake water collected at the same time from these three sites were less than the recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limit, 235 CFU/100 ml. E. coli also persisted on Cladophora mats in microcosms at room temperature for more than 7 days, and in some experiments it persisted for as long as 28 days. The SRB densities on Cladophora mats were relatively high, ranging from 4.4x10(6) cells/g (6.64 log CFU/g) to 5.73x10(6) cells/g (6.76 log CFU/g) and accounting for between 20% and 27% of the total bacterial counts. Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene clones revealed a phylogenetically diverse community, in which the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides cluster and the low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria were the dominant organisms, accounting for 40% and 12.8%, respectively, of the total clone library. These results further reveal the potential public health and ecological significance of Cladophora mats that are commonly found along the shoreline of Lake Michigan, especially with regard to the potential to harbor microorganisms associated with fecal pollution and odor-causing bacteria.

  8. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  9. A Molecular MST Approach to Investigate Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Bioaerosols, Bathing Water, Seaweed Wrack, and Sand at Recreational Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoren, K. M.; Sinigalliano, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous cases of beach bacteria affecting millions of people worldwide, the persistence of the bacteria populations in coastal areas is still not well understood. The purpose of this study was to test the levels of persistence of Fecal Indicating Bacteria (FIB) of enterococci, Escherichia coli, and Human-source Bacteroidales, within the intertidal "swash zone" and the deeper waist zone in which people commonly bathe and play. In addition, the study sought to determine if these bacterial contaminants may also be found in aerosols at the beach. Measuring solar insolation in relation to bacterial persistence in seaweed wrack was used to determine if sunlight plays a role in modifying concentrations of FIB at the beach. Light intensity measured by a solar photometer and air quality measured by aerosol plate counts and qPCR Microbial Source Tracking (MST) was compared to varying locations where the beach samples were collected. Results from water samples demonstrate that bacteria measured using plate counts and qPCR were indeed higher within the swash zone than in the waist zone. This is in contrast with the way that the EPA currently measures and determines the public safety of beach waters. They commonly measure the waist zone, but disregard the swash zone. Results from beach bio-aerosol samples showed a wide variety of fungi and bacteria in the beach air, and qPCR MST analysis of these bio-aerosols showed the presence of FIBs such as enterococci on several of the aerosol collection plates. This emphasizes the need to collect samples from the entire beach instead of just measuring at an isolated area, and that exposure to microbial contaminants may include bathing water, beach sand, seaweed wrack, and bio-aerosols. Thus, the data reveals a potential way to identify harmful levels of bacteria and dangerous levels of poor air quality at recreational beaches. These results expound the need for broader assessment of potential beach contamination, not only the

  10. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  11. Application of empirical predictive modeling using conventional and alternative fecal indicator bacteria in eastern North Carolina waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul; Conn, Kathleen E.; Crosswell, Joey; Noble, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine waters are the site of intense anthropogenic influence with concomitant use for recreation and seafood harvesting. Therefore, coastal and estuarine water quality has a direct impact on human health. In eastern North Carolina (NC) there are over 240 recreational and 1025 shellfish harvesting water quality monitoring sites that are regularly assessed. Because of the large number of sites, sampling frequency is often only on a weekly basis. This frequency, along with an 18–24 h incubation time for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) enumeration via culture-based methods, reduces the efficiency of the public notification process. In states like NC where beach monitoring resources are limited but historical data are plentiful, predictive models may offer an improvement for monitoring and notification by providing real-time FIB estimates. In this study, water samples were collected during 12 dry (n = 88) and 13 wet (n = 66) weather events at up to 10 sites. Statistical predictive models for Escherichiacoli (EC), enterococci (ENT), and members of the Bacteroidales group were created and subsequently validated. Our results showed that models for EC and ENT (adjusted R2 were 0.61 and 0.64, respectively) incorporated a range of antecedent rainfall, climate, and environmental variables. The most important variables for EC and ENT models were 5-day antecedent rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. These models successfully predicted FIB levels over a wide range of conditions with a 3% (EC model) and 9% (ENT model) overall error rate for recreational threshold values and a 0% (EC model) overall error rate for shellfish threshold values. Though modeling of members of the Bacteroidales group had less predictive ability (adjusted R2 were 0.56 and 0.53 for fecal Bacteroides spp. and human Bacteroides spp., respectively), the modeling approach and testing provided information on Bacteroidales ecology. This is the first example of a set of successful statistical

  12. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  13. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeke, Benedict C.; Thomson, M. Sue; Moss, Elica M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R 2 = 0.998) and turbidity (R 2 = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern

  14. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, C; Sidhu, J P S; Tiehm, A; Toze, S

    2016-11-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes bla TEM , bla SHV , ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of bacteria in Blue Marsh Lake and selected tributaries, Berks County, Pennsylvania; September-October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Michele L.

    2002-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has water-quality standards that limit the number of specific bacteria in water that is considered safe for recreational use. Bacteria such as fecal streptococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are used to assess recreational water quality because they usually live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Fecal indicator bacteria commonly are associated with waterborne disease-causing organisms (pathogens). These indicator bacteria are used routinely as a measure of the quality of water for recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and water skiing. If the indicator bacteria are present, effective measures could be taken to prevent the transmission or epidemic outbreak of waterborne diseases as a result of contamination of these waters from human or animal waste.Blue Marsh Lake is on Tulpehocken Creek in Berks County, Pa., and drains a largely agricultural basin. Land use in the basin is approximately 60 percent cropland, and 85 percent of the farms are livestock and poultry farms.The potential sources of fecal bacteria are:geese that inhabit the recreational areas of the lake,humans that visit the Dry Brooks Day Use Area (swimming area), andfarm animals, wastewater facilities, and household septic systems in the basin (bacteria from these sources could enter the lake through tributaries).To meet the recreational water-quality standard, lake water may not have more than 200 colony-forming units (CFU) of fecal coliforms per 100 milliliters (mL). During the week of July 23, 2001, data collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) at the swimming area at Blue Marsh Lake showed concentrations of fecal coliforms in the water exceeding the standard. To determine the extent of elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria, further study of the lake and selected tributaries was needed.

  16. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  18. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Isotopic, Genetic, and Chemical Data to Evaluate the Source of Fecal Indicator Bacteria near Malibu, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izbicki, John A.; Burton, Carmen A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beachgoers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches with more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Periodically, tests show that FIB concentrations exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches. There are several potential sources of FIB to Malibu Lagoon and the nearby coastline including: - Seepage from commercial and residential onsite sewage treatment systems that may enter the lagoon or near-shore ocean water through the groundwater system; - Discharge or runoff from commercial and residential developments into Malibu Creek and Malibu Lagoon; - Bird and wildlife feces, either deposited directly into the lagoon or onto beaches, or washed into these areas by tides and storms.

  20. Quantificação de coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus e mesófilos presentes em diferentes etapas da produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra em laticínios Enumeration of coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese produced in a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi acompanhar a produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra, avaliando a qualidade higiênica do processamento pela quantificação de coliformes, S. aureus e mesófilos totais. A produção de três diferentes lotes de queijo foi acompanhada, sendo coletadas amostras de várias etapas do processamento. Além disso, amostras de queijo pertencente ao lote acompanhado foram coletadas na prateleira de um estabelecimento comercial durante seu período de validade. Os suabes coletados foram semeados em ágar sangue ovino; as amostras de água foram submetidas à Colimetria; as demais amostras foram submetidas à contagem de S. aureus, coliformes e mesófilos totais por meio de protocolos de rotina. Verificou-se que, apesar da pasteurização ter diminuído consideravelmente as populações microbianas presentes no leite cru, a falta de sanificação adequada de um equipamento que entrava em contato com o leite cru e que dá acesso ao tanque de coagulação, resultou na recontaminação da matéria-prima. Ao final do processamento, o queijo encontrava-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação, contudo a elevada contagem de mesófilos totais sugere que sejam melhoradas as medidas de sanitização durante o processamento, a fim de garantir a qualidade higiênica e uma maior vida de prateleira ao queijo produzido.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese, using the enumeration of coliforms, S. aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria as indicators. The production of three different lots of cheese was followed, being collected samples throughout the processing steps. Furthermore, samples of cheese belonging to the same sampled lot were collected in the shelf of a commercial establishment throughout the shelf life period. Swabs were streaked onto blood agar plates; water samples were submitted to colimetric assays; all other samples were

  1. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infections caused by Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E has rapidly increased during the past 15 years. Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and long-term intestinal carriage is considered important for the spread of ESBL and as a source of clinical infections. Oral biofilm such as supragingival plaque is known to contain numerous antibiotic resistance determinants and may also represent a poorly investigated site for ESBL carriage and further spread. Objective: To investigate possible carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria in supragingival plaque of known fecal carriers of these bacteria. Design: We screened for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic ESBL-producing bacteria and blaCTX-M in supragingival plaque samples from healthy human adults with culture-verified fecal carriage of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. The presence or absence of Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL-producing bacteria in plaque samples was evaluated using culture-based methods and consensus CTX-M PCR. Results: Oral samples were obtained from 17 participants with known previous carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. One colony of Rahnella aquatilis harboring the class A ESBL gene bla RAHN-1/2 was identified in an oral sample from one of the participants. Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that the presence of CTX-M-producing bacteria is uncommon in oral plaque of healthy human adult fecal carriers. Due to the limited number of persons tested, a low prevalence of oral ESBL-carriage in healthy adults or carriage in selected groups of patients cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an R. aquatilis with the RAHN-1/2 gene in the oral cavity.

  2. Evaluation of methods to sample fecal indicator bacteria in foreshore sand and pore water at freshwater beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Laura J; Edge, Thomas A; O'Carroll, Denis M; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kushnir, Caitlin S E; Robinson, Clare E

    2017-09-15

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are known to accumulate in foreshore beach sand and pore water (referred to as foreshore reservoir) where they act as a non-point source for contaminating adjacent surface waters. While guidelines exist for sampling surface waters at recreational beaches, there is no widely-accepted method to collect sand/sediment or pore water samples for FIB enumeration. The effect of different sampling strategies in quantifying the abundance of FIB in the foreshore reservoir is unclear. Sampling was conducted at six freshwater beaches with different sand types to evaluate sampling methods for characterizing the abundance of E. coli in the foreshore reservoir as well as the partitioning of E. coli between different components in the foreshore reservoir (pore water, saturated sand, unsaturated sand). Methods were evaluated for collection of pore water (drive point, shovel, and careful excavation), unsaturated sand (top 1 cm, top 5 cm), and saturated sand (sediment core, shovel, and careful excavation). Ankle-depth surface water samples were also collected for comparison. Pore water sampled with a shovel resulted in the highest observed E. coli concentrations (only statistically significant at fine sand beaches) and lowest variability compared to other sampling methods. Collection of the top 1 cm of unsaturated sand resulted in higher and more variable concentrations than the top 5 cm of sand. There were no statistical differences in E. coli concentrations when using different methods to sample the saturated sand. Overall, the unsaturated sand had the highest amount of E. coli when compared to saturated sand and pore water (considered on a bulk volumetric basis). The findings presented will help determine the appropriate sampling strategy for characterizing FIB abundance in the foreshore reservoir as a means of predicting its potential impact on nearshore surface water quality and public health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Interacting effects of sunlight, agriculturally derived dissolved organic matter and reactive oxygen species on fecal indicator bacteria growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial survival in agriculturally impacted surface waters is dependent on resource availability and also on potential resource transformations, mediated by biotic and abiotic processes. In this study, we focused on the effect of sunlight irradiated cattle fecal extract (CFE) a...

  4. USE OF COMPETITIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION TO ENRICH FOR GENOME-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO CLOSELY RELATED HUMAN FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococci are frequently used as indicators of fecal pollution in surface waters. To accelerate the identification of Enterococcus faecalis-specific DNA sequences, we employed a comparative genomic strategy utilizing a positive selection process to compare E. faec...

  5. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements.

  6. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  7. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  8. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessment of sources of human pathogens and fecal contamination in a Florida freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Reckhow, Kenneth H; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the potential for a variety of environmental reservoirs to harbor or contribute fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), DNA markers of human fecal contamination, and human pathogens to a freshwater lake. We hypothesized that submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), sediments, and stormwater act as reservoirs and/or provide inputs of FIB and human pathogens to this inland water. Analysis included microbial source tracking (MST) markers of sewage contamination (Enterococcus faecium esp gene, human-associated Bacteroides HF183, and human polyomaviruses), pathogens (Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and enteric viruses), and FIB (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci). Bayesian analysis was used to assess relationships among microbial and physicochemical variables. FIB in the water were correlated with concentrations in SAV and sediment. Furthermore, the correlation of antecedent rainfall and major rain events with FIB concentrations and detection of human markers and pathogens points toward multiple reservoirs for microbial contaminants in this system. Although pathogens and human-source markers were detected in 55% and 21% of samples, respectively, markers rarely coincided with pathogen detection. Bayesian analysis revealed that low concentrations (<45 CFU × 100 ml(-1)) of fecal coliforms were associated with 93% probability that pathogens would not be detected; furthermore the Bayes net model showed associations between elevated temperature and rainfall with fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations, but not E. coli. These data indicate that many under-studied matrices (e.g. SAV, sediment, stormwater) are important reservoirs for FIB and potentially human pathogens and demonstrate the usefulness of Bayes net analysis for water quality assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY (NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, TP, SO4, COLIFORM BACTERIA AND HEAVY METALS OF THE MAIN WATER SUPPLIES IN THE STATE OF CAMPECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Benitez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water quality testing (in situ and in laboratory was conducted on 50 wells across the state of Campeche. Further to this (to aid in water quality management and policy, a GIS was implemented to i approximate Zones of Contribution (ZOC for well recharge which in turn supplies water for main cities in the state and ii perform predictive land change modeling on these ZOC’s to predict the future effect of non-point source pollution. Due to natural geohydrological conditions, values of TDS, pH, and SO4 exceeded Mexican regulations in roughly one third of the wells. Although most wells do not exceed the permissible limits of nutrients and heavy metals, some wells show worryingly high levels of NO2-, TP, and Pb, indicators of pollution from anthropogenic sources. All wells were contaminated by coliform bacteria. Poor water quality in some of the main water sources in the state is mainly due to the proliferation of open dumps and the lack of sewage infrastructure, as well as the ongoing conversion of vegetated land to agriculture into the ZOC’s. It is shown that unless remedial measures are implemented, human activities will continue to extend into these areas, placing the state’s water supply at even higher risk of contamination.Â

  11. Targeting the Sources of Fecal Contamination using Dog-, Human-, and Ruminant- Specific Markers in the Lake Herrick Watershed, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Habteselassie, M.; Sowah, R.; Kannan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Lake Herrick Watershed is about 1.5 km2 and covers portions of the University of Georgia's East campus, the Oconee Forest, residential and commercial landuse. Lake Herrick, a recreational site on the University of Georgia campus, was closed in 2002 due to fecal contamination. Subsequent monitoring confirmed persistent contamination, which led to a permanent closure to swimming, boating, and fishing. While fecal coliform abundance is a standard metric for determining human health risks, Geldreich (1970) showed that fecal abundance does not necessarily correlate with the presence of pathogens. Nor does it identify pollution sources, which are needed to mitigate health risks. Two inflow tributaries and the outlet stream were monitored for discharge, fecal coliform, forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and other water-quality data to quantify lake influent and effluent bacteria loads. Fecal sources were identified using the human HF183 genetic marker (Seurinck et al., 2005), the ruminant BacR marker (Reischer et al., 2006), and the dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker (Tambalo et al., 2012). Preliminary results confirm high concentrations of E. coli and Enterococci, above the State's limit of 124 MPN/100 mL, in both baseflows and stormflows. The findings also suggest that the E. coli and Enterococci loads from the inlet tributaries are on average higher compared to the bacteria loads coming out of the outlet stream. The human markers were detectable at all three sites but most of the samples were not quantifiable. The ruminant markers were quantifiable at both inlets but no ruminant markers were found at the outlet. The dog markers were detectable but not quantifiable at both inlets and no dog markers were detected at the outlet. Statistical analyses will be used to establish relationships between the nutrients data, the fecal concentrations, and the gene-specific markers.

  12. SPACE/TIME ANALYSIS OF FECAL POLLUTION AND RAINFALL IN AN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA ESTUARY

    OpenAIRE

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Money, Eric S.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Newport River Estuary (NPRE) is a high priority shellfish harvesting area in eastern North Carolina (NC) that is impaired due to fecal contamination, specifically exceeding recommended levels for fecal coliforms. A hydrologic-driven mean trend model was developed, as a function of antecedent rainfall, in the NPRE to predict levels of E. coli (EC, measured as a proxy for fecal coliforms). This mean trend model was integrated in a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework to produce informat...

  13. The Relationship Between Land Management, Fecal Indicator Bacteria, and the Occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria Spp. in Water and Sediments During Synoptic Sampling In The South Fork Broad River Watershed, Northeast Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathog...

  14. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  15. Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Personné, J.-C.; Lods, G. F.; Drogue, C.

    2000-12-01

    Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 ml in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 ml. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The

  16. Gut microbial metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with specific fecal bacteria and serum markers of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Céline; Dewulf, Evelyne M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this human study was to assess the influence of prebiotic-induced gut microbiota modulation on PUFA-derived bacterial metabolites production. Therefore, we analyzed the circulating fatty acid profile including CLA/CLnA in obese women treated during 3 months with inulin-type fructan prebiotics. In these patients, we had already determined gut microbiota composition by phylogenetic microarray and qPCR analysis of 16S rDNA. Some PUFA-derived bacterial metabolites were detected in the serum of obese patients. Despite the prebiotic-induced modulation of gut microbiota, including changes in CLA/CLnA-producing bacteria, the treatment did not impact significantly on the circulating level of these metabolites. However, some PUFA-derived bacterial metabolites were positively correlated with specific fecal bacteria (Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium ventriosum and Lactobacillus spp.) and inversely correlated with serum cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL). These correlations suggest a potential beneficial effect of some of these metabolites but this remains to be confirmed by further investigation.

  17. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  18. Runoff delay exerts a strong control on the field-scale removal of manure-borne fecal bacteria with runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial safety of surface waters is an ongoing issue which is threatened by the transport of manure-borne bacteria to water sources used for irrigation or recreation. Predictive modeling has become an effective tool to forecast the microbial quality of water duringprecipitation events, however...

  19. Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

  20. Determination of Resistant Starch Assimilating Bacteria in Fecal Samples of Mice by In vitro RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Elena; Young, Wayne; Rosendale, Douglas; Conrad, Ralf; Riedel, Christian U.; Egert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the intestinal microbiota on human health is becoming increasingly appreciated in recent years. In consequence, and fueled by major technological advances, the composition of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease has been intensively studied by high throughput sequencing approaches. Observations linking dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota with a number of serious medical conditions including chronic inflammatory disorders and allergic diseases suggest that restoration of the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota may be a treatment option at least for some of these diseases. One possibility to shape the intestinal microbiota is the administration of prebiotic carbohydrates such as resistant starch (RS). In the present study, we aim at establishing RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) to identify bacterial populations that are involved in the assimilation of RS using anaerobic in vitro fermentation of murine fecal material with stable [U13C] isotope-labeled potato starch. Total RNA from these incubations was extracted, processed by gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionated by density. 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from reverse transcribed RNA of high and low density fractions suspected to contain labeled and unlabeled RNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences revealed a distinct subset of the intestinal microbiota involved in starch metabolism. The results suggest Bacteroidetes, in particular genera affiliated with Prevotellaceae, as well as members of the Ruminococcacea family to be primary assimilators of resistant starch due to a significantly higher relative abundance in higher density fractions in RNA samples isolated after 2 h of incubation. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) analysis, some stable isotope label was recovered from acetate, propionate and butyrate. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of RNA

  1. Determination of Resistant Starch Assimilating Bacteria in Fecal Samples of Mice by In vitro RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Herrmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the intestinal microbiota on human health is becoming increasingly appreciated in recent years. In consequence, and fueled by major technological advances, the composition of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease has been intensively studied by high throughput sequencing approaches. Observations linking dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota with a number of serious medical conditions including chronic inflammatory disorders and allergic diseases suggest that restoration of the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota may be a treatment option at least for some of these diseases. One possibility to shape the intestinal microbiota is the administration of prebiotic carbohydrates such as resistant starch (RS. In the present study, we aim at establishing RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP to identify bacterial populations that are involved in the assimilation of RS using anaerobic in vitro fermentation of murine fecal material with stable [U13C] isotope-labeled potato starch. Total RNA from these incubations was extracted, processed by gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionated by density. 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from reverse transcribed RNA of high and low density fractions suspected to contain labeled and unlabeled RNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences revealed a distinct subset of the intestinal microbiota involved in starch metabolism. The results suggest Bacteroidetes, in particular genera affiliated with Prevotellaceae, as well as members of the Ruminococcacea family to be primary assimilators of resistant starch due to a significantly higher relative abundance in higher density fractions in RNA samples isolated after 2 h of incubation. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS analysis, some stable isotope label was recovered from acetate, propionate and butyrate. Here, we demonstrate the

  2. Moisture content during extrusion of oats impacts the initial fermentation metabolites and probiotic bacteria during extended fermentation by human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sandrayee; Weier, Steven A; Rose, Devin J

    2017-07-01

    Extrusion exposes flour components to high pressure and shear during processing, which may affect the dietary fiber fermentability by human fecal microbiota. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of flour moisture content during extrusion on in vitro fermentation properties of whole grain oats. Extrudates were processed at three moisture levels (15%, 18%, and 21%) at fixed screw speed (300rpm) and temperature (130°C). The extrudates were then subjected to in vitro digestion and fermentation. Extrusion moisture significantly affected water-extractable β-glucan (WE-BG) in the extrudates, with samples processed at 15% moisture (lowest) and 21% moisture (highest) having the highest concentration of WE-BG. After the first 8h of fermentation, more WE-BG remained in fermentation media in samples processed at 15% moisture compared with the other conditions. Also, extrusion moisture significantly affected the production of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA by the microbiota during the first 8h of fermentation. Microbiota grown on extrudates processed at 18% moisture had the highest production of acetate and total SCFA, whereas bacteria grown on extrudates processed at 15% and 18% moisture had the highest butyrate production. After 24h of fermentation, samples processed at 15% moisture supported lower Bifidobacterium counts than those produced at other conditions, but had among the highest Lactobacillus counts. Thus, moisture content during extrusion significantly affects production of fermentation metabolites by the gut microbiota during the initial stages of fermentation, while also affecting probiotic bacteria counts during extended fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and small-scale validation of a novel pigeon-associated mitochondrial DNA source tracking marker for the detection of fecal contamination in harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-15

    The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0.96. Harvested rainwater samples (n=60) were screened for the prevalence of the marker with the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker detected in 78% of the samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to calculate the conditional probability of the marker detecting true pigeon contamination and the marker subsequently displayed a 99% probability of detecting true pigeon contamination in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker displayed high concurrence frequencies versus heterotrophic bacteria (78.3%), E. coli (73.3%), total coliforms (71.1%) and fecal coliforms (66.7%). This study thus validates that targeting mtDNA for the design of source tracking markers may be a valuable tool to detect avian fecal contamination in environmental waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  5. Identification of fecal contamination sources in water using host-associated markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Corinne A; Prystajecky, Natalie; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2013-03-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, drinking water is tested for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, but there is currently no routine follow-up testing to investigate fecal contamination sources in samples that test positive for indicator bacteria. Reliable microbial source tracking (MST) tools to rapidly test water samples for multiple fecal contamination markers simultaneously are currently lacking. The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a qualitative MST tool to identify fecal contamination from different host groups, and (ii) to evaluate the MST tool using water samples with evidence of fecal contamination. Singleplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test (i) water from polluted sites and (ii) raw and drinking water samples for presence of bacterial genetic markers associated with feces from humans, cattle, seagulls, pigs, chickens, and geese. The multiplex MST assay correctly identified suspected contamination sources in contaminated waterways, demonstrating that this test may have utility for heavily contaminated sites. Most raw and drinking water samples analyzed using singleplex PCR contained at least one host-associated marker. Singleplex PCR was capable of detecting host-associated markers in small sample volumes and is therefore a promising tool to further analyze water samples submitted for routine testing and provide information useful for water quality management.

  6. Dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria, bacterial pathogen genes, and organic wastewater contaminants in the Little Calumet River: Portage Burns Waterway, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on the co-occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), bacterial pathogens, and organic wastewater-associated chemicals (OWCs) within Great Lakes tributaries. Fifteen watershed sites and one beach site adjacent to the Little Calumet River–Portage Burns Waterway (LCRPBW) on Lake Michigan were tested on four dates for pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, chloride, color, ammonia- and nitrate-nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, sulfate, turbidity, and atrazine; for concentrations of FIB; and for genes indicating the presence of human-pathogenic enterococci (ENT) and of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (EC) from various animal sources. Nineteen samples were also tested for 60 OWCs. Half of the watershed samples met EC recreational water quality standards; none met ENT standards. Human-wastewater-associated OWC detections were correlated with human-influence indicators such as population/km2, chloride concentrations, and the presence of WWTP effluents, but EC and ENT concentrations were not. Bacterial pathogen genes indicated rural human and several potential animal sources. OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern (musk fragrances AHTN and HHCB, alkylphenols, carbamazepine) and 3 bacterial pathogen genes were detected at the mouth of the LCRPBW, but no such OWCs and only 1 pathogen gene were detected at the beach. The LCRPBW has significant potential to deliver FIB, potential bacterial pathogens, and OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern to the nearshore of Lake Michigan, under conditions enhancing nearshore transport of the river plume. Nearshore mixing of lake and river water, and the lack of relationship between OWCs and FIB or pathogen genes, pose numerous challenges for watershed and nearshore assessment and remediation.

  7. Multiplex quantification of 16S rDNA of predominant bacteria group within human fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction--ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Chen, Bei; Zhou, Yuxun; Huang, Rui; Liang, Yinming; Wang, Qinxi; Xiao, Zhenxian; Xiao, Junhua

    2009-03-01

    A new method, based on ligase detection reaction (LDR), was developed for quantitative detection of multiplex PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes present in complex mixtures (specifically feces). LDR has been widely used in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay but never applied for quantification of multiplex PCR products. This method employs one pair of DNA probes, one of which is labeled with fluorescence for signal capture, complementary to the target sequence. For multiple target sequence analysis, probes were modified with different lengths of polyT at the 5' end and 3' end. Using a DNA sequencer, these ligated probes were separated and identified by size and dye color. Then, relative abundance of target DNA were normalized and quantified based on the fluorescence intensities and exterior size standards. 16S rRNA gene of three preponderant bacteria groups in human feces: Clostridium coccoides, Bacteroides and related genera, and Clostridium leptum group, were amplified and cloned into plasmid DNA so as to make standard curves. After PCR-LDR analysis, a strong linear relationship was found between the florescence intensity and the diluted plasmid DNA concentrations. Furthermore, based on this method, 100 human fecal samples were quantified for the relative abundance of the three bacterial groups. Relative abundance of C. coccoides was significantly higher in elderly people in comparison with young adults, without gender differences. Relative abundance of Bacteroides and related genera and C. leptum group were significantly higher in young and middle aged than in the elderly. Regarding the whole set of sample, C. coccoides showed the highest relative abundance, followed by decreasing groups Bacteroides and related genera, and C. leptum. These results imply that PCR-LDR can be feasible and flexible applied to large scale epidemiological studies.

  8. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal Pollution Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, cr...

  9. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  10. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  11. a studyof faecal of faecal coliform die coliform die coliform die-off

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    COLIFORM DIE-OFF IN SEWAGE SLUDGE DRYING BED. OFF IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ..... This method was used to measure evaporation from the bed because of .... thermometer with external sensor probe, model No. ST-9283A/B/C and a ...

  12. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contamina

  13. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E.; Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 μg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 μg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 μg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 μg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 μg/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 μg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  14. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  15. Evaluation of the immune responses of the brown mussel Perna perna as indicators of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Fernanda; Neves, Raquel Almeida Ferrando; Carvalho, Wanderson Fernandes de; Krepsky, Natascha; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2018-06-01

    The mussel Perna perna is an intertidal bivalve that is widely distributed, cultivated and consumed in South Africa, Brazil and Venezuela. Among marine resources, bivalve mollusks are one of the most impacted by anthropogenic pollution, as they can accumulate pathogenic bacteria and water pollutants. Hemocytes are molluscan defense cells, and their abundance and functions can be affected in response to contaminants, such as bacterial load. However, no previous study has investigated the immune response of P. perna hemocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate several immune parameters in P. perna as indicators of fecal pollution in mussel hemolymph and in seawater. We collected mussels and adjacent seawater from beaches with different levels of fecal contamination in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil): Vermelha Beach (VB); Icaraí Beach (IB); Urca Beach (UB); and Jurujuba Beach (JB). Hemocyte parameters (density, morphology, phagocytic activity and production of Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS) were evaluated using flow cytometry. We quantified Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) in seawater by the multiple tubes technique for each beach and for hemolymph by the spread-plate technique. In agreement with historical evaluation of fecal contamination levels, UB presented the highest FIB abundance in seawater (thermotolerant coliforms, TEC = 1600 NMP 100 mL -1 ), whereas VB exhibited the lowest (TEC = 17 NMP 100 mL -1 ). UB mussels had six and eight times higher hemocyte density and phagocytic activity, respectively, than mussels from VB. Mussels from VB and IB presented a significantly lower number of total coliforms in hemolymph and a significantly higher relative internal complexity of hemocytes than those from UB and JB (p ≤ 0.01, PERMANOVA). ROS production by hemocytes was significantly lower in mussels from VB compared to those from JB (p = 0.04, ANOVA). Our results indicate a significant relationship between the level of fecal contamination in

  16. Assessment and impact of microbial fecal pollution and human enteric pathogens in a coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, E K; Farrah, S A; Rose, J B

    2001-04-01

    The goals of this study were to assess watersheds impacted by high densities of OSDS (onsite sewage disposal systems) for evidence of fecal contamination and evaluate the occurrence of human pathogens in coastal waters off west Florida. Eleven stations (representing six watersheds) were intensively sampled for microbial indicators of fecal pollution (fecal coliform bacteria, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens and coliphage) and the human enteric pathogens, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and enteroviruses during the summer rainy season (May-September 1996). Levels of all indicators ranged between 4000 CFU/100 ml. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected infrequently (6.8% and 2.3% of samples tested positive, respectively). Conversely, infectious enteroviruses were detected at low levels in 5 of the 6 watersheds sampled. Using cluster analysis, sites were grouped into two categories, high and low risks, based on combined levels of indicators. These results suggest that stations of highest pollution risk were located within areas of high OSDS densities. Furthermore, data indicate a subsurface transport of contaminated water to surface waters. The high prevalence of enteroviruses throughout the study area suggests a chronic pollution problem and potential risk to recreational swimmers in and around Sarasota Bay.

  17. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of donor feces infusion, also called Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), are investigated. Historically, FMTs are given mainly for antibiotic associated diarrhea, caused by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are

  18. Comparison of the quantitative dry culture methods with both conventional media and most probable number method for the enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, H; Sota, K; Iwasaki, M; Ogihara, H

    2017-07-01

    Sanita-kun™ CC (coliform count) and EC (Escherichia coli/coliform count), sheet quantitative culture systems which can avoid chromogenic interference by lactase in food, were evaluated in comparison with conventional methods for these bacteria. Based on the results of inclusivity and exclusivity studies using 77 micro-organisms, sensitivity and specificity of both Sanita-kun™ met the criteria for ISO 16140. Both media were compared with deoxycholate agar, violet red bile agar, Merck Chromocult™ coliform agar (CCA), 3M Petrifilm™ CC and EC (PEC) and 3-tube MPN, as reference methods, in 100 naturally contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients of both Sanita-kun™ for coliform detection were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. For E. coli detection, Sanita-kun™ EC was compared with CCA, PEC and MPN in 100 artificially contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients for E. coli detection of Sanita-kun™ EC were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. There were no significant differences in all comparisons when conducting a one-way analysis of variance (anova). Both Sanita-kun™ significantly inhibited colour interference by lactase when inhibition of enzymatic staining was assessed using 40 natural cheese samples spiked with coliform. Our results demonstrated Sanita-kun™ CC and EC are suitable alternatives for the enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms, respectively, in a variety of foods, and specifically in fermented foods. Current chromogenic media for coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms have enzymatic coloration due to breaking down of chromogenic substrates by food lactase. The novel sheet culture media which have film layer to avoid coloration by food lactase have been developed for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms respectively. In this study, we demonstrated these media had comparable performance with reference methods and less interference by food lactase. These media have a possibility not only

  19. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF BAKTERI Coliform PADA DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG YANG BERADA DI WILAYAH KAYUTANGI KOTA BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kumalasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water was one of the natural resources, which was needed by all of living creatures. Safe drinking-water supply should be sought because there was a probability of microorganism contamination in the drinking water, such as Coliform bacteria contamination. The dangerous of Coliform bacteria was that it could cause various illnesses, such as diarrhea, typhus and bacillary dysentery. According to Indonesia National Standard 01- 3553-2006 for packaged drinking water quality requirements, the maximum acceptable contaminant level for Coliform bacteria in each 100 ml refill drinking water sample was <2/100 ml. The purpose of this research is to know or no Coliform bacteria in refill drinking-water and the amount of contaminant in MPN/100 ml, and also to find out whether the drinking-water in various refilling stations in Kayutangi Banjarmasin had fulfilled the requirements of Indonesia National Standard or not. The method of this research was quantitative descriptive research a research which described a phenomenon in a certain population. Saturation sampling technique was used to collect data, and this research used the method of Most Probable Number MPN/100 ml. The results showed that 5 (31,25% samples were positive for containing Coliform bacteria and 11 (65,78% samples were negative for containing Coliform bacteria. The highest MPN/100 ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 190 MPN/100 ml and the lowest MPN/100ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 4 MPN/100 ml. According to the calculation of colony amount using MPN/100 ml table, it was found that all of the five positive samples exceeded the Indonesia National Standard limit, in which the maximum contaminant level was <2/100 ml.

  20. Fecal Contamination of Groundwater in a Small Rural Dryland Watershed in Central Chile Contaminación Fecal en Agua Subterránea en una Pequeña Cuenca de Secano Rural en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Valenzuela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on microbiological groundwater quality was conducted in Chile in a rural watershed that has almost no other water source. Forty-two wells were randomly selected and levels of indicator bacteria - total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, and fecal streptococci (FS - were repeatedly measured during the four seasons of 2005. The aim of this study was to characterize microbiological groundwater quality, relate indicator levels to certain watershed features and management characteristics which are likely to affect water quality. The dynamics of seasonal temporal contamination was determined with statistical analyses of indicator organism concentrations. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze relationships between bacterial indicators in well water and other variables. TC, FC, and FS were found in all samples indicating the wells had been contaminated with human and animal fecal material. The frequency distribution of microorganisms fitted a logistic distribution. The concentrations appeared to be temporal and levels varied between seasons with higher concentrations in winter. The cause of contamination could be linked to the easy access of domestic animals to the wells and to the permeable well casing material. Local precipitation runoff directly influenced the bacterial concentrations found in the wells.Se realizó una investigación de la calidad microbiológica de las aguas subterráneas en una cuenca rural chilena. En esta cuenca prácticamente no había otra fuente de agua disponible. En 42 pozos seleccionados al azar, se midieron niveles de bacterias indicadoras en cuatro temporadas distintas durante el año 2005. Las bacterias incluyeron coliformes totales (TC, coliformes fecales (FC y Estreptococos fecales (FS. El objetivo fue caracterizar la calidad microbiológica del agua subterránea y relacionar los indicadores con ciertas propiedades y el manejo de la cuenca que pueden afectar la calidad del agua. La dinámica temporal de la

  1. Bacteria of fecal origin in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae in the Cocó River estuary, Ceará State, Brazil Bactérias de origem fecal contaminantes de ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae, oriundas do estuário do Rio Cocó, Estado do Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I.M. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae, collected at a natural oyster bed in the estuary of Cocó river (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. MPN values were used for estimating the total (TC and fecal (FC coliforms and Enterococcus spp. TC and FC MPN values in the whole muscle and intervalve liquid ranged from 1,600/g and from 1,100/g. No correlation was found between the physico-chemical parameters (temperature, salinity and pH of the surrounding water and the bacteriological contamination levels found in the tested oysters. The only correlation found was between TC and FC values. Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated and subjected to biochemical tests for species identification. The capacity of those strains for production of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance was tested using the Escherichia coli strain ATCC 25922 as a testing organism. Only one, E. faecalis, out of 121 Enterococcus strains tested, presented the inhibitory activity.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da ostra de mangue (Crassostrea rhizophorae originária de um criadouro natural no estuário do Rio Cocó, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Para isso, foram realizadas as estimativas do Número Mais Provável (NMP de Coliformes Totais (CT e de Fecais (CF e de Enterococcus spp. Os valores encontrados para CT e CF no músculo (com líquido intervalvar variaram de 1.600 e 1.100/g. Não houve correlação entre os parâmetros físico-químicos (temperatura, salinidade e pH da água na área do criadouro e os níveis de contaminação encontrados nas ostras. Somente houve correlação entre os valores de CT e CF. Cepas de Enterococcus spp. foram isoladas e submetidas a testes bioquímicos para identificação das espécies e, posteriormente, foram testadas para verificar a produção de substância inibitória semelhante à bacteriocina utilizando a cepa-teste Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. De um

  2. Effect of wastewater quality parameters on coliform inactivation by tin oxide anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2018-04-16

    The effect of six water quality constituents on wastewater effluent disinfection by tin oxide anodes (TOAs) was investigated in single cell laboratory reactors. Several concentrations of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen were added to media containing 10 6 total coliform bacteria mL -1 . Current was applied through the TOAs, and coliform bacteria viability was analyzed over time. Over 99.9% inactivation of coliform bacteria was found over 15 min in TOA reactors. Concentrations of the six water quality constituents typical of concentrations found in wastewaters had no effect on TOA disinfection efficacy. The results of this research demonstrate that TOAs, which could potentially be powered by solar panels, have potential as a sustainable disinfection process compared to chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light.

  3. Spatio-temporal distribution of fecal indicators in three rivers of the Haihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Chen, Yanan; Zheng, Xiang; Gui, Chengmin; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-04-01

    Because of their significant impact on public health, waterborne pathogens, especially bacteria and viruses, are frequently monitored in surface water to assess microbial quality of water bodies. However, more than one billion people worldwide currently lack access to safe drinking water, and a diversity of waterborne outbreaks caused by pathogens is reported in nations at all levels of economic development. Spatio-temporal distribution of conventional pollutants and five pathogenic microorganisms were discussed for the Haihe River Basin. Land use and socio-economic assessments were coupled with comprehensive water quality monitoring. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters were measured at 20 different sites in the watershed for 1 year, including pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-N, total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus. The results highlighted the high spatio-temporal variability in pathogen distribution at watershed scale: high concentration of somatic coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in March and December and their very low concentration in June and September. All pathogens were positively correlated to urban/rural residential/industrial land and negatively correlated to other four land use types. Microbial pollution was greatly correlated with population density, urbanization rate, and percentage of the tertiary industry in the gross domestic product. In the future, river microbial risk control strategy should focus more on the effective management of secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant and land around rivers.

  4. Cross-Comparison of Human Wastewater-Associated Molecular Markers in Relation to Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Enteric Viruses in Recreational Beach Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B; Beale, D J; Dennis, P G; Cook, S; Ahmed, W

    2017-04-15

    Detection of human wastewater contamination in recreational waters is of critical importance to regulators due to the risks posed to public health. To identify such risks, human wastewater-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been developed. At present, however, a greater understanding of the suitability of these markers for the detection of diluted human wastewater in environmental waters is necessary to predict risk. Here, we compared the process limit of detection (PLOD) and process limit of quantification (PLOQ) of six human wastewater-associated MST markers ( Bacteroides HF183 [HF183], Escherichia coli H8 [EC H8], Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH , human adenovirus [HAdV], human polyomavirus [HPyV], and pepper mild mottle virus [PMMoV]) in relation to a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), Enterococcus sp. 23S rRNA (ENT 23S), and three enteric viruses (human adenovirus serotypes 40/41 [HAdV 40/41], human norovirus [HNoV], and human enterovirus [EV]) in beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater. Among the six MST markers tested, HF183 was the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution and was quantifiable up to dilutions of 10 -6 and 10 -4 for beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater, respectively. Other markers and enteric viruses were detected at various dilutions (10 -1 to 10 -5 ). These MST markers, FIB, and enteric viruses were then quantified in beach water ( n = 12) and sand samples ( n = 12) from South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia, to estimate the levels of human fecal pollution. Of the 12 sites examined, beach water and sand samples from several sites had quantifiable concentrations of HF183 and PMMoV markers. Overall, our results indicate that while HF183 is the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution, it should be used in conjunction with a conferring viral marker to avoid overestimating the risk of gastrointestinal illness. IMPORTANCE MST is an effective tool to

  5. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  6. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  7. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  8. Detection of multiple potentially pathogenic bacteria in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpour, Aziz; Mohd Nasori, Khairul Nazrin; Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2014-06-15

    The deltaic estuarine system of the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve of Malaysia is a site where several human settlements and brackish water aquaculture have been established. Here, we evaluated the level of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the surface water and sediments. Higher levels of FIB were detected at downstream sampling sites from the fishing village, indicating it as a possible source of anthropogenic pollution to the estuary. Enterococci levels in the estuarine sediments were higher than in the surface water, while total coliforms and E. coli in the estuarine sediments were not detected in all samples. Also, various types of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated. The results indicate that the Matang estuarine system is contaminated with various types of potential human bacterial pathogens which might pose a health risk to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  10. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  11. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  12. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  13. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  14. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  15. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Technology and Cost US United States UV Ultraviolet Radiation WRF Water Research Foundation Table of Contents..., in soil, and on vegetation. Coliform bacteria may be transported to surface water by run-off or to... of this preamble for detailed discussions of the routine monitoring and repeat sampling requirements...

  16. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Linden

    Full Text Available The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL–1 to 16.72 ng mL–1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09. However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p

  17. Impact of mulches and growing season on indicator bacteria survival during lettuce cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aixia; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-05-02

    In fresh produce production, the use of mulches as ground cover to retain moisture and control weeds is a common agricultural practice, but the influence that various mulches have on enteric pathogen survival and dispersal is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different mulching methods on the survival of soil and epiphytic fecal indicator bacteria on organically grown lettuce during different growing seasons. Organically managed lettuce, cultivated with various ground covers--polyethylene plastic, corn-based biodegradable plastic, paper and straw mulch--and bare ground as a no-mulch control, was overhead inoculated with manure-contaminated water containing known levels of generic Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Leaves and soil samples were collected at intervals over a two week period on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14, and quantitatively assessed for E. coli, fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures and an exponential decline with asymptote survival model. Indicator bacterial concentrations in the lettuce phyllosphere decreased over time under all treatments, with more rapid E. coli declines in the fall than in the spring (plettuce compared to mulches. In fall 2014, the E. coli decline rate on paper mulch-grown lettuce was higher (plettuce phyllosphere, and mulch type was a factor for fecal coliform levels (plettuce production may impact the fate of enteric bacteria in soil or on lettuce, most likely in relation to soil moisture retention, and other weather-related factors, such as temperature and rainfall. The data suggest that the time between exposure to a source of enteric bacteria and harvesting of the crop is season dependent, which has implications for determining best harvest times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing new bacteria subroutines in the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal bacteria observations from four different sites in Korea and the US demonstrate seasonal variability, showing a significant relationship with temperature (Figure 1); fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations are relatively higher in summer and lower in winter , including Stillwater river (...

  19. Evaluation of Carcass Quality for Coliforms, Salmonella and Psychrophiles on Evisceration and Chiller lines in Yazd Province Industrial Poultry Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mofidi

    2014-05-01

    In general, it can be said that secondary contamination in the slaughter line along with gradual increase in temperature of the chiller can increase bacterial load of both coliforms and salmonella but it will not affect the amount of psychrophile bacteria. Due to some differences between the studied slaughterhouses, microbial load of coliform and salmonella can be acheived by improving the management and installation of appropriate aquipments in the evisceration line.

  20. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the

  1. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P water samples from the Eastern Townships were also tested. Five (10%) of 53 samples from private surface wells were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, of which only 2 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  2. Disinfectant properties of acid mine drainage: its effects on enteric bacteria in a sewage-contaminated stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, S.T.; Celements, C.M.; Ostrowski, D.; Hanlon, T. [St. Francis College, Loretto, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-09-01

    Studies conducted in a Cambria County, Pennsylvania, acid mine drainage stream suggest that mine drainage rapidly reduces in situ populations of fecal bacteria associated with inputs of untreated sewage. The density of lactose-fermenting bacteria, mostly coliform species from sewage, declined 1000-fold over a distance of less than 100 m following the input of high acid (pH 3.5 to 4.0), high ferrous iron (45 mg/l) acid mine drainage. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from the stream, identified, and tested for tolerance to acid mine drainage by exposing cells to drainage for 10 minutes at 0 or 37{degree}C. Populations of all tested isolates were reduced by this treatment, but some isolates were significantly less affected than others. Thus, while mine drainage may act as a disinfectant, it may not reduce all populations of disease-causing intestinal bacteria at an equal, rapid rate.

  3. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  4. The prevalence and distribution of indicators of fecal contamination in the sand from beaches of Oran coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoui, N.; Matallah-Boutiba, A.; Boutiba, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The microbiological quality of water at public bathing beaches is regularly monitored using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a surrogate for the presence of human sewage and pathogens. The common feature of all these routine screening procedures is that the primary analysis is for indicator organisms rather than the pathogens that might cause concern. Indicator organisms are bacteria such as non-specific coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are very commonly found in the human or animal gut and which, if detected, may suggest the presence of sewage. Indicator organisms are used because even when a person is infected with more pathogenic bacteria, they will still be excreting many millions times more indicator organisms than pathogens. It is therefore reasonable to surmise that if indicator organism levels are low, then pathogen levels will be very much lower or absent. Judgments as to suitability of water for use are based on very extensive precedents and relate to the probability of any sample population of bacteria being able to be infective at a reasonable statistical level of confidence. Exposure to FIB and associated pathogens may also occur through contact with contaminated beach sand, but no standards limiting levels of microbes in sand or required monitoring program has been established. As a result, the factors affecting FIB and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. A possible contamination of the sand by bacterial communities could be a source of transmission of certain pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this study was to look for a presence of certain bacteria that could be a source of illness to swimmers and compare the different levels of contamination between beach sand and sea water in four sites along the Western Oranian coast. First analysis were made during the dry season and rainy season from December 2010 to June 2012 to estimate fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and total germs levels. E.coli and

  5. Evaluation of data from the literature on the transport and survival of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in aquifers under saturated conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J W A; Schijven, J F

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms are of major importance as indicators of fecal contamination of water. Due to its negative surface charge and relatively low die-off or inactivation rate coefficient, E. coli is able to travel long distances underground and is therefore also a useful

  6. Study of Slow Sand Filtration in Removing Total Coliforms and E.Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekha Yogafanny

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of SSF in removing bacteria (Total Coliforms and E. Coli in regard to grain size distribution and grain shape intermittently. Two methodological approaches used in this reasearch were literature review and laboratory work. Bacteria removal was analyzed considering two different filter media (Rhine sand-spherical shape and Lava sand-angular shape with three different grain size distributions. The best performance was attained by filter column F4 which consisted of Lava sand and had the configuration C2 (d10 = 0.07 mm; Cu = 4.2. This filter column achieved 4.7log-units removal of Total Coliforms and 5.0log-units removal of E. coli. The results show that a smaller grain size and an angular shape of sand grain lead to an increase in bacteria removal.

  7. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007703.htm Fecal microbiota transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) helps to replace some of the " ...

  8. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    The emerging discipline of microbial and/or chemical source tracking (collectively termed fecal source tracking (FST)) is being used to identify origins of fecal contamination in polluted waters in many countries around the world. FST has developed rapidly because standard methods of measuring contamination in water by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms and enterococci do not identify the sources of the contamination. FST is an active area of research and development in both the academic and private sectors and includes: Developing and testing new microbial and chemical FST methods. Determining the geographic application and animal host ranges of existing and emerging FST techniques. Conducting experimental comparisons of FST techniques. Combining direct monitoring of human pathogens associated with waterborne outbreaks and zoonotic pathogens responsible for infections among people, wildlife, or domesticated animals with the use of FST techniques. Applying FST to watershed analysis and coastal environments. Designing appropriate statistical and probability analysis of FST data and developing models for mass loadings of host-specific fecal contamination. This paper includes a critical review of FST with emphasis on the extent to which methods have been tested (especially in comparison with other methods and/or with blind samples), which methods are applicable to different situations, their shortcomings, and their usefulness in predicting public health risk or pathogen occurrence. In addition, the paper addresses the broader question of whether FST and fecal indicator monitoring is the best approach to regulate water quality and protect human health. Many FST methods have only been tested against sewage or fecal samples or isolates in laboratory studies (proof of concept testing) and/or applied in field studies where the “real” answer is not known, so their comparative performance and accuracy cannot be assessed. For FST to be

  9. Presumptive Sources of Fecal Contamination in Four Tributaries to the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Melvin V.; O'Brien, Tara L.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Hardy, Joshua J.; Schill, William B.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Bailey, David E.; Fenger, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods were used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in water samples collected during September and October 2004 from four tributaries to the New River Gorge National River -- Arbuckle Creek, Dunloup Creek, Keeney Creek, and Wolf Creek. All four tributaries historically have had elevated levels of fecal coliform bacteria. The source-tracking methods used yielded various results, possibly because one or more methods failed. Sourcing methods used in this study included the detection of several human-specific and animal-specific biological or molecular markers, and library-dependent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis that attempted to associate Escherichia coli bacteria obtained from water samples with animal sources by matching DNA-fragment banding patterns. Evaluation of the results of quality-control analysis indicated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was unable to identify known-source bacteria isolates. Increasing the size of the known-source library did not improve the results for quality-control samples. A number of emerging methods, using markers in Enterococcus, human urine, Bacteroidetes, and host mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated some potential in associating fecal contamination with human or animal sources in a limited analysis of quality-control samples. All four of the human-specific markers were detected in water samples from Keeney Creek, a watershed with no centralized municipal wastewater-treatment facilities, thus indicating human sources of fecal contamination. The human-specific Bacteroidetes and host mitochondrial DNA markers were detected in water samples from Dunloup Creek, Wolf Creek, and to a lesser degree Arbuckle Creek. Results of analysis for wastewater compounds indicate that the September 27 sample from Arbuckle Creek contained numerous human tracer compounds likely from sewage. Dog, horse, chicken, and pig host mitochondrial DNA were detected in some of the water samples with the exception of the

  10. INHIBITION OF PATHOGENS BY SPOROGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HONEY OF Melipona sp. (APIDAE: APINAE: MELIPONINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELY DAMIANA NOVAES DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate sporogenic bacteria from the honey of stingless bees Melipona sp., in dry forest, and to evaluate their antagonistic potential for medicinal employment purposes and animal production. The honey samples were collected in Serra Talhada - PE, where honey was taken from four different hives (in triplicate, totaling 12 samples. The samples were diluted and subjected to 80 ºC for 20 minutes to eliminate vegetative cells. The dilutions were plated onto nutrient agar and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 hours. Then the colony forming units (CFU were quantified. The samples were also plated onto malt agar and Sabouraud agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 14 days for the growth of yeast and molds. Total and fecal coliforms were quantified by the most probable number method (MPN. Seven isolates (I of sporogenic bacteria ( Bacillus were obtained, however only four showed probiotic potential. Isolate I - 5 showed the greatest probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus . The growth of the Sarcina sp. was not inhibited by any isolate. No yeast, molds or coliforms were found. The Melipona sp. honey is a source of spore - forming bacteria and is antagonistic to microorganisms that contaminate honey. It has good microbiological quality.

  11. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time

  12. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan K.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark A.; McCarthy, David; Murphy, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May–July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs.

  13. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark; McCarthy, David T; Murphy, Heather M

    2018-07-15

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May-July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hayley T.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  15. 40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a... aircraft water system, the sampling frequency must be determined by the disinfection and flushing frequency... disinfection and flushing frequency recommended by the aircraft water system manufacturer, when available...

  16. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  17. Linking land-use type and stream water quality using spatial data of fecal indicator bacteria and heavy metals in the Yeongsan river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Seung Won; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Ki, Seo Jin; Cha, Sung Min; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-07-01

    This study reveals land-use factors that explain stream water quality during wet and dry weather conditions in a large river basin using two different linear models-multiple linear regression (MLR) models and constrained least squares (CLS) models. Six land-use types and three topographical parameters (size, slope, and permeability) of the watershed were incorporated into the models as explanatory variables. The suggested models were then demonstrated using a digitized elevation map in conjunction with the land-use and the measured concentration data for Escherichia coli (EC), Enterococci bacteria (ENT), and six heavy metal species collected monthly during 2007-2008 at 50 monitoring sites in the Yeongsan Watershed, Korea. The results showed that the MLR models can be a powerful tool for predicting the average concentrations of pollutants in stream water (the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency coefficients ranged from 0.67 to 0.95). On the other hand, the CLS models, with moderately good prediction performance (the NS coefficients ranged 0.28-0.85), were more suitable for quantifying contributions of respective land-uses to the stream water quality. The CLS models suggested that industrial and urban land-uses are major contributors to the stream concentrations of EC and ENT, whereas agricultural, industrial, and mining areas were significant sources of many heavy metal species. In addition, the slope, size, and permeability of the watershed were found to be important factors determining the extent of the contribution from each land-use type to the stream water quality. The models proposed in this paper can be considered useful tools for developing land cover guidelines and for prioritizing locations for implementing management practices to maintain stream water quality standard in a large river basin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    The bacterial diversity in fecal samples from Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ... Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the fecal bacteria of R. bieti distributed ... and conservation genetics, but research on fecal bacterial ... The large number of microorganisms in the intestine of .... There was high evolutional relativity between.

  19. Reconnaissance of Water Quality at Four Swine Farms in Jackson County, Florida, 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Jerilyn J

    1996-01-01

    .... Additionally, the following field constituents were determined in the water samples: temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform bacteria...

  20. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  1. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  2. Electrochemical disinfection of coliform and Escherichia coli for drinking water treatment by electrolysis method using carbon as an electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Agustiningsih, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    Disinfection of coliform and E. Coli in water has been performed by electrolysis using carbon electrodes. Carbon electrodes were used as an anode and cathode with a purity of 98.31% based on SEM-EDS analysis. This study was conducted using electrolysis powered by electric field using carbon electrode as the anode and cathode. Electrolysis method was carried out using variations of time (30, 60, 90, 120 minutes at a voltage of 5 V) and voltage (5, 10, 15, 20 V for 30 minutes) to determine the effect of the disinfection of the bacteria. The results showed the number of coliform and E. coli in water before and after electrolysis was 190 and 22 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The standards quality of drinking water No. 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 requires the zero content of coliform and E. Coli. Electrolysis with the variation of time and potential can reduce the number of coliforms and E. Coli but was not in accordance with the standards. The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to the electrochemical disinfection was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The levels of H2O2 formed increased as soon after the duration of electrolysis voltage but was not a significant influence to the mortality of coliform and E.coli.

  3. INTERLABORATORY VALIDATION OF USEPA METHOD 1680: FECAL COLIFORMS IN BIOSOLIDS BY MULTIPLE-TUBE FERMENTATION PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, the use and disposal of biosolids (including domestic septage) are regulated under 40 CFR Part 503. Subpart D of this regulation protects public health and the environment through requirements designed to reduce the potential for contact with pathogens in biosolids app...

  4. 40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling plan. 141.802... sampling plan. (a) Each air carrier under this subpart must develop a coliform sampling plan covering each... required actions, including repeat and follow-up sampling, corrective action, and notification of...

  5. [Occurrence of bacteria of the Yersinia genus in surface water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulska, B; Maleszewska, J

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was determination of the frequency of occurrence of Yersinia genus bacteria in surface waters polluted to various degrees with bacteria of the coliform and of fecal coli. For detection of Yersinia rods the previously elaborated medium Endo MLCe and the membrane filter method were applied. Samples of 42 surface waters were examined, including 26 from rivers and 16 from lakes, ponds and clay-pits. On the basis of sanitary bacteriological analysis 16 surface waters were classified to class I purity, 10 to class II, the remaining ones to class III or beyond classification. Yersinia rods were detected in 15 water bodies that is 35.7% of the examined waters. A total of 27 Yersinia strains were identified with dominance of Y. intermedia (14 strains) and Y. enterocolitica (10 strains). Three strains represented by the species Yersinia frederiksenii. Most of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotype 1, the particular strains being represented by various serotypes. Hence their different origin may be concluded. The pathogenic serotypes 0:3 and 0:9 of Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected.

  6. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  7. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Nørholm, Nanna; Holm, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-09-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes "low dose-six days" and "medium dose-three days" yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  9. Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloti Vanerli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult[tm] - LMX. The Readycult[tm] - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult[tm] - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

  10. Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Brenes, Guillermo; Mora-Molina, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of rivers in Costa Rica is an issue that requires special attention. The term “river con- tamination” means the incorporation of strange matter such as microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms), chemical products (soaps, fertilizers, pesti- cides), heavy metals (such as chrome, lead, mercury), or organic matter, the last one coming from soil through superficial water runoff as well as domestic wastewaters. All of them deteriorate the water qua- lity and reduce the different wat...

  11. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Bojanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool. Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool, archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool, viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool, fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool, protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  12. Eficiência na remoção de coliformes em águas cinza através da fitorremediação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena S. Baracuhy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O semiárido é caracterizado pelas irregularidades pluviais e o tratamento de águas cinza para reuso na agricultura com tecnologia ecológica é uma forma de conviver com a seca nessas regiões. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa foi realizada no distrito de Ribeira no município de Cabaceiras/PB objetivando-se avaliar a eficiência da remoção dos coliformes totais e fecais do efluente tratado nas unidades de produção agrícola através da fitorremediação. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com e sem fitorremediação, a cultura utilizada foi o capim roxo. As águas cinza eram provenientes de uma lavanderia pública. Foram coletadas amostras mensais e analisadas os coliformes total e fecal (Escherichia coli. No tratamento sem fitorremediação, os coliformes totais variaram de 1,583 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL e quando o tratamento tinha o auxílio do capim roxo, ou seja, com fitorremediação os coliformes totais oscilaram de 1,354 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL. Ocorreu uma redução significativa de Escherichia coli no tratamento com fitorremediação. A utilização da fitorremediação no tratamento de águas cinza reduziu a presença de coliformes totais e fecal, sendo assim uma alternativa viável de tratamento, proporcionando um aumento da qualidade hídrica.

  13. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  14. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF COW FECAL POLLUTION WITH REAL-TIME PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with cow fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described cow-specific g...

  15. Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Annes Rubião

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN of Total Coliforms (TC, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several antimicrobial resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria, including those from Gram-negative group. The oysters were bought from local fishermen and a total of 123 individuals were analyzed. The TC, E. coli and Enterococcus spp. MPN mean were 26,300/100 g, 3,260/100 g and 2,820/100 g, respectively. The only correlation found was between TC and E. coli. Two strains of Enterococcus spp. were resistant to three different antimicrobial categories, including a high level resistance to streptomycin. One strain presented intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The E. coli levels exceeded the limits established by international legislation. This microbiological contamination in oysters reflects the water pollution and indicates a probable contamination of other seafood species from this mangrove, which can represent a risk for consumers and a threat to the environment and public health.

  16. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  17. Ranking of the Ecological Disaster Areas According to Coliform Contamination and the Incidence of Acute Enteric Infections of the Population in Kyzylorda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Mariya N.; Orakbay, Lyazzat Zh.; Shuratov, Idelbay H.; Kenjebayeva, Asiya T.; Zhumagalieva, Aizhan B.; Sarsenova, Ainur B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to monitoring the environmental coliform bacteria (CB) contamination (soil and water) in the environmental disaster areas in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral Sea Region and ranking districts by their level of contamination and the rate of gastrointestinal infections (GI). The research was done in environmental disaster areas…

  18. Elimination of pathogenic bacteria in sewage sludge during the solar drying; Eliminacion de bacterias patogenas en lodos residuales durante el secado solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota Espericueta, Alma Delia; Ponce Corral, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, (Mexico)

    2008-11-15

    Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Ciudad Juarez. El dispositivo solar fue propuesto como una alternativa tecnica factible para la reduccion de volumen de las 135 ton de lodos generadas por dia en esta planta. El prototipo experimental tipo invernadero estuvo constituido por un area de captacion de 4.5 m{sup 2} y un lecho de secado de 1 m{sup 3}, ademas de los sistemas de ventilacion, extraccion y adquisicion de datos. El funcionamiento automatico del dispositivo estuvo regulado por las diferencias entre las condiciones internas y externas de las variables de temperatura y humedad. Ademas, se midieron la radiacion solar, el pH y la humedad del lodo. La efectividad del secador fue determinada en terminos termicos y microbiologicos. La perdida de agua en el lodo durante el tratamiento fue el indicativo de la efectividad termica. La depuracion microbiologica fue cuantificada a diferentes tiempos de residencia, mediante los indicadores de contaminacion: coliformes fecales y Salmonella spp. La cuantificacion de ambas bacterias se realizo a traves de la tecnica microbiologica de tubos de fermentacion multiple expuesta en la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002. Los resultados termicos asociados al contenido de agua en el lodo mostraron un decaimiento exponencial hasta lograr el 99 % de reduccion de la misma. En lo referente a la efectividad microbiologica, existio dependencia del contenido de las bacterias indicadoras con la cantidad de agua presente en lodo. Para la remocion del 92 % de agua, se verifico la eliminacion de coliformes fecales desde 3.8x10{sup 6} hasta 1.6 NMP por gramo de lodo seco y para Salmonella spp. dicha reduccion fue desde 1.5x10{sup 1}3 hasta 1.9x10{sup 3} NMP por gramo de lodo seco.

  19. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Search and molecular identification of two pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Listeria) in different food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wislati, Mohamed Amine

    2010-01-01

    A food is a substance consumed in the natural state or after a cooking. The essential role of food is the apport of essential elements in the growth and in the energy needs as well as in the reserves of the body. Foodstuffs may be contaminated by microorganisms such as the viruses, the parasites, the bacteria at the different steps of production, transformation, transport and manipulation being able to engender food collective toxi-infections (T.I.A.C), infections. This study contains a research directed by two pathogenic germs; Listeria and Salmonella as food contaminants, ending at the man's respectively in two diseases: the Listeriosis and the Salmonellosis and the enumeration of the fecal coliform as indicators of lack of hygiene and a contamination of fecal origin. 90 samples of various types and origins are analyzed in the laboratory of biology and molecular microbiology of the (CNSTN) and are identified by Api (Listeria, 20E) and by PCR. Three origins of Listeria and four origins of Salmonella were isolated. Then, the healthiness of various lots was estimated (dairy products, produced meat-based and produced ready to be eaten) according to the plan of interpretation of the result (plan 2 classes) and (plan 3 classes).The obtained results confirm the contamination of our products taken from the market of public consumption. So the strengthen measures of prevention and health control are very important in the food industry.

  1. Fecal Carriage of Extended‑spectrum Beta‑lactamase and AmpC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems were 31.2%, 33.3%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The relative high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL‑producing bacteria in community warrants further study in this field including developing policies ...

  2. Use of ultraviolet radiation for inactivation of bacteria and coliphages in pretreated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizer, H.; Bartocha, W.; Bartel, H.; Seidel, K.; Lopez-Pila, J.M.; Grohmann, A.

    1993-01-01

    The inactivation of bacteria and coliphages by u.v. radiation was tested in a full-scale pilot plant with a flow rate of 180 m 3 /h. The investigated water contained about 70% secondary effluent from sewage treatment plants and 30% surface water. The minimal rated radiation density was 13.3 mW/cm 2 (60% of u.v. transmission in water), and the radiation exposure lasted for 3.54 s resulting in a u.v. radiation dose of 47 mWs/cm 2 . This type of u.v. radiation chamber decreased the concentration of total coliform organisms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, Salmonella sp. and coliphages in the influent by 1–2 logs. Strains of bacteria, Streptococcus faecalis and Salmonella enteritidis, seeded artificially into the influent showed a reduction of about 2–4 logs after u.v. radiation. The coliphage f2 was more resistant than the tested bacteria and reduced by less than 2 logs through u.v. radiation. The inactivating effect of u.v. radiation was counteracted by the binding of the coliphage f2 to suspended turbid particles. It can be recommended to use u.v. treatment of effluents of wastewater plants after a flocculation and filtration step to improve the efficiency of the u.v. radiation. (author)

  3. Next generation sequencing reveals distinct fecal pollution signatures in aquatic sediments across gradients of anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Luna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sediments are the repository of a variety of anthropogenic pollutants, including bacteria of fecal origin, that reach the aquatic environment from a variety of sources. Although fecal bacteria can survive for long periods of time in aquatic sediments, the microbiological quality of sediments is almost entirely neglected when performing quality assessments of aquatic ecosystems. Here we investigated the relative abundance, patterns and diversity of fecal bacterial populations in two coastal areas in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy: the Po river prodelta (PRP, an estuarine area receiving significant contaminant discharge from one of the largest European rivers and the Lagoon of Venice (LV, a transitional environment impacted by a multitude of anthropogenic stressors. From both areas, several indicators of fecal and sewage contamination were determined in the sediments using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of 16S rDNA amplicons. At both areas, fecal contamination was high, with fecal bacteria accounting for up to 3.96% and 1.12% of the sediment bacterial assemblages in PRP and LV, respectively. The magnitude of the fecal signature was highest in the PRP site, highlighting the major role of the Po river in spreading microbial contaminants into the adjacent coastal area. In the LV site, fecal pollution was highest in the urban area, and almost disappeared when moving to the open sea. Our analysis revealed a large number of fecal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU, 960 and 181 in PRP and LV, respectively and showed a different fecal signature in the two areas, suggesting a diverse contribution of human and non-human sources of contamination. These results highlight the potential of NGS techniques to gain insights into the origin and fate of different fecal bacteria populations in aquatic sediments.

  4. Effects of dietary fiber preparations made from maize starch on the growth and activity of selected bacteria from the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria phyla in fecal samples from obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczynska, Renata; Slizewska, Katarzyna; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Szalecki, Mieczyslaw; Kapusniak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is a search for substances that would be very well tolerated by an organism and which could contribute to the activation of the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains, with simultaneous inhibition of the growth of Firmicutes. High expectations in this regard are raised with the use of fiber preparations from starch - resistant corn dextrins, branched dextrins, resistant maltodextrins and soluble corn fiber. In this paper, the influence of fiber preparations made from corn starch was evaluated on growth and activity of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes strains isolated from obese children. It was demonstrated that in the stool of obese children Firmicutes strains predominate, while Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains were in the minority. A supplementation of fecal culture with fiber preparations did not cause any significant changes in the number of strains of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Addition of fiber preparations to the fecal samples of obese children increased the amount of short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic (p < 0.01), propionic, butyric (p = 0.05) and lactic acid (p < 0.01).

  5. Coliphages as fecal pollution and removal bacterial indicators in the drinking water process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paz-y-Miño

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work compare the efficiency of water treatment from Rimac river. Samples from different phases of water treatment (decanted, filtered and chlorinated were compared with not treated samples. Coliphages quantification was made by Simple Layer and Membrane Filter methods. Most Probable Number (NMP and Membrane Filter methods were used to assessment of Total Coliforms, Coliforms Thermotolerants and Heterotrophic Bacteria. The standard strain of E. coli C ATCC 13706 was used as coliphages host. The averages of quantified coliphages were of 2267,25 UFP/100 mL in samples with out treatment; 2,11, 2,04 and 1,07 UFP/100 mL in the water samples from decanted, filtered and chlorinated treatment respectively. Total Coliforms and Coliforms Thermotolerants were not detected in samples of chlorinated water. The correlation between coliphages and Total Coliforms in samples of decanted and filtered water (r = 0,3793 and r = 0,3629 respectively were significant (p <0,05 Samples with out treatment don’t were significant (r = 0,3048, p>0,05. Correlations between coliphages and the Coliforms Thermotolerants were significant with water samples from treatment decanted, filtered and chlorinated (r = 0,7129; 0,5326 and 0,4612, p <0,05. The microbial removal percentages were 99,95 % for the coliphages, 99,99 % for the BH and >99,99 % for the CT and CTT.

  6. Contaminación fecal del Río Reventazón: período 1994 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1997-01-01

    Se presenta el nivel de contaminación fecal del río Reventazón-Parismina en cuatro estaciones de muestreo ubicadas a lo largo de su cauce de 145 Km a saber: El Congo, Turrialba, Siquirres y 500 metros antes de la desembocadura en los Canales de Tortuguero. Para determinar el grado de contaminación presente se realizaron 7 muestreos en 1994 y 11 en 1995 con una frecuencia mensual. Las variables analizadas fueron el Número más Probable por 100 mL de Coliformes fecales o termorresistentes (CF/10...

  7. Incontinencia fecal del adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara A,M. Teresa; Suárez M,Juan; Orellana G,Hernán; Cofré L,Pamela; Germain P,Fernando; Stanley E,William; Sivori H,Javiera; Cruz M,Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de esta revisión es actualizar los conocimientos sobre esta patología, destacando su evolución clínica, estudio y tratamiento, aspectos que ameritan un enfoque multidisciplinario, ya que, además de su compleja fisiopatología, puede asociarse a incontinencia urinaria y prolapso de los tres compartimentos de la pelvis. La incontinencia fecal (IF) constituye una patología altamente prevalente que afecta al menos un 2% de la población y hasta el 45% de los pacientes en casas de repos...

  8. Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubião, Cynthia Annes; Franco, Robson Maia; Mesquita, Eliana de Fátima Marques de; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Cabral, Claudius Couto; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Total Coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several ...

  9. Use of DNA Markers for Investigating Sources of Bacteria in Contaminated Ground Water: Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, a public-health nuisance was declared by the Wayne County Board of Health in the Scenic Heights Drive-Batdorf Road area of Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio, because of concerns about the safety of water from local wells. Repeated sampling had detected the presence of fecal-indicator bacteria and elevated nitrate concentrations. In June 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA), collected and analyzed samples from some of the affected wells to help investigate the possibility of human-origin bacterial contamination. Water samples from 12 wells and 5 home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) were collected. Bromide concentrations were determined in samples from the 12 wells. Samples from 5 of the 12 wells were analyzed for wastewater compounds. Total coliform, enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations were determined for samples from 8 of the 12 wells. In addition, two microbial source-tracking tools that employ DNA markers were used on samples from several wells and a composite sample of water from five septic tanks. The DNA markers from the Enterococcus faecium species and the order Bacteroidales are associated with specific sources, either human or ruminant sources. Bromide concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.18 milligrams per liter (mg/L). No wastewater compounds were detected at concentrations above the reporting limits. Samples from the 12 wells also were collected by Ohio EPA and analyzed for chloride and nitrate. Chloride concentrations ranged from 12.6 to 61.6 mg/L and nitrate concentrations ranged from 2.34 to 11.9 mg/L (as N). Total coliforms and enterococci were detected in samples from 8 wells, at concentrations from 2 to 200 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL) and 0.5 to 17 CFU/100 mL, respectively. E. coli were detected in samples from three of the eight wells, at concentrations of 1 or 2 CFU/100 mL. Tests for the human

  10. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.lactis Bi-07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadejda Nikolajevna; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Gøbel, Rikke Juul

    2011-01-01

    randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified...... significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P = 0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P = 0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index......The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children...

  11. Pathophysiology of pediatric fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric fecal incontinence in 4 main categories: (1) Functional fecal retention, the withholding of feces because of fear of painful defecation, results in constipation and overflow soiling. Treatment includes dietary changes, use of laxatives,

  12. Coliphages as fecal pollution and removal bacterial indicators in the drinking water process

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-y-Miño, Marco; Barzola, Carmen; Lazcano, César; Ponce, Milagros; León, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la eficacia del tratamiento de agua procedentes del río Rímac. Se comparan muestras de agua no tratadas con las fases sucesivas del tratamiento: decantación, filtración y clorinación. La cuantificación de colifagos fue realizada por los métodos de Capa Simple y Filtro de Membrana. Los Coliformes Totales (CT), Coliformes Termotolerantes (CTT) y Bacterias Heterótrofas (BH) fueron determinados por los métodos del Número Más Probable (NMP) y Filtro de Membrana. La cepa...

  13. Redução de Bactérias Indicadoras de Poluição Fecal em Estrume de Aves de Postura Tratados por Biodigestão Anaeróbia Reduction of Bacterial Indicators of Fecal Pollution in Laying Hens Manure Treated by Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA1 Amaral

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestão anaeróbia pode auxiliar na redução de patógenos e poluição ambiental pela redução dos sólidos e microrganismos de presença indesejável nos efluentes. No presente trabalho objetivou-se a avaliação da redução de microorganismos indicadores de contaminação fecal através do processo de biodigestão anaeróbica de dejetos de aves de postura em biodigestores contínuos, operados em diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH: 40, 30, 25, 20 e 15 dias, e biodigestores de batelada com e sem a utilização de inóculo. Foi observada nos dois tipos de biodigestores uma redução acima de 99,0% para os coliformes totais e fecais, mostrando a eficiência do processo. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho mostram que o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia melhora a qualidade microbiológica do estrume, constituindo-se uma medida preventiva importante para se preservar a qualidade do solo e dos mananciais de água, quando da sua aplicação como biofertilizante.The anaerobic digestion can help in the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and to decrease the environmental pollution through the reduction of solids and undesirable microorganisms in the effluents . The present work has as the objective of estimating the reduction of indicators of microorganisms during and after the anaerobic digesting process of litter of hens in continuous bio-digester with different retention time and in non-continuous bio-digester with and without starter A reduction, over 99% of coliforms was observed, showing the efficiency of the process.

  14. Combined treatment of solar energy and gamma irradiation to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in dewatered sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Harsoyo, S.; Suwirma, S.

    1987-01-01

    Combined treatment of solar energy and gamma irradiation to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in dewatered sludge. A combined treatment of solar energy and gamma irradiation has been done to eliminate the pathogenic microbes contaminating dewatered sludge. Samples were collected during dry season, i.e. from June to September 1985. To reduce the water content from 70% to 20%, solar energy from sun rays was used, i.e. from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. for 4 days. Total bacterial count coliform bacteria Escherichia coli, Fecal Streptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas sp were found to be 7.4x10 8 per g, 4.1x10 3 per g, 4.5x10 2 per g, 3.1x10 5 per g, 3.6x10 4 per g, and 5.4x10 3 per g of samples respectively. The combined treatment could reduce the irradiation dose needed to eliminate the pathogenic microbes of samples investigated from 6 to 2 kGy. (author). 5 figs, 11 refs

  15. Comparative study of coliform contamination of public boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.

  16. Detection and enumeration of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from eighteen different sources in Nairobi were analyzed for coliform and E. coli content using three microbiological techniques, namely: Multiple tube or Most Probable Number (MPN) technique, Defined Substrate Technique (DST) or Colilert technique and Petrifilm(TM) Plate Count Techniques. All the three ...

  17. Space/time analysis of fecal pollution and rainfall in an eastern North Carolina estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Money, Eric S; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel T

    2009-05-15

    The Newport River Estuary (NPRE) is a high-priority shellfish harvesting area in eastern North Carolina that is impaired due to fecal contamination, specifically exceeding recommended levels for fecal coliforms. A hydrologic-driven mean trend model was developed, as a function of antecedent rainfall, in the NPRE to predict levels of Escherichia coli (EC, measured as a proxyforfecal coliforms). This mean trend model was integrated in a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework to produce informative space/time (S/T) maps depicting fecal contamination across the NPRE during winter and summer months. These maps showed that during dry winter months, corretponding to the oyster harvesting season in North Carolina (October 1-March 30), predicted EC concentrations were below the shellfish harvesting standard (14 MPN/100 mL). However, after substantial rainfall of 3.81 cm (1.5 in.), the NPRE did not appear to mee this requirement. Warmer months resulted in the predicted EC concentrations exceeding the threshold for the NPRE. Predicted ENT concentrations were generally below the recreational water quality threshold (104 MPN/100 mL), except for warmer months after substantial rainfall. Once established, this combined approach produces near real-time visual information on which to base water quality management decisions.

  18. A Cross Sectional Study of the Association between Sanitation Type and Fecal Contamination of the Household Environment in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Pickering, Amy J; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Rahman, Md Sajjadur; Luby, Stephen P; Biran, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study to assess 1) the association between access to basic sanitation and fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls and 2) if other sanitation factors such as shared use and cleanliness are associated with fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls. We assessed sanitation facilities in 454 households with a child aged 6-24 months in rural Bangladesh. We defined "basic" sanitation as access to improved sanitation facilities (pit latrine with a slab or better) not shared with other households. In each household, an identical toy ball was given to the target child. After 24 hours, the balls were rinsed to enumerate fecal coliforms as an indicator of household fecal contamination. Households with basic sanitation had lower fecal coliform contamination than households with no access to basic sanitation (adjusted difference in means: -0.31 log 10 colony forming units [CFU]/toy ball; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.61, -0.01). Shared sanitation facilities of otherwise improved type were more likely to have visible feces on the latrine slab compared with private facilities. Among households with access to improved sanitation, households with no visible feces on the latrine slab had less toy ball contamination than households with visible feces on the latrine slab (adjusted difference in means: -0.38 log 10 CFU/toy ball; 95% CI: -0.77, 0.02). Access to basic sanitation may prevent fecal contamination of the household environment. An Improved sanitation facility used by an individual household may be better in preventing household fecal contamination compared with improved facilities shared with other households.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Harutai; Assavacheep, Pornchalit; Angkanaporn, Kris; Assavacheep, Anongnart

    2018-04-12

    Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius oral suspensions and challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n=114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n=87 piglets). Treatment pigs were orally administered with 2 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 1 - 3, then they were orally administered with 5 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 4 - 10, while those in control group received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). On day 24 (2 weeks post supplementation), one pig per replicate of both groups was orally administered with 108 CFU/ml F4+ ETEC, then they were euthanized on day 29 of experiment. Results revealed that pigs in treatment group had statistically significant in average daily gain (ADG), body weight and weight gain, and tended to lower diarrhea throughout the study. Numbers of Lactobacillus population in feces of treatment pigs were higher than control pigs, especially on day 10 of study. Numbers of total bacteria in intestinal contents of control pigs were also increased, but not Coliform and Lactobacillus populations. Histological examination revealed statistically significant improvement of villous height and villous/crypt ratio of duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal jejunum parts of treatment pigs better than control. Duodenal pH of treatment group was significantly decreased. Oral supplementation of live L. salivarius during the first 10 days of suckling pig promoted growth performance and guts health, reduced diarrhea incidence, and increased fecal Lactobacillus populations, and improved intestinal morphology.

  20. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  1. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  2. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  3. Fast coliform detection in portable microbe enrichment unit (PMEU) with Colilert(®) medium and bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalehto, Elias; Heitto, Anneli; Heitto, Lauri

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory strains of coliforms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella mobilis were used to artificially contaminate water samples in two different cultivation and detection systems, without and with bubble flow. Samples were collected with an automated system (ASCS). The positive coliform signal caused the color change into yellow (at 550-570nm). This signal could also be transmitted on-line to cell phones. E. coli containing samples emitted UV fluorescence at 480-560nm when activated by UV light. If cultivation was started with inocula varying from 10,000 to 1cfu/ml, the positive detection was obtained between 2 and 18h, respectively, in Colilert medium using Coline PMEU device without gas bubbling. Accordingly, a single K. mobilis cell produced detectable growth in 18h. Various clinical E. coli strains were compared to each other with equal inoculum sizes, and they showed slight variations in the initiation and speed of growth. The gas bubble flow in PMEU Spectrion promoted the mixing and interaction of bacteria and indicator media and speeded the onset of growth. Carbon dioxide also accelerated bacterial growth. In the presence of vancomycin, the onset of E. coli culture growth was speeded up by the volatile outlet flow from previous cultures. In the last cultivation syringe in a series of five, the lag phase disappeared and the growth of the inoculum continued without major interruption. the stimulation of the cultures by the gas flow turned out to be a useful means for improving the detection of indicator bacteria. It could also be used in combination with antibiotic selection in the broth medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Young Cheol Park; Poong Ho Kim; Yeoun Joong Jung; Ka Jeong Lee; Min Seon Kim; Kyeong Ri Go; Sang Gi Park; Soon Jae Kwon; Ji Hye Yang; Jong Soo Mok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs) and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN)/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rain...

  5. Storm loads of culturable and molecular fecal indicators in an inland urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Cully Hession, W; Benitez, Romina; Sawyer, Richard; Schaberg, Erin; von Wagoner, Emily; Badgley, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria in receiving waters during wet-weather flows are a considerable public health concern that is likely to be exacerbated by future climate change and urbanization. Knowledge of factors driving the fate and transport of fecal indicator bacteria in stormwater is limited, and even less is known about molecular fecal indicators, which may eventually supplant traditional culturable indicators. In this study, concentrations and loading rates of both culturable and molecular fecal indicators were quantified throughout six storm events in an instrumented inland urban stream. While both concentrations and loading rates of each fecal indicator increased rapidly during the rising limb of the storm hydrographs, it is the loading rates rather than instantaneous concentrations that provide a better estimate of transport through the stream during the entire storm. Concentrations of general fecal indicators (both culturable and molecular) correlated most highly with each other during storm events but not with the human-associated HF183 Bacteroides marker. Event loads of general fecal indicators most strongly correlated with total runoff volume, maximum discharge, and maximum turbidity, while event loads of HF183 most strongly correlated with the time to peak flow in a hydrograph. These observations suggest that collection of multiple samples during a storm event is critical for accurate predictions of fecal indicator loading rates and total loads during wet-weather flows, which are required for effective watershed management. In addition, existing predictive models based on general fecal indicators may not be sufficient to predict source-specific genetic markers of fecal contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative analyses of pollution-indicator and pathogenic bacteria in Mumbai waters from ballast water exchange perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A.

    ) periods We quantified total coliforms and eight other groups of known human pathogenic bacteria from water, sediment, marine plant and animal samples collected in and around Mumbai Harbor When compared with similar studies from other parts...

  7. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  8. High-throughput DNA microarray detection of pathogenic bacteria in shallow well groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Hinoura, Takuji; Suzuki, Noriko; Pang, Junqin; Malla, Rabin; Shrestha, Sadhana; Chapagain, Saroj Kumar; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Ike, Michihiko; Nishida, Kei; Sei, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Because of heavy dependence on groundwater for drinking water and other domestic use, microbial contamination of groundwater is a serious problem in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. This study investigated comprehensively the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in shallow well groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley by applying DNA microarray analysis targeting 941 pathogenic bacterial species/groups. Water quality measurements found significant coliform (fecal) contamination in 10 of the 11 investigated groundwater samples and significant nitrogen contamination in some samples. The results of DNA microarray analysis revealed the presence of 1-37 pathogen species/groups, including 1-27 biosafety level 2 ones, in 9 of the 11 groundwater samples. While the detected pathogens included several feces- and animal-related ones, those belonging to Legionella and Arthrobacter, which were considered not to be directly associated with feces, were detected prevalently. This study could provide a rough picture of overall pathogenic bacterial contamination in the Kathmandu Valley, and demonstrated the usefulness of DNA microarray analysis as a comprehensive screening tool of a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria.

  9. DIRECT FLOW-CYTOMETRY OF ANAEROBIC-BACTERIA IN HUMAN FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWAAIJ, LA; MESANDER, G; LIMBURG, PC; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1994-01-01

    We describe a flow cytometry method for analysis of noncultured anaerobic bacteria present in human fecal suspensions. Nonbacterial fecal compounds, bacterial fragments, and large aggregates could be discriminated from bacteria by staining with propidium iodide (PI) and setting a discriminator on PI

  10. Isolation and characterization of coliforms from glacial ice and water in Canada's High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; Shears, P; Platt, D J

    1997-05-01

    Ellesmere Island is the northern most member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago with over one-third of the land mass covered by ice. A joint services expedition to the island's Blue Mountains offered a unique opportunity for microbiological studies of resident bacteria in an environment uninhabited by man. Over 100 samples of water and ice were collected from stream, lake and glacier and the filtrate cultured under canvas. Bacterial growth was harvested onto swabs for transport back to the UK and 50 coliforms chosen at random for identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the glacial strains were capsulated, pigmented and some over 2000 years old. Genera such as Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Yersinia were found; speciation was inconclusive and some organisms remain unidentified. Ampicillin resistance was evident in 80% of water isolates as opposed to 30% of the glacial organisms, but the isolates were generally exquisitely susceptible to antibiotics. The facility for ampicillin resistance did not appear to be transferable. Plasmid DNA was found in 33% of the glacial organisms and over 50% of the water isolates. Similar profiles were identified within and apparently between species and required plasmid restriction analysis to help establish identity. Plasmid-free Serratia spp. were subjected to genomic fingerprinting. Indistinguishable patterns were found within sets of isolates both widely spaced by distance and collection date and it was postulated that coliforms able to survive an Arctic environment had spread extensively throughout the expedition area. In conclusion, this study contributes towards knowledge of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance, confirms the presence of plasmids and genotypic data provided evidence that potentially ancient organisms from glaciers can be cultured from water samples significantly distant.

  11. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Fecal Source Identification in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the Tillamook Basin play a vital role in supporting a thriving dairy and cheese-making industry, as well as providing a safe water resource for local human and wildlife populations. Historical concentrations of fecal bacteria in these waters are at times too high to allow for safe use leading to economic loss, endangerment of local wildlife, and poor conditions for recreational use. In this study, we employ host-associated qPCR methods for human (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2), ruminant (Rum2Bac), cattle (CowM2 and CowM3), canine (DG3 and DG37), and avian (GFD) fecal pollution combined with high-resolution geographic information system (GIS) land use data and general indicator bacteria measurements to elucidatewater quality spatial and temporal trends. Water samples (n=584) were collected over a 1-year period at 29 sites along the Trask, Kilchis, and Tillamook rivers and tributaries (Tillamook Basin, OR). A total of 16.6% of samples (n=97) yielded E. coli levels considered impaired based on Oregon Department of Environmental Quality bacteria criteria (406 MPN/100mL). Hostassociated genetic indicators were detected at frequencies of 39.2% (HF183/BacR287), 16.3% (HumM2), 74.6% (Rum2Bac), 13.0% (CowM2), 26.7% (CowM3), 19.8% (DG3), 3.2% (DG37), and 53.4% (GFD) across all water samples (n=584). Seasonal trends in avian, cattle, and human fecal pollution sources were evident over the study area. On a sample site basis, quantitative fecal source identification and

  12. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  13. Contaminación actual de la cuenca del río San Carlos con coliformes fecales y totales

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves-Campos, Adolfo; Mora-Molina, Jesús; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Francisco; Springer, Monika; Solís-Esquivel, Eida

    2016-01-01

    La contaminación del agua es uno de los principales problemas ambientales en el mundo debido a la importancia estratégica de este recurso. Las actividades económicas (agrícolas, industriales, mineras, turísticas) y las poblaciones humanas están generando crecientes cantidades de desechos que contaminan gravemente sobre todo los cuerpos de aguas superficiales, sin que los acuíferos dejen de verse también perjudicados. La contaminación del agua tiene actualmente -y tendrá más en el futuro- enor...

  14. Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing water quality and water quantity concerns is an ongoing challenge for communities in the semi-arid southwest. Over pumping of groundwater aquifers and limited surface water resources have created effluent-dominated sections of watersheds. As rapid urbanization increases...

  15. EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA CAPACIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE ENELDO–Anethum graveolens–COMO INHIBIDOR DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Staphylococcus aureus, COLIFORMES Y HONGOS PRESENTES EN LA CARNE DE TRUCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite esencial de eneldo tiene propiedades antimicrobianas y antifúngicas, por lo que puede ser utilizado para evitar el deterioro de los alimentos. En esta investigación se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria del aceite esencial de eneldo sobre Staphylococcus aureus , coliformes y hongos presentes en la carne de trucha ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , utilizando 50 y 100 μL de aceite esencial. Se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de extracción del aceite esencial mediante el método de hidrodestilación y se logró un rendimiento máximo en base seca de 1,32% utilizando una relación 1:5 de agua y material vegetal durante 90 minutos. Al evaluar la capacidad antimicrobiana, el mayor efecto inhibitorio se obtuvo al aplicar 100 μL de aceite esencial de eneldo en cultivos de Staphylococcus aureus , coliformes fecales, coliformes totales y hongos, evidenciándose un mayor halo de inhibición para coliformes totales.

  16. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  17. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  18. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  19. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  20. Uji Angka Paling Mungkin (APM) Coliform pada Teh Kering Dalam Kemasan

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Patma Lumban

    2017-01-01

    142410054 Teh kering dalam kemasan adalah produk teh kering tunggal atau campuran dari teh hitam, teh hijau, teh putih dan atau teh beraroma lain yang harus memenuhi ketentuan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). Pengujian ini bertujuan untuk memeriksa adanya bakteri coliform pada teh kering dalam kemasan dengan persyaratan SNI yang berlaku. Pengujian bakteri coliform dilakukan dengan metode Angka Paling Mungkin (APM) Coliform menggunakan metode tiga tabung berdasarkan metode MA Supp 69/MIK/0...

  1. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  2. Bacterial indicator occurrence and the use of an F+ specific RNA coliphage assay to identify fecal sources in Homosassa Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Stokes, Rodger; Rose, J.B.; Paul, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological water quality study of Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP) and surrounding areas was undertaken. Samples were collected in November of 1997 (seven sites) and again in November of 1998 (nine sites). Fecal bacterial concentrations (total and fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) were measured as relative indicators of fecal contamination. F+-specific coliphage genotyping was performed to determine the source of fecal contamination at the study sites. Bacterial levels were considerably higher at most sites in the 1997 sampling compared to the 1998 sampling, probably because of the greater rainfall that year. In November of 1997, 2 of the 7 sites were in violation of all indicator standards and guidance levels. In November of 1998, 1 of 9 sites was in violation of all indicator standard and guidance levels. The highest concentrations of all fecal indicators were found at a station downstream of the animal holding pens in HSSWP. The lowest levels of indicators were found at the Homosassa Main Spring vent. Levels of fecal indicators downstream of HSSWP (near the point of confluence with the river) were equivalent to those found in the Southeastern Fork and areas upstream of the park influences. F+ specific RNA coliphage analysis indicated that fecal contamination at all sites that tested positive was from animal sources (mammals and birds). These results suggest that animal (indigenous and those in HSSWP) and not human sources influenced microbial water quality in the area of Homosassa River covered by this study.

  3. Risk factors with the occurrence of parasites and coliform in vegetables from an agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with the occurrence of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs in vegetables from an agroindustry in the city of Ibiúna - SP, Brazil. A questionnaire with 17 questions was applied to 24 producers to carry out a diagnosis of the risk factors and their posterior association or not with total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs. The questions addressed mainly the production system, fertilizer used, source of the water used for irrigation, sanitization of the vegetables, and form of transport. For the investigation of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs, the samples were processed at the microbiology and parasitology laboratory of the Federal Institute of São Paulo, São Roque Campus. The results revealed that total coliforms were found in 100% of the investigated samples and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 95.83% of the samples. There was a significant statistical association for the risk factor use of reservoir water, where there was release of wastewater and absence of sanitization of the vegetables at the moment of harvest in relation to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Intestinal parasite eggs were found in 33.33% of the samples.

  4. Carriage and fecal counts of cefotaxime M-producing Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Andreasen, Margit

    2013-01-01

    , and finishers). Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms in feces were counted on MacConkey agar containing 2 µg/ml CTX and characterized for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. CTX-M-positive pigs were detected in all age groups at farms A (bla(CTX-M-9) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-14......% just before weaning, 29% during weaning, and 12% during finishing. The observed reduction in numbers of CTX-M-positive pigs was accompanied by a significant reduction in mean fecal counts of CTX-resistant coliforms from ~10(7) CFU/g in piglets to ~10(3) CFU/g in finishers (P

  5. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine fecal microbiota in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...

  6. Identification of bacteria in drinking water with Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.; Tervahauta, H.; Maquelin, K.; Blokker-Koopmans, C.H.W.; Uytewaal-Aaarts, M.; Kooij, D.; van Wezel, A.P.; van der Gaag, B.

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to discriminate between Legionella strains and between E. coli and coliform strains. The relationship between triplicate Raman spectra derived from Legionella bacteria was compared with that derived from a blind set of samples and amplified fragment length polymorphism

  7. Nutrient and Bacteria Concentrations in the Coastal Waters off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, soluble reactive phosphorous) and bacteria (total and faecal coliforms) in the waters off Zanzibar Town. The study covered both the SE and NE monsoon and the two transition periods for a total of one year. Nutrient ...

  8. Use of coliform bacteria for the detection of on-line leakage in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S.; Karim, H.M.A.; Mashiatullah, A.; Sajjad, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this method, rupture or leakage in under ground water pipes is detected simply by taking the water samples from the main supply lines of the houses and incubating them at 40 deg. C for sixteen hours, colonies (developed with yellow colour) are counted with colony counter. Thirteen samples (in triplicate) collected from different houses in the congested localities during repair work of the major supply line and all of them after test showed heavy rate of pollution. The experiment was repeated for the same locality and sampling sites after completion of repair work. This time the rate of pollution decreases very much showing drastically low growth of microorganisms except for two points. For two further investigation of the nearly leakages at these points, 13 samples (in triplicate) were again collected in serial wise number of houses. Two points of the leakage were identified where the growth rate of the microorganisms was abruptly high between two consecutive houses or opposite houses depending upon the supply of water pipe lines showing the leakage of houses. Two points of the leakage were identified where the growth rate of the microorganisms was abruptly high between two consecutive houses or opposite houses depending upon the supply of water pipe lines showing the leakage of he pipes. This method is useful and causes no health hazard to the population and gives best results where the water supply is on intermittent basis. The technique is specially useful in the remote areas of the country where research facilities are not available and the Pacqualab is a field instrument. So it is handy and rapid method for the detection of leakage in underground water supplies in the remote areas of the country. (author)

  9. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  10. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni ... forest's act as filtering systems by trapping ... mangrove filtration will be useful in ..... enough to make decisions such as closure of.

  11. Natural attenuation in a surface water channel and a coastal aquifer by monitoring presence and removal of indicator bacteria, pathogens and antibiotic resistance gene: model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciopinto, Costantino; Visino, Fabrizio; Luprano, Maria Laura; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter

    2015-04-01

    The spreading of microbial contamination into the environment, represents a very relevant problem, which leads to an increasing health concern. For this reason, it is important to identify and characterize the extent of natural depuration in water environmental particularly for reducing the presence of faecal contamination indicator bacteria, pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this study, the presence of the above reported microbial parameters was analyzed in a surface water channel and in a coastal aquifer in southern Italy (Ostuni) southern Italy, both affected by Ostuni municipal treatment plant effluents and by local run-off. Several samples were collected from surface water, flowing in channels, and from wells in our study area. In particular, the water samples were analyzed to detect 7 fecal contamination indicators (E. coli, total coliforms, Clostridium p. spores, somatic coliphages, Enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria), Salmonella spp and the presence of ARGs. The water samples were also tested for chemical constituents. Finally a mathematical model has been developed in order to simulate pathogen migration pathways in the fractured groundwater and corresponding possible mitigation of pathogens in pumping wells.

  12. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes; Jesús Mora Molina

    2012-01-01

    La contaminación en los ríos de Costa Rica es un problema que merece especial atención. El concepto “contaminación del agua” implica la incorporación de materias extrañas a esta, tales como microorganis- mos (coliformes totales y fecales), productos quími- cos (jabones, fer tilizantes, pesticidas), metales pesados (cromo, plomo, mercurio, etc.) o materia orgánica proveniente de los suelos a través de la escorrentía superficial y de las aguas residuales domésticas. Estas materias deterioran la...

  13. Control of the gut microbiome by fecal microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the early 90s, microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, have mainly been associated with posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression on a cell-autonomous level. Recent evidence has extended this role by adding inter-species communication to the manifold functional range. In our latest study [Liu S, et al., 2016, Cell Host & Microbe], we identified miRNAs in gut lumen and feces of both mice and humans. We found that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and Hopx+ cells were the two main sources of fecal miRNA. Deficiency of IEC-miRNA resulted in gut dysbiosis and WT fecal miRNA transplantation restored the gut microbiota. We investigated potential mechanisms for this effect and found that miRNAs were able to regulate the gut microbiome. By culturing bacteria with miRNAs, we found that host miRNAs were able to enter bacteria, specifically regulate bacterial gene transcripts and affect bacterial growth. Oral administration of synthetic miRNA mimics affected specific bacteria in the gut. Our findings describe a previously unknown pathway by which the gut microbiome is regulated by the host and raises the possibility that miRNAs may be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome for the treatment of disease.

  14. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  15. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Inhibits Multidrug-Resistant Gut Pathogens: Preliminary Report Performed in an Immunocompromised Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliński, Jarosław; Grzesiowski, Paweł; Muszyński, Jacek; Wróblewska, Marta; Mądry, Krzysztof; Robak, Katarzyna; Dzieciątkowski, Tomasz; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wiesław; Basak, Grzegorz W

    2016-06-01

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a consequence of gut dysbiosis. We describe the successful utilization of fecal microbiota transplantation to inhibit Klebsiella pneumoniae MBL(+) and Escherichia coli ESBL(+) gut colonization in the immunocompromised host as a novel tool in the battle against MDR microorganisms. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02461199.

  16. Patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora as a quick diagnostic marker in patients with severe SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kentaro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Tomono, Kazunori; Tasaki, Osamu; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Matsushima, Asako; Nakahori, Yasutaka; Yamano, Shuhei; Osuka, Akinori; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2011-06-01

    The gut is an important target organ of injury during critically ill conditions. Although Gram staining is a common and quick method for identifying bacteria, its clinical application has not been fully evaluated in critically ill conditions. This study's aims were to identify patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora and compare them to cultured bacterial counts and to investigate the association between the patterns and septic complications in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Fifty-two patients with SIRS were included whose Gram-stained fecal flora was classified into three patterns. In a diverse pattern, large numbers of multiple kinds of bacteria completely covered the field. In a single pattern, one specific kind of bacteria or fungi predominantly covered the field. In a depleted pattern, most bacteria were diminished in the field. In the analysis of fecal flora, the numbers of total obligate anaerobes in the depleted pattern was significantly lower than those in the diverse pattern and single pattern (p Gram-stained fecal flora can be classified into three patterns and are associated with both cultured bacterial counts and clinical information. Gram-stained fecal bacteria can be used as a quick bedside diagnostic marker for severe SIRS patients.

  17. 75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... will be discussed include the cost and benefit information of the proposed rule and the planned... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9177-6] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Public... Protection Agency (EPA) is hosting public information meetings on the proposed Revised Total Coliform Rule...

  18. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...

  19. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  20. Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Ernesto Amabilis-Sosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of treated wastewaters could contribute to reducing water stress. In this research, ultrasound application on bacterial inactivation in municipal wastewater (MWW was evaluated. Total and fecal coliforms were used as standard fecal indicators; volatile suspended solids (VSS were analyzed too. Samples were taken from the effluent of secondary clarifiers. In addition, inactivation tests were carried out on pure cultures of E. coli (EC and B. subtilis (BS. Sonication was performed at 20 kHz, 35% amplitude and 600 W/L for 15, 30 and 45 min. After 15 min of sonication, bacterial density was reduced by 1.85 Log10 MPN/100 mL for EC and 3.16 Log10 CFU/mL for BS. After 30 min, no CFU/mL of BS were observed in MWW and, after 45 min, the reduction of total and fecal coliforms was practically 6.45 Log10 MPN/100mL. Inactivation mechanism was made by cavitation, which causes irreversible damage to the cell wall. Although high bacterial densities were employed, percentages of inactivation >99% were reached at 45 min. This research contributes to the implementation of ultrasound as a disinfection technique with high potential due to its high efficiency without producing byproducts. In fact, the water meets the guidelines for reuse in direct human contact services.

  1. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Michaelsen, Kim F; Forssten, Sofia D; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-12-01

    This study is a part of the clinical trials with probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 conducted in obese adolescents. Previously reported clinical studies showed no effect of Ls-33 consumption on the metabolic syndrome in the subject group. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of L. salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents. The study was a double-blinded intervention with 50 subjects randomized to intake of L. salivarius Ls-33 or placebo for 12 weeks. The fecal microbiota was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR before and after intervention. Concentrations of fecal short chain fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group to Firmicutes belonging bacteria, including Clostridium cluster XIV, Blautia coccoides_Eubacteria rectale group and Roseburia intestinalis, were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after administration of Ls-33. The cell numbers of fecal bacteria, including the groups above as well as Clostridium cluster I, Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, the Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium were not significantly altered by intervention. Similarly, short chain fatty acids remained unaffected. L. salivarius Ls-33 might modify the fecal microbiota in obese adolescents in a way not related to metabolic syndrome. NCT 01020617. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Fecal Contamination on Produce from Wholesale and Retail Food Markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela R; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Unicomb, Leanne; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J

    2018-01-01

    Fresh produce items can become contaminated with enteric pathogens along the supply chain at the preharvest (e.g., irrigation water, soil, fertilizer) or postharvest (e.g., vendor handling or consumer handling) stages. This study assesses the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli , enterococci (ENT), and Bacteriodales on surfaces of carrots, eggplants, red amaranth leaves, and tomatoes obtained from both a wholesale market (recently harvested) and neighborhood retail markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We detected E. coli in 100% of carrot and red amaranth rinses, 92% of eggplant rinses, and 46% of tomato rinses. Using a molecular microbial source tracking assay, we found that 32% of produce samples were positive for ruminant fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria were more likely to be detected on produce collected in retail markets compared with that in the wholesale market; retail market produce were 1.25 times more likely to have E. coli detected ( P = 0.03) and 1.24 times more likely to have ENT detected ( P = 0.03) as compared with wholesale market produce. Bacteriodales was detected in higher concentrations in retail market produce samples compared with wholesale market produce samples (0.40 log 10 gene copies per 100 cm 2 higher, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that ruminant and general fecal contamination of produce in markets in Dhaka is common, and suggest that unsanitary conditions in markets are an important source of produce fecal contamination postharvest.

  5. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guard, J Y

    2012-05-01

    There is a desire by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell-egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on and within eggs and in the environment of a sister flock of conventional cage and free-range laying hens. Microbial sampling occurred approximately every 6 wk between 20 and 79 wk of age. A random sampling of typical coliform colonies produced 371 viable isolates for biochemical identification. Twenty-nine genera or species of bacteria were identified. There was a significantly greater (P free-range nest box swabs compared with that in the free-range grass and conventional cage swab samples (number of positives: 8 nest box, 1 grass, 0 cage). Seven isolates of Listeria innocua were detected with no significant difference in prevalence between the treatments. Isolates were associated with eggshells (2 free-range floor, 1 cage) and the free-range environment (2 nest box, 2 grass). There were 21 Salmonella isolates detected between all sample locations, with no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella detection between the treatments. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the effect of alternative production methods on the prevalence of pathogens and coliforms associated with nest-run eggs and the production environment.

  6. Investigations of the effect of electron-beam irradiation on bacteria in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterstock, G.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of electron beams on bacteria was investigated in 2 experimental facilities. A 400 kV electron accelerator was used to irradiate sludge quantities of 10 l and 180 l. The total bacterial count, the number of coliform bacteria and, in injected sludge, the relative bacteria density of salmonella were investigated. A dose of 0.5 to 0.75 Mrad was required to reduce coliform bacteria to below the detectable level in 0.1 ml. With a dose of 1.5 Mrad salmonella were reduced by 6 orders of magnitude on the average. In addition, the dependence of the reduction in bacteria on the dose rate as well as on mixing of the irradiated material was investigated. Substantial reproduction of bacteria in digested sludge was found in all cases after the irradiation. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Investigations of the effect of electron-beam irradiation on bacteria in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterstock, G.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of electron beams on bacteria was investigated in 2 experimental facilities. A 400 kV electron accelerator was used to irradiate sludge quantities of 10 l and 180 l. The total bacterial count, number of coliform bacteria and, in injected sludge, the relative bacteria density of salmonella were investigated. A dose of 0.5 to 0.75 Mrad was required to reduce coliform bacteria to below the detectable level in 0.1 ml. With a dose of 1.5 Mrad salmonella were reduced by 6 orders of magnitude on the average. In addition, the dependence of the reduction in bacteria on the dose rate as well as on mixing of the irradiation material was investigated. Substantial reproduction of bacteria in digested sludge was found in all cases after the irradiation. (author)

  8. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  9. Uso de colifagos somáticos como indicadores de contaminación fecal en playas de “la Costa Verde”, Lima–Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsby Cadillo Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de evaluar el uso de los colifagos somáticos como indicadores de contaminación fecal en aguas recreacionales marinas. Los colifagos somáticos fueron cuantificados en 140 muestras provenientes de 5 playas del circuito de la “Costa Verde”, Lima, y correlacionados con los indicadores de contaminación fecal convencionales (Coliformes fecales, E. coli y Enterococos. Los colifagos fueron determinados por el método de “capa simple” previa aplicación de la técnica modificada de “filtración de la muestra” y utilizando a E. coli ATCC 13706 como cepa hospedero. Los Coliformes fecales (CF, E. coli (EC y Enterococos (EN fueron cuantificados por el método del Número Más Probable (NMP. Para efectos de análisis estadístico se consideró niveles de contaminación fecal en función de valores arbitrarios de <1000 CF/100 mL (“baja contaminación” y >1000 CF/100 mL (“alta contaminación”. Las playas evaluadas presentaron niveles de contaminación fecal de <3 a 2,4 x 105 CF y EC y <3 a 2,4 x 104 EN. En las muestras con “baja contaminación” fecal, el 32% de los recuentos de los colifagos fueron mayores que los de CF y EC; miemtras que en las muestras con “alta contaminación” ningún recuento de colifagos superó a los de CF o EC. Por otro lado, de acuerdo al análisis estadístico de componentes principales los colifagos y Enterococos fueron los mejores indicadores de contaminación fecal en las playas evaluadas. Asimismo, se determinó correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre colifagos, CF y EC; siendo mayor en muestras con alta contaminación (r = 0,89 que en aquellas con baja contaminación (r = 0,43. Mediante la cuantificación de colifagos en las muestras evaluadas se determinó estadísticamente el valor de 115 UFP/100 mL como criterio calificativo de balneabilidad para las playas de la zona evaluada. De acuerdo a nuestros resultados los colifagos som

  10. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  11. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación en los ríos de Costa Rica es un problema que merece especial atención. El concepto “contaminación del agua” implica la incorporación de materias extrañas a esta, tales como microorganis- mos (coliformes totales y fecales, productos quími- cos (jabones, fer tilizantes, pesticidas, metales pesados (cromo, plomo, mercurio, etc. o materia orgánica proveniente de los suelos a través de la escorrentía superficial y de las aguas residuales domésticas. Estas materias deterioran la calidad del agua y reducen los diferentes usos que podría tener un río. El recurso hídrico es importante tanto para la preservación de la vida humana como para la conservación de la flora y fauna. Costa Rica se ha caracterizado por ser un país poseedor de una rica biodiversidad. Sin embargo, muchos de los ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana ya presentan una contaminación severa, según el Índice holandés de clasificación de la calidad del agua. En este estudio se analizó el contenido de colifor- mes fecales en 10 ríos de las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Car tago, así como de la Península de Osa. Para correlacionar el contenido de colifor- mes fecales con la densidad poblacional, además, se muestrearon tres puntos en cada río: la zona alta cercana a la naciente, la zona media y la zona baja cercana a su desembocadura. Se encontró que los puntos de muestreo con densi- dades poblacionales medias o altas están altamente contaminados con coliformes fecales.Varios de ellos superan el límite máximo permisible en el contenido de coliformes fecales establecido por los reglamen- tos nacionales para el uso de los ríos en actividades de recreación de contacto primario. También se determinó que las zonas con menor pobla- ción, tales como los ríos Tigre y Rincón en la Península de Osa, el río Poás en Alajuela en todo su recorrido y los ríos Purires y Birrís en Cartago, en sus zonas medias y altas, están menos

  12. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  13. Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Barger, Kathryn; Fu, Xueyan; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B; Meydani, Simin N; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined. Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8. Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation

  14. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Analisis Mikrobiologi Minuman Teh Seduhan Berbeda Merk Berdasarkan Nilai Mpn Coliform di Kota Malang

    OpenAIRE

    Nisa, Ana Syarifatun; Hastuti, Utami Sri; Witjoro, Agung

    2012-01-01

    Minuman teh seduhan memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam menarik minat konsumen, diantaranya kemasan yang mudah dibawa dan selalu segar tetapi juga dapat mengalami kontaminasi oleh bakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui 1) Nilai MPN coliform dan coliform fekal minuman teh seduhan yang dijual di tiga pusat perbelanjaan Kota Malang; 2) Kualitas mikrobiologi minuman teh seduhan yang dijual di tiga tempat pusat perbelanjaan Kota Malang. Jenis penelitian ini ialah penelitian deskriptif o...

  16. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other beddin...

  17. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Høy; Permin, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out...... pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys....

  18. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  19. Escherichia coli and coliforms level of food utensils at food premises in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saipullizan, Siti Nurul Ain; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Sedek, Razalee

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Escherichia coli and coliforms level of food utensils at sixty food premises in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia. The swab technique was used to investigate the presence of E. coli and coliforms on 180 of food utensils (chopping boards: 60, knives: 60 and dish plates: 60). The results indicated that 180 of food utensils were contaminated with E. coli and coliforms. More than 60% of the coliforms were exceeded the acceptable limit compared to E. coli on the food utensils. The one-way ANOVA analysis demonstrated that the presence of E. coli and coliforms differed significantly among the three types of food utensils (knives, chopping boards, and dish plates). In conclusion, this study revealed that there are hygiene issues exist in every food premises. The food utensils are safe to use during the food preparation if the presence of E. coli and coliforms are not exceed the acceptable limit. Thus, it is recommended that the food handlers in the food premises should improve effective cleaning and sanitizing of food utensils in their daily work.

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngbeom; Stuckey, Ryan; Sung, Kidon; Rafii, Fatemeh; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2013-12-02

    There is much debate on whether continuous exposure of commensal bacteria and potential pathogens residing in the human intestinal tract to low levels of antimicrobial agents from treated food animals pose a public health concern. To investigate antimicrobial effects on bacteria under colonic conditions, we studied resistance development in Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes exposed to enrofloxacin in the presence of fecal extract. The bacteria were incubated at 37 °C in Mueller-Hinton broth, with and without 0.01~0.5 μg/mL enrofloxacin, in the presence and absence of sucrose, and with 1% or 2.5% filter-sterilized fecal extract, for three passages. In the second and third passages, only the bacteria incubated in the media containing sterilized fecal extract grew in 0.5 μg/mL of enrofloxacin. Fecal extract (1% and 2.5%) decreased the sensitivity of S. enterica to enrofloxacin in the medium containing the efflux pump inhibitors reserpine and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and affected the accumulation of ethidium bromide (EtBr) in this bacterium. Enrofloxacin (0.06 µg/mL) and fecal extract altered the composition of fatty acids in S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. We conclude that fecal extract decreased the susceptibilities of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes to concentrations of enrofloxacin higher than the MIC and resulted in rapid resistance selection.

  2. New record of Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Ulidiidae in Brazil, a probably mechanical vector of enteric bacteria Novo registro de Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Ulidiidae no Brasil, um provável vetor mecânico de enterobactérias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Sena Barnabe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pterotaenia fasciata is commonly recorded in rural areas in Argentina, but during a Diptera survey study developed in a reservoir which retains storm water from polluted canals in an urban area of Taboão da Serra municipality, SP, Brazil, we could capture P. fasciata adults. Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 and Proteus sp. were isolated from P. fasciata collected in traps inside the reservoir and around it. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were found in the water of the reservoir. These records suggest that a high abundance of this species at urban areas with inadequate sewage canals should reveal these muscoid dipterans as mechanical vectors of enteric bacteria.Pterotaenia fasciata é encontrada freqüentemente em áreas rurais na Argentina, mas durante um estudo de levantamento de Diptera em um reservatório de retenção de enchentes em uma área urbana do município de Taboão da Serra, SP, Brasil, foram capturados adultos de P. fasciata. As enterobactérias Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 e Proteus sp. foram isoladas de P. fasciata coletada em armadilhas no reservatório e em seu entorno. Coliformes fecais e E. coli foram encontrados na água do reservatório. Esses registros sugerem que a alta abundância dessa espécie em áreas urbanas sem saneamento básico poderia indicar esses dípteros muscóides como vetores mecânicos de enterobactérias.

  3. Marine and Freshwater Fecal Indicators and Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicators are organisms or chemical constituents found in fecal material or wastewater that can be measured to demonstrate the presence of fecal pollution. Fecal waste from humans and other animals can contaminant surface waters and pose a serious threat to the environmen...

  4. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Populations and Bovine-Associated Source-Tracking Markers in Freshly Deposited Cow Pats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source-tracking (MST) markers is critical to developing pathogen fate and transport models. Although pathogen survival in water microcosms and manure-amended soils is well documented, little is known about...

  5. Comparison of Cultural and Molecular Fecal Indicator Measurements in Surface Water and Periphyton Biofilms in Artificial Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies suggest that periphyton in streambeds can harbor fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and, under certain circumstances, can be transferred from the periphyton biofilm into the surface water. An indoor mesocosm study was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Expe...

  6. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E.coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding liquid feed containing whey permeate (WP) fermented with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiota and mucosal immune responses of Escherichia coli F4 inoculated piglets post weaning. The study consisted of 52 weaned...... diet tended (P = 0.069) to lower total coliform and enhanced (P = 0.050) LAB:coliform ratio in GIT digesta. The faecal LAB:coliform ratio was higher (P .... Intestinal immunoglobulin (Ig) A decreased (P liquid feed containing W. viridescens-fermented WP improved the intestinal health...

  7. Establishment of fecal bioassay facility at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, H.; Yuvaraj, Ramani; Mohanty, B.N.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an unusual occurrence, occupational radiation workers employed in fuel reprocessing/fuel fabrication facilities have potential risk of acquiring internal contamination, in spite of implementation of efficient engineering and administrative control measures. Quantification of internally deposited radionuclides is achieved either by (i) direct methods and/or (ii) indirect methods. In general, urinalysis is preferred for moderately absorbing (Type M-compounds of Americium) compounds, while analysis of fecal samples are preferred for slow absorption (Type S - Oxides of Plutonium) compounds. The predicted clearance of Type S and Type M compounds deposited in respiratory tract via fecal is about three to five orders higher than urinary excretion. In view of this, a facility for ashing fecal samples was established and standardization of radioanalytical procedure for quantification of Pu/Am using synthetic fecal (SF) samples was carried out

  8. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  9. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  10. Fecal microbiota transplantation: facts and controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Speelman, Peter; Nieuwdorp, Max; Keller, Josbert

    2014-01-01

    To review the current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a randomized trial confirmed the efficacy of this treatment strategy in patients with recurrent CDI. For

  11. Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Franz R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.

  12. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival

    2015-10-01

    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys.

  13. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Brat Kristian; Sedlacek Ivo; Sevcikova Alena; Merta Zdenek; Laska Kamil; Sevcik Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station) in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens), altho...

  14. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  15. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in an Indian Rural Community: A ‘One-Health’ Observational Study on Commensal Coliform from Humans, Animals, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Manju Raj; Chandran, Salesh; Shah, Harshada; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an escalating grim menace to global public health. Our aim is to phenotype and genotype antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from humans, animals, and water from the same community with a ‘one-health’ approach. The samples were collected from a village belonging to demographic surveillance site of Ruxmaniben Deepchand (R.D.) Gardi Medical College Ujjain, Central India. Commensal coliforms from stool samples from children aged 1–3 years and their environment (animals, drinking water from children's households, common source- and waste-water) were studied for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid-encoded resistance genes. E. coli isolates from human (n = 127), animal (n = 21), waste- (n = 12), source- (n = 10), and household drinking water (n = 122) carried 70%, 29%, 41%, 30%, and 30% multi-drug resistance, respectively. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were 57% in human and 23% in environmental isolates. Co-resistance was frequent in penicillin, cephalosporin, and quinolone. Antibiotic-resistance genes blaCTX-M-9 and qnrS were most frequent. Group D-type isolates with resistance genes were mainly from humans and wastewater. Colistin resistance, or the mcr-1 gene, was not detected. The frequency of resistance, co-resistance, and resistant genes are high and similar in coliforms from humans and their environment. This emphasizes the need to mitigate antibiotic resistance with a ‘one-health’ approach. PMID:28383517

  17. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D; Sim, Marissa K; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J

    2015-05-21

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%).

  18. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  19. Scarce Evidence of Yogurt Lactic Acid Bacteria in Human Feces after Daily Yogurt Consumption by Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    del Campo, Rosa; Bravo, Daniel; Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Montesi-Libois, Alejandra; Yuste, Francisco-Javier; Abraira, Victor; Baquero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind prospective study including 114 healthy young volunteers, the presence in human feces of the yogurt organisms Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus after repeated yogurt consumption (15 days) was analyzed by culture, specific PCR, and DNA hybridization of total fecal DNA. Detection of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in total fecal DNA by bacterial culture and PCR assay was consistently negative. DNA compatible with yogurt bacteria was found by hybridization ex...

  20. Comparison between gamma radiation and conventional methods on bacteria removal from sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Ahmed, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Digested liquid sludge (3% solid content)was collected from El-Gabal El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant (North East of Cairo City). The sludge was tested, before and after irradiation, for its pathogenic bacteria content (total coliform, faecal coliform, e.coli, salmonellae and shigella). treatment included sludge exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0.0, 0.5, 1.0,1.5,2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4.0,4.5,5.0,5.5,6.0 kGy). Determination of the lethal dose of every species was performed. Results indicated that primary, secondary and digestion treatments are not efficient in removing pathogenic bacteria. Digestion for 27 days at 35 degree c resulted in sludge with high content of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, radiation treatment is recommended. The lethal radiation dose for the different species vary. The lethal doses are as follows: 3.5 kGy for total coliform, 3.0 kGy for faecal coliform,3.0 kGy for e.coli and 2.5 kGy for salmonella and shigella. The re-growth at room temperature indicated that there is a potential for re-growth at the low radiation doses (<3.5 kGy)

  1. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  2. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria......, the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  3. Magnetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  4. Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

  5. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fresno, Ana Herrero; Zachariasen, Camilla; Norholm, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered...

  6. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  7. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of... conferences during which the Agency will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently approved Total Coliform Rule (TCR) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders...

  8. 75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9135-8] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder... that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the Agency develops the proposed revisions. Today, EPA is...; opportunities for stakeholders to provide feedback on assessment and corrective action guidance related to the...

  9. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  10. Nutrient Loading Impacts on Culturable E. coli and other Heterotrophic Bacteria Fate in Simulated Stream Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding fecal indicator bacteria persistence in aquatic environments is important when making management decisions to improve instream water quality. Routinely, bacteria fate and transport models that rely on published kinetic decay constants are used to inform such decision making. The object...

  11. Predicting fecal indicator organism contamination in Oregon coastal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettus, Paul; Foster, Eugene; Pan, Yangdong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used publicly available GIS layers and statistical tree-based modeling (CART and Random Forest) to predict pathogen indicator counts at a regional scale using 88 spatially explicit landscape predictors and 6657 samples from non-estuarine streams in the Oregon Coast Range. A total of 532 frequently sampled sites were parsed down to 93 pathogen sampling sites to control for spatial and temporal biases. This model's 56.5% explanation of variance, was comparable to other regional models, while still including a large number of variables. Analysis showed the most important predictors on bacteria counts to be: forest and natural riparian zones, cattle related activities, and urban land uses. This research confirmed linkages to anthropogenic activities, with the research prediction mapping showing increased bacteria counts in agricultural and urban land use areas and lower counts with more natural riparian conditions. - Highlights: • We modeled fecal indicator pathogens in Oregon Coast range streams. • We used machine learning tools with only publicly available data. • These models demonstrate the importance of riparian land use on water quality. • Regional water quality was characterized in streams with little to no monitoring. - A desktop approach to predict stream pathogens from exclusively publicly available data sets on a regional scale.

  12. Bacterial Composition, Genotoxicity, and Cytotoxicity of Fecal Samples from Individuals Consuming Omnivorous or Vegetarian Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Ermanno; Prete, Roberta; Lazzi, Camilla; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Moretti, Massimo; Corsetti, Aldo; Cenci, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity. The relative differences of viable bacteria among dietary groups were generally not statistically significant. However, compared to omnivores, lacto-ovo-vegetarians showed low levels of total anaerobes. Otherwise, vegans showed total anaerobes counts similar to those of omnivores, but with lower number of bifidobacteria and the highest levels of bacteria from the Bacteroides–Prevotella genera. FW genotoxicity of lacto-ovo-vegetarians resulted significantly lower either in relation to that of omnivores and vegans. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians also showed the lowest levels of cytotoxicity, while the highest were found for vegans. These results highlighted that lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet was particularly effective in a favorable modulation of microbial activity, thus contributing to a significant reduction of the genotoxic and cytotoxic risk in the gut. PMID:28293225

  13. Bacterial Composition, Genotoxicity, and Cytotoxicity of Fecal Samples from Individuals Consuming Omnivorous or Vegetarian Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Ermanno; Prete, Roberta; Lazzi, Camilla; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Moretti, Massimo; Corsetti, Aldo; Cenci, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity. The relative differences of viable bacteria among dietary groups were generally not statistically significant. However, compared to omnivores, lacto-ovo-vegetarians showed low levels of total anaerobes. Otherwise, vegans showed total anaerobes counts similar to those of omnivores, but with lower number of bifidobacteria and the highest levels of bacteria from the Bacteroides-Prevotella genera. FW genotoxicity of lacto-ovo-vegetarians resulted significantly lower either in relation to that of omnivores and vegans. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians also showed the lowest levels of cytotoxicity, while the highest were found for vegans. These results highlighted that lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet was particularly effective in a favorable modulation of microbial activity, thus contributing to a significant reduction of the genotoxic and cytotoxic risk in the gut.

  14. Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

  15. INDICADORES DE CONTAMINACIÓN FECAL EN BIOSÓLIDOS APLICADOS EN AGRICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guzmán

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de aguas residuales genera como subproducto lodos cuyas características dependen del origen del agua y del tratamiento utilizado para su depuración. El uso de este material en campos como la agricultura, recuperación de canteras, reforestación y producción de materiales de construcción, entre otros, son alternativas a su disposición final en rellenos sanitarios, en el océano o por incineración. Su aplicación en agricultura está condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos, así como a la presencia de sustancias tóxicas y metales pesados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración de coliformes fecales (indicadores de contaminación bacteriana, fagos somáticos y fagos F-específicos (indicadores de contaminación viral y huevos viables de helminto (indicadores de contaminación parasitaria, en biosólidos producidos en una planta depuradora de aguas residuales domésticas, estabilizados por digestión anaeróbica mesofílica. La media geométrica de las concentraciones de los indicadores bacterianos y virales es de 1,6 x 105 UFC/g peso seco para coliformes fecales, 5,0 x 103 PFP/g peso seco para fagos somáticos y 7,9 x 101 PFP/g peso seco para fagos F-específicos. La concentración promedio de huevos viables de helminto fue 0.14/4 g peso seco. En este último grupo, los huevos de Ascaris sp. fueron los que presentaron el mayor porcentaje de viabilidad junto con los huevos de origen no humano (Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium sp. y Stephanarus sp., entre otros. De acuerdo con la norma EPA/625/R-92/013 (1999 que regula el control de patógenos y la atracción de vectores en lodo residual, este lodo se clasifica como B, por presentar concentraciones de coliformes fecales <2 x 106 UFC/g sólidos totales. Sin embargo, la concentración de huevos viables de helminto en el biosólido es <1 huevo viable/4 g peso seco, lo cual cumple con la clasificación de un lodo tipo A (autorizado para

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Carmen E. Delgado-Gardea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05 and fecal (p < 0.001 coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009, whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates, Escherichia coli (2/7, and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3. In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  17. Anthropogenic Pollution Impact on Microbial Contamination of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indicator bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration while pathogenic bacteria were recovered by broth enrichment of water samples. Microbial load did not differ significantly with season and locations but fecal coliform (FC) had positive significant correlation (r = 0.36*; P < 0.05) with season. Mean total coliform (TC) ...

  18. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A; O'Meara, Patrick F; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 L biogas /person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 L biogas /p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH 3 -N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment.

  19. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65–75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment. PMID:27924135

  20. Exploring the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus fecal microbiome, bacterial inhabitants of a worldwide pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Alcaraz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome. Methods In this paper, we analyzed the gut microbiome from fecal samples of three healthy adult cockatiels by massive sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, we compared the cockatiel fecal microbiomes with those of other bird species, including poultry and wild birds. Results The vast majority of the bacteria found in cockatiels were Firmicutes, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were poorly represented. A total of 19,280 different OTUs were detected, of which 8,072 belonged to the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Discussion It is relevant to study cockatiel the microbiomes of cockatiels owing to their wide geographic distribution and close human contact. This study serves as a reference for cockatiel bacterial diversity. Despite the large OTU numbers, the diversity is not even and is dominated by Firmicutes of the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Cockatiels and other wild birds are almost depleted of Bacteroidetes, which happen to be abundant in poultry-related birds, and this is probably associated with the intensive human manipulation of poultry bird diets. Some probable pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium and Serratia, appeared to be frequent inhabitants of the fecal microbiome of cockatiels, whereas other potential pathogens were not detected.

  1. Dominant Fecal Microbiota in Newly Diagnosed Untreated Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lill Therese Thorkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the microbiota associated with the onset of IBD is limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between IBD and the fecal microbiota for early diagnosed untreated patients. The fecal samples used were a part of the Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway II (IBSEN II study and were collected from CD patients (n=30, UC patients (n=33, unclassified IBD (IBDU patients (n=3, and from a control group (n=34. The bacteria associated with the fecal samples were analyzed using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with a multivariate curve resolution (MCR analysis. In addition, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was prepared for the construction of bacteria-specific gene-targeted single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE probes. The MCR analysis resulted in the recovery of five pure components of the dominant bacteria present: Escherichia/Shigella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, and two components of unclassified Clostridiales. Escherichia/Shigella was found to be significantly increased in CD patients compared to control subjects, and Faecalibacterium was found to be significantly reduced in CD patients compared to both UC patients and control subjects. Furthermore, a SNuPE probe specific for Escherichia/Shigella showed a significant overrepresentation of Escherichia/Shigella in CD patients compared to control subjects. In conclusion, samples from CD patients exhibited an increase in Escherichia/Shigella and a decrease in Faecalibacterium indicating that the onset of the disease is associated with an increase in proinflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory bacteria.

  2. Distribution of bacteria in frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, P.; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Six samples of frozen shrimps were obtained through importing company mainly from South-east Asian countries. Five samples of frozen shrimps contained 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ to 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ per gram of total aerobic bacteria, and 4 samples contained 1.4 x 10/sup 2/ to 2.2 x 10/sup 3/ per gram of coliforms, which are higher contamination than Japanese standard of hygenic level for frozen food products (total counts below 10/sup 5/ per gram and no coliforms). The dominant bacteria in total counts were consisted with psychrotrophic Moraxella, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas and etc, in all kinds of frozen shrimps. Salmonellae or enteric Vibrio were could not isolated by ordinary isolation methods, and there were isolated many strains of Proteus mirabilis instead of these bacteria. Necessary dose of gamma irradiation for decontamination of bacteria to hygenic level was decided as 3 approx. 5 kGy from the inactivation curves of total bacteria, coliforms, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhymurium in frozen shrimps. Off-odor was suppressed by frozen condition of irradiation.

  3. Distribution of bacteria in frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, P.; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Six samples of frozen shrimps were obtained through importing company mainly from South-east Asian countries. Five samples of frozen shrimps contained 1.5 x 10 5 to 6.2 x 10 6 per gram of total aerobic bacteria, and 4 samples contained 1.4 x 10 2 to 2.2 x 10 3 per gram of coliforms, which are higher contamination than Japanese standard of hygenic level for frozen food products (total counts below 10 5 per gram and no coliforms). The dominant bacteria in total counts were consisted with psychrotrophic Moraxella, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas and etc, in all kinds of frozen shrimps. Salmonellae or enteric Vibrio were could not isolated by ordinary isolation methods, and there were isolated many strains of Proteus mirabilis instead of these bacteria. Necessary dose of gamma irradiation for decontamination of bacteria to hygenic level was decided as 3 ∼ 5 kGy from the inactivation curves of total bacteria, coliforms, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhymurium in frozen shrimps. Off-odor was suppressed by frozen condition of irradiation. (author)

  4. Functional fecal retention with encopresis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The most common cause of encopresis in children is functional fecal retention (FFR). An international working team suggested that FFR be defined by the following criteria: a history of >12 weeks of passage of encopresis; to compare these patients to those identified as having FFR by historical symptoms or physical examination; to determine whether 1-year treatment outcome varied depending on which definition for FFR was used; and to suggest improvements to the ROME II criteria, if necessary. Data were reviewed from the history and physical examination of 213 children with encopresis. One-year outcomes identified were failure, successful treatment, or full recovery. Only 88 (41%) of the patients with encopresis fit the ROME II criteria for FFR, whereas 181 (85%) had symptoms of FFR by history or physical examination. Thirty-two (15%) patients did not fit criteria for FFR, but only 6 (3%) appeared to have nonretentive fecal soiling. Rates of successful treatment (50%) and recovery (39%) were not significantly different in the two groups. The ROME II criteria for FFR are too restrictive and do not identify many children with encopresis who have symptoms of FFR. The author suggests that the ROME II criteria for FFR could be improved by including the following additional items: a history of BMs that obstruct the toilet, a history of chronic abdominal pain relieved by enemas or laxatives, and the presence of an abdominal fecal mass or rectal fecal mass.

  5. [Biofeedback effectiveness in patients with fecal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Buenrostro-Acebes, José María; Erciga-Vergara, Nancy; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Mosqueda, Maria Elena; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; González-Alvarado, Carlos; Villanueva-Saenz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined as an involuntary bowel movement through the anal canal in inadequate time and place. There are different types of therapies for the management of fecal incontinence, being biofeedback therapy one of the most effective techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessary number of sessions of biofeedback electromyographyc therapy to achieve the maximum sphincteric complex contraction. Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study. 65 patients with fecal incontinence were included. Weekly electromyographyc biofeedback therapies were applied, with a maximum of 6, in which the sphincteric complex contraction was measured. A two ways Friedman analysis was made to determine the significant differences between the sessions. A total of 65 patients were evaluated for fecal incontinence. The values for pelvic floor contraction were significantly higher in the third session, and did not show any significant difference in posterior sessions. The maximum contraction of the sphicnteric complex was achieved in the third weekly biofeedback session, without any significant differences in the posterior sessions.

  6. Disinfection of bacteria attached to granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChevallier, M W; Hassenauer, T S; Camper, A K; McFeters, G A

    1984-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate count bacteria, coliform organisms, and pathogenic microorganisms attached to granular activated carbon particles were examined for their susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. When these bacteria were grown on carbon particles and then disinfected with 2.0 mg of chlorine per liter (1.4 to 1.6 mg of free chlorine residual per liter after 1 h) for 1 h, no significant decrease in viable counts was observed. Washed cells attached to the surface of granular activated carbon particles showed similar resistance to chlorine, but a progressive increase in sublethal injury was found. Observations made by scanning electron microscope indicated that granular activated carbon was colonized by bacteria which grow in cracks and crevices and are coated by an extracellular slime layer. These data suggest a possible mechanism by which treatment and disinfection barriers can be penetrated and pathogenic bacteria may enter drinking water supplies. Images PMID:6508306

  7. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Agrawal, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  8. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Shu Weiqun; Chang Xiaosong; Chen Jian; Guo Yebin; Tan Yao

    2010-01-01

    The spreading of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla TEM+CTx-M was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. - Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and Class 1 integrons play an important role in multi-drug resistance.

  9. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Shu Weiqun, E-mail: west2003@sohu.co [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chang Xiaosong; Chen Jian; Guo Yebin; Tan Yao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The spreading of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla{sub TEM+CTx-M} was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. - Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and Class 1 integrons play an important role in multi-drug resistance.

  10. Animal Feces Contribute to Domestic Fecal Contamination: Evidence from E. coli Measured in Water, Hands, Food, Flies, and Soil in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Kwong, Laura H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Kullmann, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Colford, John M

    2017-08-01

    Fecal-oral pathogens are transmitted through complex, environmentally mediated pathways. Sanitation interventions that isolate human feces from the environment may reduce transmission but have shown limited impact on environmental contamination. We conducted a study in rural Bangladesh to (1) quantify domestic fecal contamination in settings with high on-site sanitation coverage; (2) determine how domestic animals affect fecal contamination; and (3) assess how each environmental pathway affects others. We collected water, hand rinse, food, soil, and fly samples from 608 households. We analyzed samples with IDEXX Quantitray for the most probable number (MPN) of E. coli. We detected E. coli in source water (25%), stored water (77%), child hands (43%), food (58%), flies (50%), ponds (97%), and soil (95%). Soil had >120 000 mean MPN E. coli per gram. In compounds with vs without animals, E. coli was higher by 0.54 log 10 in soil, 0.40 log 10 in stored water and 0.61 log 10 in food (p food increased with increasing E. coli in soil, ponds, source water and hands. We provide empirical evidence of fecal transmission in the domestic environment despite on-site sanitation. Animal feces contribute to fecal contamination, and fecal indicator bacteria do not strictly indicate human fecal contamination when animals are present.

  11. A case study characterizing animal fecal sources in surface water using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, John P; Shattuck, Michelle D; Aytur, Semra A; Carey, Richard; McDowell, William H

    2017-08-01

    Water quality impairment by fecal waste in coastal watersheds is a public health issue. The present study provided evidence for the use of a mitochondrial (mtDNA) marker to detect animal fecal sources in surface water. The accurate identification of fecal pollution is based on the notion that fecal microorganisms preferentially inhabit a host animal's gut environment. In contrast, mtDNA host-specific markers are inherent to eukaryotic host cells, which offers the advantage by detecting DNA from the host rather than its fecal bacteria. The present study focused on sampling water presumably from non-point sources (NPS), which can increase bacterial and nitrogen concentrations to receiving water bodies. Stream sampling sites located within the Piscataqua River Watershed (PRW), New Hampshire, USA, were sampled from a range of sites that experienced nitrogen inputs such as sewer and septic systems and suburban runoff. Three mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene marker assays (human, bovine, and canine) were tested from surface water. Nineteen sites were sampled during an 18-month period. Analyses of the combined single and multiplex assay results showed that the proportion of occurrence was highest for bovine (15.6%; n = 77) compared to canine (5.6%; n = 70) and human (5.7%; n = 107) mtDNA gene markers. For the human mtDNA marker, there was a statistically significant relationship between presence vs. absence and land use (Fisher's test p = 0.0031). This result was evident particularly for rural suburban septic, which showed the highest proportion of presence (19.2%) compared to the urban sewered (3.3%), suburban sewered (0%), and agricultural (0%) as well as forested septic (0%) sites. Although further testing across varied land use is needed, our study provides evidence for using the mtDNA marker in large watersheds.

  12. Different fecal microbiotas and volatile organic compounds in treated and untreated children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Rizzello, Carlo G; Gagliardi, Francesca; Ricciuti, Patrizia; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Crecchio, Carmine; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiotas of children with celiac disease (CD) before (U-CD) and after (T-CD) they were fed a gluten-free diet and of healthy children (HC). Brothers or sisters of T-CD were enrolled as HC. Each group consisted of seven children. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis with V3 universal primers revealed a unique profile for each fecal sample. PCR-DGGE analysis with group- or genus-specific 16S rRNA gene primers showed that the Lactobacillus community of U-CD changed significantly, while the diversity of the Lactobacillus community of T-CD was quite comparable to that of HC. Compared to HC, the ratio of cultivable lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium to Bacteroides and enterobacteria was lower in T-CD and even lower in U-CD. The percentages of strains identified as lactobacilli differed as follows: HC (ca. 38%) > T-CD (ca. 17%) > U-CD (ca. 10%). Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rossiae, and Lactobacillus pentosus were identified only in fecal samples from T-CD and HC. Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus gasseri were identified only in several fecal samples from HC. Compared to HC, the composition of Bifidobacterium species of T-CD varied, and it varied even more for U-CD. Forty-seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) belonging to different chemical classes were identified using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction analysis. The median concentrations varied markedly for HC, T-CD, and U-CD. Overall, the r(2) values for VOC data for brothers and sisters were equal to or lower than those for unrelated HC and T-CD. This study shows the effect of CD pathology on the fecal microbiotas of children.

  13. Prevalence and mechanisms of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in clinical and fecal Enterobacteriaceae isolates from dogs in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pauline L C; Shen, Xiao; Chalmers, Gabhan; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Slavic, Durda; Dick, Hani; Boerlin, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    There is little information on the genetic basis of resistance to the critically important extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Enterobacteriaceae from dogs in Canada. This study assessed the frequency of ESC resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dogs in Ontario and the distribution of major ESC resistance genes in these bacteria. A total of 542 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 506 clinical samples from two diagnostic laboratories in Ontario. Eighty-eight ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 217 Escherichia coli were isolated from 234 fecal samples from dogs collected at leash-free dog parks. These fecal isolates were tested for ESC resistance along with the clinical isolates. Isolates with reduced ESC susceptibility were screened for bla CMY , bla CTX-M , and bla SHV , and all CTX-M-positive isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing. The prevalence of ESC resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae was 10.4%. The average frequency of fecal carriage of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthy dogs was 26.5%. The majority of ESC-resistant isolates were E. coli and the other major Enterobacteriaceae carrying ESC resistance genes were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The results show that the same ESC resistance genes can be found in clinical and fecal Enterobacteriaceae in dogs. The identified E. coli sequence types (including ST131 and ST648) and CTX-M variants (including CTX-M-14, -15, and -27) support the hypothesis of transfer of resistant bacteria between humans and dogs. CTX-M-1 was frequently found in canine fecal Enterobacteriaceae, while it is still rare in human Enterobacteriaceae in Canada, thus suggesting transfer of resistant bacteria to dogs from food animals or other sources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disinfection of stabilization pond effluent by peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Rezania

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The study demonstrated that application of combined PAA and NaOCl in disinfecting the effluent of the stabilization pond will promote the efficiency of disinfection process in inactivating the coliform group bacteria and fecal streptococci.

  15. An Integrated Watershed and Receiving Water Model for Fecal Coliform Fate and Transport in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Area IMPLND Impervious Land Cover INFILT Interflow Inflow Parameter (related to infiltration capacity of the soil ) INSUR Manning’s N for the...Km) SCCWRP Southern California Coastal Water Research Project SCS Soil Conservation Service SGA Shellfish Growing Area SPAWAR Space and Naval...UCI User Control Input USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USGS U.S. Geological Survey xix USLE Universal

  16. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  17. Re-growth of fecal indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 B6914 in cow fecal extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health risks that pathogens pose to water and food resources are highly dependent on their fate and transport in agricultural settings. In order to assess these risks, an understanding of the factors that influence pathogen fate in agricultural settings is needed and is criti...

  18. Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Thapa Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45% contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%. The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11073 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 139-145

  19. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M C; Quinton, J N; Tyrrel, S F

    2006-01-01

    The large quantities of slurry and manure that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter and nutrients for agriculture. However, the benefits of waste recycling may be partially offset by the risk of water pollution associated with runoff from the fields to which slurry or manure has been applied. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water pollution by faecal coliforms are analysed. Rainfall simulations at a rate of 70 mm h(-1) were conducted in a sandy loam soil packed into soil flumes (2.5m long x 1m wide) at a bulk density of 1400 kg m(-3), with and without cattle slurry manure applied on the surface. For each simulation, sediment and runoff rates were analysed and in those simulations with applied slurry, presumptive faecal coliform (PFC) concentrations in the runoff were evaluated. The application of slurry on the soil surface appeared to have a protective effect on the soils, reducing soil detachment by up to 70% but increasing runoff volume by up to 30%. This practice implies an important source of pollution for surface waters especially if rainfall takes place within a short period after application. The concentrations of micro-organisms (presumptive faecal coliforms (PFCs)) found in water runoff ranged from 1.9 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(6) PFC 100mL(-1), depending on the initial concentration in the slurry, and they were particularly high during the first phases of the rainfall event. The result indicates a strong relationship between the faecal coliforms transported by runoff and the organic matter in the sediment.

  20. Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

  1. Effects of DNA Extraction Procedures on Bacteroides Profiles in Fecal Samples From Various Animals Determined by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major assumption in microbial source tracking is that some fecal bacteria are specific to a host animal, and thus provide unique microbial fingerprints that can be used to differentiate hosts. However, the DNA information obtained from a particular sample may be biased dependi...

  2. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  3. Weight gain after fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Neha; Kelly, Colleen R

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We report a case of a woman successfully treated with FMT who developed new-onset obesity after receiving stool from a healthy but overweight donor. This case may stimulate further studies on the mechanisms of the nutritional-neural-microbiota axis and reports of outcomes in patients who have used nonideal donors for FMT.

  4. Dietary effects on human fecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of microbial populations in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract is a complex process, involving microbial and host interactions eventually resulting in a dense and stable population. Recently, the identification of microbial species from fecal samples has become more accurate with the use of 16S RNA gene-based methods. However, although these molecular-based detection methods have apparent benefits over culture-based techniques, they involve potential pitfalls that should be tak...

  5. Sample preparation optimization in fecal metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Fasoula, Stella; Palachanis, Dimitris; Raikos, Νicolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Gika, Helen G

    2017-03-15

    Metabolomic analysis of feces can provide useful insight on the metabolic status, the health/disease state of the human/animal and the symbiosis with the gut microbiome. As a result, recently there is increased interest on the application of holistic analysis of feces for biomarker discovery. For metabolomics applications, the sample preparation process used prior to the analysis of fecal samples is of high importance, as it greatly affects the obtained metabolic profile, especially since feces, as matrix are diversifying in their physicochemical characteristics and molecular content. However there is still little information in the literature and lack of a universal approach on sample treatment for fecal metabolic profiling. The scope of the present work was to study the conditions for sample preparation of rat feces with the ultimate goal of the acquisition of comprehensive metabolic profiles either untargeted by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS or targeted by HILIC-MS/MS. A fecal sample pooled from male and female Wistar rats was extracted under various conditions by modifying the pH value, the nature of the organic solvent and the sample weight to solvent volume ratio. It was found that the 1/2 (w f /v s ) ratio provided the highest number of metabolites under neutral and basic conditions in both untargeted profiling techniques. Concerning LC-MS profiles, neutral acetonitrile and propanol provided higher signals and wide metabolite coverage, though extraction efficiency is metabolite dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  7. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rainfall, and inland contaminants, however, within the regulation limit of various countries for shellfish. The highest concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a in seawaters were shown in the surface layer during August with high rainfall, whereas the lowest for dissolved oxygen (DO in the bottom layer of the same month. Therefore, it indicates that the concentrations of FC, COD, DO, and chlorophyll-a of seawaters were closely related to season and rainfall.

  8. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is a fundamental requirement for good health and is also a human right. Global access to safe drinking-water is monitored by WHO and UNICEF using as an indicator "use of an improved source," which does not account for water quality measurements. Our objectives were to determine whether water from "improved" sources is less likely to contain fecal contamination than "unimproved" sources and to assess the extent to which contamination varies by source type and setting. Studies in Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were identified from online databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, and grey literature. Studies in low- and middle-income countries published between 1990 and August 2013 that assessed drinking-water for the presence of Escherichia coli or thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) were included provided they associated results with a particular source type. In total 319 studies were included, reporting on 96,737 water samples. The odds of contamination within a given study were considerably lower for "improved" sources than "unimproved" sources (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [0.10-0.21], I2 = 80.3% [72.9-85.6]). However over a quarter of samples from improved sources contained fecal contamination in 38% of 191 studies. Water sources in low-income countries (OR = 2.37 [1.52-3.71]; pwater quality or sanitary risks and few achieved robust random selection. Safety may be overestimated due to infrequent water sampling and deterioration in quality prior to consumption. Access to an "improved source" provides a measure of sanitary protection but does not ensure water is free of fecal contamination nor is it consistent between source types or settings. International estimates therefore greatly overstate use of safe drinking-water and do not fully reflect disparities in access. An enhanced monitoring strategy would combine indicators of sanitary protection with measures of water quality.

  9. Utility of Helicobacter spp. associated GFD markers for detecting avian fecal pollution in natural waters of two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Harwood, V J; Nguyen, K; Young, S; Hamilton, K; Toze, S

    2016-01-01

    Avian fecal droppings may negatively impact environmental water quality due to the presence of high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens. This study was aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics and utility of a Helicobacter spp. associated GFD marker by screening 265 fecal and wastewater samples from a range of avian and non-avian host groups from two continents (Brisbane, Australia and Florida, USA). The host-prevalence and -specificity of this marker among fecal and wastewater samples tested from Brisbane were 0.58 and 0.94 (maximum value of 1.00). These values for the Florida fecal samples were 0.30 (host-prevalence) and 1.00 (host-specificity). The concentrations of the GFD markers in avian and non-avian fecal nucleic acid samples were measured at a test concentration of 10 ng of nucleic acid at Brisbane and Florida laboratories using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The mean concentrations of the GFD marker in avian fecal nucleic acid samples (5.2 × 10(3) gene copies) were two orders of magnitude higher than non-avian fecal nucleic acid samples (8.6 × 10(1) gene copies). The utility of this marker was evaluated by testing water samples from the Brisbane River, Brisbane and a freshwater creek in Florida. Among the 18 water samples tested from the Brisbane River, 83% (n = 18) were positive for the GFD marker, and the concentrations ranged from 6.0 × 10(1)-3.2 × 10(2) gene copies per 100 mL water. In all, 92% (n = 25) water samples from the freshwater creek in Florida were also positive for the GFD marker with concentrations ranging from 2.8 × 10(1)-1.3 × 10(4) gene copies per 100 mL water. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the GFD marker is highly specific to avian host groups, and could be used as a reliable marker to detect the presence and amount of avian fecal pollution in environmental waters. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 ( p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  11. An Integrated Metabolomic and Microbiome Analysis Identified Specific Gut Microbiota Associated with Fecal Cholesterol and Coprostanol in Clostridium difficile Infection.

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    Vijay C Antharam

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is characterized by dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and a profound derangement in the fecal metabolome. However, the contribution of specific gut microbes to fecal metabolites in C. difficile-associated gut microbiome remains poorly understood. Using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and 16S rRNA deep sequencing, we analyzed the metabolome and microbiome of fecal samples obtained longitudinally from subjects with Clostridium difficile infection (n = 7 and healthy controls (n = 6. From 155 fecal metabolites, we identified two sterol metabolites at >95% match to cholesterol and coprostanol that significantly discriminated C. difficile-associated gut microbiome from healthy microbiota. By correlating the levels of cholesterol and coprostanol in fecal extracts with 2,395 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, we identified 63 OTUs associated with high levels of coprostanol and 2 OTUs correlated with low coprostanol levels. Using indicator species analysis (ISA, 31 of the 63 coprostanol-associated bacteria correlated with health, and two Veillonella species were associated with low coprostanol levels that correlated strongly with CDI. These 65 bacterial taxa could be clustered into 12 sub-communities, with each community containing a consortium of organisms that co-occurred with one another. Our studies identified 63 human gut microbes associated with cholesterol-reducing activities. Given the importance of gut bacteria in reducing and eliminating cholesterol from the GI tract, these results support the recent finding that gut microbiome may play an important role in host lipid metabolism.

  12. An Integrated Metabolomic and Microbiome Analysis Identified Specific Gut Microbiota Associated with Fecal Cholesterol and Coprostanol in Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antharam, Vijay C; McEwen, Daniel C; Garrett, Timothy J; Dossey, Aaron T; Li, Eric C; Kozlov, Andrew N; Mesbah, Zhubene; Wang, Gary P

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and a profound derangement in the fecal metabolome. However, the contribution of specific gut microbes to fecal metabolites in C. difficile-associated gut microbiome remains poorly understood. Using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 16S rRNA deep sequencing, we analyzed the metabolome and microbiome of fecal samples obtained longitudinally from subjects with Clostridium difficile infection (n = 7) and healthy controls (n = 6). From 155 fecal metabolites, we identified two sterol metabolites at >95% match to cholesterol and coprostanol that significantly discriminated C. difficile-associated gut microbiome from healthy microbiota. By correlating the levels of cholesterol and coprostanol in fecal extracts with 2,395 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, we identified 63 OTUs associated with high levels of coprostanol and 2 OTUs correlated with low coprostanol levels. Using indicator species analysis (ISA), 31 of the 63 coprostanol-associated bacteria correlated with health, and two Veillonella species were associated with low coprostanol levels that correlated strongly with CDI. These 65 bacterial taxa could be clustered into 12 sub-communities, with each community containing a consortium of organisms that co-occurred with one another. Our studies identified 63 human gut microbes associated with cholesterol-reducing activities. Given the importance of gut bacteria in reducing and eliminating cholesterol from the GI tract, these results support the recent finding that gut microbiome may play an important role in host lipid metabolism.

  13. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} CFU/ml and 0 to 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10{sup 2} CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10{sup 7} CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D{sub {sub 1}{sub 0}} values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  14. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D 10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts

  15. Frequent detection of a human fecal indicator in the urban ocean: environmental drivers and covariation with enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wiley C; Chern, Eunice C; O'Donohue, Diane; Kellogg, Michael G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2018-03-01

    Fecal pollution of surface waters presents a global human health threat. New molecular indicators of fecal pollution have been developed to address shortcomings of traditional culturable fecal indicators. However, there is still little information on their fate and transport in the environment. The present study uses spatially and temporally extensive data on traditional (culturable enterococci, cENT) and molecular (qPCR-enterococci, qENT and human-associated marker, HF183/BacR287) indicator concentrations in marine water surrounding highly-urbanized San Francisco, California, USA to investigate environmental and anthropogenic processes that impact fecal pollution. We constructed multivariable regression models for fecal indicator bacteria at 14 sampling stations. The human marker was detected more frequently in our study than in many other published studies, with detection frequency at some stations as high as 97%. The odds of cENT, qENT, and HF183/BacR287 exceeding health-relevant thresholds were statistically elevated immediately following discharges of partially treated combined sewage, and cENT levels dissipated after approximately 1 day. However, combined sewer discharges were not important predictors of indicator levels typically measured in weekly monitoring samples. Instead, precipitation and solar insolation were important predictors of cENT in weekly samples, while precipitation and water temperature were important predictors of HF183/BacR287 and qENT. The importance of precipitation highlights the significance of untreated storm water as a source of fecal pollution to the urban ocean, even for a city served by a combined sewage system. Sunlight and water temperature likely control persistence of the indicators via photoinactivation and dark decay processes, respectively.

  16. Novel human-associated Lachnospiraceae genetic markers improve detection of fecal pollution sources in urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuchen; Bootsma, Melinda; McLellan, Sandra L

    2018-05-04

    The human microbiome contains many organisms that could potentially be used as indicators of human fecal pollution. Here we report the development of two novel human-associated genetic marker assays that target organisms within the family Lachnospiraceae Next-generation sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene from sewage and animal stool samples identified 40 human-associated marker candidates with a robust signal in sewage and low or no occurrence in nonhuman hosts. Two were chosen for quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay development using longer sequences (V2 to V9 regions) generated from clone libraries. Validation of these assays, designated Lachno3 and Lachno12, was performed using fecal samples (n=55) from cat, dog, pig, cow, deer, and gull sources, and compared with established host-associated assays (Lachno2, and two Human Bacteroides assays; HB and HF183/BacR287). Each of the established assays cross-reacted with at least one other animal, including animals common in urban areas. Lachno3 and Lachno12 were primarily human-associated; however, Lachno12 demonstrated low levels of cross-reactivity with select cows, and non-specific amplification in pigs. This limitation may not be problematic when testing urban waters. These novel markers resolved ambiguous results from previous investigations in stormwater-impacted waters, demonstrating their utility. The complexity of the microbiome in humans and animals suggests no single organism is strictly specific to humans, and multiple complementary markers used in combination will provide the highest resolution and specificity for assessing fecal pollution sources. IMPORTANCE Traditional fecal indicator bacteria do not distinguish animal from human fecal pollution, which is necessary to evaluate health risks and mitigate pollution sources. Assessing urban areas is challenging since water can be impacted by sewage, which has a high likelihood of carrying human pathogens, as well as pet waste and urban wildlife. We

  17. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, C.S.; Denman, S.E.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 10 11 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (10 4 -10 6 /g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 10 2 -10 4 /g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (10 7 -10 9 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  18. Fecal incontinence after single-stage Soave's pull-through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2012) > ... Demographic, clinical data, preoperative investigations, operative records, postoperative ... Keywords: fecal continence, Hirschsprung's disease, Soave's operation, transanal endorectal pull-through ...

  19. Determination of ionophore antibiotics nactins produced by fecal Streptomyces from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Hongming; Lu, Yu; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between fecal actinobacteria and host animals, Streptomyces was isolated from fresh faeces of healthy sheep and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The most frequently isolated strain S161 with antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi were analyzed. The S161 showed the highest 99 % similarity to Streptomyces canus DSB17 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolite analysis based on MS and NMR spectra showed that S161 produces nactins, cyclotetralactones derived from nonactic acid and homononactic acid as building units of ionophoretic character. Due to ionophores are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency, stable beneficial interactions between Streptomyces bacteria and vertebrates have been demonstrated.

  20. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Palmer, A; Beale, D J; Toze, S

    2015-10-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on the sources of fecal pollution in waterways. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology

  1. Salivary and fecal microbiota and metabolome of celiac children under gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Cavallo, Noemi; Minervini, Fabio; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children. Different studies showed bacterial dysbiosis at duodenal and/or fecal level of patients with active untreated CD (U-CD) and T-CD compared to healthy subjects. The ratio of protective anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Lactobacillus-Bifidobacterium to potentially harmful Bacteroides-Enterobacteriaceae was the lowest in U-CD and T-CD children. In agreement with dysbiosis, serum, fecal and urinary metabolome from U-CD and T-CD patients showed altered levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds. However, consensus across studies defining specific bacteria and metabolites in U-CD or T-CD patients is still lacking. Future research efforts are required to determine the relationships between CD and oral and intestinal microbiotas to improve the composition of GFD for restoring the gut dysbiosis as a preventative or therapeutic approach for CD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  4. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  5. Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources have made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies now provides increased sequencing power to resolve microbial community composition within and among environments. These data can be mined for information on source-specific phylotypes and/or assemblages of phylotypes (i.e., microbial signatures). We report the development of a new genetic marker for human fecal contamination identified through microbial pyrotag sequence analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of 37 sewage samples and comparison with database sequences revealed a human-associated phylotype within the Lachnospiraceae family, which was closely related to the genus Blautia. This phylotype, termed Lachno2, was on average the second most abundant fecal bacterial phylotype in sewage influent samples from Milwaukee, WI. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Lachno2 and used it along with the qPCR-based assays for human Bacteroidales (based on the HF183 genetic marker), total Bacteroidales spp., and enterococci and the conventional Escherichia coli and enterococci plate count assays to examine the prevalence of fecal and human fecal pollution in Milwaukee's harbor. Both the conventional fecal indicators and the human-associated indicators revealed chronic fecal pollution in the harbor, with significant increases following heavy rain events and combined sewer overflows. The two human-associated genetic marker abundances were tightly correlated in the harbor, a strong indication they target the same source (i.e., human sewage). Human adenoviruses were routinely detected under all conditions in the harbor, and the probability of their occurrence increased by 154% for every 10-fold increase in the human indicator concentration. Both Lachno2 and human Bacteroidales increased specificity to

  6. Reduction of malachite green to leucomalachite green by intestinal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, A L; Schmitt, T C; Heinze, T M; Cerniglia, C E

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal microfloras from human, rat, mouse, and monkey fecal samples and 14 pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria representative of those found in the human gastrointestinal tract metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green to leucomalachite green. The reduction of malachite green to the leuco derivative suggests that intestinal microflora could play an important role in the metabolic activation of the triphenylmethane dye to a potential carcinogen.

  7. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  8. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Roberto; Shi, Jianxin; Fuhrman, Barbara; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D; Gail, Mitchell H; Gajer, Pawel; Ravel, Jacques; Goedert, James J

    2012-12-21

    High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM), and their sum (total estrogens) were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences), high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM) were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003). These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57-0.70, P=0.03-0.002). Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with functional activity of fecal β-glucuronidase (R=0.36, P=0

  9. Fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N

    2001-07-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement 6 hr/day for 7 days. On day 8, each bird's jugular vein was catheterized, blood samples were drawn, and each crane was confined for 6 hr. Using a randomized, restricted cross-over design, cranes were injected intravenously with either 0.9% NaCl solution or ACTH (cosyntropin; Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). During the 6 hr of confinement, fecal samples (feces and urine) were collected from each of five cranes immediately after defecation. Individual fecal samples were collected approximately at hourly intervals and assayed for corticosterone. We showed previously that serum corticosterone did not vary significantly following saline injection, but peaked significantly 60 min after ACTH injection. Maximal fecal corticosterone concentrations (ng/g) were greater (P cranes under controlled conditions, fecal corticosterone concentration reflects serum corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone, Grus canadensis pratensis, sandhill cranes, serum corticosterone levels.

  10. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  12. Shifts in the Fecal Microbiota Associated with Adenomatous Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Vanessa L; Chen, Jun; Johnson, Stephen; Harrington, Sean C; Yab, Tracy C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Nelson, Heidi; Boardman, Lisa A; Druliner, Brooke R; Levin, Theodore R; Rex, Douglas K; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lance, Peter; Ahlquist, David A; Chia, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n = 233) and without (n = 547). Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, proinflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species. Patients without adenomas had greater abundances of Veillonella, Firmicutes (Order Clostridia), and Actinobacteria (family Bifidobacteriales). Our findings were consistent with previously reported shifts in the gut microbiota of colorectal cancer patients. Importantly, the altered adenoma profile is predicted to increase primary and secondary bile acid production, as well as starch, sucrose, lipid, and phenylpropanoid metabolism. These data hint that increased sugar, protein, and lipid metabolism along with increased bile acid production could promote a colonic environment that supports the growth of bile-tolerant microbes such as Bilophilia and Desulfovibrio In turn, these microbes may produce genotoxic or inflammatory metabolites such as H 2 S and secondary bile acids, which could play a role in catalyzing adenoma development and eventually colorectal cancer. This study suggests a plausible biological mechanism to explain the links between shifts in the microbiota and colorectal cancer. This represents a first step toward resolving the complex interactions that shape the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer and may facilitate personalized therapeutics focused on the microbiota. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 85-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Comparison of bacteria populations in clean and recycled sand used for bedding in dairy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristula, M A; Rogers, W; Hogan, J S; Sabo, M

    2005-12-01

    Bedding samples were collected twice from commercial dairy free-stall facilities that used recycled sand and clean sand in both the summer and winter. Collection began on the day sand was taken from the pile (d 0) and placed in the free stalls, and continued for 5 to 7 additional days. The number of colonies per gram of bedding of gram-negative bacteria, coliforms, Streptococcus spp., and Klebsiella spp. were estimated for each sand sample as well as amounts of dry and organic matter. Clean sand (CS) and recycled sand (RS) had the same bacterial counts when compared at any sampling time. The mean counts of bacterial populations did vary over the course of the study in both CS and RS. There was a significant increase in bacterial counts from d 0 to d 1 for gram-negative bacteria, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. in both winter and summer. Counts of gram-negative bacteria, coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. did not differ from d 1 to 7 in the winter. Total counts of gram-negative bacteria did not differ from d 1 to 7 in the summer. On d 1 in the summer, coliform counts were lower than at d 5 to 7, and Klebsiella spp. counts were lower than on d 3 to 7. Streptococcus spp. counts were high on d 1 and were constant through d 7 in both winter and summer trials. The number of coliform and Klebsiella spp. in both CS and RS was below the threshold thought to cause mastitis during the sampling times. The number of Streptococcus spp. was high in both CS and RS during the sampling periods. Other management factors need to be identified to decrease the number of Streptococcus spp. in bedding. Recycled sand had a higher organic matter and lower dry matter compared with CS in winter and summer. The results for this study were obtained from multiple herd comparisons, and herd was a significant effect suggesting that different management systems influence the number and types of bacteria in both CS and RS.

  14. Influence of dietary protein and fructooligosaccharides on fecal fermentative end-products, fecal bacterial populations and apparent total tract digestibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Carlo; Vecchiato, Carla Giuditta; Bolduan, Carmen; Grandi, Monica; Stefanelli, Claudio; Windisch, Wilhelm; Zaghini, Giuliano; Biagi, Giacomo

    2018-03-20

    Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content. Twelve healthy adult dogs were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin Square design to determine the effects of four diets: 1) Low protein diet (LP, crude protein (CP) 229 g/kg dry matter (DM)); 2) High protein diet (HP, CP 304 g/kg DM); 3) Diet 1 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg; 4) Diet 2 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg. The diets contained silica at 5 g/kg as a digestion marker. Differences in protein content were obtained using different amounts of a highly digestible swine greaves meal. Each feeding period lasted 28 d, with a 12 d wash-out in between periods. Fecal samples were collected from dogs at 0, 21 and 28 d of each feeding period. Feces excreted during the last five days of each feeding period were collected and pooled in order to evaluate ATTD. Higher fecal ammonia concentrations were observed both when dogs received the HP diets (p < 0.001) and the supplementation with FOS (p < 0.05). The diets containing FOS resulted in greater ATTD of DM, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Fe (p < 0.05) while HP diets were characterized by lower crude ash ATTD (p < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed between FOS and protein concentration in regards to fecal pH (p < 0.05), propionic acid (p < 0.05), acetic to propionic acid and acetic + n-butyric to propionic acid ratios (p < 0.01), bifidobacteria (p < 0.05) and ATTD of CP (p < 0.05) and Mn (p < 0.001). A relatively moderate increase of dietary protein resulted in higher concentrations of ammonia in

  15. Abundance of sewage-pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria in a tropical estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagvenkar, G.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    contamination, allochthonous bacteria Introduction: Environmental surveys are necessary for understanding and documenting the occurrence and distribution of pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria. In order to quantify and understand... and Chandramohan 1993; Ruiz et al. 2000; Ramaiah and De 2003). Mortality and survival rates of fecal contamination indicator Escherichia coli in the marine regimes have also been studied (Thom et al. 1992; Darakas 2001). Findings from these studies affirm...

  16. [Tracing the Fecal Contamination Sources Based on Bacteroides 16S rRNA PCR- DGGE in Karst Groundwater: Taking Laolongdong Underground River System, Nanshan, Chongqing as an Example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Yong-jun; Zhang, Yuan-zhu; Duan, Yi-fan; Lü, Xian-fu; He, Qiu-fang

    2016-05-15

    Microbial contamination in karst groundwater continually increases and tracing the source researches has become a hot topic for international researchers. In this study, Laolongdong underground river at Nanshan, Chongqing was chosen as an example to adopt filter membrane methods to monitor the fecal microbial contaminations including the total bacterial concentration (TB), the total E. coli concentration (TE), the total fecal coliform (FC) and the total fecal Streptocoocci (FS). Bacteriodes was used as an indicator and PCR-DGGE analysis was used to trace fecal contamination sources in karst groundwater. The results suggested that groundwater in this area was seriously polluted by microbes from feces. The concentrations of microbial parameters exceeded limited levels greatly and the total bacterial amounts ranged 10-2.9 x 10⁷ CFU · mL⁻¹, the concentrations of E. coli were between 4.3-4.0 x 10⁵ CFU · mL⁻¹, the max concentration of FC was 1.1 x 10⁶ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹ and the max concentration of FS was 1.1 x 10⁵ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹. The FC/FS ratios were mostly over 2 which suggested that the main fecal source in groundwater was human feces. In addition, PCR-DGGE contrastive analysis of Bacteroides communities showed that the similarities between groundwater samples and human feces were in range of 7. 1% -69. 1% , and the similarity of the groundwater sample from Laolongdong underground river outlet was 69.1% . Bacteroides community similarities between groundwater samples and swine feces were in range of 1.1%-53.4%, and the similarity of Laolongdong underground river outlet was merely 1.5%. The similarity data implied that groundwater contamination resulted mainly from human feces, swine feces contamination composed part of animals' fecal contamination, and other animals' feces participated too. Furthermore, sequencing results of PCR-DGGE products revealed that most Bacteroides in groundwater originated from human intestinal tract and human feces.

  17. Modeling the fate and transport of bacteria in agricultural and pasture lands using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is a whole farm to small watershed scale continuous simulation model developed for evaluating various land management strategies. The current version, APEX0806, does not have the modeling capacity for fecal indicator bacteria fate and trans...

  18. Bacteria transport simulation using APEX model in the Toenepi watershed, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is a distributed, continuous, daily-time step small watershed-scale hydrologic and water quality model. In this study, the newly developed fecal-derived bacteria fate and transport subroutine was applied and evalated using APEX model. The e...

  19. Evaluation of PMS-PCR technology for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis directly from bovine fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M; Steuer, P; Troncoso, E; Collins, M T

    2013-12-27

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in animals. Diagnosis of MAP infection is challenging because of the pathogen's fastidious in vitro growth requirements and low-level intermittent shedding in feces during the preclinical phase of the infection. Detection of these "low-shedders" is important for effective control of paratuberculosis as these animals serve as sources of infection for susceptible calves. Magnetic separation technology, used in combination with culture or molecular methods for the isolation and detection of pathogenic bacteria, enhances the analytical sensitivity and specificity of detection methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) capture technology coupled with IS900 PCR using the Roche real-time PCR system (PMS-PCR), in comparison with fecal culture using BACTEC-MGIT 960 system, for detection of MAP in bovine fecal samples. Among the 351 fecal samples 74.9% (263/351) were PMS-PCR positive while only 12.3% (43/351) were MGIT culture-positive (p=0.0001). All 43 MGIT culture-positive samples were also positive by PMS-PCR. Mean PMS-PCR crossing-point (Cp) values for the 13 fecal samples with the highest number of MAP, based on time to detection, (26.3) were significantly lower than for the 17 fecal samples with technology provided results in a shorter time and yielded a higher number of positive results than MGIT culture. Earlier and faster detection of animals shedding MAP by PMS-PCR should significantly strengthen control efforts for MAP-infected cattle herds by helping to limit infection transmission at earlier stages of the infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitive and Simplified Detection of Antibiotic Influence on the Dynamic and Versatile Changes of Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yan; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Yuefei; Chai, Xin; Pan, Guixiang; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated. The ranges of detection and quantitation of the SCFAs reached 0.0868 ~ 0.393 and 0.261 ~ 1.18 μg·mL-1 respectively, in an optimized protocol for SCFAs extraction and analysis that used 10 mL 75% ethanol aqueous solution containing 1% HCl, without ultrasonication. The technique exhibited excellent intra-day (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 2.54%) and inter-day (RSD ≤ 4.33%) precisions for all the SCFAs. Later, we administered broad-spectrum antibiotics, cefdinir or azithromycin to rats and analyzed the alterations in fecal SCFAs. The total amount, types and distribution of nearly all fecal SCFAs were significantly altered during the administration and even after withdrawal of the antibiotics in rats. The effects of cefdinir on the SCFAs were more pronounced than those of azithromycin. Our findings suggest SCFAs may serve as sensitive indicators to monitor the influences of antibiotics on SCFAs originated by intestinal bacteria. Our improved SCFAs analysis method is a potential platform for a standard clinical test of the effects of new antibiotics on SCFAs.

  1. Efeito de probiótico na infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos Effect of probiotic on the Salmonella infection and fecal excretion in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Nogueira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão de Salmonella na cadeia produtiva de suínos é um problema de difícil controle. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração oral de probiótico sobre a ocorrência de infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos em fase de crescimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de ração basal sem aditivos (controle ou adicionada de probiótico (10(7ufc g-1 de células viáveis dos gêneros Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus e Saccharomyces. Foram alocados seis leitões de 50 dias em cada tratamento, com duas repetições por tratamento. Todos os animais foram inoculados com Salmonella Typhimurium (10(6ufc mL-1 após 14 dias do alojamento. Semanalmente, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e fezes e no dia 35 pós-inoculação os animais foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Os animais de ambos os tratamentos foram infectados por Salmonella e soroconverteram. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os grupos nas médias de Salmonella, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus e coliformes totais nas fezes, porém a administração de probiótico resultou em menor frequência de isolamento de Salmonella a partir de fígado (P=0,04, linfonodos mesentéricos (P=0,04, pulmão (P=0,03