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Sample records for featuring digital signal

  1. Robustness of digitally modulated signal features against variation in HF noise model

    Shoaib Mobien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High frequency (HF band has both military and civilian uses. It can be used either as a primary or backup communication link. Automatic modulation classification (AMC is of an utmost importance in this band for the purpose of communications monitoring; e.g., signal intelligence and spectrum management. A widely used method for AMC is based on pattern recognition (PR. Such a method has two main steps: feature extraction and classification. The first step is generally performed in the presence of channel noise. Recent studies show that HF noise could be modeled by Gaussian or bi-kappa distributions, depending on day-time. Therefore, it is anticipated that change in noise model will have impact on features extraction stage. In this article, we investigate the robustness of well known digitally modulated signal features against variation in HF noise. Specifically, we consider temporal time domain (TTD features, higher order cumulants (HOC, and wavelet based features. In addition, we propose new features extracted from the constellation diagram and evaluate their robustness against the change in noise model. This study is targeting 2PSK, 4PSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, and 64QAM modulations, as they are commonly used in HF communications.

  2. Basic digital signal processing

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  3. Novel ultra-wideband photonic signal generation and transmission featuring digital signal processing bit error rate measurements

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal.......We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal....

  4. Digital signal processing

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  5. The newest digital signal processing

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  6. Digitally programmable signal generator

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  7. Search features of digital libraries

    Alastair G. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional on-line search services such as Dialog, DataStar and Lexis provide a wide range of search features (boolean and proximity operators, truncation, etc. This paper discusses the use of these features for effective searching, and argues that these features are required, regardless of advances in search engine technology. The literature on on-line searching is reviewed, identifying features that searchers find desirable for effective searching. A selective survey of current digital libraries available on the Web was undertaken, identifying which search features are present. The survey indicates that current digital libraries do not implement a wide range of search features. For instance: under half of the examples included controlled vocabulary, under half had proximity searching, only one enabled browsing of term indexes, and none of the digital libraries enable searchers to refine an initial search. Suggestions are made for enhancing the search effectiveness of digital libraries, for instance by: providing a full range of search operators, enabling browsing of search terms, enhancement of records with controlled vocabulary, enabling the refining of initial searches, etc.

  8. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  9. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  10. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented

  11. Chaotic signals in digital communications

    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  12. PSpice for digital signal processing

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  13. Digital storage of repeated signals

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  14. Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

  15. Digital signal processing for NDT

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    NDT begins to adapt and use the most recent developments of digital signal and image processing. We briefly sum up the main characteristics of NDT situations (particularly noise and inverse problem formulation) and comment on techniques already used or just emerging (SAFT, split spectrum, adaptive learning network, noise reference filtering, stochastic models, neural networks). This survey is focused on ultrasonics, eddy currents and X-ray radiography. The final objective of end users (availability of automatic diagnosis systems) cannot be achieved only by signal processing algorithms. A close cooperation with other techniques such as artificial intelligence has therefore to be implemented. (author). 20 refs

  16. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  17. Fast digital recorders of signal shaping

    Meleshko, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Methodology of fast digital registration and pulse signals through fast-action analog-to-digital converters is considered. Systems of digital recorders: sampling and storage devices and operational memory units are described. Main attention is paid to developing parallel analog-to-digital converters, making it possible to bring the conversion frequencies up to several gigahertzes are described. Parallel-sequential analog-to-digital converters, combining high action with increased accuracy are also considered. Concrete examples of designing universal and specialized digital signal recorders, applied in experimental physics, are presented. 44 refs., 12 figs

  18. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  19. eCTG: an automatic procedure to extract digital cardiotocographic signals from digital images.

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Marcantoni, Ilaria; Morettini, Micaela; Burattini, Luca; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity. In order to help overcoming this problem, this study proposes an electronic procedure, termed eCTG, to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images, possibly obtainable by scanning paper CTG reports. eCTG was specifically designed to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images. It includes four main steps: pre-processing, Otsu's global thresholding, signal extraction and signal calibration. Its validation was performed by means of the "CTU-UHB Intrapartum Cardiotocography Database" by Physionet, that contains digital signals of 552 CTG recordings. Using MATLAB, each signal was plotted and saved as a digital image that was then submitted to eCTG. Digital CTG signals extracted by eCTG were eventually compared to corresponding signals directly available in the database. Comparison occurred in terms of signal similarity (evaluated by the correlation coefficient ρ, and the mean signal error MSE) and clinical features (including FHR baseline and variability; number, amplitude and duration of tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and deceleration episodes; number of early, variable, late and prolonged decelerations; and UC number, amplitude, duration and period). The value of ρ between eCTG and reference signals was 0.85 (P digital FHR and UC signals from digital CTG images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  1. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  2. Digital signal processing with kernel methods

    Rojo-Alvarez, José Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    A realistic and comprehensive review of joint approaches to machine learning and signal processing algorithms, with application to communications, multimedia, and biomedical engineering systems Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods reviews the milestones in the mixing of classical digital signal processing models and advanced kernel machines statistical learning tools. It explains the fundamental concepts from both fields of machine learning and signal processing so that readers can quickly get up to speed in order to begin developing the concepts and application software in their own research. Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods provides a comprehensive overview of kernel methods in signal processing, without restriction to any application field. It also offers example applications and detailed benchmarking experiments with real and synthetic datasets throughout. Readers can find further worked examples with Matlab source code on a website developed by the authors. * Presents the necess...

  3. Higher-Order Blind Signal Feature Separation: An Enabling Technology for Battlefield Awareness

    Su, Wei; Kosinski, John A

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order transform blind signal feature classification is discussed for separating bar-shaped, circular, squared, circular-squared, and offset-diamonded constellation patterns of digital linear signals...

  4. Eight-Channel Digital Signal Processor and Universal Trigger Module

    Skulski, Wojtek; Wolfs, Frank

    2003-04-01

    A 10-bit, 8-channel, 40 megasamples per second digital signal processor and waveform digitizer DDC-8 (nicknamed Universal Trigger Module) is presented. The digitizer features 8 analog inputs, 1 analog output for a reconstructed analog waveform, 16 NIM logic inputs, 8 NIM logic outputs, and a pool of 16 TTL logic lines which can be individually configured as either inputs or outputs. The first application of this device is to enhance the present trigger electronics for PHOBOS at RHIC. The status of the development and the first results are presented. Possible applications of the new device are discussed. Supported by the NSF grant PHY-0072204.

  5. Digital control card based on digital signal processor

    Hou Shigang; Yin Zhiguo; Xia Le

    2008-01-01

    A digital control card based on digital signal processor was developed. Two Freescale DSP-56303 processors were utilized to achieve 3 channels proportional- integral-differential regulations. The card offers high flexibility for 100 MeV cyclotron RF system development. It was used as feedback controller in low level radio frequency control prototype, with the feedback gain parameters continuously adjustable. By using high precision analog to digital converter with 500 kHz sampling rate, a regulation bandwidth of 20 kHz was achieved. (authors)

  6. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  7. RF applications in digital signal processing

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  8. An introduction to digital signal processing

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  9. Low power digital signal processing

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    hardwired ASICs and more than 6 21 times lower than current state of the art low-power DSP processors. An orthogonal but practical contribution of this thesis is the test bench implementation. A PCI-based FPGA board has been used to equip a standard desktop PC with tester facilities. The test bench proved...... to be a viable alternative to conventional expensive test equipment. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has been published at several IEEE workshops and conferences, and in the Journal of VLSI Signal Processing....

  10. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  11. Digital signal processing theory and practice

    Rao, K Deergha

    2018-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive exposition of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP). With numerous illustrative examples for easy understanding of the topics, it also includes MATLAB-based examples with codes in order to encourage the readers to become more confident of the fundamentals and to gain insights into DSP. Further, it presents real-world signal processing design problems using MATLAB and programmable DSP processors. In addition to problems that require analytical solutions, it discusses problems that require solutions using MATLAB at the end of each chapter. Divided into 13 chapters, it addresses many emerging topics, which are not typically found in advanced texts on DSP. It includes a chapter on adaptive digital filters used in the signal processing problems for faster acceptable results in the presence of changing environments and changing system requirements. Moreover, it offers an overview of wavelets, enabling readers to easily understand the basics and applications of this po...

  12. Digital signal processing at GEND's data center

    Jackson, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion and recording of analog signals in digital form has been an active element in the manufacturing operations of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) since 1966. The first computerized data system for these digitized waveforms was implemented at GEND's data center approximately two years later during 1968. The evolution and integration of these two activities at GEND are addressed in this paper. Beginning with the tester--data center interface, emphasis is placed on previous approaches, current capabilities, near-term trends, and future requirements. The digitizing process has developed into a firmly established set of hardware and associated software techniques which has proven itself as an accurate, reliable procedure for capturing waveform characteristics. The most important aspect of this process is the recent trend toward increased sampling rates and a greater number of digitized parameters per operation. The combined effect is a tremendous increase in output data volumes. Since digital signal processing carries the potential for significant contributions to manufacturing quality and reliability, as well as engineering design and development, increased activity in this area appears extremely desirable. 11 figures

  13. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  14. Concurrent signal combining and channel estimation in digital communications

    Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Mason, John J [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-30

    In the reception of digital information transmitted on a communication channel, a characteristic exhibited by the communication channel during transmission of the digital information is estimated based on a communication signal that represents the digital information and has been received via the communication channel. Concurrently with the estimating, the communication signal is used to decide what digital information was transmitted.

  15. ESSENCE, FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LABOUR DIGITAL MARKET

    N. Azmuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author has presented the comparative analysis of both digital and traditional segments of the global labour market. The main functions of the digital labour market are social, economic and stimulant ones. The features of the digital labour market are digital employment, globality, high level of flexibility, large competition, dynamic changes of labour force and working places. The main kinds of digital employment are electronic free lance and electronic outsourcing. In the article the advantages and the risks of digital employment using have been determined.

  16. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers

    Licitra, G.; Palazzuoli, D.; Ricci, A. S.; Silvi, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UNITS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed. (authors)

  17. TMS320C25 Digital Signal Processor For 2-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Computation

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    1996-01-01

    The Fourier transform is one of the most important mathematical tool in signal processing and analysis, which converts information from the time/spatial domain into the frequency domain. Even with implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms in imaging data, the discrete Fourier transform execution consume a lot of time. Digital signal processors are designed specifically to perform computation intensive digital signal processing algorithms. By taking advantage of the advanced architecture. parallel processing, and dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) instruction sets. This device can execute million of DSP operations per second. The device architecture, characteristics and feature suitable for fast Fourier transform application and speed-up are discussed

  18. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  19. The Signal Validation method of Digital Process Instrumentation System on signal conditioner for SMART

    Moon, Hee Gun; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jung Seon; Shon, Chang Ho; Park, Heui Youn; Koo, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    The function of PIS(Process Instrumentation System) for SMART is to acquire the process data from sensor or transmitter. The PIS consists of signal conditioner, A/D converter, DSP(Digital Signal Process) and NIC(Network Interface Card). So, It is fully digital system after A/D converter. The PI cabinet and PDAS(Plant Data Acquisition System) in commercial plant is responsible for data acquisition of the sensor or transmitter include RTD, TC, level, flow, pressure and so on. The PDAS has the software that processes each sensor data and PI cabinet has the signal conditioner, which is need for maintenance and test. The signal conditioner has the potentiometer to adjust the span and zero for test and maintenance. The PIS of SMART also has the signal conditioner which has the span and zero adjust same as the commercial plant because the signal conditioner perform the signal condition for AD converter such as 0∼10Vdc. But, To adjust span and zero is manual test and calibration. So, This paper presents the method of signal validation and calibration, which is used by digital feature in SMART. There are I/E(current to voltage), R/E(resistor to voltage), F/E(frequency to voltage), V/V(voltage to voltage). Etc. In this paper show only the signal validation and calibration about I/E converter that convert level, pressure, flow such as 4∼20mA into signal for AD conversion such as 0∼10Vdc

  20. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Sabri, M I; Miskon, M F; Yaacob, M R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20–27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and

  1. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  2. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  3. A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.

    Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam; Liu, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Je, Minkyu

    2014-08-01

    A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms and power dissipation of 2.52 μW leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.

  4. Main Features in the Concept of Digital Bildung

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    The question of this paper is how we can understand the concept of Bildung in the time of digital media seen from a Klafkian perspective. It draws on Klafki (2014) by extrapolating what he suggest is the main features of Bildung, answering six questions: how can education 1. Foster persons who can......, bringing about different levels of what we from a Klafkian perspective call Digital Bildung. (2) We relate the Klafkian concept of Bildung to an action research experiment called Socio Media Education (SME). In this research project we have worked together with teachers in an upper secondary school...... features of Bildung are then discussed in regard to digital media. We do this by relating the Klafkian concept of Bildung to (1) a general theory about how schools seem to respond to the new digital challenges and possibilities. Our main point is that these responses can be divided into three waves...

  5. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    Zeynalov, Sh.S.; Ahmadov, Q.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing make possible to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions. Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a digital storage oscilloscope. This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit (256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5 * 10 8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252. To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages.

  6. Analog and digital signal analysis from basics to applications

    Cohen Tenoudji, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive, graduate-level treatment of analog and digital signal analysis suitable for course use and self-guided learning. This expert text guides the reader from the basics of signal theory through a range of application tools for use in acoustic analysis, geophysics, and data compression. Each concept is introduced and explained step by step, and the necessary mathematical formulae are integrated in an accessible and intuitive way. The first part of the book explores how analog systems and signals form the basics of signal analysis. This section covers Fourier series and integral transforms of analog signals, Laplace and Hilbert transforms, the main analog filter classes, and signal modulations. Part II covers digital signals, demonstrating their key advantages. It presents z and Fourier transforms, digital filtering, inverse filters, deconvolution, and parametric modeling for deterministic signals. Wavelet decomposition and reconstruction of non-stationary signals are also discussed...

  7. Closed orbit feedback with digital signal processing

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1994-01-01

    The closed orbit feedback experiment conducted on the SPEAR using the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique and digital signal processing (DSP) is presented. The beam response matrix, defined as beam motion at beam position monitor (BPM) locations per unit kick by corrector magnets, was measured and then analyzed using SVD. Ten BPMs, sixteen correctors, and the eight largest SVD eigenvalues were used for closed orbit correction. The maximum sampling frequency for the closed loop feedback was measured at 37 Hz. Using the proportional and integral (PI) control algorithm with the gains Kp = 3 and K I = 0.05 and the open-loop bandwidth corresponding to 1% of the sampling frequency, a correction bandwidth (-3 dB) of approximately 0.8 Hz was achieved. Time domain measurements showed that the response time of the closed loop feedback system for 1/e decay was approximately 0.25 second. This result implies ∼ 100 Hz correction bandwidth for the planned beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring with the projected 4-kHz sampling frequency

  8. KNN BASED CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS

    Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Demodulation process without the knowledge of modulation scheme requires Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC. When receiver has limited information about received signal then AMC become essential process. AMC finds important place in the field many civil and military fields such as modern electronic warfare, interfering source recognition, frequency management, link adaptation etc. In this paper we explore the use of K-nearest neighbor (KNN for modulation classification with different distance measurement methods. Five modulation schemes are used for classification purpose which is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Higher order cummulants (HOC are used as an input feature set to the classifier. Simulation results shows that proposed classification method provides better results for the considered modulation formats.

  9. A simple approach to digital signal processing

    Marven, Craig

    1996-01-01

    A readable, understandable introduction to DSP for professionals and students alike . . . This practical guide is a welcome alternative to more complicated introductions to DSP. It assumes no prior DSP experience and takes the reader step-by-step through the most basic signal processing concepts to more complex functions and devices, including sampling, filtering, frequency transforms, data compression, and even DSP design decisions. The guide provides clear, concise explanations and examples, while keeping mathematics to a minimum, to help develop a fundamental understanding of DSP. Other features include: * An extensive resource bibliography of more advanced DSP books. * An example of a typical DSP system development cycle, including tool descriptions. * A complete glossary of DSP-related acronyms Whether you're a working engineer looking into DSP for the first time or an undergraduate struggling to comprehend the subject, this engaging introduction provides easy access to the basic knowledge that will l...

  10. Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs

    Rao, K. R.

    1987-06-01

    In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.

  11. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  12. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  13. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  14. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  15. Python for signal processing featuring IPython notebooks

    Unpingco, José

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental concepts in signal processing illustrated with Python code and made available via IPython Notebooks, which are live, interactive, browser-based documents that allow one to change parameters, redraw plots, and tinker with the ideas presented in the text. Everything in the text is computable in this format and thereby invites readers to ""experiment and learn"" as they read. The book focuses on the core, fundamental principles of signal processing. The code corresponding to this book uses the core functionality of the scientific Python toolchain that should remai

  16. Electronic circuit for rapid digital NMR signal imaging

    Jurak, P.; Krejci, I.; Belusa, J.

    1992-01-01

    The circuit is made up of two analog-to-digital converters whose outputs are connected to a process computer and the synchronization inputs to the clock terminal. The one analog-to-digital converter is connected, via the signal input, to the terminal of the nuclear magnetic resonance locking signal. The signal input of the other analog-to-digital converter is connected to the time base generator, which can be switched off, and to the magnetic field sweep circuit. The assets of this citcuit include easy computerized processing of the digitized information independently of the time base generation, and prevention of interfering signals from penetrating into the magnetic field sweep circuits. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  17. Signal Digitizer and Cross-Correlation Application Specific Integrated Circuit

    Baranauskas, Dalius (Inventor); Baranauskas, Gytis (Inventor); Zelenin, Denis (Inventor); Kangaslahti, Pekka (Inventor); Tanner, Alan B. (Inventor); Lim, Boon H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    According to one embodiment, a cross-correlator comprises a plurality of analog front ends (AFEs), a cross-correlation circuit and a data serializer. Each of the AFEs comprises a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a corresponding analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in which the VGA receives and modifies a unique analog signal associates with a measured analog radio frequency (RF) signal and the ADC produces digital data associated with the modified analog signal. Communicatively coupled to the AFEs, the cross-correlation circuit performs a cross-correlation operation on the digital data produced from different measured analog RF signals. The data serializer is communicatively coupled to the summing and cross-correlating matrix and continuously outputs a prescribed amount of the correlated digital data.

  18. Digital signaling decouples activation probability and population heterogeneity

    Kellogg, Ryan A; Tian, Chengzhe; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Digital signaling enhances robustness of cellular decisions in noisy environments, but it is unclear how digital systems transmit temporal information about a stimulus. To understand how temporal input information is encoded and decoded by the NF-κB system, we studied transcription factor dynamic...

  19. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  20. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    Ahmadov, Q.S.; Institute of Radiation Problems, ANAS, Baku

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing allow us to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions.Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors [1] [2]. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a OTSZS-02 (250USB)-4 digital storage oscilloscope from ZAO R UDNEV-SHILYAYEV . This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit(256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5.10''8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252.To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages

  1. Process and circuiting arrangement for the conversion of analog signals to digital signals and digital signals to analog signals

    Wintzer, K.

    1977-01-01

    Process for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion in telecommunication systems whose outstations each have an analog transmitter and an analog receiver. The invention illustrates a method of reducing the power demand of the converters at times when no conversion processes take place. (RW) [de

  2. A Study of Moment Based Features on Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Pawan Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten digit recognition plays a significant role in many user authentication applications in the modern world. As the handwritten digits are not of the same size, thickness, style, and orientation, therefore, these challenges are to be faced to resolve this problem. A lot of work has been done for various non-Indic scripts particularly, in case of Roman, but, in case of Indic scripts, the research is limited. This paper presents a script invariant handwritten digit recognition system for identifying digits written in five popular scripts of Indian subcontinent, namely, Indo-Arabic, Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, and Telugu. A 130-element feature set which is basically a combination of six different types of moments, namely, geometric moment, moment invariant, affine moment invariant, Legendre moment, Zernike moment, and complex moment, has been estimated for each digit sample. Finally, the technique is evaluated on CMATER and MNIST databases using multiple classifiers and, after performing statistical significance tests, it is observed that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP classifier outperforms the others. Satisfactory recognition accuracies are attained for all the five mentioned scripts.

  3. Efficient feature for classification of eye movements using electrooculography signals

    Phukpattaranont Pornchai; Aungsakul Siriwadee; Phinyomark Angkoon; Limsakul Chusak

    2016-01-01

    Electrooculography (EOG) signal is widely and successfully used to detect activities of human eye. The advantages of the EOG-based interface over other conventional interfaces have been presented in the last two decades; however, due to a lot of information in EOG signals, the extraction of useful features should be done before the classification task. In this study, an efficient feature extracted from two directional EOG signals: vertical and horizontal si...

  4. Influence of Signal Stationarity on Digital Stochastic Measurement Implementation

    Ivan Župunski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of signal stationarity on digital stochastic measurement method implementation. The implementation method is based on stochastic voltage generators, analog adders, low resolution A/D converter, and multipliers and accumulators implemented by Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The characteristic of first implementations of digital stochastic measurement was the measurement of stationary signal harmonics over the constant measurement period. Later, digital stochastic measurement was extended and used also when it was necessary to measure timeseries of non-stationary signal over the variable measurement time. The result of measurement is the set of harmonics, which is, in the case of non-stationary signals, the input for calculating digital values of signal in time domain. A theoretical approach to determine measurement uncertainty is presented and the accuracy trends with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR are analyzed. Noisy brain potentials (spontaneous and nonspontaneous are selected as an example of real non-stationary signal and its digital stochastic measurement is tested by simulations and experiments. Tests were performed without noise and with adding noise with SNR values of 10dB, 0dB and - 10dB. The results of simulations and experiments are compared versus theory calculations, and comparasion confirms the theory.

  5. Synthesis of digital locomotive receiver of automatic locomotive signaling

    K. V. Goncharov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Automatic locomotive signaling of continuous type with a numeric coding (ALSN has several disadvantages: a small number of signal indications, low noise stability, high inertia and low functional flexibility. Search for new and more advanced methods of signal processing for automatic locomotive signaling, synthesis of the noise proof digital locomotive receiver are essential. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of detection and identification locomotive signaling codes is based on the definition of mutual correlations of received oscillation and reference signals. For selecting threshold levels of decision element the following criterion has been formulated: the locomotive receiver should maximum set the correct solution for a given probability of dangerous errors. Findings. It has been found that the random nature of the ALSN signal amplitude does not affect the detection algorithm. However, the distribution law and numeric characteristics of signal amplitude affect the probability of errors, and should be considered when selecting a threshold levels According to obtained algorithm of detection and identification ALSN signals the digital locomotive receiver has been synthesized. It contains band pass filter, peak limiter, normalizing amplifier with automatic gain control circuit, analog to digital converter and digital signal processor. Originality. The ALSN system is improved by the way of the transfer of technical means to modern microelectronic element base, more perfect methods of detection and identification codes of locomotive signaling are applied. Practical value. Use of digital technology in the construction of the locomotive receiver ALSN will expand its functionality, will increase the noise immunity and operation stability of the locomotive signal system in conditions of various destabilizing factors.

  6. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...... signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... periodic signal filters behave like a comb filter, but it can also be configured to selectively filter out the harmonics of interest (e.g., the odd-order harmonics in single-phase power converter systems). Moreover, a virtual variable-sampling-frequency unit delay that enables frequency adaptive periodic...

  7. Digital signal display board design: A knowledge based study

    Chaitanya, V. Sree Krishna; Rao, C. Raghavendra

    2007-01-01

    The digital signal display board is assumed to be composed of picture tubes for the purpose of displaying characters. The signal board with the picture tubes constitutes an Information System. A methodology for obtaining the discrimable matrix or table (more decisive attributes) and knowledge reduction for the above information system is proposed

  8. A Computer- Based Digital Signal Processing for Nuclear Scintillator Detectors

    Ashour, M.A.; Abo Shosha, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Computer-based system for the nuclear scintillation signals with exponential decay is presented. The main objective of this work is to identify the characteristics of the acquired signals smoothly, this can be done by transferring the signal environment from random signal domain to deterministic domain using digital manipulation techniques. The proposed system consists of two major parts. The first part is the high performance data acquisition system (DAQ) that depends on a multi-channel Logic Scope. Which is interfaced with the host computer through the General Purpose Interface Board (GPIB) Ver. IEEE 488.2. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been designed for this purpose using the graphical programming facilities. The second of the system is the DSP software Algorithm which analyses, demonstrates, monitoring these data to obtain the main characteristics of the acquired signals; the amplitude, the pulse count, the pulse width, decay factor, and the arrival time

  9. Cyclic LTI Systems in Digital Signal Processing

    Vaidyanathan, P

    1998-01-01

    .... While circular convolution has been the centerpiece of many algorithms in signal processing for decades, such freedom, especially from the viewpoint of linear system theory, has not been studied in the past...

  10. Efficient feature for classification of eye movements using electrooculography signals

    Phukpattaranont Pornchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrooculography (EOG signal is widely and successfully used to detect activities of human eye. The advantages of the EOG-based interface over other conventional interfaces have been presented in the last two decades; however, due to a lot of information in EOG signals, the extraction of useful features should be done before the classification task. In this study, an efficient feature extracted from two directional EOG signals: vertical and horizontal signals has been presented and evaluated. There are the maximum peak and valley amplitude values, the maximum peak and valley position values, and slope, which are derived from both vertical and horizontal signals. In the experiments, EOG signals obtained from five healthy subjects with ten directional eye movements were employed: up, down, right, left, up-right, up-left, down-right down-left clockwise and counterclockwise. The mean feature values and their standard deviations have been reported. The difference between the mean values of the proposed feature from different eye movements can be clearly seen. Using the scatter plot, the differences in features can be also clearly observed. Results show that classification accuracy can approach 100% with a simple distinction feature rule. The proposed features can be useful for various advanced human-computer interface applications in future researches.

  11. Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy

    Zejnalova, O.; Zejnalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms are provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter on the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionization chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer is investigated in terms of the distance between pile-up pulses. The efficiency of the developed algorithms is compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature

  12. Digital signal processing with Matlab examples

    Giron-Sierra, Jose Maria

    2017-01-01

    This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs. This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.

  13. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  14. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  15. Emotion of Physiological Signals Classification Based on TS Feature Selection

    Wang Yujing; Mo Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper propose a method of TS-MLP about emotion recognition of physiological signal.It can recognize emotion successfully by Tabu search which selects features of emotion’s physiological signals and multilayer perceptron that is used to classify emotion.Simulation shows that it has achieved good emotion classification performance.

  16. Digital video steganalysis using motion vector recovery-based features.

    Deng, Yu; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Linna

    2012-07-10

    As a novel digital video steganography, the motion vector (MV)-based steganographic algorithm leverages the MVs as the information carriers to hide the secret messages. The existing steganalyzers based on the statistical characteristics of the spatial/frequency coefficients of the video frames cannot attack the MV-based steganography. In order to detect the presence of information hidden in the MVs of video streams, we design a novel MV recovery algorithm and propose the calibration distance histogram-based statistical features for steganalysis. The support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the proposed features and used as the steganalyzer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganalyzer can effectively detect the presence of hidden messages and outperform others by the significant improvements in detection accuracy even with low embedding rates.

  17. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  18. Sound card based digital correlation detection of weak photoelectrical signals

    Tang Guanghui; Wang Jiangcheng

    2005-01-01

    A simple and low-cost digital correlation method is proposed to investigate weak photoelectrical signals, using a high-speed photodiode as detector, which is directly connected to a programmably triggered sound card analogue-to-digital converter and a personal computer. Two testing experiments, autocorrelation detection of weak flickering signals from a computer monitor under background of noisy outdoor stray light and cross-correlation measurement of the surface velocity of a motional tape, are performed, showing that the results are reliable and the method is easy to implement

  19. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  20. Robust digital processing of speech signals

    Kovacevic, Branko; Veinović, Mladen; Marković, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on speech signal phenomena, presenting a robustification of the usual speech generation models with regard to the presumed types of excitation signals, which is equivalent to the introduction of a class of nonlinear models and the corresponding criterion functions for parameter estimation. Compared to the general class of nonlinear models, such as various neural networks, these models possess good properties of controlled complexity, the option of working in “online” mode, as well as a low information volume for efficient speech encoding and transmission. Providing comprehensive insights, the book is based on the authors’ research, which has already been published, supplemented by additional texts discussing general considerations of speech modeling, linear predictive analysis and robust parameter estimation.

  1. Analysis of specific features of digital instrumentation and control systems and possibilities of accounting for them within PSA

    Hustak, S.

    2002-10-01

    The report is structured as follows: Basic information on the peculiarities of digital technology for the I and C system at an NPP (Digital signal; Digital communication; Communication protocols; Examples of practical tools for creation of I and C digital systems); Peculiarities of the digital I and C technology from the reliability viewpoint (Software as a new component of implementation of a system function; Problems with the assessment or demonstration of reliability of software components of an I and C system); Possibilities of accounting for the specific features of digital I and C technology within PSA (Relevant PSA components; Using PSA as a supporting tool in designing new NPPs; Categorization of NPP I and C system tasks with respect to the defence-in-depth principle). (P.A.)

  2. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  3. Subband coding of digital audio signals without loss of quality

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Waal, Robbert

    1989-01-01

    A subband coding system for high quality digital audio signals is described. To achieve low bit rates at a high quality level, it exploits the simultaneous masking effect of the human ear. It is shown how this effect can be used in an adaptive bit-allocation scheme. The proposed approach has been

  4. Application of Field programmable Gate Array to Digital Signal ...

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This work shows how one parallel technology Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) can be applied to digital signal processing problem to increase computational speed. ... In this research work FPGA typically exploits parallelism because FPGA is a parallel device. With the ...

  5. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  6. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  7. Some recent work on lattice structures for digital signal processing

    Digital signal processing (DSP); lattice structures; finite impulse ... fascinated this author for a long time, and for the known non-canonical ...... where M

  8. Single particle irradiation effect of digital signal processor

    Fan Si'an; Chen Kenan

    2010-01-01

    The single particle irradiation effect of high energy neutron on digital signal processor TMS320P25 in dynamic working condition has been studied. The influence of the single particle on the device has been explored through the acquired waveform and working current of TMS320P25. Analysis results, test data and test methods have also been presented. (authors)

  9. Digital Signal Processor System for AC Power Drivers

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available DSP (Digital Signal Processor is the bestsolution for motor control systems to make possible thedevelopment of advanced motor drive systems. The motorcontrol processor calculates the required motor windingvoltage magnitude and frequency to operate the motor atthe desired speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulationcircuit controls the on and off duty cycle of the powerinverter switches to vary the magnitude of the motorvoltages.

  10. Digital signal array processor for NSLS booster power supply upgrade

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplied for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole have been installed. This paper will outline the design and function of the digital signal processor used as the primary control element in the power supply control system

  11. A high speed digital signal averager for pulsed NMR

    Srinivasan, R.; Ramakrishna, J.; Ra agopalan, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    A 256-channel digital signal averager suitable for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is described. It implements 'stable averaging' algorithm and hence provides a calibrated display of the average signal at all times during the averaging process on a CRT. It has a maximum sampling rate of 2.5 μ sec and a memory capacity of 256 x 12 bit words. Number of sweeps is selectable through a front panel control in binary steps from 2 3 to 2 12 . The enhanced signal can be displayed either on a CRT or by a 3.5-digit LED display. The maximum S/N improvement that can be achieved with this instrument is 36 dB. (auth.)

  12. DCTNet and PCANet for acoustic signal feature extraction

    Xian, Yin; Thompson, Andrew; Sun, Xiaobai; Nowacek, Douglas; Nolte, Loren

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the use of DCTNet, an efficient approximation and alternative to PCANet, for acoustic signal classification. In PCANet, the eigenfunctions of the local sample covariance matrix (PCA) are used as filterbanks for convolution and feature extraction. When the eigenfunctions are well approximated by the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) functions, each layer of of PCANet and DCTNet is essentially a time-frequency representation. We relate DCTNet to spectral feature representation method...

  13. Digital circuit for the introduction and later removal of dither from an analog signal

    Borgen, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    An electronics circuit is presented for accurately digitizing an analog audio or like data signal into a digital equivalent signal by introducing dither into the analog signal and then subsequently removing the dither from the digitized signal prior to its conversion to an analog signal which is a substantial replica of the incoming analog audio or like data signal. The electronics circuit of the present invention is characterized by a first pseudo-random number generator which generates digital random noise signals or dither for addition to the digital equivalent signal and a second pseudo-random number generator which generates subtractive digital random noise signals for the subsequent removal of dither from the digital equivalent signal prior its conversion to the analog replica signal.

  14. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - II: Suggested solution

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    In Part I of this report we developed analytical expressions which represent exactly the energy density spectra of ''digitization processes'' that are essentially involved in spectral analysis of continuous signals. Besides, we related the spectral energy density of each digitization process to the parameters of the exact spectral energy density of the corresponding signal. On this basis, we briefly discussed the forms of distortions (or false structures) which are present in normally computed power spectra when the corresponding spectra of the digitization processes are not sufficiently decoupled from or nullified in the computed spectra. The biggest worry with regard to these distortions is not only that they may mask the actual information contained in the original signal, but also they may tempt the researcher to establish false characteristics about the signal involved. It is, in this context, that any reasonable method that could be used (even conditionally) to pinpoint false structures in computed power spectra would be both timely and useful. A simple, handy guidance through which some portions of computed energy density spectra which are dominated by the false structures mentioned above, can be located is presented herein. Equations are presented which give the various frequencies at which false peaks may be located in such ''contaminated'' portions of computed energy density spectra. The occurrence of frequency shifts in computed power spectra is also briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Breast Cancer Detection with Gabor Features from Digital Mammograms

    Yufeng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new breast cancer detection algorithm, named the “Gabor Cancer Detection” (GCD algorithm, utilizing Gabor features is proposed. Three major steps are involved in the GCD algorithm, preprocessing, segmentation (generating alarm segments, and classification (reducing false alarms. In preprocessing, a digital mammogram is down-sampled, quantized, denoised and enhanced. Nonlinear diffusion is used for noise suppression. In segmentation, a band-pass filter is formed by rotating a 1-D Gaussian filter (off center in frequency space, termed as “Circular Gaussian Filter” (CGF. A CGF can be uniquely characterized by specifying a central frequency and a frequency band. A mass or calcification is a space-occupying lesion and usually appears as a bright region on a mammogram. The alarm segments (suspicious to be masses/calcifications can be extracted out using a threshold that is adaptively decided upon the histogram analysis of the CGF-filtered mammogram. In classification, a Gabor filter bank is formed with five bands by four orientations (horizontal, vertical, 45 and 135 degree in Fourier frequency domain. For each mammographic image, twenty Gabor-filtered images are produced. A set of edge histogram descriptors (EHD are then extracted from 20 Gabor images for classification. An EHD signature is computed with four orientations of Gabor images along each band and five EHD signatures are then joined together to form an EHD feature vector of 20 dimensions. With the EHD features, the fuzzy C-means clustering technique and k-nearest neighbor (KNN classifier are used to reduce the number of false alarms. The experimental results tested on the DDSM database (University of South Florida show the promises of GCD algorithm in breast cancer detection, which achieved TP (true positive rate = 90% at FPI (false positives per image = 1.21 in mass detection; and TP = 93% at FPI = 1.19 in calcification detection.

  16. A High Density Low Cost Digital Signal Processing Module for Large Scale Radiation Detectors

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson T.; Grudberg, Peter M.; Warburton, William K.

    2013-06-01

    A 32-channel digital spectrometer PIXIE-32 is being developed for nuclear physics or other radiation detection applications requiring digital signal processing with large number of channels at relatively low cost. A single PIXIE-32 provides spectrometry and waveform acquisition for 32 input signals per module whereas multiple modules can be combined into larger systems. It is based on the PCI Express standard which allows data transfer rates to the host computer of up to 800 MB/s. Each of the 32 channels in a PIXIE-32 module accepts signals directly from a detector preamplifier or photomultiplier. Digitally controlled offsets can be individually adjusted for each channel. Signals are digitized in 12-bit, 50 MHz multi-channel ADCs. Triggering, pile-up inspection and filtering of the data stream are performed in real time, and pulse heights and other event data are calculated on an event-by event basis. The hardware architecture, internal and external triggering features, and the spectrometry and waveform acquisition capability of the PIXIE- 32 as well as its capability to distribute clock and triggers among multiple modules, are presented. (authors)

  17. Attitude Control of a Satellite by using Digital Signal Processing

    Adirelle C. Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article has discussed the development of a three-axis attitude digital controller for an artificial satellite using a digital signal processor. The main motivation of this study is the attitude control system of the satellite Multi-Mission Platform, developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research for application in different sort of missions. The controller design was based on the theory of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, synthesized from the linearized model of the motion of the satellite, i.e., the kinematics and dynamics of attitude. The attitude actuators considered in this study are pairs of cold gas jets powered by a pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. In the first stage of the project development, a system controller for continuous time was studied with the aim of testing the adequacy of the adopted control. The next steps had included an analysis of discretization techniques, the setting time of sampling rate, and the testing of the digital version of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator controller in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. To fulfill the study, the controller was implemented in a digital signal processor, specifically the Blackfin BF537 from Analog Devices, along with the pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. The validation tests used a scheme of co-simulation, where the model of the satellite was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, while the controller and modulator were processed in the digital signal processor with a tool called Processor-In-the-Loop, which acted as a data communication link between both environments.function and required time to achieve a given mission accuracy are determined, and results are provided as illustration.

  18. A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar

    Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1991-01-01

    A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

  19. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Digital Signal Processing

    Digital Signal Processing; CAS 2007

    2008-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-first specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic being Digital Signal Processing. The course was held in Sigtuna, Sweden, from 31 May–9 June 2007. This is the first time this topic has been selected for a specialized course. Taking into account the number of related applications currently in use in accelerators around the world, it was recognized that such a topic should definitively be incorporated into the CAS series of specialized courses. The specific aim of the course was to introduce the participants to the use and programming of Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) evaluation boards. The course consisted of lectures in the mornings covering fundamental background knowledge in mathematics, controls theory, design tools, programming hardware platforms, and implementation details. In the afternoons the students split into two groups with people working in pairs. One group w...

  20. Diagnostic analysis of vibration signals using adaptive digital filtering techniques

    Jewell, R. E.; Jones, J. H.; Paul, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Signal enhancement techniques are described using recently developed digital adaptive filtering equipment. Adaptive filtering concepts are not new; however, as a result of recent advances in microprocessor-based electronics, hardware has been developed that has stable characteristics and of a size exceeding 1000th order. Selected data processing examples are presented illustrating spectral line enhancement, adaptive noise cancellation, and transfer function estimation in the presence of corrupting noise.

  1. Fractal Complexity-Based Feature Extraction Algorithm of Communication Signals

    Wang, Hui; Li, Jingchao; Guo, Lili; Dou, Zheng; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Ruolin

    How to analyze and identify the characteristics of radiation sources and estimate the threat level by means of detecting, intercepting and locating has been the central issue of electronic support in the electronic warfare, and communication signal recognition is one of the key points to solve this issue. Aiming at accurately extracting the individual characteristics of the radiation source for the increasingly complex communication electromagnetic environment, a novel feature extraction algorithm for individual characteristics of the communication radiation source based on the fractal complexity of the signal is proposed. According to the complexity of the received signal and the situation of environmental noise, use the fractal dimension characteristics of different complexity to depict the subtle characteristics of the signal to establish the characteristic database, and then identify different broadcasting station by gray relation theory system. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm can achieve recognition rate of 94% even in the environment with SNR of -10dB, and this provides an important theoretical basis for the accurate identification of the subtle features of the signal at low SNR in the field of information confrontation.

  2. A Versatile Multichannel Digital Signal Processing Module for Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Tan, H.; Collins, J. W.; Walby, M.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W. K.; Grudberg, P.

    2012-06-01

    Different techniques have been developed for reading out microcalorimeter sensor arrays: individual outputs for small arrays, and time-division or frequency-division or code-division multiplexing for large arrays. Typically, raw waveform data are first read out from the arrays using one of these techniques and then stored on computer hard drives for offline optimum filtering, leading not only to requirements for large storage space but also limitations on achievable count rate. Thus, a read-out module that is capable of processing microcalorimeter signals in real time will be highly desirable. We have developed multichannel digital signal processing electronics that are capable of on-board, real time processing of microcalorimeter sensor signals from multiplexed or individual pixel arrays. It is a 3U PXI module consisting of a standardized core processor board and a set of daughter boards. Each daughter board is designed to interface a specific type of microcalorimeter array to the core processor. The combination of the standardized core plus this set of easily designed and modified daughter boards results in a versatile data acquisition module that not only can easily expand to future detector systems, but is also low cost. In this paper, we first present the core processor/daughter board architecture, and then report the performance of an 8-channel daughter board, which digitizes individual pixel outputs at 1 MSPS with 16-bit precision. We will also introduce a time-division multiplexing type daughter board, which takes in time-division multiplexing signals through fiber-optic cables and then processes the digital signals to generate energy spectra in real time.

  3. 75 FR 6704 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    2010-02-10

    ... States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-663] In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

  4. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    2010-10-26

    ... States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-703] In the Matter of: Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof;Notice of...

  5. A Peer Reviewed Digital Library: New feature in RBEBBM

    Eduardo Galembeck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The  RBEBBM  publishes  papers  on  Biochemistry  and  Molecular  Biology  Education  mostly,  but  not  research  papers exclusively. The RBEBBM readers are not only interested in research papers but also in any kinds of resources that are  useful  to  improve  their  classes.  In  order  to  fulfill  the  biochemistry  community  needs  expressed  in  the  2004 Workshop on Biochemistry Education, that took place at the 2004 SBBq annual meeting, new features were added to the RBEBBM. Started in March 2006, a digital library that publishes several kinds of materials, such as software, images, thesis and monographs,  were  incorporated  to  the  RBEBBM  collection.  In  its  new  format,  every  submitted  content  is  peer reviewed before it is published. Another improvement was the offer of new tools for both authors and users, such as statistics  of  views  and  downloads,  and  interaction  tools  between  authors  and  users,  including  a  discussion  forum exclusive to every resource published and user evaluation. We  have  obtained  an  innovative  model  for  digital  libraries  which  includes  peer  review,  user  evaluation  and communication channels. This model brings users to the development of a more active role when using these tools.

  6. Using a digital signal processor as a data stream controller for digital subtraction angiography

    Meng, J.D.; Katz, J.E.

    1991-10-01

    High speed, flexibility, and good arithmetic abilities make digital signal processors (DSP) a good choice as input/output controllers for real time applications. The DSP can be made to pre-process data in real time to reduce data volume, to open early windows on what is being acquired and to implement local servo loops. We present an example of a DSP as an input/output controller for a digital subtraction angiographic imaging system. The DSP pre-processes the raw data, reducing data volume by a factor of two, and is potentially capable of producing real-time subtracted images for immediate display

  7. Selecting Informative Features of the Helicopter and Aircraft Acoustic Signals in the Adaptive Autonomous Information Systems for Recognition

    V. K. Hohlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article forms the rationale for selecting the informative features of the helicopter and aircraft acoustic signals to solve a problem of their recognition and shows that the most informative ones are the counts of extrema in the energy spectra of the input signals, which represent non-centered random variables. An apparatus of the multiple initial regression coefficients was selected as a mathematical tool of research. The application of digital re-circulators with positive and negative feedbacks, which have the comb-like frequency characteristics, solves the problem of selecting informative features. A distinguishing feature of such an approach is easy agility of the comb frequency characteristics just through the agility of a delay value of digital signal in the feedback circuit. Adding an adaptation block to the selection block of the informative features enables us to ensure the invariance of used informative feature and counts of local extrema of the spectral power density to the airspeed of a helicopter. The paper gives reasons for the principle of adaptation and the structure of the adaptation block. To form the discriminator characteristics are used the cross-correlation statistical characteristics of the quadrature components of acoustic signal realizations, obtained by Hilbert transform. The paper proposes to provide signal recognition using a regression algorithm that allows handling the non-centered informative features and using a priori information about coefficients of initial regression of signal and noise.The simulation in Matlab Simulink has shown that selected informative features of signals in regressive processing of signal realizations of 0.5 s duration have good separability, and based on a set of 100 acoustic signal realizations in each class in full-scale conditions, has proved ensuring a correct recognition probability of 0.975, at least. The considered principles of informative features selection and adaptation can

  8. 75 FR 8112 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    2010-02-23

    ... importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring digital cameras, and... importation of certain mobile telephones or wireless communication devices featuring digital cameras, or... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-703] In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones...

  9. Resolving the range ambiguity in OFDR using digital signal processing

    Riesen, Nicolas; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H

    2014-01-01

    A digitally range-gated variant of optical frequency domain reflectometry is demonstrated which overcomes the beat note ambiguity when sensing beyond a single frequency sweep. The range-gating is achieved using a spread spectrum technique involving time-stamping of the optical signal using high-frequency pseudorandom phase modulation. The reflections from different sections of fiber can then be isolated in the time domain by digitally inverting the phase modulation using appropriately-delayed copies of the pseudorandom noise code. Since the technique overcomes the range ambiguity in OFDR, it permits high sweep repetition rates without sacrificing range, thus allowing for high-bandwidth sensing over long lengths of fiber. This is demonstrated for the case of quasi-distributed sensing. (paper)

  10. Analytical prediction of digital signal crosstalk of FCC

    Belleisle, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of study effort whose aim was the development of accurate means of analyzing and predicting signal cross-talk in multi-wire digital data cables. A complete analytical model is developed n + 1 wire systems of uniform transmission lines with arbitrary linear boundary conditions. In addition, a minimum set of parameter measurements required for the application of the model are presented. Comparisons between cross-talk predicted by this model and actual measured cross-talk are shown for a six conductor ribbon cable.

  11. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  12. Mathematical pattern, smoothing and digital filtering of a speech signal

    Razzam, Mohamed Habib

    1979-01-01

    After presentation of speech synthesis methods, characterized by a treatment of pre-recorded natural signals, or by an analog simulation of vocal tract, we present a new synthesis method especially based on a mathematical pattern of the signal, as a development of M. RODET's method. For their physiological origin, these signals are partially or totally voiced, or aleatory. For the phoneme voiced parts, we compute the formant curves, the sum of which constitute the wave, directly in time-domain by applying a specific envelope (operating as a time-window analysis) to a sinusoidal wave, The sinusoidal wave computation is made at the beginning of each signal's pseudo-period. The transition from successive periods is assured by a polynomial smoothing followed by a digital filtering. For the aleatory parts, we present an aleatory computation method of formant curves. Each signal is subjected to a melodic diagrams computed in accordance with the nature of the phoneme (vowel or consonant) and its context (isolated or not). (author) [fr

  13. Wireless receiver architectures and design antennas, RF, synthesizers, mixed signal, and digital signal processing

    Rouphael, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Receiver Architectures and Design presents the various designs and architectures of wireless receivers in the context of modern multi-mode and multi-standard devices. This one-stop reference and guide to designing low-cost low-power multi-mode, multi-standard receivers treats analog and digital signal processing simultaneously, with equal detail given to the chosen architecture and modulating waveform. It provides a complete understanding of the receiver's analog front end and the digital backend, and how each affects the other. The book explains the design process in great detail, s

  14. Study of signal-to-noise ratio in digital mammography

    Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    Mammography techniques have recently advanced from those using analog systems (the screen-film system) to those using digital systems; for example, computed radiography (CR) and flat-panel detectors (FPDs) are nowadays used in mammography. Further, phase contrast mammography (PCM)-a digital technique by which images with a magnification of 1.75× can be obtained-is now available in the market. We studied the effect of the air gap in PCM and evaluated the effectiveness of an antiscatter x-ray grid in conventional mammography (CM) by measuring the scatter fraction ratio (SFR) and relative signal-to-noise ratio (rSNR) and comparing them between PCM and the digital CM. The results indicated that the SFRs for the CM images obtained with a grid were the lowest and that these ratios were almost the same as those for the PCM images. In contrast, the rSNRs for the PCM images were the highest, which means that the scattering of x-rays was sufficiently reduced by the air gap without the loss of primary x-rays.

  15. Long-distance digital signal transfers between trigger system and TOF system of BES III

    Liu Guangdong; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a design of digital signals communication between the trigger system and the TOF system of BES III. The design can support the BES III successfully, which is based on fiber digital communication, FPGA etc. (authors)

  16. Digital Signal Processing and Control for the Study of Gene Networks

    Shin, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the digital revolution, digital signal processing and control has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering today. It provides practical and powerful tools to model, simulate, analyze, design, measure, and control complex and dynamic systems such as robots and aircrafts. Gene networks are also complex dynamic systems which can be studied via digital signal processing and control. Unlike conventional computational methods, this approach is capable of not only modeling but also controlling gene networks since the experimental environment is mostly digital today. The overall aim of this article is to introduce digital signal processing and control as a useful tool for the study of gene networks.

  17. Extraction, Mapping, and Evaluation of Expressive Acoustic Features for Adaptive Digital Audio Effects

    Holfelt, Jonas; Csapo, Gergely; Andersson, Nikolaj Schwab

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time adaptive digital audio effect with an emphasis on using expressive audio features that control effect param- eters. Research in adaptive digital audio effects is cov- ered along with studies about expressivity and important...

  18. 77 FR 43858 - Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and...

    2012-07-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-703] Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof; Determination To Review... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless...

  19. Improvement of the characterization of ultrasonic data by means of digital signal processing

    Bieth, M.; Romy, D.; Weigel, D.

    1985-01-01

    The digital signal processing method for averaging using minima developed by Framatome allows to improve signal-to-noise ratio up to 7 dB during ultrasonic testing of cast stainless steel structures (primary pipes of PWR power plants). Application of digital signal processing to industrial testing conditions requires the availability of a fast analog-digital converter capable of real time processings which has been developed by CGR [fr

  20. An electromagnetic signals monitoring and analysis wireless platform employing personal digital assistants and pattern analysis techniques

    Ninos, K.; Georgiadis, P.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2010-05-01

    This study presents the design and development of a mobile wireless platform to be used for monitoring and analysis of seismic events and related electromagnetic (EM) signals, employing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). A prototype custom-developed application was deployed on a 3G enabled PDA that could connect to the FTP server of the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens and receive and display EM signals at 4 receiver frequencies (3 KHz (E-W, N-S), 10 KHz (E-W, N-S), 41 MHz and 46 MHz). Signals may originate from any one of the 16 field-stations located around the Greek territory. Employing continuous recordings of EM signals gathered from January 2003 till December 2007, a Support Vector Machines (SVM)-based classification system was designed to distinguish EM precursor signals within noisy background. EM-signals corresponding to recordings preceding major seismic events (Ms≥5R) were segmented, by an experienced scientist, and five features (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, and a wavelet based feature), derived from the EM-signals were calculated. These features were used to train the SVM-based classification scheme. The performance of the system was evaluated by the exhaustive search and leave-one-out methods giving 87.2% overall classification accuracy, in correctly identifying EM precursor signals within noisy background employing all calculated features. Due to the insufficient processing power of the PDAs, this task was performed on a typical desktop computer. This optimal trained context of the SVM classifier was then integrated in the PDA based application rendering the platform capable to discriminate between EM precursor signals and noise. System's efficiency was evaluated by an expert who reviewed 1/ multiple EM-signals, up to 18 days prior to corresponding past seismic events, and 2/ the possible EM-activity of a specific region employing the trained SVM classifier. Additionally, the proposed architecture can form a

  1. Optimization of signal processing algorithm for digital beam position monitor

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing; Chen Zhichu

    2013-01-01

    Based on turn-by-turn (TBT) signal processing, the paper emphasizes on the optimization of system timing and implementation of digital automatic gain control, slow application (SA) modules. Beam position including TBT, fast application (FA) and SA data can be acquired. On-line evaluation on Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) shows that the processor is able to get the multi-rate position data which contain true beam movements. When the storage ring is 174 mA and 500 bunches filled, the resolutions of TBT data, FA data and SA data achieve 0.84, 0.44 and 0.23 μm respectively. The above results prove that the design could meet the performance requirements. (authors)

  2. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  3. Loss-Free Counting with Digital Signal Processors

    Markku Koskelo; Dave Hall; Martin Moslinger

    2000-01-01

    Loss-free-counting (LFC) techniques have frequently been used with traditional analog pulse processing systems to compensate for the time or pulses lost when a spectroscopy system is unavailable (busy) for processing an accepted pulse. With the availability of second-generation digital signal processing (DSP) electronics that offer a significantly improved performance for both high and low count rate applications, the LFC technique has been revisited. Specific attention was given to the high and ultra-high count rate behavior, using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with both transistor reset preamplifiers (TRP) and conventional RC preamplifiers. The experiments conducted for this work show that the known LFC techniques further benefit when combined with modern DSP pulse shaping

  4. Analyzing gigahertz bunch length instabilities with a digital signal processor

    Stege, R.E. Jr.; Krejcik, P.; Minty, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    A bunch length instability, nicknamed the ''sawtooth'', because of its transient behavior, has been observed at high current running in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) electron damping ring. The incompatibility of this instability with successful SLC naming prompted its study using a high bandwidth real-time spectrum analyzer, the Tektronix 3052 digital signal processor (DSP) system. This device has been used to study energy ramping in storage rings but this is the first time it has been used to study transient instability phenomena. It is a particularly valuable tool for use in understanding non-linear, multiple frequency phenomena. The frequency range of this device has been extended through the use of radio frequency (RF) down converters. This paper describes the measurement setup and presents some of the results

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  6. Generation and coherent detection of QPSK signal using a novel method of digital signal processing

    Zhao, Yuan; Hu, Bingliang; He, Zhen-An; Xie, Wenjia; Gao, Xiaohui

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate an optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal transmitter and an optical receiver for demodulating optical QPSK signal with homodyne detection and digital signal processing (DSP). DSP on the homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). In this paper, we present an extracting one-dimensional array of down-sampling method for reducing unwanted samples of constellation diagram measurement. Such a novel scheme embodies the following major advantages over the other conventional optical QPSK signal detection methods. First, this homodyne detection scheme does not need strict requirement on LO in comparison with linear optical sampling, such as having a flat spectral density and phase over the spectral support of the source under test. Second, the LabVIEW software is directly used for recovering the QPSK signal constellation without employing complex DSP circuit. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-ary PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or higher speed signals by making minor changes.

  7. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun

    2018-05-01

    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  8. Photonic Ultra-Wideband 781.25-Mb/s Signal Generation and Transmission Incorporating Digital Signal Processing Detection

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    The generation of photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse signals using an uncooled distributed-feedback laser is proposed. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit digital signal processing (DSP) bit-error-rate measurements for transmission of a 781.25-Mb/s photonic UWB signal...

  9. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with question and answers also in French. Spring 2 Term: DISP-2003: Advanced Digital Signal Processing 30 April 2003 - 21 May 2003, 4 lectures, Wednesdays afternoon (attendance cost: 40.- CHF, registration required) Lecturers: Léonard Studer, UNIL; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM; Elena Wildner, AT-MAS Programme: Intelligent signal processing (ISP). Non-linear time series analysis. Image processing. Wavelets. (Basic concepts and definitions have been introduced during the previous Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing). DISP-2003 is open...

  10. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! DISP-2003  -  Digital Signal Processing

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing. The DISP-2003 lecture series is composed of two Terms, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with questions and answers also in French. Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing 20 February 2003 - 3 April 2003, 7 lectures, Thursdays (attendance cost: 70.- CHF, registration required) Lecturers: Maria Elena Angoletta, AB-BDI; Guy Baribaud, AB-BDI; Philippe Baudrenghien, AB-RF; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM Programme: 'Classical' digital signal processing. Fourier analysis. The Laplace transform. The z-transform. Digital filters. Statistics for Signal Processing. Signal Estimation and Spectral Analysis. Spring 2 T...

  11. Optimized digital feature extraction in the FERMI microsystem

    Alexanian, H.; Appelquist, G.; Bailly, P.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the digital filter section of the FERMI readout microsystem. The filter section, consisting of two separate filter blocks, extracts the pulse amplitude and time information for the first-level trigger process and performs a highly accurate energy measurement for higher-level triggering and data readout purposes. An FIR-order statistic hybrid filter structure is used to improve the amplitude extraction performance. Using a training procedure the filters are optimized to produce a precise and accurate output in the presence of electronics and pile-up noise, sample timing jitter and the superposition of high-energy pulses. As the FERMI system resides inside the detector where accessibility is limited, the filter implementations are presented together with fault tolerance considerations. The filter section is modelled with the VHDL hardware descriptive language and the subsystems are further optimized to minimize the system latency and circuit area. ((orig.))

  12. A New Digital Signal Processing Method for Spectrum Interference Monitoring

    Angrisani, L.; Capriglione, D.; Ferrigno, L.; Miele, G.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency spectrum is a limited shared resource, nowadays interested by an ever growing number of different applications. Generally, the companies providing such services pay to the governments the right of using a limited portion of the spectrum, consequently they would be assured that the licensed radio spectrum resource is not interested by significant external interferences. At the same time, they have to guarantee that their devices make an efficient use of the spectrum and meet the electromagnetic compatibility regulations. Therefore the competent authorities are called to control the access to the spectrum adopting suitable management and monitoring policies, as well as the manufacturers have to periodically verify the correct working of their apparatuses. Several measurement solutions are present on the market. They generally refer to real-time spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers. Both of them are characterized by good metrological accuracies but show costs, dimensions and weights that make no possible a use "on the field". The paper presents a first step in realizing a digital signal processing based measurement instrument able to suitably accomplish for the above mentioned needs. In particular the attention has been given to the DSP based measurement section of the instrument. To these aims an innovative measurement method for spectrum monitoring and management is proposed in this paper. It performs an efficient sequential analysis based on a sample by sample digital processing. Three main issues are in particular pursued: (i) measurement performance comparable to that exhibited by other methods proposed in literature; (ii) fast measurement time, (iii) easy implementation on cost-effective measurement hardware.

  13. Radiological features of a fibro-osseous pseudotumor in the digit: A case report

    Kwak, Min Jae; Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, Sang Uk; Jun, Sun Young; Lee, An Hi

    2015-01-01

    A fibro-osseous pseudotumor is a rare ossifying soft tissue lesion, which is thought to be a reactive rather than a neoplastic lesion, developing due to repeated trauma. The lesion mostly occurs in the subcutaneous tissue of the proximal phalanx of the digit and predominantly affects young adults, with a slight predominance in females. The clinicopathological features can mimic those of malignant soft tissue lesions, and diagnosis can be difficult. Less is known about the radiological appearance of the lesion, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, than about histological signs. Here, we report radiological findings, including MRI features, of a fibro-osseous pseudotumor of the digit in a young female

  14. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Menard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  15. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Menard, Daniel; Chillet, Daniel; Sentieys, Olivier

    2006-12-01

    Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  16. Digital Signal Processing for Medical Imaging Using Matlab

    Gopi, E S

    2013-01-01

    This book describes medical imaging systems, such as X-ray, Computed tomography, MRI, etc. from the point of view of digital signal processing. Readers will see techniques applied to medical imaging such as Radon transformation, image reconstruction, image rendering, image enhancement and restoration, and more. This book also outlines the physics behind medical imaging required to understand the techniques being described. The presentation is designed to be accessible to beginners who are doing research in DSP for medical imaging. Matlab programs and illustrations are used wherever possible to reinforce the concepts being discussed.  ·         Acts as a “starter kit” for beginners doing research in DSP for medical imaging; ·         Uses Matlab programs and illustrations throughout to make content accessible, particularly with techniques such as Radon transformation and image rendering; ·         Includes discussion of the basic principles behind the various medical imaging tec...

  17. Is there a correlation between organizational features and digital communication usage?

    Veselinović Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization, networking and information sharing have brought to the paradigm shifts in both business and marketing communication. Extant scholarly and practical studies emphasize the importance of digital communication tools and activities, and explore new opportunities for organizations. Unlike previous studies, this study is not solely focused on the usage, but rather on the examination and determination of differences in the usage of digital communication in organizations of various characteristics such as size, industry, business maturity and geographical coverage. A transversal empirical study was conducted in the Republic of Serbia, on a randomly selected sample of 231 private and publicly owned organizations - companies, institutions and banks. The results indicate that the statistical difference in the usage of digital communication tools and activities by organization types exists, whereby the intensity of correlation differs depending on the organizational feature and digital communication tool or activity.

  18. A natural approach to convey numerical digits using hand activity recognition based on hand shape features

    Chidananda, H.; Reddy, T. Hanumantha

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a natural representation of numerical digit(s) using hand activity analysis based on number of fingers out stretched for each numerical digit in sequence extracted from a video. The analysis is based on determining a set of six features from a hand image. The most important features used from each frame in a video are the first fingertip from top, palm-line, palm-center, valley points between the fingers exists above the palm-line. Using this work user can convey any number of numerical digits using right or left or both the hands naturally in a video. Each numerical digit ranges from 0 to9. Hands (right/left/both) used to convey digits can be recognized accurately using the valley points and with this recognition whether the user is a right / left handed person in practice can be analyzed. In this work, first the hand(s) and face parts are detected by using YCbCr color space and face part is removed by using ellipse based method. Then, the hand(s) are analyzed to recognize the activity that represents a series of numerical digits in a video. This work uses pixel continuity algorithm using 2D coordinate geometry system and does not use regular use of calculus, contours, convex hull and datasets.

  19. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - I: General formulations

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    When a continuous signal f(t) is digitized and then spectrally analysed, the resultant energy spectral density R(ω) is given as R(ω) = |F(ω) * D(ω)| 2 , where F(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of f(t), D(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of the digitization process and * denotes convolution operation. A notable practical problem in spectral analysis is how to adequately decouple D(ω) from R(ω) and hence obtain the exact energy spectral density of f(t), i.e. |F(ω)| 2 , since R(ω) → |F(ω)| 2 only if D(ω) → delta(ω) or (under certain conditions) when D(ω) → delta(ω-ω 0 ) or if D(ω) → Σsub(n) delta(ω-ωsub(n)), where the latter is a sufficiently spaced series of delta functions and ωsub(j) is constant for a given j. A solution to this problem requires, among others, thorough understanding of D(ω), how it relates to F(ω) and hence the manner or degree to which D(ω) distorts or contaminates F(ω) to form R(ω). In this paper, we have developed exact analytical expressions of D(ω) that are well related to the corresponding F(ω) in the cases when f(t) is a simple sinusoid as well as when it is in the form of a more complex function. It is established that in either of these cases, D(ω) is a clear function of the salient parameters of both f(t) and F(ω). The contents of this paper are used in Part II to examine the manner and extent to which D(ω) causes distortions in R(ω) under given conditions, and also to establish a procedure by which such distortions may be decoupled from a practically computed R(ω). Other related issues such as frequency shifts in computed power spectra are also discussed therein. (author)

  20. The IceCube data acquisition system: Signal capture, digitization,and timestamping

    The IceCube Collaboration; Matis, Howard

    2009-03-02

    IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration ismaintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved.

  1. Digital Signal Processing in Beam Instrumentation Latest Trends and Typical Applications

    Angoletta, Maria Elena

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has seen major improvements in digital hardware, algortithms and software, which have trickled down to the Beam Instrumentation (BI) area. An advantageous transition is taking place towards systems with an ever-stronger digital presence. Digital systems are assembled by means of a rather small number of basic building blocks, with improved speed, precision, signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, flexibility, and accompanied by a range of powerful and user-friendly development tools. The paper reviews current digital BI trends, including using Digital Signal Processors, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Digital Receivers and General Purpose Processors as well as some useful processing algorithms. Selected digital applications are illustrated on control/feedback and beam diagnostics.

  2. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs

  3. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC! DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with question and answers also in French. Spring 2 Term: DISP-2003: Advanced Digital Signal Processing 30 April 2003 - 21 May 2003, 4 lectures, Wednesdays afternoon. Attendance cost: 40.- CHF, registration required. Lecturers: Léonard Studer, UNIL; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM; Elena Wildner, AT-MAS. Programme: Intelligent signal processing (ISP). Non-linear time series analysis. Image processing. Wavelets. Basic concepts and definitions have been introduced during the previous Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing. DISP-2003 is open to all people interested, but registrat...

  4. Characterization of three digital signal processor systems used in gamma ray spectrometry

    Reguigui, N.; Morel, J.; Ben Kraiem, H.; Mahjoub, A.

    2002-01-01

    Various manufacturers have recently introduced digital signal processing systems that allow data acquisition in gamma spectrometry at high-input counting rates (several thousand pulses per second). In these systems, the signal digitization is performed immediately following the preamplification stage. This allows digital shaping and filtering of the signal which increases the number of possible combinations in signal shaping and as a consequence, optimizes the resolution as a function of the detector characteristics and the counting rate. Basic characteristic parameters of three digital signal processors that were recently introduced in the market have been studied and compared to those of an analog system. This study is carried out using a hyper-pure coaxial type germanium detector and 57 Co, 60 Co and 137 Cs radioactive sources. Performance parameters such as energy resolution, system throughput, and counting losses that are due to dead time and pile-up effects are presented and discussed

  5. Microcomputer-Based Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Experiments.

    Tinari, Jr., Rocco; Rao, S. Sathyanarayan

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system (Apple II microcomputer interfaced to flexible, custom-designed digital hardware) which can provide: (1) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computation on real-time data with a video display of spectrum; (2) frequency synthesis experiments using the inverse FFT; and (3) real-time digital filtering experiments. (JN)

  6. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    with a DFP motor, which has been combined with the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine model. A classical variable speed control strategy for wind speeds below rated is proposed for the turbine, where the pump displacement is fixed and the digital motor displacement is varied for pressure control. The digital...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  7. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging.

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-12-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. 76 FR 17965 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    2011-03-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-703] In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof Notice of... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile telephones...

  10. 75 FR 44282 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    2010-07-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-703] In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof; Notice of... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile telephones...

  11. Illustration of decimation in digital signal processing (DSP) systems ...

    ... and engineering, especially in the areas of communication and medicine. ... This multirate DSP had been found useful in application like digital audio, video and even GSM technology. The work is implemented using MATLABTM software.

  12. Risk assessment of safety data link and network communication in digital safety feature control system of nuclear power plant

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Kwang Seop; Jung, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety data communication risk assessment framework and quantitative scheme were proposed. • Fault-tree model of ESFAS unavailability due to safety data communication failure was developed. • Safety data link and network risk were assessed based on various ESF-CCS design specifications. • The effect of fault-tolerant algorithm reliability of safety data network on ESFAS unavailability was assessed. - Abstract: As one of the safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs), the Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) employs safety data link and network communication for the transmission of safety component actuation signals from the group controllers to loop controllers to effectively accommodate various safety-critical field controllers. Since data communication failure risk in the ESF-CCS has yet to be fully quantified, the ESF-CCS employing data communication systems have not been applied in NPPs. This study therefore developed a fault tree model to assess the data link and data network failure-induced unavailability of a system function used to generate an automated control signal for accident mitigation equipment. The current aim is to provide risk information regarding data communication failure in a digital safety feature control system in consideration of interconnection between controllers and the fault-tolerant algorithm implemented in the target system. Based on the developed fault tree model, case studies were performed to quantitatively assess the unavailability of ESF-CCS signal generation due to data link and network failure and its risk effect on safety signal generation failure. This study is expected to provide insight into the risk assessment of safety-critical data communication in a digitalized NPP instrumentation and control system.

  13. Improving EEG signal peak detection using feature weight learning ...

    Asrul Adam

    4 School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia. 5 QIMR ... The groups of Acir et al .... difference between the peak and the floating mean, which is ..... Thus, the individual features were.

  14. Study of time-domain digital pulse shaping algorithms for nuclear signals

    Zhou Jianbin; Tuo Xianguo; Zhu Xing; Liu Yi; Zhou Wei; Lei Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    With the development on high-speed integrated circuit, fast high resolution sampling ADC and digital signal processors are replacing analog shaping amplifier circuit. This paper firstly presents the numerical analysis and simulation on R-C shaping circuit model and C-R shaping circuit model. Mathematic models are established based on 1 st order digital differential method and Kirchhoff Current Law in time domain, and a simulation and error evaluation experiment on an ideal digital signal are carried out with Excel VBA. A digital shaping test for a semiconductor X-ray detector in real time is also presented. Then a numerical analysis for Sallen-Key(S-K) low-pass filter circuit model is implemented based on the analysis of digital R-C and digital C-R shaping methods. By applying the 2 nd order non-homogeneous differential equation,the authors implement a digital Gaussian filter model for a standard exponential-decaying signal and a nuclear pulse signal. Finally, computer simulations and experimental tests are carried out and the results show the possibility of the digital pulse processing algorithms. (authors)

  15. 77 FR 9187 - Carriage of Digital Television Broadcast Signals: Amendment to the Commission's Rules

    2012-02-16

    ... Digital Television Broadcast Signals: Amendment to the Commission's Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications... native format (e.g., .doc, .xml, .ppt, searchable .pdf). Participants in this proceeding should... Commission adopted certain rules to protect consumers as the transition to digital television (DTV...

  16. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  17. The role of lossless systems in modern digital signal processing: a tutorial

    Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Doğanata, Zinnur

    1989-01-01

    A self-contained discussion of discrete-time lossless systems and their properties and relevance in digital signal processing is presented. The basic concept of losslessness is introduced, and several algebraic properties of lossless systems are studied. An understanding of these properties is crucial in order to exploit the rich usefulness of lossless systems in digital signal processing. Since lossless systems typically have many input and output terminals, a brief review of multiinput mult...

  18. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications.

  19. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    Xing, L; Wong, J; Li, R

    2014-01-01

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications

  20. Digital phonocardiographic experiments and signal processing in multidisciplinary fields of university education

    Nagy, Tamás; Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Modern measurement of physical signals is based on the use of sensors, electronic signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing carried out by dedicated software. The same signal chain is used in many devices such as home appliances, automotive electronics, medical instruments, and smartphones. Teaching the theoretical, experimental, and signal processing background must be an essential part of improving the standard of higher education, and it fits well to the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of physics and engineering too. In this paper, we show how digital phonocardiography can be used in university education as a universal, highly scalable, exciting, and inspiring laboratory practice and as a demonstration at various levels and complexity. We have developed open-source software templates in modern programming languages to support immediate use and to serve as a basis of further modifications using personal computers, tablets, and smartphones. (paper)

  1. Digital phonocardiographic experiments and signal processing in multidisciplinary fields of university education

    Nagy, Tamás; Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    Modern measurement of physical signals is based on the use of sensors, electronic signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing carried out by dedicated software. The same signal chain is used in many devices such as home appliances, automotive electronics, medical instruments, and smartphones. Teaching the theoretical, experimental, and signal processing background must be an essential part of improving the standard of higher education, and it fits well to the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of physics and engineering too. In this paper, we show how digital phonocardiography can be used in university education as a universal, highly scalable, exciting, and inspiring laboratory practice and as a demonstration at various levels and complexity. We have developed open-source software templates in modern programming languages to support immediate use and to serve as a basis of further modifications using personal computers, tablets, and smartphones.

  2. Improving EEG signal peak detection using feature weight learning ...

    Therefore, we aimed to develop a general procedure for eye event-related applications based on feature weight learning (FWL), through the use of a neural network with random weights (NNRW) as the classifier. The FWL is performed using a particle swarm optimization algorithm, applied to the well-studied Dumpala, Acir, ...

  3. Digital signals processing using non-linear orthogonal transformation in frequency domain

    Ivanichenko E.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress of computer technology in recent decades led to a wide introduction of methods of digital information processing practically in all fields of scientific research. In this case, among various applications of computing one of the most important places is occupied by digital processing systems signals (DSP that are used in data processing remote solution tasks of navigation of aerospace and marine objects, communications, radiophysics, digital optics and in a number of other applications. Digital Signal Processing (DSP is a dynamically developing an area that covers both technical and software tools. Related areas for digital signal processing are theory information, in particular, the theory of optimal signal reception and theory pattern recognition. In the first case, the main problem is signal extraction against a background of noise and interference of a different physical nature, and in the second - automatic recognition, i.e. classification and signal identification. In the digital processing of signals under a signal, we mean its mathematical description, i.e. a certain real function, containing information on the state or behavior of a physical system under an event that can be defined on a continuous or discrete space of time variation or spatial coordinates. In the broad sense, DSP systems mean a complex algorithmic, hardware and software. As a rule, systems contain specialized technical means of preliminary (or primary signal processing and special technical means for secondary processing of signals. Means of pretreatment are designed to process the original signals observed in general case against a background of random noise and interference of a different physical nature and represented in the form of discrete digital samples, for the purpose of detecting and selection (selection of the useful signal and evaluation characteristics of the detected signal. A new method of digital signal processing in the frequency

  4. Implementation theory of distortion-invariant pattern recognition for optical and digital signal processing systems

    Lhamon, Michael Earl

    A pattern recognition system which uses complex correlation filter banks requires proportionally more computational effort than single-real valued filters. This introduces increased computation burden but also introduces a higher level of parallelism, that common computing platforms fail to identify. As a result, we consider algorithm mapping to both optical and digital processors. For digital implementation, we develop computationally efficient pattern recognition algorithms, referred to as, vector inner product operators that require less computational effort than traditional fast Fourier methods. These algorithms do not need correlation and they map readily onto parallel digital architectures, which imply new architectures for optical processors. These filters exploit circulant-symmetric matrix structures of the training set data representing a variety of distortions. By using the same mathematical basis as with the vector inner product operations, we are able to extend the capabilities of more traditional correlation filtering to what we refer to as "Super Images". These "Super Images" are used to morphologically transform a complicated input scene into a predetermined dot pattern. The orientation of the dot pattern is related to the rotational distortion of the object of interest. The optical implementation of "Super Images" yields feature reduction necessary for using other techniques, such as artificial neural networks. We propose a parallel digital signal processor architecture based on specific pattern recognition algorithms but general enough to be applicable to other similar problems. Such an architecture is classified as a data flow architecture. Instead of mapping an algorithm to an architecture, we propose mapping the DSP architecture to a class of pattern recognition algorithms. Today's optical processing systems have difficulties implementing full complex filter structures. Typically, optical systems (like the 4f correlators) are limited to phase

  5. Digit recognition for Arabic/Jawi and Roman using features from triangle geometry

    Azmi, Mohd Sanusi; Omar, Khairuddin; Nasrudin, Mohamad Faidzul; Idrus, Bahari; Wan Mohd Ghazali, Khadijah

    2013-04-01

    A novel method is proposed to recognize the Arab/Jawi and Roman digits. This new method is based on features from the triangle geometry, normalized into nine features. The features are used for zoning which results in five and 25 zones. The algorithm is validated by using three standard datasets which are publicly available and used by researchers in this field. The first dataset is HODA that contains 60,000 images for training and 20,000 images for testing. The second dataset is IFHCDB. This dataset has 52,380 isolated characters and 17,740 digits. Only the 17,740 images of digits are used for this research. For the roman digit, MNIST are chosen. MNIST dataset has 60,000 images for training and 10,000 images for testing. Supervised (SML) and Unsupervised Machine Learning (UML) are used to test the nine features. The SML used are Neural Network (NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Whereas the UML uses Euclidean Distance Method with data mining algorithms; namely Mean Average Precision (eMAP) and Frequency Based (eFB). Results for SML testing for HODA dataset are 98.07% accuracy for SVM, and 96.73% for NN. For IFHCDB and MNIST the accuracy are 91.75% and 93.095% respectively. For the UML tests, HODA dataset is 93.91%, IFHCDB 85.94% and MNIST 86.61%. The train and test images are selected using both random and the original dataset's distribution. The results show that the accuracy of proposed algorithm is over 90% for each SML trained datasets where the highest result is the one that uses 25 zones features.

  6. Network features and pathway analyses of a signal transduction cascade

    Ryoji Yanashima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The scale-free and small-world network models reflect the functional units of networks. However, when we investigated the network properties of a signaling pathway using these models, no significant differences were found between the original undirected graphs and the graphs in which inactive proteins were eliminated from the gene expression data. We analyzed signaling networks by focusing on those pathways that best reflected cellular function. Therefore, our analysis of pathways started from the ligands and progressed to transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins. We employed the Python module to assess the target network. This involved comparing the original and restricted signaling cascades as a directed graph using microarray gene expression profiles of late onset Alzheimer's disease. The most commonly used method of shortest-path analysis neglects to consider the influences of alternative pathways that can affect the activation of transcription factors or cytoskeletal proteins. We therefore introduced included k-shortest paths and k-cycles in our network analysis using the Python modules, which allowed us to attain a reasonable computational time and identify k-shortest paths. This technique reflected results found in vivo and identified pathways not found when shortest path or degree analysis was applied. Our module enabled us to comprehensively analyse the characteristics of biomolecular networks and also enabled analysis of the effects of diseases considering the feedback loop and feedforward loop control structures as an alternative path.

  7. SCOTT: A time and amplitude digitizer ASIC for PMT signal processing

    Ferry, S.; Guilloux, F.; Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Delagnes, E.; Gautard, V.; Louis, F.; Monmarthe, E.; Le Provost, H.; Russo, S.; Schuller, J.-P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Zonca, E.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    SCOTT is an ASIC designed for the readout electronics of photomultiplier tubes developed for KM3NeT, the cubic-kilometer scale neutrino telescope in Mediterranean Sea. To digitize the PMT signals, the multi-time-over-threshold technique is used with up to 16 adjustable thresholds. Digital outputs of discriminators feed a circular sampling memory and a “first in first out” digital memory. A specific study has shown that five specifically chosen thresholds are suited to reach the required timing accuracy. A dedicated method based on the duration of the signal over a given threshold allows an equivalent timing precision at any charge. To verify that the KM3NeT requirements are fulfilled, this method is applied on PMT signals digitized by SCOTT.

  8. Analysis of pulse-shape discrimination techniques for BC501A using GHz digital signal processing

    Rooney, B.D.; Dinwiddie, D.R.; Nelson, M.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison study of pulse-shape analysis techniques was conducted for a BC501A scintillator using digital signal processing (DSP). In this study, output signals from a preamplifier were input directly into a 1 GHz analog-to-digital converter. The digitized data obtained with this method was post-processed for both pulse-height and pulse-shape information. Several different analysis techniques were evaluated for neutron and gamma-ray pulse-shape discrimination. It was surprising that one of the simplest and fastest techniques resulted in some of the best pulse-shape discrimination results. This technique, referred to here as the Integral Ratio technique, was able to effectively process several thousand detector pulses per second. This paper presents the results and findings of this study for various pulse-shape analysis techniques with digitized detector signals.

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Impairment Compensation in Coherent Optical Transmission with Digital Signal Processing

    Porto da Silva, Edson

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has become one of the main enabling technologies for the physical layer of coherent optical communication networks. The DSP subsystems are used to implement several functionalities in the digital domain, from synchronization to channel equalization. Flexibility...... nonlinearity compensation, (II) spectral shaping, and (III) adaptive equalization. For (I), original contributions are presented to the study of the nonlinearity compensation (NLC) with digital backpropagation (DBP). Numerical and experimental performance investigations are shown for different application...... scenarios. Concerning (II), it is demonstrated how optical and electrical (digital) pulse shaping can be allied to improve the spectral confinement of a particular class of optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) signals that can be used as a building block for fast signaling single-carrier transceivers...

  10. An experimental digital consumer recorder for MPEG-coded video signals

    Saeijs, R.W.J.J.; With, de P.H.N.; Rijckaert, A.M.A.; Wong, C.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and real-time implementation of an experimental home-use digital recorder is presented, capable of recording MPEG-compressed video signals. The system has small recording mechanics based on the DVC standard and it uses MPEG compression for trick-mode signals as well

  11. Si(Li) x-ray spectrometer with signal processing system based on digital filtering

    Lakatos, Tamas

    1985-01-01

    A new signal processing system is under development at ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, based on digital filtering by a microprocessor. The advantages of the new method are summarized. Dead time can be decreased and the speed of signal processing can be increased. Computer simulations verified the theoretical conclusions. (D.Gy.)

  12. Residual signal feature extraction for gearbox planetary stage fault detection

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Ursin, Thomas; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2017-01-01

    Faults in planetary gears and related bearings, e.g. planet bearings and planet carrier bearings, pose inherent difficulties on their accurate and consistent detection associated mainly to the low energy in slow rotating stages and the operating complexity of planetary gearboxes. In this work......, identification of the expected spectral signature for proper residual signal calculation and filtering of any frequency component not related to the planetary stage. Two field cases of planet carrier bearing defect and planet wheel spalling are presented and discussed, showing the efficiency of the followed...

  13. An SVM classifier to separate false signals from microcalcifications in digital mammograms

    Bazzani, Armando; Bollini, Dante; Brancaccio, Rosa; Campanini, Renato; Riccardi, Alessandro; Romani, Davide [Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, and INFN, Bologna (Italy). E-mail: nico.lanconelli@bo.infn.it; Bevilacqua, Alessandro [Department of Electronics, Computer Science and Systems, University of Bologna, and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using an SVM (support vector machine) classifier in our automatic system for the detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. SVM is a technique for pattern recognition which relies on the statistical learning theory. It minimizes a function of two terms: the number of misclassified vectors of the training set and a term regarding the generalization classifier capability. We compare the SVM classifier with an MLP (multi-layer perceptron) in the false-positive reduction phase of our detection scheme: a detected signal is considered either microcalcification or false signal, according to the value of a set of its features. The SVM classifier gets slightly better results than the MLP one (Az value of 0.963 against 0.958) in the presence of a high number of training data; the improvement becomes much more evident (Az value of 0.952 against 0.918) in training sets of reduced size. Finally, the setting of the SVM classifier is much easier than the MLP one. (author)

  14. Feature issue of digital holography and 3D imaging (DH) introduction.

    Hayasaki, Yoshio; Zhou, Changhe; Popescu, Gabriel; Onural, Levent

    2014-11-17

    The OSA Topical Meeting "Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH)," was held in Seattle, Washington, July 13-17, 2014. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO) since 2007. This year Optics Express (OE) and AO jointly decided to have one such feature issue in each journal. The DH meeting will continue in the future, as expected, and the next meeting is scheduled to be held on 24 - 28 May 2015, in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai, China.

  15. High-Speed Data Acquisition and Digital Signal Processing System for PET Imaging Techniques Applied to Mammography

    Martinez, J. D.; Benlloch, J. M.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Pavon, N.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-06-01

    This paper is framed into the Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) project, whose aim is to develop an innovative gamma ray sensor for early breast cancer diagnosis. Currently, breast cancer is detected using low-energy X-ray screening. However, functional imaging techniques such as PET/FDG could be employed to detect breast cancer and track disease changes with greater sensitivity. Furthermore, a small and less expensive PET camera can be utilized minimizing main problems of whole body PET. To accomplish these objectives, we are developing a new gamma ray sensor based on a newly released photodetector. However, a dedicated PEM detector requires an adequate data acquisition (DAQ) and processing system. The characterization of gamma events needs a free-running analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sampling rates of more than 50 Ms/s and must achieve event count rates up to 10 MHz. Moreover, comprehensive data processing must be carried out to obtain event parameters necessary for performing the image reconstruction. A new generation digital signal processor (DSP) has been used to comply with these requirements. This device enables us to manage the DAQ system at up to 80 Ms/s and to execute intensive calculi over the detector signals. This paper describes our designed DAQ and processing architecture whose main features are: very high-speed data conversion, multichannel synchronized acquisition with zero dead time, a digital triggering scheme, and high throughput of data with an extensive optimization of the signal processing algorithms.

  16. Fast modified signal-digit (MSD) multiplication technology and system

    Sun, DeGui; He, Li-Ming; Wang, Na-Xin; Weng, Zhao-Heng

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the carry-free property of modified-signed-digit (MSD) addition is analyzed with a space position logic encoding scheme. On this basis, MSD multiplication is discussed and a fast MSD multiplication system composed of optoelectronic logic technology and a multilayer optical interconnection architecture is propsed and studied. Finally, the effectivity of the fast MSD multiplication system is demostrated by using a 2X2 bit multiplication example and experimental results are given.

  17. Digital mammography: Mixed feature neural network with spectral entropy decision for detection of microcalcifications

    Zheng, B. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)]|[Nanjing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications (China). Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering; Qian, W.; Clarke, L.P. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A computationally efficient mixed feature based neural network (MFNN) is proposed for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCC`s) in digitized mammograms. The MFNN employs features computed in both the spatial and spectral domain and uses spectral entropy as a decision parameter. Backpropagation with Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed to allow more efficient network training as required for evaluation of different features, input images, and related error analysis. A previously reported, wavelet-based image-enhancement method is also employed to enhance microcalcification clusters for improved detection. The relative performance of the MFNN for both the raw and enhanced images is evaluated using a common image database of 30 digitized mammograms, with 20 images containing 21 biopsy proven MCC`s and ten normal cases. The computed sensitivity (true positive (TP) detection rate) was 90.1% with an average low false positive (FP) detection of 0.71 MCCs/image for the enhanced images using a modified k-fold validation error estimation technique. The corresponding computed sensitivity for the raw images was reduced to 81.4% and with 0.59 FP`s MCCs/image. A relative comparison to an earlier neural network (NN) design, using only spatially related features, suggests the importance of the addition of spectral domain features when the raw image data are analyzed.

  18. Digital mammography: Mixed feature neural network with spectral entropy decision for detection of microcalcifications

    Zheng, B.

    1996-01-01

    A computationally efficient mixed feature based neural network (MFNN) is proposed for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCC's) in digitized mammograms. The MFNN employs features computed in both the spatial and spectral domain and uses spectral entropy as a decision parameter. Backpropagation with Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed to allow more efficient network training as required for evaluation of different features, input images, and related error analysis. A previously reported, wavelet-based image-enhancement method is also employed to enhance microcalcification clusters for improved detection. The relative performance of the MFNN for both the raw and enhanced images is evaluated using a common image database of 30 digitized mammograms, with 20 images containing 21 biopsy proven MCC's and ten normal cases. The computed sensitivity (true positive (TP) detection rate) was 90.1% with an average low false positive (FP) detection of 0.71 MCCs/image for the enhanced images using a modified k-fold validation error estimation technique. The corresponding computed sensitivity for the raw images was reduced to 81.4% and with 0.59 FP's MCCs/image. A relative comparison to an earlier neural network (NN) design, using only spatially related features, suggests the importance of the addition of spectral domain features when the raw image data are analyzed

  19. Suitability review of FMEA and reliability analysis for digital plant protection system and digital engineered safety features actuation system

    Kim, I. S.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, B. S.; Hwang, S. W.; Ryu, K. C. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    Of the many items that should be checked out during a review stage of the licensing application for the I and C system of Ulchin 5 and 6 units, this report relates to a suitability review of the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (DESFAS). In the reliability analysis performed by the system designer, ABB-CE, fault tree analysis was used as the main methods along with Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA). However, the present regulatory technique dose not allow the system reliability analysis and its results to be appropriately evaluated. Hence, this study was carried out focusing on the following four items ; development of general review items by which to check the validity of a reliability analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the reliability analysis for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS L development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of an FMEA, and the subsequent review of suitability of the FMEA for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of a fault tree analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the fault tree for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; an integrated review of the safety and reliability of the Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS based on the results of the various reviews above and also of a reliability comparison between the digital systems and the comparable analog systems, i.e., and analog Plant Protection System (PPS) and and analog Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS). According to the review mentioned above, the reliability analysis of Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS generally satisfies the review requirements. However, some shortcomings of the analysis were identified in our review such that the assumed test periods for several equipment were not properly incorporated in the analysis, and failures of some equipment were not included in the

  20. Reconfigurable signal processor designs for advanced digital array radar systems

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Yu, Xining

    2017-05-01

    The new challenges originated from Digital Array Radar (DAR) demands a new generation of reconfigurable backend processor in the system. The new FPGA devices can support much higher speed, more bandwidth and processing capabilities for the need of digital Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). This study focuses on using the latest Altera and Xilinx devices in an adaptive beamforming processor. The field reprogrammable RF devices from Analog Devices are used as analog front end transceivers. Different from other existing Software-Defined Radio transceivers on the market, this processor is designed for distributed adaptive beamforming in a networked environment. The following aspects of the novel radar processor will be presented: (1) A new system-on-chip architecture based on Altera's devices and adaptive processing module, especially for the adaptive beamforming and pulse compression, will be introduced, (2) Successful implementation of generation 2 serial RapidIO data links on FPGA, which supports VITA-49 radio packet format for large distributed DAR processing. (3) Demonstration of the feasibility and capabilities of the processor in a Micro-TCA based, SRIO switching backplane to support multichannel beamforming in real-time. (4) Application of this processor in ongoing radar system development projects, including OU's dual-polarized digital array radar, the planned new cylindrical array radars, and future airborne radars.

  1. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-01-01

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications

  2. Feature reconstruction of LFP signals based on PLSR in the neural information decoding study.

    Yonghui Dong; Zhigang Shang; Mengmeng Li; Xinyu Liu; Hong Wan

    2017-07-01

    To solve the problems of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and multicollinearity when the Local Field Potential (LFP) signals is used for the decoding of animal motion intention, a feature reconstruction of LFP signals based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) in the neural information decoding study is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the feature information of LFP coding band is extracted based on wavelet transform. Then the PLSR model is constructed by the extracted LFP coding features. According to the multicollinearity characteristics among the coding features, several latent variables which contribute greatly to the steering behavior are obtained, and the new LFP coding features are reconstructed. Finally, the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method is used to classify the reconstructed coding features to verify the decoding performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve the highest accuracy compared to the other three methods and the decoding effect of the proposed method is robust.

  3. Design and implementation of a multiband digital filter using FPGA to extract the ECG signal in the presence of different interference signals.

    Aboutabikh, Kamal; Aboukerdah, Nader

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical way to synthesize and filter an ECG signal in the presence of four types of interference signals: (1) those arising from power networks with a fundamental frequency of 50Hz, (2) those arising from respiration, having a frequency range from 0.05 to 0.5Hz, (3) muscle signals with a frequency of 25Hz, and (4) white noise present within the ECG signal band. This was done by implementing a multiband digital filter (seven bands) of type FIR Multiband Least Squares using a digital programmable device (Cyclone II EP2C70F896C6 FPGA, Altera), which was placed on an education and development board (DE2-70, Terasic). This filter was designed using the VHDL language in the Quartus II 9.1 design environment. The proposed method depends on Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (DDFS) designed to synthesize the ECG signal and various interference signals. So that the synthetic ECG specifications would be closer to actual ECG signals after filtering, we designed in a single multiband digital filter instead of using three separate digital filters LPF, HPF, BSF. Thus all interference signals were removed with a single digital filter. The multiband digital filter results were studied using a digital oscilloscope to characterize input and output signals in the presence of differing sinusoidal interference signals and white noise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  5. Low-power digital ASIC for on-chip spectral analysis of low-frequency physiological signals

    Nie Zedong; Zhang Fengjuan; Li Jie; Wang Lei

    2012-01-01

    A digital ASIC chip customized for battery-operated body sensing devices is presented. The ASIC incorporates a novel hybrid-architecture fast Fourier transform (FFT) unit that is capable of scalable spectral analysis, a licensed ARM7TDMI IP hardcore and several peripheral IP blocks. Extensive experimental results suggest that the complete chip works as intended. The power consumption of the FFT unit is 0.69 mW at 1 MHz with 1.8 V power supply. The low-power and programmable features of the ASIC make it suitable for ‘on-the-fly’ low-frequency physiological signal processing. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Digital generation of stochastic signals of arbitrary spectral shape

    Behringer, K.; Nishihara, H.; Spiekerman, G.

    1986-10-01

    For computer-simulation experiments in the development of noise monitoring systems three methods of generating ergodic Gaussian random noise with specified spectral properties have been investigated: digital filtering of white noise optimum symmetric FIR filters, a modified Rice formulation and an approximation of the Kac representation of noise. The proposed modified Rice formulation is a new noise generation method which is most efficient with regard to the computation time. By windowing subsequent Rice sequences a smooth noise record of any desired length can be produced. (author)

  7. Digital generation of stochastic signals of arbitrary spectral shape

    Behringer, K.; Nishihara, H.; Spiekerman, G.

    1986-01-01

    For computer-simulation experiments in the development of noise monitoring systems three methods of generating ergodic Gaussian random noise with specified spectral properties have been investigated: digital filtering of white noise with optimum symmetric FIR filters, a modified Rice formulation and an approximation of the Kac representation of noise. The proposed modified Rice formulation is a new noise generation method which is most efficient with regard to the computation time. By windowing subsequent Rice sequences a smooth noise record of any desired length can be produced. (author)

  8. Digitizing high frequency signals using serial analog memories

    Coonrod, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    An online computer system has been developed as a replacement for oscilloscopes and cameras on the Tormac project. Up to 32 simultaneous waveforms are recorded at up to 2 MHz in analog shift registers, then digitized sequentially after the event into a small PDP-11 computer. Data and functions of data may be displayed or plotted locally, and then forwarded for storage at a larger, remote computer via a network arrangement. Advantages over scopes have been lower incremental cost (approximately $200/channel), less noise pickup, better resolution (less than 1%), and immediate presentation of data

  9. A digital signal processor based rf control system for the TRIUMF ISAC RFQ prototype

    Fong, K.; Fang, S.; Laverty, M.

    1996-01-01

    A stand alone digital signal processor is used to control the RFQ prototype in the TRIUMF ISAC development program. The advantage of a digital control system over the traditional analogue system is that it offers the higher degree of flexibility necessary for a development system. For this application the system is designed to have the outward appearance of an analogue system, and uses dials, knobs, and switches as the operator interface. The digital signal processor is used as a feedback controller during CW rf operation, with the feedback gain parameters continually adjustable. It is also able to perform the same regulation during pulsed operation, with additional feedforward compensation for initial pulse on duration. Using a low cost analogue-to-digital converter with a sample rate of 100 kHz, a regulation bandwidth of 10 kHz is achieved. (author)

  10. Particle swarm optimization based feature enhancement and feature selection for improved emotion recognition in speech and glottal signals.

    Muthusamy, Hariharan; Polat, Kemal; Yaacob, Sazali

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, many research works have been published using speech related features for speech emotion recognition, however, recent studies show that there is a strong correlation between emotional states and glottal features. In this work, Mel-frequency cepstralcoefficients (MFCCs), linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCCs), perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features, gammatone filter outputs, timbral texture features, stationary wavelet transform based timbral texture features and relative wavelet packet energy and entropy features were extracted from the emotional speech (ES) signals and its glottal waveforms(GW). Particle swarm optimization based clustering (PSOC) and wrapper based particle swarm optimization (WPSO) were proposed to enhance the discerning ability of the features and to select the discriminating features respectively. Three different emotional speech databases were utilized to gauge the proposed method. Extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed to classify the different types of emotions. Different experiments were conducted and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the speech emotion recognition performance compared to previous works published in the literature.

  11. Digital signal processing for wireless communication using Matlab

    Gopi, E S

    2016-01-01

    This book examines signal processing techniques used in wireless communication illustrated by using the Matlab program. The author discusses these techniques as they relate to Doppler spread; delay spread; Rayleigh and Rician channel modeling; rake receiver; diversity techniques; MIMO and OFDM -based transmission techniques; and array signal processing. Related topics such as detection theory, link budget, multiple access techniques, and spread spectrum are also covered.   ·         Illustrates signal processing techniques involved in wireless communication using Matlab ·         Discusses multiple access techniques such as Frequency division multiple access, Time division multiple access, and Code division multiple access ·         Covers band pass modulation techniques such as Binary phase shift keying, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature phase shift keying, Binary frequency shift keying, Minimum shift keying, and Gaussian minimum shift keying.

  12. A Fast DCT Algorithm for Watermarking in Digital Signal Processor

    S. E. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform (DCT has been an international standard in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG format to reduce the blocking effect in digital image compression. This paper proposes a fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT algorithm that utilizes the energy compactness and matrix sparseness properties in frequency domain to achieve higher computation performance. For a JPEG image of 8×8 block size in spatial domain, the algorithm decomposes the two-dimensional (2D DCT into one pair of one-dimensional (1D DCTs with transform computation in only 24 multiplications. The 2D spatial data is a linear combination of the base image obtained by the outer product of the column and row vectors of cosine functions so that inverse DCT is as efficient. Implementation of the FDCT algorithm shows that embedding a watermark image of 32 × 32 block pixel size in a 256 × 256 digital image can be completed in only 0.24 seconds and the extraction of watermark by inverse transform is within 0.21 seconds. The proposed FDCT algorithm is shown more efficient than many previous works in computation.

  13. Reliability study: digital engineered safety feature actuation system of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    Sudarno; Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    The usage of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) in a nuclear power plant becomes more extensive, including safety related systems. The PSA application of these new designs are very important in order to evaluate their reliability. In particular, Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPPs), typically Ulchin 5 and 6 (UCN 5 and 6) reactor units, adopted the digital safety-critical systems such as Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System (DESFAS). In this research, we developed fault tree models for assessing the unavailability of the DESFAS functions. We also performed an analysis of the quantification results. The unavailability results of different DESFAS functions showed that their values are comprised from 5.461E-5 to 3.14E-4. The system unavailability of DESFAS AFAS-1 is estimated as 5.461E-5, which is about 27% less than that of analog system if we consider the difference of human failure probability estimation between both analyses. The results of this study could be utilized in risk-effect analysis of KSNPP. We expect that the safety analysis result will contribute to design feedback

  14. Embedding supplemental data in a digital video signal

    2005-01-01

    An MPEG-encoded video signal includes groups of pictures (GOPs), each GOP having an intraframe coded (I) picture and a series of predictively encoded (P) pictures and bidirectionally predictively encoded (B) pictures. Usually, the GOP structure IBBPBBP . . . is used. However, in order to embed a

  15. Embedding supplemental data in a digital video signal

    2005-01-01

    An MPEG-encoded video signal includes groups of pictures (GOPs), each GOP having an intraframe coded (I) picture and a series of predictively encoded (P) pictures and bi-directionally predictively (B) pictures. Usually, the GOP structure IBBPBBP . . . is used. However, in order to embed a watermark

  16. Joint time frequency analysis in digital signal processing

    Pedersen, Flemming

    with this technique is that the resolution is limited because of distortion. To overcome the resolution limitations of the Fourier Spectogram, many new distributions have been developed. In spite of this the Fourier Spectogram is by far the prime method for the analysis of signals whose spectral content is varying...

  17. Expansion of the Eclipse Digital Signal Processing System.

    1982-12-01

    routed to ind from extended memory through this window. SAct willy, dti is not physically moved, address registers are imply hiai~jt d. ’zThe...method of moving data on the Eclipse is with the extended memory feature. With this feature data is not physically moved, address registers are simply...8217eOU WIdT TO,. Fig 1 IE.ETZIM U2. E( 11 -4., - IULTIPI.E P * S WI) STPM FILTER (- PAWtfTEP FILE PFILE FILTER FILE: WILE FIEP. LENGTH 55 WINIIM OF WQS

  18. Digital Signal Processing Applied to the Modernization Of Polish Navy Sonars

    Marszal Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the equipment and digital signal processing methods used for modernizing the Polish Navy’s sonars. With the rapid advancement of electronic technologies and digital signal processing methods, electronic systems, including sonars, become obsolete very quickly. In the late 1990s a team of researchers of the Department of Marine Electronics Systems, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, began work on modernizing existing sonar systems for the Polish Navy. As part of the effort, a methodology of sonar modernization was implemented involving a complete replacement of existing electronic components with newly designed ones by using bespoke systems and methods of digital signal processing. Large and expensive systems of ultrasound transducers and their dipping and stabilisation systems underwent necessary repairs but were otherwise left unchanged. As a result, between 2001 and 2014 the Gdansk University of Technology helped to modernize 30 sonars of different types.

  19. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    John Mourjopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  20. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Mourjopoulos John

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  1. Time-frequency feature analysis and recognition of fission neutrons signal based on support vector machine

    Jin Jing; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Tang Yuelin; Zhou Mi

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interdependent relationship between fission neutrons ( 252 Cf) and fission chain ( 235 U system), the paper presents the time-frequency feature analysis and recognition in fission neutron signal based on support vector machine (SVM) through the analysis on signal characteristics and the measuring principle of the 252 Cf fission neutron signal. The time-frequency characteristics and energy features of the fission neutron signal are extracted by using wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and then applied to training and classification by means of support vector machine based on statistical learning theory. The results show that, it is effective to obtain features of nuclear signal via wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and the latter can reflect the internal characteristics of the fission neutron system better. With the training accomplished, the SVM classifier achieves an accuracy rate above 70%, overcoming the lack of training samples, and verifying the effectiveness of the algorithm. (authors)

  2. Development of FPGA-based digital signal processing system for radiation spectroscopy

    Lee, Pil Soo; Lee, Chun Sik; Lee, Ju Hahn

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an FPGA-based digital signal processing system that performs both online digital signal filtering and pulse-shape analysis for both particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Such functionalities were made possible by a state-of-the-art programmable logic device and system architectures employed. The system performance as measured, for example, in the system dead time and accuracy for pulse-height and rise-time determination, was evaluated with standard alpha- and gamma-ray sources using a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It is resulted that the present system has shown its potential application to various radiation-related fields such as particle identification, radiography, and radiation imaging. - Highlights: ► An FPGA-based digital processing system was developed for radiation spectroscopy. ► Our digital system has a 14-bit resolution and a 100-MHz sampling rate. ► The FPGA implements the online digital filtering and pulse-shape analysis. ► The pileup rejection is implemented in trigger logic before digital filtering process. ► Our digital system was verified in alpha-gamma measurements using a CsI detector

  3. Living in a digital world: features and applications of FPGA in photon detection

    Arnesano, Cosimo

    signal processing in a digital fashion avoiding RF emission and it is extremely inexpensive. This development is the result of a systematic study carried on a previous design known as the FLIMBox developed as part of a thesis of another graduate student. The extensive work done in maximizing the performance of the original FLIMBox led us to develop a new hardware solution with exciting and promising results and potential that were not possible in the previous hardware realization, where the signal harmonic content was limited by the FPGA technology. The new design permits acquisition of a much larger harmonic content of the sample response when it is excited with a pulsed light source in one single measurement using the digital mixing principle that was developed in the original design. Furthermore, we used the parallel digital FD principle to perform tissue imaging through Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) measurements. We integrated the FLIMBox in a new system that uses a supercontinuum white laser with high brightness as a single light source and photomultipliers with large detection area, both allowing a high penetration depth with extremely low power at the sample. The parallel acquisition, achieved by using the FlimBox, decreases the time required for standard serial systems that scan through all modulation frequencies. Furthermore, the all-digital acquisition avoids analog noise, removes the analog mixer of the conventional frequency domain approach, and it does not generate radio-frequencies, normally present in current analog systems. We are able to obtain a very sensitive acquisition due to the high signal to noise ratio (S/N). The successful results obtained by utilizing digital technology in photon acquisition and processing, prompted us to extend the use of FPGA to other applications, such as phosphorescence detection. Using the FPGA concept we proposed possible solutions to outstanding problems with the current technology. In this thesis I discuss new

  4. Time resolution improvement of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using digital signal processing

    Nakhostin, M.; Ishii, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Torshabi, A. Esmaili

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of our study on the timing performance of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using the technique of digital signal processing. The coincidence signals between a CdTe detector (15x15x1 mm 3 ) and a fast liquid scintillator detector were digitized by a fast digital oscilloscope and analyzed. In the analysis, digital versions of the elements of timing circuits, including pulse shaper and time discriminator, were created and a digital implementation of the Amplitude and Rise-time Compensation (ARC) mode of timing was performed. Owing to a very fine adjustment of the parameters of timing measurement, a good time resolution of less than 9.9 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of 150 keV was achieved. In the next step, a new method of time pickoff for improvement of timing resolution without loss in the detection efficiency of CdTe detectors was examined. In the method, signals from a CdTe detector are grouped by their rise-times and different procedures of time pickoff are applied to the signals of each group. Then, the time pickoffs are synchronized by compensating the fixed time offset, caused by the different time pickoff procedures. This method leads to an improved time resolution of ∼7.2 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of as low as 150 keV. The methods presented in this work are computationally fast enough to be used for online processing of data in an actual PET system.

  5. Trust building electronic services as a crucial self-regulation feature of Digital Business Ecosystems

    Radoslav Delina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of digital business ecosystem, the self-regulation feature plays crucial role. ICT supports biological and sociological phenomena through efficient electronic services. One of the main roles is building and enhancing efficient relationships between actors within the ecosystem. Problem of interaction between commercial subjects depends on expected benefits. These expectations are predictors of successful result from realized transaction with potential partner. And this predictor is based on trust and trustworthiness. The paper presents trust as crucial factor for cooperation and discusses specifics of several trust building mechanisms to increase the level of trust in e-cooperation within digital business ecosystems. Based on results provided by questionnaire survey in Slovak business environment, the paper discusses the relationship between the level of respondents´ electronic business experience and their preferences for the portfolio of trust building mechanisms.

  6. Digital signal processing for CdTe detectors using VXIbus data collection systems

    Fukuda, Daiji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-07-01

    Recently fast signal digitizing technique has been developed, and signal waveforms with very short time periods can be obtained. In this paper, we analyzed each measured pulse which was digitized by an apparatus of this kind, and tried to improve an energy resolution of a CdTe semiconductor detector. The result of the energy resolution for {sup 137}Cs 662 keV photopeak was 13 keV. Also, we developed a fast data collection system based on VXIbus standard, and the counting rate on this system was obtained about 50 counts per second. (author)

  7. Emitter signal separation method based on multi-level digital channelization

    Han, Xun; Ping, Yifan; Wang, Sujun; Feng, Ying; Kuang, Yin; Yang, Xinquan

    2018-02-01

    To solve the problem of emitter separation under complex electromagnetic environment, a signal separation method based on multi-level digital channelization is proposed in this paper. A two-level structure which can divide signal into different channel is designed first, after that, the peaks of different channels are tracked using the track filter and the coincident signals in time domain are separated in time-frequency domain. Finally, the time domain waveforms of different signals are acquired by reverse transformation. The validness of the proposed method is proved by experiment.

  8. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  9. Lipid rafts generate digital-like signal transduction in cell plasma membranes.

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2012-06-01

    Lipid rafts are meso-scale (5-200 nm) cell membrane domains where signaling molecules assemble and function. However, due to their dynamic nature, it has been difficult to unravel the mechanism of signal transduction in lipid rafts. Recent advanced imaging techniques have revealed that signaling molecules are frequently, but transiently, recruited to rafts with the aid of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and/or lipid-lipid interactions. Individual signaling molecules within the raft are activated only for a short period of time. Immobilization of signaling molecules by cytoskeletal actin filaments and scaffold proteins may facilitate more efficient signal transmission from rafts. In this review, current opinions of how the transient nature of molecular interactions in rafts generates digital-like signal transduction in cell membranes, and the benefits this phenomenon provides, are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Digital Signal Processing for a Sliceable Transceiver for Optical Access Networks

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; Wagner, Christoph; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Methods to upgrade the network infrastructure to cope with current traffic demands has attracted increasing research efforts. A promising alternative is signal slicing. Signal slicing aims at re-using low bandwidth equipment to satisfy high bandwidth traffic demands. This technique has been used...... also for implementing full signal path symmetry in real-time oscilloscopes to provide performance and signal fidelity (i.e. lower noise and jitter). In this paper the key digital signal processing (DSP) subsystems required to achieve signal slicing are surveyed. It also presents, for the first time...... penalty is reported for 10 Gbps. Power savings of the order of hundreds of Watts can be obtained when using signal slicing as an alternative to 10 Gbps implemented access networks....

  11. VLSI for High-Speed Digital Signal Processing

    1994-09-30

    particular, the design, layout and fab - rication of integrated circuits. The primary project for this grant has been the design and implementation of a...targeted at 33.36 dB, and PSNR (dB) Rate ( bpp ) the FRSBC algorithm, targeted at 0.5 bits/pixel, respec- Filter FDSBC FRSBC FDSBC FRSBC tively. The filter...to mean square error d by as shown in Fig. 6, is used, yielding a total of 16 subbands. 255’ The rates, in bits per pixel ( bpp ), and the peak signal

  12. Oversampling of digitized images. [effects on interpolation in signal processing

    Fischel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Oversampling is defined as sampling with a device whose characteristic width is greater than the interval between samples. This paper shows why oversampling should be avoided and discusses the limitations in data processing if circumstances dictate that oversampling cannot be circumvented. Principally, oversampling should not be used to provide interpolating data points. Rather, the time spent oversampling should be used to obtain more signal with less relative error, and the Sampling Theorem should be employed to provide any desired interpolated values. The concepts are applicable to single-element and multielement detectors.

  13. Real Time Phase Noise Meter Based on a Digital Signal Processor

    Angrisani, Leopoldo; D'Arco, Mauro; Greenhall, Charles A.; Schiano Lo Morille, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    A digital signal-processing meter for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is dealt with. It enlists a special hardware architecture, made up of a core digital signal processor connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a quadrature demodulation-based measurement scheme, already proposed by the authors. Thanks to an efficient measurement process and an optimized implementation of its fundamental stages, the proposed meter succeeds in exploiting all hardware resources in such an effective way as to gain high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the meter is capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory, and granting as good frequency resolution as few units of hertz.

  14. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Piedmont region, and in the Sesia Val Grande Geopark, for testing the utility of digital field mapping in Geoscience education. Feedback from students are positive: they are stimulated and involved by the use of ICT for learning Geoscience, and they voluntary choose to work with their personal mobile device (more than 90% of them own a smartphone); they are interested in knowing the features of GPS, and of software for the visualization of satellite and aerial images, but they recognize the importance of integrating and comparing traditional and innovative methods in the field.

  15. An Accurate Integral Method for Vibration Signal Based on Feature Information Extraction

    Yong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of current integral methods, a novel vibration signal integral method based on feature information extraction was proposed. This method took full advantage of the self-adaptive filter characteristic and waveform correction feature of ensemble empirical mode decomposition in dealing with nonlinear and nonstationary signals. This research merged the superiorities of kurtosis, mean square error, energy, and singular value decomposition on signal feature extraction. The values of the four indexes aforementioned were combined into a feature vector. Then, the connotative characteristic components in vibration signal were accurately extracted by Euclidean distance search, and the desired integral signals were precisely reconstructed. With this method, the interference problem of invalid signal such as trend item and noise which plague traditional methods is commendably solved. The great cumulative error from the traditional time-domain integral is effectively overcome. Moreover, the large low-frequency error from the traditional frequency-domain integral is successfully avoided. Comparing with the traditional integral methods, this method is outstanding at removing noise and retaining useful feature information and shows higher accuracy and superiority.

  16. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  17. Feature Fusion Algorithm for Multimodal Emotion Recognition from Speech and Facial Expression Signal

    Han Zhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitation of single mode emotion recognition. This paper describes a novel multimodal emotion recognition algorithm, and takes speech signal and facial expression signal as the research subjects. First, fuse the speech signal feature and facial expression signal feature, get sample sets by putting back sampling, and then get classifiers by BP neural network (BPNN. Second, measure the difference between two classifiers by double error difference selection strategy. Finally, get the final recognition result by the majority voting rule. Experiments show the method improves the accuracy of emotion recognition by giving full play to the advantages of decision level fusion and feature level fusion, and makes the whole fusion process close to human emotion recognition more, with a recognition rate 90.4%.

  18. Development of a compact and cost effective multi-input digital signal processing system

    Darvish-Molla, Sahar; Chin, Kenrick; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A prototype digital signal processing system (DSP) was developed using a microcontroller interfaced with a 12-bit sampling ADC, which offers a considerably inexpensive solution for processing multiple detectors with high throughput. After digitization of the incoming pulses, in order to maximize the output counting rate, a simple algorithm was employed for pulse height analysis. Moreover, an algorithm aiming at the real-time pulse pile-up deconvolution was implemented. The system was tested using a NaI(Tl) detector in comparison with a traditional analogue and commercial digital systems for a variety of count rates. The performance of the prototype system was consistently superior to the analogue and the commercial digital systems up to the input count rate of 61 kcps while was slightly inferior to the commercial digital system but still superior to the analogue system in the higher input rates. Considering overall cost, size and flexibility, this custom made multi-input digital signal processing system (MMI-DSP) was the best reliable choice for the purpose of the 2D microdosimetric data collection, or for any measurement in which simultaneous multi-data collection is required.

  19. Digital Image Forgery Detection Using JPEG Features and Local Noise Discrepancies

    Bo Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide availability of image processing software makes counterfeiting become an easy and low-cost way to distort or conceal facts. Driven by great needs for valid forensic technique, many methods have been proposed to expose such forgeries. In this paper, we proposed an integrated algorithm which was able to detect two commonly used fraud practices: copy-move and splicing forgery in digital picture. To achieve this target, a special descriptor for each block was created combining the feature from JPEG block artificial grid with that from noise estimation. And forehand image quality assessment procedure reconciled these different features by setting proper weights. Experimental results showed that, compared to existing algorithms, our proposed method is effective on detecting both copy-move and splicing forgery regardless of JPEG compression ratio of the input image.

  20. Comparison of digital radiometric features between radicular cysts and periapical granulomas

    Jin, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Keon Il

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a radiometric analysis of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas is useful in the differential diagnosis. In this experiment, twenty-nine periapical radiographs of the radicular cyst and those periapical granuloma were used. The periapical radiography was taken by intraoral paralleling device. The X-ray film was digitized and digitally filtered to reduce film-grain noise. We estimated density difference of the inner/outer area, roundness or circularity, bone profile or scan line of the margin and cumulative percentage frequency curve of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The differences in density between ROIs of inner and outer area of radicular cysts were smaller than those of periapical granulomas.2. The equivalent circular diameter was over 6.3 mm, there was significant difference between periapical cyst and periapical granuloma.3. In differential diagnosis of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma using bone profile, sensitivity, spicificity and accuracy were considerably high (0.83, 0.86, 0.86) respectively.4. Cumulative percentage frequency curve of the radicular cyst was closer to the pseudo-pixel value of 50 than average curve, whereas periapical granuloma was closer to that of 0. Hence we conclude that digital radiometric features might be useful in the differential diagnosis between radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.

  1. Comparison of digital radiometric features between radicular cysts and periapical granulomas

    Jin, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Keon Il [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Wankwang University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a radiometric analysis of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas is useful in the differential diagnosis. In this experiment, twenty-nine periapical radiographs of the radicular cyst and those periapical granuloma were used. The periapical radiography was taken by intraoral paralleling device. The X-ray film was digitized and digitally filtered to reduce film-grain noise. We estimated density difference of the inner/outer area, roundness or circularity, bone profile or scan line of the margin and cumulative percentage frequency curve of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The differences in density between ROIs of inner and outer area of radicular cysts were smaller than those of periapical granulomas.2. The equivalent circular diameter was over 6.3 mm, there was significant difference between periapical cyst and periapical granuloma.3. In differential diagnosis of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma using bone profile, sensitivity, spicificity and accuracy were considerably high (0.83, 0.86, 0.86) respectively.4. Cumulative percentage frequency curve of the radicular cyst was closer to the pseudo-pixel value of 50 than average curve, whereas periapical granuloma was closer to that of 0. Hence we conclude that digital radiometric features might be useful in the differential diagnosis between radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.

  2. A Dual Digital Signal Processor VME Board for Instrumentation and Control Applications

    H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Musson

    2001-01-01

    A Dual Digital Signal Processing VME Board is being developed for the CEBAF Beam Current Monitor system at Jefferson Lab. It is a versatile general-purpose digital signal processing board using an open architecture, which allows for adaptation to various applications. The base design uses two independent Texas Instrument (TI) TMS320C6711, which are 900 MFLOPS floating-point digital signal processors (DSP). Applications that require a fixed point DSP can be implemented by replacing the baseline DSP with the pin-for-pin compatible TMS320C6211. Both parallel and serial protocols have been implemented for communicating with off board devices. The initial implementation makes use of TI Multi-channel Serial protocol and VME bus protocol. Other communication protocols can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. Each DSP is equipped with FLASH PROM and SDRAM for program and data storage. Additionally, each DSP has 16 bits of digital I/O, two digital analog converters, and two analog to digital converters. Dual 160 pins mezzanine connectors provide expansion capability without design modifications. The mezzanine interface conforms to the TI Expansion Daughter Card Interface standard. The design can be manufactured with a reduced chip set without redesigning the printed circuit board. For example, it can be implemented as a single-channel DSP with no analog I/O. The board supports JTAG 1149 boundary scan to facilitate testing, debugging, and programming. It is fully programmable using software development tools such as TI Code Composer Studio and a JTAG emulator such as Spectrum Digital DS510PP-PLUS. Using these tools allows one program the flash memory and FPGA through the JTAG ports, thus eliminating the need for a separate ROM/FPGA programmer. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  3. Feasibility of Johnson Noise Thermometry based on Digital Signal Processing Techniques

    Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Yang Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation strategy of noise thermometry based on a digital signal processing technique and demonstrates its feasibilities. A key factor in its development is how to extract the small thermal noise signal from other noises, for example, random noise from amplifiers and continuous electromagnetic interference from the environment. The proposed system consists of two identical amplifiers and uses a cross correlation function to cancel the random noise of the amplifiers. Then, the external interference noises are eliminated by discriminating the difference in the peaks between the thermal signal and external noise. The gain of the amplifiers is estimated by injecting an already known pilot signal. The experimental simulation results of signal processing methods have demonstrated that the proposed approach is an effective method in eliminating an external noise signal and performing gain correction for development of the thermometry

  4. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    Koo, In Soo; Park, H. Y.; Suh, Y. S.; Kim, D. Hoon; Huh, S.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Ryoo, S. G.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. Hyun; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  5. A phase-equalized digital multirate filter for 50 Hz signal processing

    Vainio, O. [Tampere University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A new multistage digital filter is proposed for 50 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors and synchronous power systems. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. This is accomplished with a cascade of a median filter, a linear-phase FIR filter, and a phase corrector. A 10 kHz output timing resolution is achieved by up-sampling with a customized interpolation filter. (orig.) 15 refs.

  6. Full-field wrist pulse signal acquisition and analysis by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Xue, Yuan; Su, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an essential part in four basic diagnostic methods (inspection, listening, inquiring and palpation) in traditional Chinese medicine, which depends on longtime training and rich experience, so computerized pulse acquisition has been proposed and studied to ensure the objectivity. To imitate the process that doctors using three fingertips with different pressures to feel fluctuations in certain areas containing three acupoints, we established a five dimensional pulse signal acquisition system adopting a non-contacting optical metrology method, 3D digital image correlation, to record the full-field displacements of skin fluctuations under different pressures. The system realizes real-time full-field vibration mode observation with 10 FPS. The maximum sample frequency is 472 Hz for detailed post-processing. After acquisition, the signals are analyzed according to the amplitude, pressure, and pulse wave velocity. The proposed system provides a novel optical approach for digitalizing pulse diagnosis and massive pulse signal data acquisition for various types of patients.

  7. A longitudinal multi-bunch feedback system using parallel digital signal processors

    Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.D.; Olsen, J.J.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.

    1994-01-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system based on four AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This longitudinal quick prototype is a proof of concept for the PEP-II system and implements full-speed bunch-by-bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacings of 4 ns. The design incorporates a phase-detector-based front end that digitizes the oscillation phases of bunches at the 250 MHz crossing rate, four programmable signal processors that compute correction signals, and a 250-MHz hold buffer/kicker driver stage that applies correction signals back on the beam. The design implements a general-purpose, table-driven downsampler that allows the system to be operated at several accelerator facilities. The hardware architecture of the signal processing is described, and the software algorithms used in the feedback signal computation are discussed. The system configuration used for tests at the LBL Advanced Light Source is presented

  8. The effects of the integration of external and internal communication features in digital magazines on consumers' magazine attitude

    Rauwers, F.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of external and internal communication features on consumers' digital magazine attitude, and the processes (i.e., perceived interactivity and social presence) underlying these effects. Both feature types enable communication between two or more people. Though, in

  9. Seismic signal auto-detecing from different features by using Convolutional Neural Network

    Huang, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Yue, H.; Zhou, S.

    2017-12-01

    We try Convolutional Neural Network to detect some features of seismic data and compare their efficience. The features include whether a signal is seismic signal or noise and the arrival time of P and S phase and each feature correspond to a Convolutional Neural Network. We first use traditional STA/LTA to recongnize some events and then use templete matching to find more events as training set for the Neural Network. To make the training set more various, we add some noise to the seismic data and make some synthetic seismic data and noise. The 3-component raw signal and time-frequancy ananlyze are used as the input data for our neural network. Our Training is performed on GPUs to achieve efficient convergence. Our method improved the precision in comparison with STA/LTA and template matching. We will move to recurrent neural network to see if this kind network is better in detect P and S phase.

  10. A novel feature ranking algorithm for biometric recognition with PPG signals.

    Reşit Kavsaoğlu, A; Polat, Kemal; Recep Bozkurt, M

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended for describing the application of the Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal and the time domain features acquired from its first and second derivatives for biometric identification. For this purpose, a sum of 40 features has been extracted and a feature-ranking algorithm is proposed. This proposed algorithm calculates the contribution of each feature to biometric recognition and collocates the features, the contribution of which is from great to small. While identifying the contribution of the features, the Euclidean distance and absolute distance formulas are used. The efficiency of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated by the results of the k-NN (k-nearest neighbor) classifier applications of the features. During application, each 15-period-PPG signal belonging to two different durations from each of the thirty healthy subjects were used with a PPG data acquisition card. The first PPG signals recorded from the subjects were evaluated as the 1st configuration; the PPG signals recorded later at a different time as the 2nd configuration and the combination of both were evaluated as the 3rd configuration. When the results were evaluated for the k-NN classifier model created along with the proposed algorithm, an identification of 90.44% for the 1st configuration, 94.44% for the 2nd configuration, and 87.22% for the 3rd configuration has successfully been attained. The obtained results showed that both the proposed algorithm and the biometric identification model based on this developed PPG signal are very promising for contactless recognizing the people with the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A PCA aided cross-covariance scheme for discriminative feature extraction from EEG signals.

    Zarei, Roozbeh; He, Jing; Siuly, Siuly; Zhang, Yanchun

    2017-07-01

    Feature extraction of EEG signals plays a significant role in Brain-computer interface (BCI) as it can significantly affect the performance and the computational time of the system. The main aim of the current work is to introduce an innovative algorithm for acquiring reliable discriminating features from EEG signals to improve classification performances and to reduce the time complexity. This study develops a robust feature extraction method combining the principal component analysis (PCA) and the cross-covariance technique (CCOV) for the extraction of discriminatory information from the mental states based on EEG signals in BCI applications. We apply the correlation based variable selection method with the best first search on the extracted features to identify the best feature set for characterizing the distribution of mental state signals. To verify the robustness of the proposed feature extraction method, three machine learning techniques: multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP), least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), and logistic regression (LR) are employed on the obtained features. The proposed methods are evaluated on two publicly available datasets. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of the proposed methods by comparing it with some recently reported algorithms. The experimental results show that all three classifiers achieve high performance (above 99% overall classification accuracy) for the proposed feature set. Among these classifiers, the MLP and LS-SVM methods yield the best performance for the obtained feature. The average sensitivity, specificity and classification accuracy for these two classifiers are same, which are 99.32%, 100%, and 99.66%, respectively for the BCI competition dataset IVa and 100%, 100%, and 100%, for the BCI competition dataset IVb. The results also indicate the proposed methods outperform the most recently reported methods by at least 0.25% average accuracy improvement in dataset IVa. The execution time

  12. An input feature selection method applied to fuzzy neural networks for signal esitmation

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of a fuzzy neural networks strongly depends on the input features selected for its training. In its applications to sensor signal estimation, there are a large number of input variables related with an output. As the number of input variables increases, the training time of fuzzy neural networks required increases exponentially. Thus, it is essential to reduce the number of inputs to a fuzzy neural networks and to select the optimum number of mutually independent inputs that are able to clearly define the input-output mapping. In this work, principal component analysis (PAC), genetic algorithms (GA) and probability theory are combined to select new important input features. A proposed feature selection method is applied to the signal estimation of the steam generator water level, the hot-leg flowrate, the pressurizer water level and the pressurizer pressure sensors in pressurized water reactors and compared with other input feature selection methods

  13. Feature Optimize and Classification of EEG Signals: Application to Lie Detection Using KPCA and ELM

    GAO Junfeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available EEG signals had been widely used to detect liars recent years. To overcome the shortcomings of current signals processing, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA and extreme learning machine (ELM was combined to detect liars. We recorded the EEG signals at Pz from 30 randomly divided guilty and innocent subjects. Each five Probe responses were averaged within subject and then extracted wavelet features. KPCA was employed to select feature subset with deduced dimensions based on initial wavelet features, which was fed into ELM. To date, there is no perfect solution for the number of its hidden nodes (NHN. We used grid searching algorithm to select simultaneously the optimal values of the dimension of feature subset and NHN based on cross- validation method. The best classification mode was decided with the optimal searching values. Experimental results show that for EEG signals from the experiment of lie detection, KPCA_ELM has higher classification accuracy with faster training speed than other widely-used classification modes, which is especially suitable for online EEG signals processing system.

  14. On a possible mechanism of the brain for responding to dynamical features extracted from input signals

    Liu Zengrong; Chen Guanrong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the general theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, a possible mechanism for responding to some dynamical features extracted from input signals in brain activities is described and discussed. This mechanism is first converted to a nonlinear dynamical configuration--a generalized synchronization of complex dynamical systems. Then, some general conditions for achieving such synchronizations are derived. It is shown that dynamical systems have potentials of producing different responses for different features extracted from various input signals, which may be used to describe brain activities. For illustration, some numerical examples are given with simulation figures

  15. An Enhanced Empirical Wavelet Transform for Features Extraction from Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring Signals

    Pu Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction from nonlinear and non-stationary (NNS wind turbine (WT condition monitoring (CM signals is challenging. Previously, much effort has been spent to develop advanced signal processing techniques for dealing with CM signals of this kind. The Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT is one of the achievements attributed to these efforts. The EWT takes advantage of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD in dealing with NNS signals but is superior to the EMD in mode decomposition and robustness against noise. However, the conventional EWT meets difficulty in properly segmenting the frequency spectrum of the signal, especially when lacking pre-knowledge of the signal. The inappropriate segmentation of the signal spectrum will inevitably lower the accuracy of the EWT result and thus raise the difficulty of WT CM. To address this issue, an enhanced EWT is proposed in this paper by developing a feasible and efficient spectrum segmentation method. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by using the bearing and gearbox CM data that are open to the public for the purpose of research. The experiment has shown that, after adopting the proposed method, it becomes much easier and more reliable to segment the frequency spectrum of the signal. Moreover, benefitting from the correct segmentation of the signal spectrum, the fault-related features of the CM signals are presented more explicitly in the time-frequency map of the enhanced EWT, despite the considerable noise contained in the signal and the shortage of pre-knowledge about the machine being investigated.

  16. Digital nonlinearity compensation in high-capacity optical communication systems considering signal spectral broadening effect.

    Xu, Tianhua; Karanov, Boris; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Liga, Gabriele; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-10-11

    Nyquist-spaced transmission and digital signal processing have proved effective in maximising the spectral efficiency and reach of optical communication systems. In these systems, Kerr nonlinearity determines the performance limits, and leads to spectral broadening of the signals propagating in the fibre. Although digital nonlinearity compensation was validated to be promising for mitigating Kerr nonlinearities, the impact of spectral broadening on nonlinearity compensation has never been quantified. In this paper, the performance of multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) for compensating fibre nonlinearities in Nyquist-spaced optical communication systems is investigated, when the effect of signal spectral broadening is considered. It is found that accounting for the spectral broadening effect is crucial for achieving the best performance of DBP in both single-channel and multi-channel communication systems, independent of modulation formats used. For multi-channel systems, the degradation of DBP performance due to neglecting the spectral broadening effect in the compensation is more significant for outer channels. Our work also quantified the minimum bandwidths of optical receivers and signal processing devices to ensure the optimal compensation of deterministic nonlinear distortions.

  17. Feature selection using angle modulated simulated Kalman filter for peak classification of EEG signals.

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Mubin, Marizan; Saad, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    In the existing electroencephalogram (EEG) signals peak classification research, the existing models, such as Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle peak models, employ different set of features. However, all these models may not be able to offer good performance for various applications and it is found to be problem dependent. Therefore, the objective of this study is to combine all the associated features from the existing models before selecting the best combination of features. A new optimization algorithm, namely as angle modulated simulated Kalman filter (AMSKF) will be employed as feature selector. Also, the neural network random weight method is utilized in the proposed AMSKF technique as a classifier. In the conducted experiment, 11,781 samples of peak candidate are employed in this study for the validation purpose. The samples are collected from three different peak event-related EEG signals of 30 healthy subjects; (1) single eye blink, (2) double eye blink, and (3) eye movement signals. The experimental results have shown that the proposed AMSKF feature selector is able to find the best combination of features and performs at par with the existing related studies of epileptic EEG events classification.

  18. Digital timing: sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter and signal interpolation filter dependence on timing resolution

    Cho, Sanghee; Grazioso, Ron; Zhang Nan; Aykac, Mehmet; Schmand, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of our study is to investigate how the performance of digital timing methods is affected by sampling rate, anti-aliasing and signal interpolation filters. We used the Nyquist sampling theorem to address some basic questions such as what will be the minimum sampling frequencies? How accurate will the signal interpolation be? How do we validate the timing measurements? The preferred sampling rate would be as low as possible, considering the high cost and power consumption of high-speed analog-to-digital converters. However, when the sampling rate is too low, due to the aliasing effect, some artifacts are produced in the timing resolution estimations; the shape of the timing profile is distorted and the FWHM values of the profile fluctuate as the source location changes. Anti-aliasing filters are required in this case to avoid the artifacts, but the timing is degraded as a result. When the sampling rate is marginally over the Nyquist rate, a proper signal interpolation is important. A sharp roll-off (higher order) filter is required to separate the baseband signal from its replicates to avoid the aliasing, but in return the computation will be higher. We demonstrated the analysis through a digital timing study using fast LSO scintillation crystals as used in time-of-flight PET scanners. From the study, we observed that there is no significant timing resolution degradation down to 1.3 Ghz sampling frequency, and the computation requirement for the signal interpolation is reasonably low. A so-called sliding test is proposed as a validation tool checking constant timing resolution behavior of a given timing pick-off method regardless of the source location change. Lastly, the performance comparison for several digital timing methods is also shown.

  19. Influence of Wilbraham-Gibbs Phenomenon on Digital Stochastic Measurement of EEG Signal Over an Interval

    Sovilj P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement methods, based on the approach named Digital Stochastic Measurement, have been introduced, and several prototype and small-series commercial instruments have been developed based on these methods. These methods have been mostly investigated for various types of stationary signals, but also for non-stationary signals. This paper presents, analyzes and discusses digital stochastic measurement of electroencephalography (EEG signal in the time domain, emphasizing the problem of influence of the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon. The increase of measurement error, related to the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon, is found. If the EEG signal is measured and measurement interval is 20 ms wide, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is 16.84 %. If the measurement interval is extended to 2s, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is significantly lowered - down to 1.37 %. Absolute errors are compared with the error limit recommended by Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML and with the quantization steps of the advanced EEG instruments with 24-bit A/D conversion

  20. Preserving privacy of online digital physiological signals using blind and reversible steganography.

    Shiu, Hung-Jr; Lin, Bor-Sing; Huang, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Pei-Ying; Lei, Chin-Laung

    2017-11-01

    Physiological signals such as electrocardiograms (ECG) and electromyograms (EMG) are widely used to diagnose diseases. Presently, the Internet offers numerous cloud storage services which enable digital physiological signals to be uploaded for convenient access and use. Numerous online databases of medical signals have been built. The data in them must be processed in a manner that preserves patients' confidentiality. A reversible error-correcting-coding strategy will be adopted to transform digital physiological signals into a new bit-stream that uses a matrix in which is embedded the Hamming code to pass secret messages or private information. The shared keys are the matrix and the version of the Hamming code. An online open database, the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, was used to test the proposed algorithms. The time-complexity, capacity and robustness are evaluated. Comparisons of several evaluations subject to related work are also proposed. This work proposes a reversible, low-payload steganographic scheme for preserving the privacy of physiological signals. An (n,  m)-hamming code is used to insert (n - m) secret bits into n bits of a cover signal. The number of embedded bits per modification is higher than in comparable methods, and the computational power is efficient and the scheme is secure. Unlike other Hamming-code based schemes, the proposed scheme is both reversible and blind. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of chaotic and white noise signals in digital watermarking

    Mooney, Aidan; Keating, John G.; Pitas, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    Digital watermarking is an ever increasing and important discipline, especially in the modern electronically-driven world. Watermarking aims to embed a piece of information into digital documents which their owner can use to prove that the document is theirs, at a later stage. In this paper, performance analysis of watermarking schemes is performed on white noise sequences and chaotic sequences for the purpose of watermark generation. Pseudorandom sequences are compared with chaotic sequences generated from the chaotic skew tent map. In particular, analysis is performed on highpass signals generated from both these watermark generation schemes, along with analysis on lowpass watermarks and white noise watermarks. This analysis focuses on the watermarked images after they have been subjected to common image distortion attacks. It is shown that signals generated from highpass chaotic signals have superior performance than highpass noise signals, in the presence of such attacks. It is also shown that watermarks generated from lowpass chaotic signals have superior performance over the other signal types analysed

  2. Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing.

    Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Molle, Lutz; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-17

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of data-aided digital signal processing for format-flexible coherent reception of different 28-GBd PDM and 4D modulated signals in WDM transmission experiments over up to 7680 km SSMF by using the same resource-efficient digital signal processing algorithms for the equalization of all formats. Stable and regular performance in the nonlinear transmission regime is confirmed.

  3. Situational and gender comparisons of digital game players' preferences for game features and gratifications

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Dervin, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    As with “new media” fifty years ago, today's “new media” are scrutinized from the uses and gratifications perspective to understand peoples’ reasons for engaging with them. The new media of interest in this paper are digital games.  Research is in the early stages with this medium, exploring player...... gratifications from game playing and preferences for game playing features.  This research has consistently found gender differences for both, with men more preferring competition gratifications and violent games, and women preferring socializing gratifications and puzzles.  Past research has mostly looked...... preferences.  In addition, 64,3% of the gender by situation interactions were also significant, showing that introducing game playing situation complicated the picture with some gender differences disappearing depending on the game situation.  These results showed a tendency for male players to be receiving...

  4. Digital broadcasting

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  5. Selection of individual features of a speech signal using genetic algorithms

    Kamil Kamiński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic speaker’s recognition system, implemented in the Matlab environment, and demonstrates how to achieve and optimize various elements of the system. The main emphasis was put on features selection of a speech signal using a genetic algorithm which takes into account synergy of features. The results of optimization of selected elements of a classifier have been also shown, including the number of Gaussian distributions used to model each of the voices. In addition, for creating voice models, a universal voice model has been used.[b]Keywords[/b]: biometrics, automatic speaker recognition, genetic algorithms, feature selection

  6. A Spectrum Sensing Method Based on Signal Feature and Clustering Algorithm in Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Yongwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of difficulty in determining the threshold in spectrum sensing technologies based on the random matrix theory, a spectrum sensing method based on clustering algorithm and signal feature is proposed for Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. Firstly, the wireless communication signal features are obtained according to the sampling signal covariance matrix. Then, the clustering algorithm is used to classify and test the signal features. Different signal features and clustering algorithms are compared in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better sensing performance.

  7. Breast tissue classification in digital breast tomosynthesis images using texture features: a feasibility study

    Kontos, Despina; Berger, Rachelle; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2009-02-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known breast cancer risk factor. Studies have shown the potential to automate breast density estimation by using computerized texture-based segmentation of the dense tissue in mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that could allow volumetric breast density estimation. We evaluated the feasibility of distinguishing between dense and fatty breast regions in DBT using computer-extracted texture features. Our long-term hypothesis is that DBT texture analysis can be used to develop 3D dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density. DBT images from 40 women were analyzed. The dense tissue area was delineated within each central source projection (CSP) image using a thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Two (2.5cm)2 ROIs were manually selected: one within the dense tissue region and another within the fatty region. Corresponding (2.5cm)3 ROIs were placed within the reconstructed DBT images. Texture features, previously used for mammographic dense tissue segmentation, were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance. Different texture features appeared to perform best in the 3D reconstructed DBT compared to the 2D CSP images. Fractal dimension was superior in DBT (AUC=0.90), while contrast was best in CSP images (AUC=0.92). We attribute these differences to the effects of tissue superimposition in CSP and the volumetric visualization of the breast tissue in DBT. Our results suggest that novel approaches, different than those conventionally used in projection mammography, need to be investigated in order to develop DBT dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density.

  8. Feature Mining and Health Assessment for Gearboxes Using Run-Up/Coast-Down Signals

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Miao, Yonghao; Xu, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Vibration signals measured in the run-up/coast-down (R/C) processes usually carry rich information about the health status of machinery. However, a major challenge in R/C signals analysis lies in how to exploit more diagnostic information, and how this information could be properly integrated to achieve a more reliable maintenance decision. Aiming at this problem, a framework of R/C signals analysis is presented for the health assessment of gearbox. In the proposed methodology, we first investigate the data preprocessing and feature selection issues for R/C signals. Based on that, a sparsity-guided feature enhancement scheme is then proposed to extract the weak phase jitter associated with gear defect. In order for an effective feature mining and integration under R/C, a generalized phase demodulation technique is further established to reveal the evolution of modulation feature with operating speed and rotation angle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed methodology could not only detect the presence of gear damage, but also offer a novel insight into the dynamic behavior of gearbox. PMID:27827831

  9. A robust indicator based on singular value decomposition for flaw feature detection from noisy ultrasonic signals

    Cui, Ximing; Wang, Zhe; Kang, Yihua; Pu, Haiming; Deng, Zhiyang

    2018-05-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) has been proven to be an effective de-noising tool for flaw echo signal feature detection in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, the uncertainty in the arbitrary manner of the selection of an effective singular value weakens the robustness of this technique. Improper selection of effective singular values will lead to bad performance of SVD de-noising. What is more, the computational complexity of SVD is too large for it to be applied in real-time applications. In this paper, to eliminate the uncertainty in SVD de-noising, a novel flaw indicator, named the maximum singular value indicator (MSI), based on short-time SVD (STSVD), is proposed for flaw feature detection from a measured signal in ultrasonic NDE. In this technique, the measured signal is first truncated into overlapping short-time data segments to put feature information of a transient flaw echo signal in local field, and then the MSI can be obtained from the SVD of each short-time data segment. Research shows that this indicator can clearly indicate the location of ultrasonic flaw signals, and the computational complexity of this STSVD-based indicator is significantly reduced with the algorithm proposed in this paper. Both simulation and experiments show that this technique is very efficient for real-time application in flaw detection from noisy data.

  10. Bilinear modeling of EMG signals to extract user-independent features for multiuser myoelectric interface.

    Matsubara, Takamitsu; Morimoto, Jun

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we propose a multiuser myoelectric interface that can easily adapt to novel users. When a user performs different motions (e.g., grasping and pinching), different electromyography (EMG) signals are measured. When different users perform the same motion (e.g., grasping), different EMG signals are also measured. Therefore, designing a myoelectric interface that can be used by multiple users to perform multiple motions is difficult. To cope with this problem, we propose for EMG signals a bilinear model that is composed of two linear factors: 1) user dependent and 2) motion dependent. By decomposing the EMG signals into these two factors, the extracted motion-dependent factors can be used as user-independent features. We can construct a motion classifier on the extracted feature space to develop the multiuser interface. For novel users, the proposed adaptation method estimates the user-dependent factor through only a few interactions. The bilinear EMG model with the estimated user-dependent factor can extract the user-independent features from the novel user data. We applied our proposed method to a recognition task of five hand gestures for robotic hand control using four-channel EMG signals measured from subject forearms. Our method resulted in 73% accuracy, which was statistically significantly different from the accuracy of standard nonmultiuser interfaces, as the result of a two-sample t -test at a significance level of 1%.

  11. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. The appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand. (author)

  12. Key technology research of nuclear signal digitized pulse shaping in real time

    Zhou Jianbin; Wang Min; Zhou Wei; Zhu Xing; Liu Yi; Chen Bao; Lu Baoping; Yue Aizhong; Qin Li; He Xuxin

    2014-01-01

    The computer simulation and analysis were carried out for the ideal nuclear pulse signal and the actual detector output signals, and the determination method of digital trapezoidal shape parameter for different nuclear pulse shaping time was summarized. At high count rate measurement occasion, the effective count rate is increased, some pile-up pulses are eliminated and the accumulation of dead time of the system is reduced. Meanwhile, Si-PIN semiconductor detector performance was tested by 256 points and 512 points digital triangle forming methods and the analog circuit forming methods for comparative tests. Test results show that the pulse forming treatment method increases the count rate performance and the resolution of detector. (authors)

  13. Upregulation of transmitter release probability improves a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into neuronal digital spikes

    2012-01-01

    Action potentials at the neurons and graded signals at the synapses are primary codes in the brain. In terms of their functional interaction, the studies were focused on the influence of presynaptic spike patterns on synaptic activities. How the synapse dynamics quantitatively regulates the encoding of postsynaptic digital spikes remains unclear. We investigated this question at unitary glutamatergic synapses on cortical GABAergic neurons, especially the quantitative influences of release probability on synapse dynamics and neuronal encoding. Glutamate release probability and synaptic strength are proportionally upregulated by presynaptic sequential spikes. The upregulation of release probability and the efficiency of probability-driven synaptic facilitation are strengthened by elevating presynaptic spike frequency and Ca2+. The upregulation of release probability improves spike capacity and timing precision at postsynaptic neuron. These results suggest that the upregulation of presynaptic glutamate release facilitates a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into digital spikes in postsynaptic neurons, i.e., a functional compatibility between presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. PMID:22852823

  14. Intelligent feature selection techniques for pattern classification of Lamb wave signals

    Hinders, Mark K.; Miller, Corey A.

    2014-01-01

    Lamb wave interaction with flaws is a complex, three-dimensional phenomenon, which often frustrates signal interpretation schemes based on mode arrival time shifts predicted by dispersion curves. As the flaw severity increases, scattering and mode conversion effects will often dominate the time-domain signals, obscuring available information about flaws because multiple modes may arrive on top of each other. Even for idealized flaw geometries the scattering and mode conversion behavior of Lamb waves is very complex. Here, multi-mode Lamb waves in a metal plate are propagated across a rectangular flat-bottom hole in a sequence of pitch-catch measurements corresponding to the double crosshole tomography geometry. The flaw is sequentially deepened, with the Lamb wave measurements repeated at each flaw depth. Lamb wave tomography reconstructions are used to identify which waveforms have interacted with the flaw and thereby carry information about its depth. Multiple features are extracted from each of the Lamb wave signals using wavelets, which are then fed to statistical pattern classification algorithms that identify flaw severity. In order to achieve the highest classification accuracy, an optimal feature space is required but it’s never known a priori which features are going to be best. For structural health monitoring we make use of the fact that physical flaws, such as corrosion, will only increase over time. This allows us to identify feature vectors which are topologically well-behaved by requiring that sequential classes “line up” in feature vector space. An intelligent feature selection routine is illustrated that identifies favorable class distributions in multi-dimensional feature spaces using computational homology theory. Betti numbers and formal classification accuracies are calculated for each feature space subset to establish a correlation between the topology of the class distribution and the corresponding classification accuracy

  15. FUSING SPEECH SIGNAL AND PALMPRINT FEATURES FOR AN SECURED AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM

    P.K. Mahesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the application of Biometric authentication, personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatic recognition, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Using multimodal biometric systems we typically get better performance compare to single biometric modality. This paper proposes the multimodal biometrics system for identity verification using two traits, i.e., speech signal and palmprint. Integrating the palmprint and speech information increases robustness of person authentication. The proposed system is designed for applications where the training data contains a speech signal and palmprint. It is well known that the performance of person authentication using only speech signal or palmprint is deteriorated by feature changes with time. The final decision is made by fusion at matching score level architecture in which feature vectors are created independently for query measures and are then compared to the enrolment templates, which are stored during database preparation.

  16. Operation and performance of a longitudinal feedback system using digital signal processing

    Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.

    1994-01-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system using a parallel array of AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (LBL) and implements full speed bunch by bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacing of 4ns. Open and closed loop results showing the action of the feedback system are presented, and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. A unified PC-based software environment for the feedback system operation is also described

  17. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [for multilevel digital communication systems

    Simon, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  18. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Vacri, A. di; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, ********************M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-06-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the value for decay in Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  19. Depth of quantization in signals of the digital X-ray television

    Beuthan, J.

    1989-01-01

    The technological realization of image acquisition and processing in digital X-ray television in methodical dependence on the image-forming purpose places particular requirements in signal quantization. By evaluation of experimental results with simultaneous modification of a special calculation method an optimum quantization stage is ascertained with method-relevant quantization characteristic. In addition to consideration made so far in this field a self-contained solution is presented with inclusion of vision physiology and information gain. (author)

  20. Universal Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer optical interleaver based on digital signal processing.

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Xiaowei

    2010-03-01

    Optical interleavers based on Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer (MGTI) with arbitrary cascaded reflectors for symmetrical or asymmetrical periodic frequency response with arbitrary duty cycles are defined as universal MGTI optical interleaver (UMGTIOI). It can significantly enhance flexibility and applicability of optical networks. A novel and simple method based on digital signal processing is proposed for the design of UMGTIOI. Different kinds of design examples are given to confirm effectiveness of the method.

  1. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  2. Application of adaptive digital signal processing to speech enhancement for the hearing impaired.

    Chabries, D M; Christiansen, R W; Brey, R H; Robinette, M S; Harris, R W

    1987-01-01

    A major complaint of individuals with normal hearing and hearing impairments is a reduced ability to understand speech in a noisy environment. This paper describes the concept of adaptive noise cancelling for removing noise from corrupted speech signals. Application of adaptive digital signal processing has long been known and is described from a historical as well as technical perspective. The Widrow-Hoff LMS (least mean square) algorithm developed in 1959 forms the introduction to modern adaptive signal processing. This method uses a "primary" input which consists of the desired speech signal corrupted with noise and a second "reference" signal which is used to estimate the primary noise signal. By subtracting the adaptively filtered estimate of the noise, the desired speech signal is obtained. Recent developments in the field as they relate to noise cancellation are described. These developments include more computationally efficient algorithms as well as algorithms that exhibit improved learning performance. A second method for removing noise from speech, for use when no independent reference for the noise exists, is referred to as single channel noise suppression. Both adaptive and spectral subtraction techniques have been applied to this problem--often with the result of decreased speech intelligibility. Current techniques applied to this problem are described, including signal processing techniques that offer promise in the noise suppression application.

  3. A fast continuous magnetic field measurement system based on digital signal processors

    Velev, G.V.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; /Fermilab; Maroussov, V.; /Purdue U.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Orris, D.; /Fermilab; Poukhov,; Prakoshyn, F.; /Dubna, JINR; Schlabach, P.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    In order to study dynamic effects in accelerator magnets, such as the decay of the magnetic field during the dwell at injection and the rapid so-called ''snapback'' during the first few seconds of the resumption of the energy ramp, a fast continuous harmonics measurement system was required. A new magnetic field measurement system, based on the use of digital signal processors (DSP) and Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, was developed and prototyped at Fermilab. This system uses Pentek 6102 16 bit A/D converters and the Pentek 4288 DSP board with the SHARC ADSP-2106 family digital signal processor. It was designed to acquire multiple channels of data with a wide dynamic range of input signals, which are typically generated by a rotating coil probe. Data acquisition is performed under a RTOS, whereas processing and visualization are performed under a host computer. Firmware code was developed for the DSP to perform fast continuous readout of the A/D FIFO memory and integration over specified intervals, synchronized to the probe's rotation in the magnetic field. C, C++ and Java code was written to control the data acquisition devices and to process a continuous stream of data. The paper summarizes the characteristics of the system and presents the results of initial tests and measurements.

  4. FIPSER: Performance study of a readout concept with few digitization levels for fast signals

    Limyansky, B., E-mail: brent.limyansky@gatech.edu [School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Reese, R., E-mail: bobbeyreese@gmail.com [School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Cressler, J.D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Otte, A.N.; Taboada, I. [School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Ulusoy, C. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-21

    We discuss the performance of a readout system, Fixed Pulse Shape Efficient Readout (FIPSER), to digitize signals from detectors with a fixed pulse shape. In this study we are mainly interested in the readout of fast photon detectors like photomultipliers or Silicon photomultipliers. But the concept can be equally applied to the digitization of other detector signals. FIPSER is based on the flash analog to digital converter (FADC) concept, but has the potential to lower costs and power consumption by using an order of magnitude fewer discrete voltage levels. Performance is bolstered by combining the discretized signal with the knowledge of the underlying pulse shape. Simulated FIPSER data was reconstructed with two independent methods. One using a maximum likelihood method and the other using a modified χ{sup 2} test. Both methods show that utilizing 12 discrete voltage levels with a sampling rate of 4 samples per full width half maximum (FWHM) of the pulse achieves an amplitude resolution that is better than the Poisson limit for photon-counting experiments. The time resolution achieved in this configuration ranges between 0.02 and 0.16 FWHM and depends on the pulse amplitude. In a situation where the waveform is composed of two consecutive pulses the pulses can be separated if they are at least 0.05–0.30 FWHM apart with an amplitude resolution that is better than 20%.

  5. A fast continuous magnetic field measurement system based on digital signal processors

    Velev, G.V.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Maroussov, V.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Orris, D.; Poukhov, O.; Prakoshyn, F.; Schlabach, P.; Tompkins, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In order to study dynamic effects in accelerator magnets, such as the decay of the magnetic field during the dwell at injection and the rapid so-called ''snapback'' during the first few seconds of the resumption of the energy ramp, a fast continuous harmonics measurement system was required. A new magnetic field measurement system, based on the use of digital signal processors (DSP) and Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, was developed and prototyped at Fermilab. This system uses Pentek 6102 16 bit A/D converters and the Pentek 4288 DSP board with the SHARC ADSP-2106 family digital signal processor. It was designed to acquire multiple channels of data with a wide dynamic range of input signals, which are typically generated by a rotating coil probe. Data acquisition is performed under a RTOS, whereas processing and visualization are performed under a host computer. Firmware code was developed for the DSP to perform fast continuous readout of the A/D FIFO memory and integration over specified intervals, synchronized to the probe's rotation in the magnetic field. C, C++ and Java code was written to control the data acquisition devices and to process a continuous stream of data. The paper summarizes the characteristics of the system and presents the results of initial tests and measurements

  6. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J.; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  7. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-06

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, 15 N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  9. Arrhythmia recognition and classification using combined linear and nonlinear features of ECG signals.

    Elhaj, Fatin A; Salim, Naomie; Harris, Arief R; Swee, Tan Tian; Ahmed, Taqwa

    2016-04-01

    Arrhythmia is a cardiac condition caused by abnormal electrical activity of the heart, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the non-invasive method used to detect arrhythmias or heart abnormalities. Due to the presence of noise, the non-stationary nature of the ECG signal (i.e. the changing morphology of the ECG signal with respect to time) and the irregularity of the heartbeat, physicians face difficulties in the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The computer-aided analysis of ECG results assists physicians to detect cardiovascular diseases. The development of many existing arrhythmia systems has depended on the findings from linear experiments on ECG data which achieve high performance on noise-free data. However, nonlinear experiments characterize the ECG signal more effectively sense, extract hidden information in the ECG signal, and achieve good performance under noisy conditions. This paper investigates the representation ability of linear and nonlinear features and proposes a combination of such features in order to improve the classification of ECG data. In this study, five types of beat classes of arrhythmia as recommended by the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation are analyzed: non-ectopic beats (N), supra-ventricular ectopic beats (S), ventricular ectopic beats (V), fusion beats (F) and unclassifiable and paced beats (U). The characterization ability of nonlinear features such as high order statistics and cumulants and nonlinear feature reduction methods such as independent component analysis are combined with linear features, namely, the principal component analysis of discrete wavelet transform coefficients. The features are tested for their ability to differentiate different classes of data using different classifiers, namely, the support vector machine and neural network methods with tenfold cross-validation. Our proposed method is able to classify the N, S, V, F and U arrhythmia classes with high accuracy (98.91%) using a combined support

  10. The impact of signal normalization on seizure detection using line length features.

    Logesparan, Lojini; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Casson, Alexander J

    2015-10-01

    Accurate automated seizure detection remains a desirable but elusive target for many neural monitoring systems. While much attention has been given to the different feature extractions that can be used to highlight seizure activity in the EEG, very little formal attention has been given to the normalization that these features are routinely paired with. This normalization is essential in patient-independent algorithms to correct for broad-level differences in the EEG amplitude between people, and in patient-dependent algorithms to correct for amplitude variations over time. It is crucial, however, that the normalization used does not have a detrimental effect on the seizure detection process. This paper presents the first formal investigation into the impact of signal normalization techniques on seizure discrimination performance when using the line length feature to emphasize seizure activity. Comparing five normalization methods, based upon the mean, median, standard deviation, signal peak and signal range, we demonstrate differences in seizure detection accuracy (assessed as the area under a sensitivity-specificity ROC curve) of up to 52 %. This is despite the same analysis feature being used in all cases. Further, changes in performance of up to 22 % are present depending on whether the normalization is applied to the raw EEG itself or directly to the line length feature. Our results highlight the median decaying memory as the best current approach for providing normalization when using line length features, and they quantify the under-appreciated challenge of providing signal normalization that does not impair seizure detection algorithm performance.

  11. Breast tissue classification in digital tomosynthesis images based on global gradient minimization and texture features

    Qin, Xulei; Lu, Guolan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a pseudo-three-dimensional x-ray imaging modality proposed to decrease the effect of tissue superposition present in mammography, potentially resulting in an increase in clinical performance for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissue classification in DBT images can be useful in risk assessment, computer-aided detection and radiation dosimetry, among other aspects. However, classifying breast tissue in DBT is a challenging problem because DBT images include complicated structures, image noise, and out-of-plane artifacts due to limited angular tomographic sampling. In this project, we propose an automatic method to classify fatty and glandular tissue in DBT images. First, the DBT images are pre-processed to enhance the tissue structures and to decrease image noise and artifacts. Second, a global smooth filter based on L0 gradient minimization is applied to eliminate detailed structures and enhance large-scale ones. Third, the similar structure regions are extracted and labeled by fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification. At the same time, the texture features are also calculated. Finally, each region is classified into different tissue types based on both intensity and texture features. The proposed method is validated using five patient DBT images using manual segmentation as the gold standard. The Dice scores and the confusion matrix are utilized to evaluate the classified results. The evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for classifying breast glandular and fat tissue on DBT images.

  12. Classifying depression patients and normal subjects using machine learning techniques and nonlinear features from EEG signal.

    Hosseinifard, Behshad; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosing depression in the early curable stages is very important and may even save the life of a patient. In this paper, we study nonlinear analysis of EEG signal for discriminating depression patients and normal controls. Forty-five unmedicated depressed patients and 45 normal subjects were participated in this study. Power of four EEG bands and four nonlinear features including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), higuchi fractal, correlation dimension and lyapunov exponent were extracted from EEG signal. For discriminating the two groups, k-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression as the classifiers are then used. Highest classification accuracy of 83.3% is obtained by correlation dimension and LR classifier among other nonlinear features. For further improvement, all nonlinear features are combined and applied to classifiers. A classification accuracy of 90% is achieved by all nonlinear features and LR classifier. In all experiments, genetic algorithm is employed to select the most important features. The proposed technique is compared and contrasted with the other reported methods and it is demonstrated that by combining nonlinear features, the performance is enhanced. This study shows that nonlinear analysis of EEG can be a useful method for discriminating depressed patients and normal subjects. It is suggested that this analysis may be a complementary tool to help psychiatrists for diagnosing depressed patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  14. Feature selection and classifier parameters estimation for EEG signals peak detection using particle swarm optimization.

    Adam, Asrul; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Tumari, Mohd Zaidi Mohd; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model.

  15. Low-Latency Digital Signal Processing for Feedback and Feedforward in Quantum Computing and Communication

    Salathé, Yves; Kurpiers, Philipp; Karg, Thomas; Lang, Christian; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Akin, Abdulkadir; Krinner, Sebastian; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Quantum computing architectures rely on classical electronics for control and readout. Employing classical electronics in a feedback loop with the quantum system allows us to stabilize states, correct errors, and realize specific feedforward-based quantum computing and communication schemes such as deterministic quantum teleportation. These feedback and feedforward operations are required to be fast compared to the coherence time of the quantum system to minimize the probability of errors. We present a field-programmable-gate-array-based digital signal processing system capable of real-time quadrature demodulation, a determination of the qubit state, and a generation of state-dependent feedback trigger signals. The feedback trigger is generated with a latency of 110 ns with respect to the timing of the analog input signal. We characterize the performance of the system for an active qubit initialization protocol based on the dispersive readout of a superconducting qubit and discuss potential applications in feedback and feedforward algorithms.

  16. Operation and performance of a longitudinal damping system using parallel digital signal processing

    Fox, J.D.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.

    1994-06-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system based on four AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This Longitudinal Quick Prototype is a proof of concept for the PEP-II system and implements full speed bunch-by-bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacings of 4 ns. The design implements, via software, a general purpose feedback controller which allows the system to be operated at several accelerator facilities. The system configuration used for tests at the LBL Advanced Light Source is described. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented, and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of injection transients and analysis of open loop bunch motion

  17. Detection of coherent beam-beam modes with digitized beam position monitor signals

    Stancari, G.; White, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Fermilab Tevatron collider is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented and compared with models of beam-beam oscillations.

  18. A Human Error Analysis with Physiological Signals during Utilizing Digital Devices

    Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Kwang Hyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The introduction of advanced MCR is accompanied with lots of changes and different forms and features through the virtue of new digital technologies. There are various kinds of digital devices such as flat panel displays, touch screens, and so on. The characteristics of these digital devices give many chances to the interface management, and can be integrated into a compact single workstation in an advanced MCR so that workers can operate the plant with minimum burden during any operating condition. However, these devices may introduce new types of human errors, and thus we need a means to evaluate and prevent such error, especially those related to the digital devices. Human errors have been retrospectively assessed for accident reviews and quantitatively evaluated through HRA for PSA. However, the ergonomic verification and validation is an important process to defend all human error potential in the NPP design. HRA is a crucial part of a PSA, and helps in preparing a countermeasure for design by drawing potential human error items that affect the overall safety of NPPs. Various HRA techniques are available however: they reveal shortages of the HMI design in the digital era. - HRA techniques depend on PSFs: this means that the scope dealing with human factors is previously limited, and thus all attributes of new digital devices may not be considered in HRA. - The data used to HRA are not close to the evaluation items. So, human error analysis is not easy to apply to design by several individual experiments and cases. - The results of HRA are not statistically meaningful because accidents including human errors in NPPs are rare and have been estimated as having an extremely low probability

  19. Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Racanelli, Marco; Howard, David; Miyagi, Glenn; Bowler, Mark; Jordan, Scott; Zhang, Tao; Krieger, William

    2010-04-01

    Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFμm2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8μm thick metals for efficient power distribution and reduced I-R drop; (2) analog active devices such as low noise single gate 3.3V, and 1.8V/3.3V or 1.8V/5V dual gate configurations, 40V LDMOS FETs, and NPN and PNP devices, deep n-well for substrate isolation for analog blocks and digital logic; (3) tools to assist the circuit designer such as models for cryogenic temperatures, CAD assistance for metal density uniformity determination, statistical, X-sigma and PCM-based models for corner validation and to simulate design sensitivity, and (4) sub-field stitching for large die. The TowerJazz platform of technology for 0.50μm, 0.25μm and 0.18μm CMOS nodes, with features as described above, is described in detail in this paper.

  20. Feature Extraction of Weld Defectology in Digital Image of Radiographic Film Using Geometric Invariant Moment and Statistical Texture

    Muhtadan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to perform feature extraction in weld defect of digital image of radiographic film using geometric invariant moment and statistical texture method. Feature extraction values can be use as values that used to classify and pattern recognition on interpretation of weld defect in digital image of radiographic film by computer automatically. Weld defectology type that used in this research are longitudinal crack, transversal crack, distributed porosity, clustered porosity, wormhole, and no defect. Research methodology on this research are program development to read digital image, then performing image cropping to localize weld position, and then applying geometric invariant moment and statistical texture formulas to find feature values. The result of this research are feature extraction values that have tested with RST (rotation, scale, transformation) treatment and yield moment values that more invariant there are ϕ 3 , ϕ 4 , ϕ 5 from geometric invariant moment method. Feature values from statistical texture that are average intensity, average contrast, smoothness, 3 rd moment, uniformity, and entropy, they used as feature extraction values. (author)

  1. Automatic Craniomaxillofacial Landmark Digitization via Segmentation-guided Partially-joint Regression Forest Model and Multi-scale Statistical Features

    Zhang, Jun; Gao, Yaozong; Wang, Li; Tang, Zhen; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this paper is to automatically digitize craniomaxillofacial (CMF) landmarks efficiently and accurately from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, by addressing the challenge caused by large morphological variations across patients and image artifacts of CBCT images. Methods We propose a Segmentation-guided Partially-joint Regression Forest (S-PRF) model to automatically digitize CMF landmarks. In this model, a regression voting strategy is first adopted to localize each landmark by aggregating evidences from context locations, thus potentially relieving the problem caused by image artifacts near the landmark. Second, CBCT image segmentation is utilized to remove uninformative voxels caused by morphological variations across patients. Third, a partially-joint model is further proposed to separately localize landmarks based on the coherence of landmark positions to improve the digitization reliability. In addition, we propose a fast vector quantization (VQ) method to extract high-level multi-scale statistical features to describe a voxel's appearance, which has low dimensionality, high efficiency, and is also invariant to the local inhomogeneity caused by artifacts. Results Mean digitization errors for 15 landmarks, in comparison to the ground truth, are all less than 2mm. Conclusion Our model has addressed challenges of both inter-patient morphological variations and imaging artifacts. Experiments on a CBCT dataset show that our approach achieves clinically acceptable accuracy for landmark digitalization. Significance Our automatic landmark digitization method can be used clinically to reduce the labor cost and also improve digitalization consistency. PMID:26625402

  2. Building Model NASA Satellites: Elementary Students Studying Science Using a NASA-Themed Transmedia Book Featuring Digital Fabrication Activities

    Tillman, Daniel; An, Song; Boren, Rachel; Slykhuis, David

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of nine lessons incorporating a NASA-themed transmedia book featuring digital fabrication activities on 5th-grade students (n = 29) recognized as advanced in mathematics based on their academic record. Data collected included a pretest and posttest of science content questions taken from released Virginia Standards…

  3. Digital signal processing for velocity measurements in dynamical material's behaviour studies

    Devlaminck, Julien; Luc, Jerome; Chanal, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe different configurations of optical fiber interferometers (types Michelson and Mach-Zehnder) used to measure velocities during dynamical material's behaviour studies. We detail the algorithms of processing developed and optimized to improve the performance of these interferometers especially in terms of time and frequency resolutions. Three methods of analysis of interferometric signals were studied. For Michelson interferometers, the time-frequency analysis of signals by Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is compared to a time-frequency analysis by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The results have shown that the CWT was more suitable than the STFT for signals with low signal-to-noise, and low velocity and high acceleration areas. For Mach- Zehnder interferometers, the measurement is carried out by analyzing the phase shift between three interferometric signals (Triature processing). These three methods of digital signal processing were evaluated, their measurement uncertainties estimated, and their restrictions or operational limitations specified from experimental results performed on a pulsed power machine. (authors)

  4. LMD Based Features for the Automatic Seizure Detection of EEG Signals Using SVM.

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Wanzhong

    2017-08-01

    Achieving the goal of detecting seizure activity automatically using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is of great importance and significance for the treatment of epileptic seizures. To realize this aim, a newly-developed time-frequency analytical algorithm, namely local mean decomposition (LMD), is employed in the presented study. LMD is able to decompose an arbitrary signal into a series of product functions (PFs). Primarily, the raw EEG signal is decomposed into several PFs, and then the temporal statistical and non-linear features of the first five PFs are calculated. The features of each PF are fed into five classifiers, including back propagation neural network (BPNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), un-optimized support vector machine (SVM) and SVM optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-SVM), for five classification cases, respectively. Confluent features of all PFs and raw EEG are further passed into the high-performance GA-SVM for the same classification tasks. Experimental results on the international public Bonn epilepsy EEG dataset show that the average classification accuracy of the presented approach are equal to or higher than 98.10% in all the five cases, and this indicates the effectiveness of the proposed approach for automated seizure detection.

  5. Digital Signal Processing Applications and Implementation for Accelerators Digital Notch Filter with Programmable Delay and Betatron Phase Adjustment for the PS, SPS and LHC Transverse Dampers

    Rossi, V

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC project and the modifications of the SPS as its injector, I present the concept of global digital signal processing applied to a particle accelerator, using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. The approach of global digital synthesis implements in numerical form the architecture of a system, from the start up of a project and the very beginning of the signal flow. It takes into account both the known parameters and the future evolution, whenever possible. Due to the increased performance requirements of today's projects, the CAE design methodology becomes more and more necessary to handle successfully the added complexity and speed of modern electronic circuits. Simulation is performed both for behavioural analysis, to ensure conformity to functional requirements, and for time signal analysis (speed requirements). The digital notch filter with programmable delay for the SPS Transverse Damper is now fully operational with fixed target and LHC-type beams circulating in t...

  6. Feature Extraction for Track Section Status Classification Based on UGW Signals

    Lei Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Track status classification is essential for the stability and safety of railway operations nowadays, when railway networks are becoming more and more complex and broad. In this situation, monitoring systems are already a key element in applications dedicated to evaluating the status of a certain track section, often determining whether it is free or occupied by a train. Different technologies have already been involved in the design of monitoring systems, including ultrasonic guided waves (UGW. This work proposes the use of the UGW signals captured by a track monitoring system to extract the features that are relevant for determining the corresponding track section status. For that purpose, three features of UGW signals have been considered: the root mean square value, the energy, and the main frequency components. Experimental results successfully validated how these features can be used to classify the track section status into free, occupied and broken. Furthermore, spatial and temporal dependencies among these features were analysed in order to show how they can improve the final classification performance. Finally, a preliminary high-level classification system based on deep learning networks has been envisaged for future works.

  7. Re-configurable digital receiver for optically envelope detected half cycle BPSK and MSK radio-on-fiber signals

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We present the first known integration of a digital receiver into optically envelope detection radio-on-fiber systems. We also present a re-configurable scheme for two different types of optically envelope detected wireless signals while keeping the complexity of used optical components low. Our...... novel digital receiver consists of a digital signal processing unit integrating functions such as filtering, peak-powers detection, symbol synchronization and signal demodulation for optically envelope detected half-cycle binary phase-shift-keying and minimum-shift-keying signals. Furthermore, radio......-frequency signal down-conversion is not required in our proposed approach; simplifying evens more the optical receiver front-end. We experimentally demonstrate error-free optical transmission (bit-error rate corresponding to 10−3 related to FEC-compatible levels) for both 416.6 Mbit/s half-cycle binary phase...

  8. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.

    2015-01-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76 Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in 76 Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter

  9. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Agostini, M. [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M. [Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A. M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, and Gran Sasso Science Institute, GSSI, Assergi (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2015-06-09

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  10. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Zavarise, P. [LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-06-15

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The GERDA Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10% at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter. (orig.)

  11. The effects of advanced digital signal processing concepts on VLSIC/VHSIC design

    Jankowski, C.

    Implementations of sophisticated mathematical techniques in advanced digital signal processors can significantly improve performance. Future VLSI and VHSI circuit designs must include the practical realization of these algorithms. A structured design approach is described and illustrated with examples from a RNS FIR filter processor development project. The CAE hardware and software required to support tasks of this complexity are also discussed. An EWS is recommended for controlling essential functions such as logic optimization, simulation and verification. The total IC design system is illustrated with the implementation of a new high performance algorithm for computing complex magnitude.

  12. Detection of interference phase by digital computation of quadrature signals in homodyne laser interferometry

    Řeřucha, Šimon; Buchta, Zdeněk; Šarbort, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2012), s. 14095-14112 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MPO FR-TI2/705; GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : digital signal processing * homodyne detection * laser interferometry * optical metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2012

  13. Seismic qualification using digital signal processing/modal testing and finite element techniques

    Steedman, J.B.; Edelstein, A.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic procedure in which digital signal processing, modal testing and finite element techniques can be used to seismically qualify Class IE equipment for use in nuclear generating stations is presented. A new method was also developed in which measured transmissibility functions and Fourier transformation techniques were combined to compute instrument response spectra. As an illustrative example of the qualification method, the paper follows the qualification of a safety related Class IE Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Control Panel subjected to both seismic and hydrodynamic loading conditions

  14. Digital system for acquiring signals from photodiode arrays. No. Program Element 2317-08-03

    Le Guen, M.; Meric, B.

    1981-01-01

    A model of circuit allowing the digitization and the memorization of signals coming from linear arrays of photodiodes have been realized. The authors first recall the organization and present in the second part some test results on experimental sites. The model consists of 1 - an acquisition, memorization and visualization card (AMV card) for the data from RETICON 121 photodiode strips, 2 - a series transfer card for the memorized data, and 3 - an interface and multiplexing card associated with a system using a 6800 microprocessor allowing the management of eight acquisition cards [fr

  15. POSITION CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    Çetin GENÇER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDC have been used widely high performance control systems which are depended on to development of power electronic and control technology. In these motors to fed commutated supply, the control of position without oscilation has been required. In this study, position control of BLDC with digital signal processing has been implemented by a proportional-derivative (PD controller because of its simple structure. It has been seen that the controller which is proposed from simulation and experimental studies, has a quick dynamic responce with nonoscillation.

  16. Experimental verification of preset time count rate meters based on adaptive digital signal processing algorithms

    Žigić Aleksandar D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental verifications of two optimized adaptive digital signal processing algorithms implemented in two pre set time count rate meters were per formed ac cording to appropriate standards. The random pulse generator realized using a personal computer, was used as an artificial radiation source for preliminary system tests and performance evaluations of the pro posed algorithms. Then measurement results for background radiation levels were obtained. Finally, measurements with a natural radiation source radioisotope 90Sr-90Y, were carried out. Measurement results, con ducted without and with radio isotopes for the specified errors of 10% and 5% showed to agree well with theoretical predictions.

  17. Digital signal processors for cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detector readout

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Bechstein, Sylke; Hennig, Wolfgang; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer online filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. We discuss DSP performance with our 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Fast realization of nonrecursive digital filters with limits on signal delay

    Titov, M. A.; Bondarenko, N. N.

    1983-07-01

    Attention is given to the problem of achieving a fast realization of nonrecursive digital filters with the aim of reducing signal delay. It is shown that a realization wherein the impulse characteristic of the filter is divided into blocks satisfies the delay requirements and is almost as economical in terms of the number of multiplications as conventional fast convolution. In addition, the block method leads to a reduction in the needed size of the memory and in the number of additions; the short-convolution procedure is substantially simplified. Finally, the block method facilitates the paralleling of computations owing to the simple transfers between subfilters.

  19. Higher order spectra and their use in digital communication signal estimation

    Yayci, Cihat

    1995-03-01

    This thesis compared the detection ability of the spectrogram, the 1-1/2D instantaneous power spectrum (l-1/2D(sub ips)), the bispectrum, and outer product (dyadic) representation for digitally modulated signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Four detection schemes were tried on noise free BPSK, QPSK, FSK, and OOK signals using different transform lengths. After determining the optimum transform length, each test signal is corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Different SNR levels were used to determine the lowest SNR level at which the message or the modulation type could be extracted. The optimal transform length was found to be the symbol duration when processing BPSK, OOK, and FSK via the spectrogram, the 1-1/2D(sub ips) or the bispectrum method. The best transform size for QPSK was half of the symbol length. For the outer product (dyadic) spectral representation, the best transform size was four times larger than the symbol length. For all processing techniques, with the exception of the other product representation, the minimum detectable SNR is about 15 dB for BPSK, FSK, and OOK signals and about 20 dB for QPSK signals. For the outer product spectral method, these values tend to be about 10 dB lower.

  20. Sensor-based vibration signal feature extraction using an improved composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm.

    Cui, Lingli; Wu, Na; Wang, Wenjing; Kang, Chenhui

    2014-09-09

    This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP) algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP) is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and reconstruction algorithm

  1. Sensor-Based Vibration Signal Feature Extraction Using an Improved Composite Dictionary Matching Pursuit Algorithm

    Lingli Cui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and

  2. Time signal distribution in communication networks based on synchronous digital hierarchy

    Imaoka, Atsushi; Kihara, Masami

    1993-01-01

    A new method that uses round-trip paths to accurately measure transmission delay for time synchronization is proposed. The performance of the method in Synchronous Digital Hierarchy networks is discussed. The feature of this method is that it separately measures the initial round trip path delay and the variations in round-trip path delay. The delay generated in SDH equipment is determined by measuring the initial round-trip path delay. In an experiment with actual SDH equipment, the error of initial delay measurement was suppressed to 30ns.

  3. Digital signal processing and spectral analysis for scientists concepts and applications

    Alessio, Silvia Maria

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the basics of processing and spectral analysis of monovariate discrete-time signals. The approach is practical, the aim being to acquaint the reader with the indications for and drawbacks of the various methods and to highlight possible misuses. The book is rich in original ideas, visualized in new and illuminating ways, and is structured so that parts can be skipped without loss of continuity. Many examples are included, based on synthetic data and real measurements from the fields of physics, biology, medicine, macroeconomics etc., and a complete set of MATLAB exercises requiring no previous experience of programming is provided. Prior advanced mathematical skills are not needed in order to understand the contents: a good command of basic mathematical analysis is sufficient. Where more advanced mathematical tools are necessary, they are included in an Appendix and presented in an easy-to-follow way. With this book, digital signal processing leaves the domain of engineering to address the ne...

  4. Advanced digital signal processing for short haul optical fiber transmission beyond 100G

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Significant increase of intra and inter data center traffic has been expected by the rapid spread of various network applications like SNS, IoT, mobile and cloud computing, and the needs for ultra-high speed and cost-effective short- to medium-reach optical fiber links beyond 100-Gbit/s is becoming larger and larger. Such high-speed links typically use multilevel modulation to lower signaling speed, which in turn face serious challenges in limited loss budget and waveform distortion tolerance. One of the promising techniques to overcome them is the use of advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and we review various DSP applications for short-to-medium reach applications.

  5. Digital Signal Processing Based on a Clustering Algorithm for Ir/Au TES Microcalorimeter

    Zen, N.; Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Hiramoto, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, cryogenic microcalorimeters using their superconducting transition edge have been under development for possible application to the research for astronomical X-ray observations. To improve the energy resolution of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), several correction methods have been developed. Among them, a clustering method based on digital signal processing has recently been proposed. In this paper, we applied the clustering method to Ir/Au bilayer TES. This method resulted in almost a 10% improvement in the energy resolution. Conversely, from the point of view of imaging X-ray spectroscopy, we applied the clustering method to pixellated Ir/Au-TES devices. We will thus show how a clustering method which sorts signals by their shapes is also useful for position identification

  6. Real time implementation of a linear predictive coding algorithm on digital signal processor DSP32C

    Sheikh, N.M.; Usman, S.R.; Fatima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) has been widely used in speech coding. However, due to its high bit rate. PCM has severe limitations in application where high spectral efficiency is desired, for example, in mobile communication, CD quality broadcasting system etc. These limitation have motivated research in bit rate reduction techniques. Linear predictive coding (LPC) is one of the most powerful complex techniques for bit rate reduction. With the introduction of powerful digital signal processors (DSP) it is possible to implement the complex LPC algorithm in real time. In this paper we present a real time implementation of the LPC algorithm on AT and T's DSP32C at a sampling frequency of 8192 HZ. Application of the LPC algorithm on two speech signals is discussed. Using this implementation , a bit rate reduction of 1:3 is achieved for better than tool quality speech, while a reduction of 1.16 is possible for speech quality required in military applications. (author)

  7. Digital Signal Processing and Generation for a DC Current Transformer for Particle Accelerators

    Zorzetti, Silvia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The thesis topic, digital signal processing and generation for a DC current transformer, focuses on the most fundamental beam diagnostics in the field of particle accelerators, the measurement of the beam intensity, or beam current. The technology of a DC current transformer (DCCT) is well known, and used in many areas, including particle accelerator beam instrumentation, as non-invasive (shunt-free) method to monitor the DC current in a conducting wire, or in our case, the current of charged particles travelling inside an evacuated metal pipe. So far, custom and commercial DCCTs are entirely based on analog technologies and signal processing, which makes them inflexible, sensitive to component aging, and difficult to maintain and calibrate.

  8. Comparing whole slide digital images versus traditional glass slides in the detection of common microscopic features seen in dermatitis

    Nikki S Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality and limitations of digital slides are not fully known. We aimed to estimate intrapathologist discrepancy in detecting specific microscopic features on glass slides and digital slides created by scanning at ×20. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff glass slides were digitized using the Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss Inc., Germany. Six pathologists assessed 50-71 digital slides. We recorded objective magnification, total time, and detection of the following: Mast cells; eosinophils; plasma cells; pigmented macrophages; melanin in the epidermis; fungal bodies; neutrophils; civatte bodies; parakeratosis; and sebocytes. This process was repeated using the corresponding glass slides after 3 weeks. The diagnosis was not required. Results: The mean time to assess digital slides was 176.77 s and 137.61 s for glass slides (P < 0.001, 99% confidence interval [CI]. The mean objective magnification used to detect features using digital slides was 18.28 and 14.07 for glass slides (P < 0.001, 99.99% CI. Parakeratosis, civatte bodies, pigmented macrophages, melanin in the epidermis, mast cells, eosinophils, plasma cells, and neutrophils, were identified at lower objectives on glass slides (P = 0.023-0.001, 95% CI. Average intraobserver concordance ranged from κ = 0.30 to κ = 0.78. Features with poor to fair average concordance were: Melanin in the epidermis (κ = 0.15-0.58; plasma cells (κ = 0.15-0.49; and neutrophils (κ = 0.12-0.48. Features with moderate average intrapathologist concordance were: parakeratosis (κ = 0.21-0.61; civatte bodies (κ = 0.21-0.71; pigment-laden macrophages (κ = 0.34-0.66; mast cells (κ = 0.29-0.78; and eosinophils (κ = 0.31-0.79. The average intrapathologist concordance was good for sebocytes (κ = 0.51-1.00 and fungal bodies (κ = 0.47-0.76. Conclusions: Telepathology using digital slides scanned at ×20 is sufficient for detection of histopathologic features routinely encountered in

  9. Electroencephalography Signal Grouping and Feature Classification Using Harmony Search for BCI

    Tae-Ju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic method for electroencephalography (EEG grouping and feature classification using harmony search (HS for improving the accuracy of the brain-computer interface (BCI system. EEG, a noninvasive BCI method, uses many electrodes on the scalp, and a large number of electrodes make the resulting analysis difficult. In addition, traditional EEG analysis cannot handle multiple stimuli. On the other hand, the classification method using the EEG signal has a low accuracy. To solve these problems, we use a heuristic approach to reduce the complexities in multichannel problems and classification. In this study, we build a group of stimuli using the HS algorithm. Then, the features from common spatial patterns are classified by the HS classifier. To confirm the proposed method, we perform experiments using 64-channel EEG equipment. The subjects are subjected to three kinds of stimuli: audio, visual, and motion. Each stimulus is applied alone or in combination with the others. The acquired signals are processed by the proposed method. The classification results in an accuracy of approximately 63%. We conclude that the heuristic approach using the HS algorithm on the BCI is beneficial for EEG signal analysis.

  10. Singular value decomposition based feature extraction technique for physiological signal analysis.

    Chang, Cheng-Ding; Wang, Chien-Chih; Jiang, Bernard C

    2012-06-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) is one of the popular techniques to calculate and describe the complexity of the physiological signal. Many studies use this approach to detect changes in the physiological conditions in the human body. However, MSE results are easily affected by noise and trends, leading to incorrect estimation of MSE values. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) is adopted to replace MSE to extract the features of physiological signals, and adopt the support vector machine (SVM) to classify the different physiological states. A test data set based on the PhysioNet website was used, and the classification results showed that using SVD to extract features of the physiological signal could attain a classification accuracy rate of 89.157%, which is higher than that using the MSE value (71.084%). The results show the proposed analysis procedure is effective and appropriate for distinguishing different physiological states. This promising result could be used as a reference for doctors in diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) disease.

  11. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    Fontaine, Rejean; Viscogliosi, Nicolas; Semmaoui, Hicham; Belanger, Francois; Lemieux, Francois; Tetrault, Marc-Andre; Michaud, Jean-Baptiste; Berard, Philippe; Cadorette, Jules; Pepin, Catherine M.; Lecomte, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET TM small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t r ∼40 ns) and LGSO (t r ∼65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates 10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons

  12. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    Fontaine, Rejean [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada)]. E-mail: Rejean.Fontaine@Usherbrooke.ca; Viscogliosi, Nicolas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Semmaoui, Hicham [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Belanger, Francois [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Lemieux, Francois [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Tetrault, Marc-Andre [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Michaud, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Berard, Philippe [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Cadorette, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Pepin, Catherine M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Lecomte, Roger [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET{sup TM} small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t{sub r}{approx}40 ns) and LGSO (t{sub r}{approx}65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates<4% can be achieved, as compared to >10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons.

  13. Digitization

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  14. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. Thus the appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand (preprogrammed or triggered by the experiment). With this system a reduction of the raw data by a factor of up to 2000 (typically 200) is possible without severe loss of information

  15. A SystemC-Based Design Methodology for Digital Signal Processing Systems

    Christian Haubelt

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms are of big importance in many embedded systems. Due to complexity reasons and due to the restrictions imposed on the implementations, new design methodologies are needed. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based solution supporting automatic design space exploration, automatic performance evaluation, as well as automatic system generation for mixed hardware/software solutions mapped onto FPGA-based platforms. Our proposed hardware/software codesign approach is based on a SystemC-based library called SysteMoC that permits the expression of different models of computation well known in the domain of digital signal processing. It combines the advantages of executability and analyzability of many important models of computation that can be expressed in SysteMoC. We will use the example of an MPEG-4 decoder throughout this paper to introduce our novel methodology. Results from a five-dimensional design space exploration and from automatically mapping parts of the MPEG-4 decoder onto a Xilinx FPGA platform will demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. A mutation in Ihh that causes digit abnormalities alters its signalling capacity and range.

    Gao, Bo; Hu, Jianxin; Stricker, Sigmar; Cheung, Martin; Ma, Gang; Law, Kit Fong; Witte, Florian; Briscoe, James; Mundlos, Stefan; He, Lin; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny

    2009-04-30

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) was the first recorded disorder of the autosomal dominant Mendelian trait in humans, characterized by shortened or absent middle phalanges in digits. It is associated with heterozygous missense mutations in indian hedgehog (IHH). Hedgehog proteins are important morphogens for a wide range of developmental processes. The capacity and range of signalling is thought to be regulated by its interaction with the receptor PTCH1 and antagonist HIP1. Here we show that a BDA1 mutation (E95K) in Ihh impairs the interaction of IHH with PTCH1 and HIP1. This is consistent with a recent paper showing that BDA1 mutations cluster in a calcium-binding site essential for the interaction with its receptor and cell-surface partners. Furthermore, we show that in a mouse model that recapitulates the E95K mutation, there is a change in the potency and range of signalling. The mice have digit abnormalities consistent with the human disorder.

  17. Combination of digital signal processing methods towards an improved analysis algorithm for structural health monitoring.

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Makris, John P.

    2013-04-01

    In Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is of great importance to reveal valuable information from the recorded SHM data that could be used to predict or indicate structural fault or damage in a building. In this work a combination of digital signal processing methods, namely FFT along with Wavelet Transform is applied, together with a proposed algorithm to study frequency dispersion, in order to depict non-linear characteristics of SHM data collected in two university buildings under natural or anthropogenic excitation. The selected buildings are of great importance from civil protection point of view, as there are the premises of a public higher education institute, undergoing high use, stress, visit from academic staff and students. The SHM data are collected from two neighboring buildings that have different age (4 and 18 years old respectively). Proposed digital signal processing methods are applied to the data, presenting a comparison of the structural behavior of both buildings in response to seismic activity, weather conditions and man-made activity. Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) » and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek National Fund.

  18. Dynamic strain analysis of structures employing digital signal processing, storage and display

    Patwardhan, P K; Misra, V M; Kumar, Surendra

    1975-01-01

    A multi-channel digital technique has been adopted for analysing wave patterns of stresses and strains in structures, particularly under dynamic conditions. This technique provides adequate signal to noise discrimination and high sensitivity for very small (few milli-volts) and slow varying signals (few Hz to 100 Hz.), and A-D conversion accompined by live display during the course of data gathering and computer compatible output. This system also provides fast response because of inherent 50 MHz digitising speed and a large dynamic range of 1024 discrete signal steps. The signals can be suitably fed to the A-D converter (50 MHz) or can be analysed employing frequency modulation techniques and time mode operation of the analyser. The data can be gathered in the field on cassette tapes and replayed in the laboratory for detailed analysis. This technique would provide a versatile system for dynamic analysis of structures under varying conditions. e.g. structures in nuclear power systems, such as testing of end fittings, calandria, vibration testing and measurements exploying pressure transducers.

  19. Dynamic strain analysis of structures employing digital signal processing, storage and display

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Misra, V.M.; Kumar, Surendra

    1975-01-01

    A multi-channel digital technique has been adopted for analysing wave patterns of stresses and strains in structures, particularly under dynamic conditions. This technique provides adequate signal to noise discrimination and high sensitivity for very small (few milli-volts) and slow varying signals (few Hz to 100 Hz.), A-D conversion accompined by live display during the course of data gathering and computer compatible output. This system also provides fast response because of inherent 50 MHz digitising speed and a large dynamic range of 1024 discrete signal steps. The signals can be suitably fed to the A-D converter (50 MHz) or can be analysed employing frequency modulation techniques and time mode operation of the analyser. The data can be gathered in the field on cassette tapes and replayed in the laboratory for detailed analysis. This technique would provide a versatile system for dynamic analysis of structures under varying conditions. e.g. structures in nuclear power systems, such as testing of end fittings, calandria, vibration testing and measurements exploying pressure transducers. (author)

  20. Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination With Ne-213 Liquid Scintillator By Using Digital Signal Processing Combined With Similarity Method

    Mardiyanto

    2008-01-01

    Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination with a NE-213 Liquid Scintillator by Using Digital Signal Processing Combined with Similarity Method. Measurement of mixed neutron-gamma radiation is difficult because a nuclear detector is usually sensitive to both radiations. A new attempt of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination for a NE-213 liquid scintillator is presented by using digital signal processing combined with an off-line similarity method. The output pulse shapes are digitized with a high speed digital oscilloscope. The n-γ discrimination is done by calculating the index of each pulse shape, which is determined by the similarity method, and then fusing it with its corresponding pulse height. Preliminary results demonstrate good separation of neutron and gamma-ray signals from a NE-213 scintillator with a simple digital system. The results were better than those with a conventional rise time method. Figure of Merit is used to determine the quality of discrimination. The figure of merit of the discrimination using digital signal processing combined with off-line similarity method are 1.9; 1.7; 1.1; 1.1; and 0.8; on the other hand by using conventional method the rise time are 0.9; 0.9; 0.9; 0.7; and 0.4 for the equivalent electron energy of 800; 278; 139; 69; and 30 keV. (author)

  1. Fatigue Level Estimation of Bill Based on Acoustic Signal Feature by Supervised SOM

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued bills have harmful influence on daily operation of Automated Teller Machine(ATM). To make the fatigued bills classification more efficient, development of an automatic fatigued bill classification method is desired. We propose a new method to estimate bending rigidity of bill from acoustic signal feature of banking machines. The estimated bending rigidities are used as continuous fatigue level for classification of fatigued bill. By using the supervised Self-Organizing Map(supervised SOM), we estimate the bending rigidity from only the acoustic energy pattern effectively. The experimental result with real bill samples shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    Over the last decade, optical tomography (OT) has emerged as viable biomedical imaging modality. Various imaging systems have been developed that are employed in preclinical as well as clinical studies, mostly targeting breast imaging, brain imaging, and cancer related studies. Of particular interest are so-called dynamic imaging studies where one attempts to image changes in optical properties and/or physiological parameters as they occur during a system perturbation. To successfully perform dynamic imaging studies, great effort is put towards system development that offers increasingly enhanced signal-to-noise performance at ever shorter data acquisition times, thus capturing high fidelity tomographic data within narrower time periods. Towards this goal, I have developed in this thesis a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, and processes the digitized data set. Complementary protocols between the DSP and a complex programmable logic device synchronizes the sampling process and organizes data flow. Instrument control is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, and signal post-processing. Real-time data is generated at frame rates as high as 140 Hz. An extensive dynamic range (˜190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (˜1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (˜0.04%--0.2%) and long term system stability (˜1% over 40 min). Experiments on tissue phantoms validate spatial and temporal accuracy of the system. As a potential new application of dynamic optical imaging I present the first application of this method to use vascular hemodynamics as a means of characterizing

  3. Fractal Communication System Using Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit (DSK TMS320c6713

    Arsyad Ramadhan Darlis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Wornell and Oppenheim did research on a modulation which is formed by using wavelet theory. In some other studies, proved that this modulation can survive on a few channels and has reliability in some applications. Because of this modulation using the concept of fractal, then it is called as fractalmodulation. Fractal modulation is formed by inserting information signal into fractal signals that are selffractal similary. This modulation technique has the potential to replace the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, which is currently used on some of the latest telecommunication technologies. The purpose of this research is to implement the fractal communication system using Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit (DSK TMS320C6713 without using AWGN and Rayleigh channel in order to obtain the ideal performance of the system. From the simulation results using MATLAB7.4. it appears that this communication system has good performance on some channels than any other communication systems. While in terms of implementation by using (DSK via TMS320C6713 Code Composer Studio (CCS, it can be concluded that thefractal communication system has a better execution time on some tests.

  4. Fast digitization and discrimination of prompt neutron and photon signals using a novel silicon carbide detector

    Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott M. Watson; David L. Chichester; James L. Jones; Frank H. Ruddy; John G. Seidel; Robert W. Flammang

    2007-01-01

    Current requirements of some Homeland Security active interrogation projects for the detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) necessitate the development of faster inspection and acquisition capabilities. In order to do so, fast detectors which can operate during and shortly after intense interrogation radiation flashes are being developed. Novel silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor Schottky diodes have been utilized as robust neutron and photon detectors in both pulsed photon and pulsed neutron fields and are being integrated into active inspection environments to allow exploitation of both prompt and delayed emissions. These detectors have demonstrated the capability of detecting both photon and neutron events during intense photon flashes typical of an active inspection environment. Beyond the inherent insensitivity of SiC to gamma radiation, fast digitization and processing has demonstrated that pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in combination with amplitude discrimination can further suppress unwanted gamma signals and extract fast neutron signatures. Usable neutron signals have been extracted from mixed radiation fields where the background has exceeded the signals of interest by >1000:1

  5. A molecular-sized optical logic circuit for digital modulation of a fluorescence signal

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Karin; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Fluorescence measurement allows simultaneous detection of multiple molecular species by using spectrally distinct fluorescence probes. However, due to the broad spectra of fluorescence emission, the multiplicity of fluorescence measurement is generally limited. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method to digitally modulate fluorescence output signals with a molecular-sized optical logic circuit by using optical control of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The circuit receives a set of optical inputs represented with different light wavelengths, and then it switches high and low fluorescence intensity from a reporting molecule according to the result of the logic operation. By using combinational optical inputs in readout of fluorescence signals, the number of biomolecular species that can be identified is increased. To implement the FRET-based circuits, we designed two types of basic elements, YES and NOT switches. An YES switch produces a high-level output intensity when receiving a designated light wavelength input and a low-level intensity without the light irradiation. A NOT switch operates inversely to the YES switch. In experiments, we investigated the operation of the YES and NOT switches that receive a 532-nm light input and modulate the fluorescence intensity of Alexa Fluor 488. The experimental result demonstrates that the switches can modulate fluorescence signals according to the optical input.

  6. Use of higher order signal moments and high speed digital sampling technique for neutron flux measurements

    Baers, L. B.; Gutierrez, T. Rivero; Mendoza, R. A. Carrillo; Santana, G. Jimenez

    1993-08-01

    The second (conventional variance or Campbell signal), the third, and the modified fourth order central signal moments associated with the amplified and filtered currents from two electrodes of an ex-core neutron sensitive fission detector were measured versus the reactor power of the 1-MW TRIGA reactor in Mexico City. Two channels of a high-speed (400-MHz) multiplexing data sampler and an analog-to-digital converter with 12-b resolution and 1-Mword buffer memory were used. The data were further retrieved into a PC, and estimates for autocorrelation and cross-correlation moments up to the fifth order, coherence, skewness, excess, etc., quantities were calculated offline. Five-mode operation of the detector was achieved, including conventional counting rates and currents in agreement with theory and the authors' previous results with analog techniques. The signals are proportional to the neutron flux and reactor power in some flux ranges. The suppression of background noise is improved and the lower limit of the measurement range is extended as the order of moment is increased, in agreement with theory.

  7. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  8. An all digital phase locked loop for synchronization of a sinusoidal signal embedded in white Gaussian noise

    Reddy, C. P.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    An all digital phase locked loop which tracks the phase of the incoming sinusoidal signal once per carrier cycle is proposed. The different elements and their functions and the phase lock operation are explained in detail. The nonlinear difference equations which govern the operation of the digital loop when the incoming signal is embedded in white Gaussian noise are derived, and a suitable model is specified. The performance of the digital loop is considered for the synchronization of a sinusoidal signal. For this, the noise term is suitably modelled which allows specification of the output probabilities for the two level quantizer in the loop at any given phase error. The loop filter considered increases the probability of proper phase correction. The phase error states in modulo two-pi forms a finite state Markov chain which enables the calculation of steady state probabilities, RMS phase error, transient response and mean time for cycle skipping.

  9. Biomedical signal and image processing

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  10. Digital signal processing reveals circadian baseline oscillation in majority of mammalian genes.

    Andrey A Ptitsyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian periodicity has been described for gene expression in the hypothalamus and multiple peripheral tissues. It is accepted that 10%-15% of all genes oscillate in a daily rhythm, regulated by an intrinsic molecular clock. Statistical analyses of periodicity are limited by the small size of datasets and high levels of stochastic noise. Here, we propose a new approach applying digital signal processing algorithms separately to each group of genes oscillating in the same phase. Combined with the statistical tests for periodicity, this method identifies circadian baseline oscillation in almost 100% of all expressed genes. Consequently, circadian oscillation in gene expression should be evaluated in any study related to biological pathways. Changes in gene expression caused by mutations or regulation of environmental factors (such as photic stimuli or feeding should be considered in the context of changes in the amplitude and phase of genetic oscillations.

  11. [Digital signal processing of a novel neuron discharge model stimulation strategy for cochlear implants].

    Yang, Yiwei; Xu, Yuejin; Miu, Jichang; Zhou, Linghong; Xiao, Zhongju

    2012-10-01

    To apply the classic leakage integrate-and-fire models, based on the mechanism of the generation of physiological auditory stimulation, in the information processing coding of cochlear implants to improve the auditory result. The results of algorithm simulation in digital signal processor (DSP) were imported into Matlab for a comparative analysis. Compared with CIS coding, the algorithm of membrane potential integrate-and-fire (MPIF) allowed more natural pulse discharge in a pseudo-random manner to better fit the physiological structures. The MPIF algorithm can effectively solve the problem of the dynamic structure of the delivered auditory information sequence issued in the auditory center and allowed integration of the stimulating pulses and time coding to ensure the coherence and relevance of the stimulating pulse time.

  12. Low-complexity camera digital signal imaging for video document projection system

    Hsia, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Po-Shien

    2011-04-01

    We present high-performance and low-complexity algorithms for real-time camera imaging applications. The main functions of the proposed camera digital signal processing (DSP) involve color interpolation, white balance, adaptive binary processing, auto gain control, and edge and color enhancement for video projection systems. A series of simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good image quality while keeping computation cost and memory requirements low. On the basis of the proposed algorithms, the cost-effective hardware core is developed using Verilog HDL. The prototype chip has been verified with one low-cost programmable device. The real-time camera system can achieve 1270 × 792 resolution with the combination of extra components and can demonstrate each DSP function.

  13. A new ion detector array and digital-signal-processor-based interface

    Langstaff, D.P.; McGinnity, T.M.; Forbes, D.M.; Birkinshaw, K.; Lawton, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A new one-dimensional ion detector array on a silicon chip has been developed for use in mass spectrometry. It is much smaller and simpler than electro-optical arrays currently in use and in addition has a higher resolution and a zero noise level. The array consists of a one-dimensional array of metal strips (electrodes) with a pitch of 25 μm on the top surface of a silicon chip, each electrode having its own charge pulse sensor, 8-bit counter and control/interface circuitry. The chip is mounted on a ceramic substrate and is preceded by a micro-channel plate electron multiplier. Chips are butted to give a longer array. Test results show a stable operating region. A digital-signal-processor-based interface is described, which controls the mode of operation and reads the accumulated array data at the maximum rate to avoid counter overflow. (author)

  14. A new ion detector array and digital-signal-processor-based interface

    Langstaff, D.P.; McGinnity, T.M.; Forbes, D.M.; Birkinshaw, K. (University Coll. of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Lawton, M.W. (University of Wales Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-04-01

    A new one-dimensional ion detector array on a silicon chip has been developed for use in mass spectrometry. It is much smaller and simpler than electro-optical arrays currently in use and in addition has a higher resolution and a zero noise level. The array consists of a one-dimensional array of metal strips (electrodes) with a pitch of 25 [mu]m on the top surface of a silicon chip, each electrode having its own charge pulse sensor, 8-bit counter and control/interface circuitry. The chip is mounted on a ceramic substrate and is preceded by a micro-channel plate electron multiplier. Chips are butted to give a longer array. Test results show a stable operating region. A digital-signal-processor-based interface is described, which controls the mode of operation and reads the accumulated array data at the maximum rate to avoid counter overflow. (author).

  15. Signal processing for high granularity calorimeter: amplification, filtering, memorization and digitalization

    Royer, L; Manen, S; Gay, P, E-mail: royer@clermont.in2p3.f [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2010-12-15

    A very-front-end electronics dedicated to high granularity calorimeters has been designed and its performance measured. This electronics performs the amplification of the charge delivered by the detector thanks to a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier. The dynamic range is improved using a bandpass filter based on a Gated Integrator. Studying its weighting function, we show that this filter is more efficient than standard CRRC shaper, thanks to the integration time which can be expand near the bunch interval time, whereas the peaking time of the CRRC shaper is limited to pile-up consideration. Moreover, the Gated Integrator performs intrinsically the analog memorization of the signal before its delayed digital conversion. The analog-to-digital conversion is performed through a 12-bit cyclic ADC specifically developed for this application. The very-front-end channel has been fabricated using a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. Measurements show a global non-linearity better than 0.1%. The Equivalent Noise Charge at the input of the channel is evaluated to 1.8 fC, compare to the maximum input charge of 10 pC. The power consumption of the complete channel is limited to 6.5 mW.

  16. Virtual instrumentation technique used in the nuclear digital signal processing system design: Energy and time measurement tests

    Pechousek, J.; Prochazka, R.; Prochazka, V.; Frydrych, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report, computer-based digital signal processing system with a 200 MS s -1 sampling digitizer is presented. Virtual instrumentation technique is used to easily develop a system which provides spectroscopy measurements such as amplitude and time signal analysis, with the time-of-flight facility. Several test measurements were performed to determine the characteristics of a system. The presented system may find its application in the coincidence measurement since the system is usable for different types of detectors and sensitive to decay lifetimes from tens of nanoseconds to seconds.

  17. Some important aspects of the amplitude, charge and shape analog signals digitization in nuclear physics experiment

    Kulka, Z.

    1995-01-01

    One of the fundamental reasons of the special requirements concerning analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) used in nuclear experimental physics, especially in nuclear spectroscopy, in comparison to the conventional ADC's is a fact that they are utilized for continuous distribution measurements which are the nuclear radiation spectra. The ADC's used for distribution registration in form of amplitude or charge histogram spectra should have the differential linearity of two orders of magnitude better than that for conventional ADC's. Moreover, the problem of achievement the acceptable differential linearity (as well as stability) in nuclear spectroscopy is much more complicated because high resolution and high speed of the converters are also required. The first requirement comes out from application of semiconductor detectors, the second one comes from the statistical character of the nuclear processes, as well as, a necessity of collection of huge amount of nuclear data - often in a short time. In this report the influence of the specific needs of the nuclear experiments on the conversion methods selection and construction principles of the pulse ADC's is analyzed. Focus is taken on these ADC's which are used mainly to digital amplitude and charge detector signals measurements in nuclear spectroscopy. Based on the chosen examples of different types of ADC's it is shown how to obtain the required metrological parameters by using enlarged converter's structures and proper choice of the electronics components. In addition, a problem of the detector signals shape measurements in particle physics using the high speed flash ADC's is also discussed. (author). 196 refs, 99 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Optimal design of RTCs in digital circuit fault self-repair based on global signal optimization

    Zhang Junbin; Cai Jinyan; Meng Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Since digital circuits have been widely and thoroughly applied in various fields, electronic systems are increasingly more complicated and require greater reliability. Faults may occur in elec-tronic systems in complicated environments. If immediate field repairs are not made on the faults, elec-tronic systems will not run normally, and this will lead to serious losses. The traditional method for improving system reliability based on redundant fault-tolerant technique has been unable to meet the requirements. Therefore, on the basis of (evolvable hardware)-based and (reparation balance technology)-based electronic circuit fault self-repair strategy proposed in our preliminary work, the optimal design of rectification circuits (RTCs) in electronic circuit fault self-repair based on global sig-nal optimization is deeply researched in this paper. First of all, the basic theory of RTC optimal design based on global signal optimization is proposed. Secondly, relevant considerations and suitable ranges are analyzed. Then, the basic flow of RTC optimal design is researched. Eventually, a typical circuit is selected for simulation verification, and detailed simulated analysis is made on five circumstances that occur during RTC evolution. The simulation results prove that compared with the conventional design method based RTC, the global signal optimization design method based RTC is lower in hardware cost, faster in circuit evolution, higher in convergent precision, and higher in circuit evolution success rate. Therefore, the global signal optimization based RTC optimal design method applied in the elec-tronic circuit fault self-repair technology is proven to be feasible, effective, and advantageous.

  19. Improved initial guess with semi-subpixel level accuracy in digital image correlation by feature-based method

    Zhang, Yunlu; Yan, Lei; Liou, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The quality initial guess of deformation parameters in digital image correlation (DIC) has a serious impact on convergence, robustness, and efficiency of the following subpixel level searching stage. In this work, an improved feature-based initial guess (FB-IG) scheme is presented to provide initial guess for points of interest (POIs) inside a large region. Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) features are semi-uniformly extracted from the region of interest (ROI) and matched to provide initial deformation information. False matched pairs are eliminated by the novel feature guided Gaussian mixture model (FG-GMM) point set registration algorithm, and nonuniform deformation parameters of the versatile reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) function are calculated simultaneously. Validations on simulated images and real-world mini tensile test verify that this scheme can robustly and accurately compute initial guesses with semi-subpixel level accuracy in cases with small or large translation, deformation, or rotation.

  20. Identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis by using the Delphi Technique

    Halim, N. Z. A.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Talib, K.; Ng, E. G.

    2018-02-01

    This paper explains the process carried out in identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis. The research was initially a part of a larger research exercise to identify the significance of NDCDB from the legal, technical, role and land-based analysis perspectives. The research methodology of applying the Delphi technique is substantially discussed in this paper. A heterogeneous panel of 14 experts was created to determine the importance of NDCDB from the technical relevance standpoint. Three statements describing the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis were established after three rounds of consensus building. It highlighted the NDCDB’s characteristics such as its spatial accuracy, functions, and criteria as a facilitating tool for spatial analysis. By recognising the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis in this study, practical application of NDCDB for various analysis and purpose can be widely implemented.

  1. EMG signals characterization in three states of contraction by fuzzy network and feature extraction

    Mokhlesabadifarahani, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Neuro-muscular and musculoskeletal disorders and injuries highly affect the life style and the motion abilities of an individual. This brief highlights a systematic method for detection of the level of muscle power declining in musculoskeletal and Neuro-muscular disorders. The neuro-fuzzy system is trained with 70 percent of the recorded Electromyography (EMG) cut off window and then used for classification and modeling purposes. The neuro-fuzzy classifier is validated in comparison to some other well-known classifiers in classification of the recorded EMG signals with the three states of contractions corresponding to the extracted features. Different structures of the neuro-fuzzy classifier are also comparatively analyzed to find the optimum structure of the classifier used.

  2. A high-speed digital signal processor for atmospheric radar, part 7.3A

    Brosnahan, J. W.; Woodard, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Model SP-320 device is a monolithic realization of a complex general purpose signal processor, incorporating such features as a 32-bit ALU, a 16-bit x 16-bit combinatorial multiplier, and a 16-bit barrel shifter. The SP-320 is designed to operate as a slave processor to a host general purpose computer in applications such as coherent integration of a radar return signal in multiple ranges, or dedicated FFT processing. Presently available is an I/O module conforming to the Intel Multichannel interface standard; other I/O modules will be designed to meet specific user requirements. The main processor board includes input and output FIFO (First In First Out) memories, both with depths of 4096 W, to permit asynchronous operation between the source of data and the host computer. This design permits burst data rates in excess of 5 MW/s.

  3. Condition monitoring of face milling tool using K-star algorithm and histogram features of vibration signal

    C.K. Madhusudana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fault diagnosis of the face milling tool based on machine learning approach using histogram features and K-star algorithm technique. Vibration signals of the milling tool under healthy and different fault conditions are acquired during machining of steel alloy 42CrMo4. Histogram features are extracted from the acquired signals. The decision tree is used to select the salient features out of all the extracted features and these selected features are used as an input to the classifier. K-star algorithm is used as a classifier and the output of the model is utilised to study and classify the different conditions of the face milling tool. Based on the experimental results, K-star algorithm is provided a better classification accuracy in the range from 94% to 96% with histogram features and is acceptable for fault diagnosis.

  4. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Agostini, M; Pandola, L; Zavarise, P; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  5. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  6. Climate Signals: An On-Line Digital Platform for Mapping Climate Change Impacts in Real Time

    Cutting, H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate Signals is an on-line digital platform for cataloging and mapping the impacts of climate change. The CS platform specifies and details the chains of connections between greenhouse gas emissions and individual climate events. Currently in open-beta release, the platform is designed to to engage and serve the general public, news media, and policy-makers, particularly in real-time during extreme climate events. Climate Signals consists of a curated relational database of events and their links to climate change, a mapping engine, and a gallery of climate change monitors offering real-time data. For each event in the database, an infographic engine provides a custom attribution "tree" that illustrates the connections to climate change. In addition, links to key contextual resources are aggregated and curated for each event. All event records are fully annotated with detailed source citations and corresponding hyper links. The system of attribution used to link events to climate change in real-time is detailed here. This open-beta release is offered for public user testing and engagement. Launched in May 2016, the operation of this platform offers lessons for public engagement in climate change impacts.

  7. A comparative study of the energy resolution achievable with digital signal processors in x-ray spectroscopy

    Geraci, A.; Zambusi, M.; Ripamonti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Interest for digital processing of signals from radiation detectors is subject to a growing attention due to its intrinsic adaptivity, easiness of calibration, etc. This work compares two digital processing methods: a multiple-delay-line (DL) N filter and a least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive filter for applications in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The signal pulse, as appears at the output of a proper analog conditioning circuit, is digitized; the samples undergo a digital filtering procedure. Both digital filters take advantage of the possibility of synthesizing the best possible weighting function with respect to the actual noise conditions. A noticeable improvement of more than 10% in energy resolution has been achieved with both systems with respect to state-of-the-art systems based on analog circuitry. In particular, the two digital processors are shown to be the best choice respectively; for on-line use with critical ballistic deficit conditions and for very-high-resolution spectroscopy systems, ultimately limited by 1/f noise

  8. Visual feature integration indicated by pHase-locked frontal-parietal EEG signals.

    Phillips, Steven; Takeda, Yuji; Singh, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to integrate multiple sources of information is a prerequisite for complex cognitive ability, such as finding a target uniquely identifiable by the conjunction of two or more features. Recent studies identified greater frontal-parietal synchrony during conjunctive than non-conjunctive (feature) search. Whether this difference also reflects greater information integration, rather than just differences in cognitive strategy (e.g., top-down versus bottom-up control of attention), or task difficulty is uncertain. Here, we examine the first possibility by parametrically varying the number of integrated sources from one to three and measuring phase-locking values (PLV) of frontal-parietal EEG electrode signals, as indicators of synchrony. Linear regressions, under hierarchical false-discovery rate control, indicated significant positive slopes for number of sources on PLV in the 30-38 Hz, 175-250 ms post-stimulus frequency-time band for pairs in the sagittal plane (i.e., F3-P3, Fz-Pz, F4-P4), after equating conditions for behavioural performance (to exclude effects due to task difficulty). No such effects were observed for pairs in the transverse plane (i.e., F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4). These results provide support for the idea that anterior-posterior phase-locking in the lower gamma-band mediates integration of visual information. They also provide a potential window into cognitive development, seen as developing the capacity to integrate more sources of information.

  9. Driver Fatigue Detection System Using Electroencephalography Signals Based on Combined Entropy Features

    Zhendong Mu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue has become one of the major causes of traffic accidents, and is a complicated physiological process. However, there is no effective method to detect driving fatigue. Electroencephalography (EEG signals are complex, unstable, and non-linear; non-linear analysis methods, such as entropy, maybe more appropriate. This study evaluates a combined entropy-based processing method of EEG data to detect driver fatigue. In this paper, 12 subjects were selected to take part in an experiment, obeying driving training in a virtual environment under the instruction of the operator. Four types of enthrones (spectrum entropy, approximate entropy, sample entropy and fuzzy entropy were used to extract features for the purpose of driver fatigue detection. Electrode selection process and a support vector machine (SVM classification algorithm were also proposed. The average recognition accuracy was 98.75%. Retrospective analysis of the EEG showed that the extracted features from electrodes T5, TP7, TP8 and FP1 may yield better performance. SVM classification algorithm using radial basis function as kernel function obtained better results. A combined entropy-based method demonstrates good classification performance for studying driver fatigue detection.

  10. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  11. DIGITAL

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. Iterative Signal Processing for Mitigation of Analog-to-Digital Converter Clipping Distortion in Multiband OFDMA Receivers

    Markus Allén

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern wideband communication receivers, the large input-signal dynamics is a fundamental problem. Unintentional signal clipping occurs, if the receiver front-end with the analog-to-digital interface cannot respond to rapidly varying conditions. This paper discusses digital postprocessing compensation of such unintentional clipping in multiband OFDMA receivers. The proposed method iteratively mitigates the clipping distortion by exploiting the symbol decisions. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated with various computer simulations and also verified by concrete laboratory measurements with commercially available analog-to-digital hardware. It is shown that the clipping compensation algorithm implemented in a turbo decoding OFDM receiver is able to remove almost all the clipping distortion even under significant clipping in fading channel circumstances. That is to say, it is possible to nearly recover the receiver performance to the level, which would be achieved in the equivalent nonclipped situation.

  13. Analysis of progression of fatigue conditions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and complexity based features.

    Karthick, P A; Makaram, Navaneethakrishna; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition where muscle performance decreases due to sustained or intense contraction. It is experienced by both normal and abnormal subjects. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the progression of muscle fatigue in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The sEMG signals are recorded from fifty healthy volunteers during dynamic contractions under well defined protocol. The acquired signals are preprocessed and segmented in to six equal parts for further analysis. The features, such as activity, mobility, complexity, sample entropy and spectral entropy are extracted from all six zones. The results are found showing that the extracted features except complexity feature have significant variations in differentiating non-fatigue and fatigue zone respectively. Thus, it appears that, these features are useful in automated analysis of various neuromuscular activities in normal and pathological conditions.

  14. 37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for secondary... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  15. First Tests of a New Fast Waveform Digitizer for PMT Signal Read-out from Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detectors

    Szelc, A. M.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Cortopassi, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Mini, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Romboli, A.; Segreto, E.; Acciarri, R.

    A new generation Waveform Digitizer board as been recently made available on the market by CAEN. The new board CAEN V1751 with 8 Channels per board, 10 bit, 1 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer (or 4 channel, 10 bit, 2 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer -Dual Edge Sampling mode) with threshold and Auto-Trigger capabilities provides an ideal (relatively low-cost) solution for reading signals from liquid Argon detectors for Dark Matter search equipped with an array of PMTs for the detection of scintillation light. The board was extensively used in real experimental conditions to test its usefulness for possible future uses and to compare it with a state of the art digital oscilloscope. As results, PMT Signal sampling at 1 or 2 GS/s is appropriate for the reconstruction of the fast component of the signal scintillation in Argon (characteristic time of about 4 ns) and the extended dynamic range, after a small customization, allows for the detection of signals in the range of energy needed. The bandwidth is found to be adequate and the intrinsic noise is very low.

  16. Dependable Digitally-Assisted Mixed-Signal IPs Based on Integrated Self-Test & Self-Calibration

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Wan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous SoC devices, including sensors, analogue and mixed-signal front-end circuits and the availability of massive digital processing capability, are being increasingly used in safety-critical applications like in the automotive, medical, and the security arena. Already a significant amount

  17. Digital soil mapping using remote sensing indices, terrain attributes, and vegetation features in the rangelands of northeastern Iran.

    Mahmoudabadi, Ebrahim; Karimi, Alireza; Haghnia, Gholam Hosain; Sepehr, Adel

    2017-09-11

    Digital soil mapping has been introduced as a viable alternative to the traditional mapping methods due to being fast and cost-effective. The objective of the present study was to investigate the capability of the vegetation features and spectral indices as auxiliary variables in digital soil mapping models to predict soil properties. A region with an area of 1225 ha located in Bajgiran rangelands, Khorasan Razavi province, northeastern Iran, was chosen. A total of 137 sampling sites, each containing 3-5 plots with 10-m interval distance along a transect established based on randomized-systematic method, were investigated. In each plot, plant species names and numbers as well as vegetation cover percentage (VCP) were recorded, and finally one composite soil sample was taken from each transect at each site (137 soil samples in total). Terrain attributes were derived from a digital elevation model, different bands and spectral indices were obtained from the Landsat7 ETM+ images, and vegetation features were calculated in the plots, all of which were used as auxiliary variables to predict soil properties using artificial neural network, gene expression programming, and multivariate linear regression models. According to R 2 RMSE and MBE values, artificial neutral network was obtained as the most accurate soil properties prediction function used in scorpan model. Vegetation features and indices were more effective than remotely sensed data and terrain attributes in predicting soil properties including calcium carbonate equivalent, clay, bulk density, total nitrogen, carbon, sand, silt, and saturated moisture capacity. It was also shown that vegetation indices including NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, SARVI, RDVI, and DVI were more effective in estimating the majority of soil properties compared to separate bands and even some soil spectral indices.

  18. Experiment on Synchronous Timing Signal Detection from ISDB-T Terrestrial Digital TV Signal with Application to Autonomous Distributed ITS-IVC Network

    Karasawa, Yoshio; Kumagai, Taichi; Takemoto, Atsushi; Fujii, Takeo; Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Noriyoshi

    A novel timing synchronizing scheme is proposed for use in inter-vehicle communication (IVC) with an autonomous distributed intelligent transport system (ITS). The scheme determines the timing of packet signal transmission in the IVC network and employs the guard interval (GI) timing in the orthogonal frequency divisional multiplexing (OFDM) signal currently used for terrestrial broadcasts in the Japanese digital television system (ISDB-T). This signal is used because it is expected that the automotive market will demand the capability for cars to receive terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in the near future. The use of broadcasts by automobiles presupposes that the on-board receivers are capable of accurately detecting the GI timing data in an extremely low carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) condition regardless of a severe multipath environment which will introduce broad scatter in signal arrival times. Therefore, we analyzed actual broadcast signals received in a moving vehicle in a field experiment and showed that the GI timing signal is detected with the desired accuracy even in the case of extremely low-CNR environments. Some considerations were also given about how to use these findings.

  19. ESR signal features of 60Co γ-ray irradiated bone tissue and its dose response relationship

    Wu Ke; Sun Zunpu; Shi Yuanming

    1993-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to study the radiation-induced ESR signal features of different paramagnetic species of 60 Co γ-ray irradiated bone tissue. The results showed that the intensity of an ESR signal at that the intensity of an ESR signal at g 2.0022 of human bones exposed to a dose range of 0-50 Gy had linear dose response relationships. The lower limit of detectable dose was about 2 Gy and the detecting error was about 10%. The signal was stable at room temperature during 60 days, and the effect of radiation dose rate of 0.5-8.0 Gy/min could be neglected. This signal was insensitive to microwave power and temperature, which was suitable for rapid and direct detection with ESR technique. These features suggest that human bones could be used for radiation accident dose evaluation by ESR

  20. Classification of Knee Joint Vibration Signals Using Bivariate Feature Distribution Estimation and Maximal Posterior Probability Decision Criterion

    Fang Zheng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of knee joint vibration or vibroarthrographic (VAG signals using signal processing and machine learning algorithms possesses high potential for the noninvasive detection of articular cartilage degeneration, which may reduce unnecessary exploratory surgery. Feature representation of knee joint VAG signals helps characterize the pathological condition of degenerative articular cartilages in the knee. This paper used the kernel-based probability density estimation method to model the distributions of the VAG signals recorded from healthy subjects and patients with knee joint disorders. The estimated densities of the VAG signals showed explicit distributions of the normal and abnormal signal groups, along with the corresponding contours in the bivariate feature space. The signal classifications were performed by using the Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine with polynomial kernels, and the maximal posterior probability decision criterion. The maximal posterior probability decision criterion was able to provide the total classification accuracy of 86.67% and the area (Az of 0.9096 under the receiver operating characteristics curve, which were superior to the results obtained by either the Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (accuracy: 81.33%, Az: 0.8564 or the support vector machine with polynomial kernels (accuracy: 81.33%, Az: 0.8533. Such results demonstrated the merits of the bivariate feature distribution estimation and the superiority of the maximal posterior probability decision criterion for analysis of knee joint VAG signals.

  1. A New Built-in Self Test Scheme for Phase-Locked Loops Using Internal Digital Signals

    Kim, Youbean; Kim, Kicheol; Kim, Incheol; Kang, Sungho

    Testing PLLs (phase-locked loops) is becoming an important issue that affects both time-to-market and production cost of electronic systems. Though a PLL is the most common mixed-signal building block, it is very difficult to test due to internal analog blocks and signals. In this paper, we propose a new PLL BIST (built-in self test) using the distorted frequency detector that uses only internal digital signals. The proposed BIST does not need to load any analog nodes of the PLL. Therefore, it provides an efficient defect-oriented structural test scheme, reduced area overhead, and improved test quality compared with previous approaches.

  2. Features of the Phosphatidylinositol Cycle and its Role in Signal Transduction.

    Epand, Richard M

    2017-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol cycle (PI-cycle) has a central role in cell signaling. It is the major pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated forms. In addition, some lipid intermediates of the PI-cycle, including diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid, are also important lipid signaling agents. The PI-cycle has some features that are important for the understanding of its role in the cell. As a cycle, the intermediates will be regenerated. The PI-cycle requires a large amount of metabolic energy. There are different steps of the cycle that occur in two different membranes, the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. In order to complete the PI-cycle lipid must be transferred between the two membranes. The role of the Nir proteins in the process has recently been elucidated. The lipid intermediates of the PI-cycle are normally highly enriched with 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl molecular species in mammals. This enrichment will be retained as long as the intermediates are segregated from other lipids of the cell. However, there is a significant fraction (>15 %) of lipids in the PI-cycle of normal cells that have other acyl chains. Phosphatidylinositol largely devoid of arachidonoyl chains are found in cancer cells. Phosphatidylinositol species with less unsaturation will not be as readily converted to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, the lipid required for the activation of Akt with resulting effects on cell proliferation. Thus, the cyclical nature of the PI-cycle, its dependence on acyl chain composition and its requirement for lipid transfer between two membranes, explain many of the biological properties of this cycle.

  3. A GI Proposal to Display ECG Digital Signals Wirelessly Real-time Transmitted onto a Remote PC

    Marius Corneliu Rosu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensors, as wireless communication system, comply the 7-layer model Open Systems Interconnection (OSI. In this paper, a point-to-point transmission model was used. The ECG signal is transmitted from the Router Sensor (RS to an end Coordinator Node (CN plugged-in to the laptop via USB port; RS acquires ECG signal in analogical mode, and is also responsible with sampling, quantization and sending it wirelessly direct to CN. The distance between RS and CN is a single-hop transmission, and does not exceed the range of the XBeeS2Pro transceivers. The communication protocol is ZigBee. Remote viewing of the transmitted signal is performed on a Graphical Interface (GI written under MATLAB, after the signal has been digitized; the choice of MATLAB was motivated by future developments. Particular aspects will be highlighted, so that the reader to be edified about the results obtained during laboratory experiments. Recording demonstrate that the purpose exposed in title has been reached: Direct link in Real-Time was established, and the digital ECG signal received is reconstituted accurately on MATLAB GI; signal received on laptop is compared with the analog signal displayed on oscilloscope.

  4. Counter electrojet features in the Brazilian sector: simultaneous observation by radar, digital sounder and magnetometers

    C. M. Denardini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show new results regarding equatorial counter electrojet (CEJ events in the Brazilian sector, based on the RESCO radar, two set of fluxgate magnetometer systems and a digital sounder. RESCO radar is a 50 MHz backscatter coherent radar installed in 1998 at São Luís (SLZ, 2.33° S, 44.60° W, an equatorial site. The Digital sounder routinely monitors the electron density profile at the radar site. The magnetometer systems are fluxgate-type installed at SLZ and Eusébio (EUS, 03.89° S, 38.44° W. From the difference between the horizontal component of magnetic field at SLZ station and the same component at EUS (EEJ ground strength several cases of westward morning electrojet and its normal inversion to the eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ have been observed. Also, the EEJ ground strength has shown some cases of CEJ events, which been detected with the RESCO radar too. Detection of these events were investigated with respect to their time and height of occurrence, correlation with sporadic E (Es layers at the same time, and their spectral characteristics as well as the radar echo power intensity.

  5. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing Based on FPGAs for Electronic Skin Implementation †

    Ali Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enabling touch-sensing capability would help appliances understand interaction behaviors with their surroundings. Many recent studies are focusing on the development of electronic skin because of its necessity in various application domains, namely autonomous artificial intelligence (e.g., robots, biomedical instrumentation, and replacement prosthetic devices. An essential task of the electronic skin system is to locally process the tactile data and send structured information either to mimic human skin or to respond to the application demands. The electronic skin must be fabricated together with an embedded electronic system which has the role of acquiring the tactile data, processing, and extracting structured information. On the other hand, processing tactile data requires efficient methods to extract meaningful information from raw sensor data. Machine learning represents an effective method for data analysis in many domains: it has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in processing tactile sensor data. In this framework, this paper presents the implementation of digital signal processing based on FPGAs for tactile data processing. It provides the implementation of a tensorial kernel function for a machine learning approach. Implementation results are assessed by highlighting the FPGA resource utilization and power consumption. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed implementation when real-time classification of input touch modalities are targeted.

  6. Design and evaluation of an architecture for a digital signal processor for instrumentation applications

    Fellman, Ronald D.; Kaneshiro, Ronald T.; Konstantinides, Konstantinos

    1990-03-01

    The authors present the design and evaluation of an architecture for a monolithic, programmable, floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) for instrumentation applications. An investigation of the most commonly used algorithms in instrumentation led to a design that satisfies the requirements for high computational and I/O (input/output) throughput. In the arithmetic unit, a 16- x 16-bit multiplier and a 32-bit accumulator provide the capability for single-cycle multiply/accumulate operations, and three format adjusters automatically adjust the data format for increased accuracy and dynamic range. An on-chip I/O unit is capable of handling data block transfers through a direct memory access port and real-time data streams through a pair of parallel I/O ports. I/O operations and program execution are performed in parallel. In addition, the processor includes two data memories with independent addressing units, a microsequencer with instruction RAM, and multiplexers for internal data redirection. The authors also present the structure and implementation of a design environment suitable for the algorithmic, behavioral, and timing simulation of a complete DSP system. Various benchmarking results are reported.

  7. The UTMOST: A Hybrid Digital Signal Processor Transforms the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope

    Bailes, M.; Jameson, A.; Flynn, C.; Bateman, T.; Barr, E. D.; Bhandari, S.; Bunton, J. D.; Caleb, M.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Farah, W.; Gaensler, B.; Green, A. J.; Hunstead, R. W.; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Murphy, Tara; O'Neill, M.; Osłowski, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Ravi, V.; Rosado, P.; Temby, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820-851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.

  8. Digital speech processing using Matlab

    Gopi, E S

    2014-01-01

    Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.

  9. Struggling readers learning with graphic-rich digital science text: Effects of a Highlight & Animate Feature and Manipulable Graphics

    Defrance, Nancy L.

    Technology offers promise of 'leveling the playing field' for struggling readers. That is, instructional support features within digital texts may enable all readers to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined the effects on learning of two support features, which offered unique opportunities to interact with text. The Highlight & Animate Feature highlighted an important idea in prose, while simultaneously animating its representation in an adjacent graphic. It invited readers to integrate ideas depicted in graphics and prose, using each one to interpret the other. The Manipulable Graphics had parts that the reader could operate to discover relationships among phenomena. It invited readers to test or refine the ideas that they brought to, or gleaned from, the text. Use of these support features was compulsory. Twenty fifth grade struggling readers read a graphic-rich digital science text in a clinical interview setting, under one of two conditions: using either the Highlight & Animate Feature or the Manipulable Graphics. Participants in both conditions made statistically significant gains on a multiple choice measure of knowledge of the topic of the text. While there were no significant differences by condition in the amount of knowledge gained; there were significant differences in the quality of knowledge expressed. Transcripts revealed that understandings about light and vision, expressed by those who used the Highlight & Animate Feature, were more often conceptually and linguistically 'complete.' That is, their understandings included both a description of phenomena as well as an explanation of underlying scientific principles, which participants articulated using the vocabulary of the text. This finding may be attributed to the multiple opportunities to integrate graphics (depicting the behavior of phenomena) and prose (providing the scientific explanation of that phenomena), which characterized the Highlight & Animate Condition. Those who used the

  10. A novel strategy for signal denoising using reweighted SVD and its applications to weak fault feature enhancement of rotating machinery

    Zhao, Ming; Jia, Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD), as an effective signal denoising tool, has been attracting considerable attention in recent years. The basic idea behind SVD denoising is to preserve the singular components (SCs) with significant singular values. However, it is shown that the singular values mainly reflect the energy of decomposed SCs, therefore traditional SVD denoising approaches are essentially energy-based, which tend to highlight the high-energy regular components in the measured signal, while ignoring the weak feature caused by early fault. To overcome this issue, a reweighted singular value decomposition (RSVD) strategy is proposed for signal denoising and weak feature enhancement. In this work, a novel information index called periodic modulation intensity is introduced to quantify the diagnostic information in a mechanical signal. With this index, the decomposed SCs can be evaluated and sorted according to their information levels, rather than energy. Based on that, a truncated linear weighting function is proposed to control the contribution of each SC in the reconstruction of the denoised signal. In this way, some weak but informative SCs could be highlighted effectively. The advantages of RSVD over traditional approaches are demonstrated by both simulated signals and real vibration/acoustic data from a two-stage gearbox as well as train bearings. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully extract the weak fault feature even in the presence of heavy noise and ambient interferences.

  11. PETCO2 measurement and feature extraction of capnogram signals for extubation outcomes from mechanical ventilation

    Rasera, Carmen C; Gewehr, Pedro M; Domingues, Adriana Maria T

    2015-01-01

    Capnography is a continuous and noninvasive method for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) measurement, and it has become the standard of care for basic respiratory monitoring for intubated patients in the intensive care unit. In addition, it has been used to adjust ventilatory parameters during mechanical ventilation (MV). However, a substantial debate remains as to whether capnography is useful during the process of weaning and extubation from MV during the postoperative period. Thus, the main objective of this study was to present a new use for time-based capnography data by measuring the end-tidal CO 2 pressure (PET CO 2 ), partial pressure of arterial CO 2 (Pa CO 2 ) and feature extraction of capnogram signals before extubation from MV to evaluate the capnography as a predictor of outcome extubation in infants after cardiac surgery. Altogether, 82 measurements were analysed, 71.9% patients were successfully extubated, and 28.1% met the criteria for extubation failure within 48 h. The ROC-AUC analysis for quantitative measure of the capnogram showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for: expiratory time (0.873), slope of phase III (0.866), slope ratio (0.923) and ascending angle (0.897). In addition, the analysis of PET CO 2 (0.895) and Pa CO 2   (0.924) obtained 30 min before extubation showed significant differences between groups. The PET CO 2 mean value for success and failure extubation group was 39.04 mmHg and 46.27 mmHg, respectively. It was also observed that high CO 2 values in patients who had returned MV was 82.8  ±  21 mmHg at the time of extubation failure. Thus, PET CO 2 measurements and analysis of features extracted from a capnogram can differentiate extubation outcomes in infant patients under MV, thereby reducing the physiologic instability caused by failure in this process. (paper)

  12. Novel Digital Features Discriminate Between Drought Resistant and Drought Sensitive Rice Under Controlled and Field Conditions

    Lingfeng Duan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic quantification of drought response is a key issue both for variety selection and for functional genetic study of rice drought resistance. Traditional assessment of drought resistance traits, such as stay-green and leaf-rolling, has utilized manual measurements, that are often subjective, error-prone, poorly quantified and time consuming. To relieve this phenotyping bottleneck, we demonstrate a feasible, robust and non-destructive method that dynamically quantifies response to drought, under both controlled and field conditions. Firstly, RGB images of individual rice plants at different growth points were analyzed to derive 4 features that were influenced by imposition of drought. These include a feature related to the ability to stay green, which we termed greenness plant area ratio (GPAR and 3 shape descriptors [total plant area/bounding rectangle area ratio (TBR, perimeter area ratio (PAR and total plant area/convex hull area ratio (TCR]. Experiments showed that these 4 features were capable of discriminating reliably between drought resistant and drought sensitive accessions, and dynamically quantifying the drought response under controlled conditions across time (at either daily or half hourly time intervals. We compared the 3 shape descriptors and concluded that PAR was more robust and sensitive to leaf-rolling than the other shape descriptors. In addition, PAR and GPAR proved to be effective in quantification of drought response in the field. Moreover, the values obtained in field experiments using the collection of rice varieties were correlated with those derived from pot-based experiments. The general applicability of the algorithms is demonstrated by their ability to probe archival Miscanthus data previously collected on an independent platform. In conclusion, this image-based technology is robust providing a platform-independent tool for quantifying drought response that should be of general utility for breeding and functional

  13. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  14. Digital DC-Reconstruction of AC-Coupled Electrophysiological Signals with a Single Inverting Filter

    Abächerli, Roger; Isaksen, Jonas; Schmid, Ramun

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital electrocardiographs, high-pass filters have been necessary for successful analog-to-digital conversion with a reasonable amplitude resolution. On the other hand, such high-pass filters may distort the diagnostically significant ST-segment of the ECG, which can...

  15. Use of Digital Signal Processors (DSP) in high energy physics experiments

    Crosetto, D.

    1988-01-01

    The FDDP - Fast Digital Data Processor - is a modular system for executing parallel digital processing algorithms to perform programmable trigger decisions or programmable on-line data reduction. Typical application involve zero suppression and pulse shape analysis. The characteristics of the system are: modularity, expandability and flexibility. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  16. New method for identifying features of an image on a digital video display

    Doyle, Michael D.

    1991-04-01

    The MetaMap process extends the concept of direct manipulation human-computer interfaces to new limits. Its specific capabilities include the correlation of discrete image elements to relevant text information and the correlation of these image features to other images as well as to program control mechanisms. The correlation is accomplished through reprogramming of both the color map and the image so that discrete image elements comprise unique sets of color indices. This process allows the correlation to be accomplished with very efficient data storage and program execution times. Image databases adapted to this process become object-oriented as a result. Very sophisticated interrelationships can be set up between images text and program control mechanisms using this process. An application of this interfacing process to the design of an interactive atlas of medical histology as well as other possible applications are described. The MetaMap process is protected by U. S. patent #4

  17. Genomic Targets and Features of BarA-UvrY (-SirA Signal Transduction Systems.

    Tesfalem R Zere

    Full Text Available The two-component signal transduction system BarA-UvrY of Escherichia coli and its orthologs globally regulate metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, stress resistance, virulence of pathogens and quorum sensing by activating the transcription of genes for regulatory sRNAs, e.g. CsrB and CsrC in E. coli. These sRNAs act by sequestering the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA away from lower affinity mRNA targets. In this study, we used ChIP-exo to identify, at single nucleotide resolution, genomic sites for UvrY (SirA binding in E. coli and Salmonella enterica. The csrB and csrC genes were the strongest targets of crosslinking, which required UvrY phosphorylation by the BarA sensor kinase. Crosslinking occurred at two sites, an inverted repeat sequence far upstream of the promoter and a site near the -35 sequence. DNAse I footprinting revealed specific binding of UvrY in vitro only to the upstream site, indicative of additional binding requirements and/or indirect binding to the downstream site. Additional genes, including cspA, encoding the cold-shock RNA-binding protein CspA, showed weaker crosslinking and modest or negligible regulation by UvrY. We conclude that the global effects of UvrY/SirA on gene expression are primarily mediated by activating csrB and csrC transcription. We also used in vivo crosslinking and other experimental approaches to reveal new features of csrB/csrC regulation by the DeaD and SrmB RNA helicases, IHF, ppGpp and DksA. Finally, the phylogenetic distribution of BarA-UvrY was analyzed and found to be uniquely characteristic of γ-Proteobacteria and strongly anti-correlated with fliW, which encodes a protein that binds to CsrA and antagonizes its activity in Bacillus subtilis. We propose that BarA-UvrY and orthologous TCS transcribe sRNA antagonists of CsrA throughout the γ-Proteobacteria, but rarely or never perform this function in other species.

  18. The Catchment Feature Model: A Device for Multimodal Fusion and a Bridge between Signal and Sense

    Quek, Francis

    2004-12-01

    The catchment feature model addresses two questions in the field of multimodal interaction: how we bridge video and audio processing with the realities of human multimodal communication, and how information from the different modes may be fused. We argue from a detailed literature review that gestural research has clustered around manipulative and semaphoric use of the hands, motivate the catchment feature model psycholinguistic research, and present the model. In contrast to "whole gesture" recognition, the catchment feature model applies a feature decomposition approach that facilitates cross-modal fusion at the level of discourse planning and conceptualization. We present our experimental framework for catchment feature-based research, cite three concrete examples of catchment features, and propose new directions of multimodal research based on the model.

  19. The Catchment Feature Model: A Device for Multimodal Fusion and a Bridge between Signal and Sense

    Francis Quek

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The catchment feature model addresses two questions in the field of multimodal interaction: how we bridge video and audio processing with the realities of human multimodal communication, and how information from the different modes may be fused. We argue from a detailed literature review that gestural research has clustered around manipulative and semaphoric use of the hands, motivate the catchment feature model psycholinguistic research, and present the model. In contrast to “whole gesture” recognition, the catchment feature model applies a feature decomposition approach that facilitates cross-modal fusion at the level of discourse planning and conceptualization. We present our experimental framework for catchment feature-based research, cite three concrete examples of catchment features, and propose new directions of multimodal research based on the model.

  20. Osteoarthritis of the knee: correlation of subchondral MR signal abnormalities with histopathologic and radiographic features

    Bergman, A.G.; Willen, H.K.; Lindstrand, A.L.; Pettersson, H.T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Subchondral signal abnormalities are often present on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with osteoarthritis, but no study correlating these changes with histopathology has been published. We selected nine consecutive patients with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee scheduled to under go joint replacement surgery, and performed MR imaging and conventional radiographs pre-operatively. After surgery, the resected portions of the femur and tibia underwent gross and microscopic examination, and the findings were correlated with the corresponding findings on the imaging studies. Subchondral MR signal abnormalities of the femur or tibia were present in seven of the nine patients, with intermediate signal on T1-weighted images and low or isointense signal on T2-weighted images. The subchondral signal abnormalities were hemispherical in configuration and corresponded predominantly to fibrous tissue replacing the fatty marrow. A component of trabecular thickening was also present. (orig.)

  1. Effect of various features on the life cycle cost of the timing/synchronization subsystem of the DCS digital communications network

    Kimsey, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on the life cycle cost of the timing subsystem was examined, when these optional features were included in various combinations. The features included mutual control, directed control, double-ended reference links, independence of clock error measurement and correction, phase reference combining, self-organization, smoothing for link and nodal dropouts, unequal reference weightings, and a master in a mutual control network. An overall design of a microprocessor-based timing subsystem was formulated. The microprocessor (8080) implements the digital filter portion of a digital phase locked loop, as well as other control functions such as organization of the network through communication with processors at neighboring nodes.

  2. Digital signal integrity and stability in the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system with the goal of identifying high-pT objects and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters within an overall latency of 2.5 microseconds. This trigger system is composed of the Preprocessor which digitises about 7200 analogue input channels and two digital processors to identify high-pT signatures and to calculate the energy sums. The digital part consists of multi-stage, pipelined custom-built modules. The high demands on connectivity between the initial analogue stage and digital part and between the custom-built modules are presented. Furthermore the techniques to establish timing regimes and verify connectivity and stable operation of these digital links will be described.

  3. Reconfigurable L-band Radar Transceiver using Digital Signal Synthesis, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal, builds upon the extensive research and digital radar design that has been successfully completed during the Phase I contract. Key innovations...

  4. Development of Filtered Bispectrum for EEG Signal Feature Extraction in Automatic Emotion Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Prima Dewi Purnamasari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of automatic emotion detection systems has recently gained significant attention due to the growing possibility of their implementation in several applications, including affective computing and various fields within biomedical engineering. Use of the electroencephalograph (EEG signal is preferred over facial expression, as people cannot control the EEG signal generated by their brain; the EEG ensures a stronger reliability in the psychological signal. However, because of its uniqueness between individuals and its vulnerability to noise, use of EEG signals can be rather complicated. In this paper, we propose a methodology to conduct EEG-based emotion recognition by using a filtered bispectrum as the feature extraction subsystem and an artificial neural network (ANN as the classifier. The bispectrum is theoretically superior to the power spectrum because it can identify phase coupling between the nonlinear process components of the EEG signal. In the feature extraction process, to extract the information contained in the bispectrum matrices, a 3D pyramid filter is used for sampling and quantifying the bispectrum value. Experiment results show that the mean percentage of the bispectrum value from 5 × 5 non-overlapped 3D pyramid filters produces the highest recognition rate. We found that reducing the number of EEG channels down to only eight in the frontal area of the brain does not significantly affect the recognition rate, and the number of data samples used in the training process is then increased to improve the recognition rate of the system. We have also utilized a probabilistic neural network (PNN as another classifier and compared its recognition rate with that of the back-propagation neural network (BPNN, and the results show that the PNN produces a comparable recognition rate and lower computational costs. Our research shows that the extracted bispectrum values of an EEG signal using 3D filtering as a feature extraction

  5. Digital Semaphore: Technical Feasibility of QR Code Optical Signaling for Fleet Communications

    2013-06-01

    Standards (http://www.iso.org) JIS Japanese Industrial Standard JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group (digital image format; http://www.jpeg.org) LED...Denso Wave corporation in the 1990s for the Japanese automotive manufacturing industry. See Appendix A for full details. Reed-Solomon Error...eliminates camera blur induced by the shutter, providing clear images at extremely high frame rates. Thusly, digital cinema cameras are more suitable

  6. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  7. Tests of variable-band multilayers designed for investigating optimal signal-to-noise vs artifact signal ratios in Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography (DDSA) imaging systems

    Boyers, D.; Ho, A.; Li, Q.; Piestrup, M.; Rice, M.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, various design techniques were applied to investigate the feasibility of controlling the bandwidth and bandshape profiles of tungsten/boron-carbon (W/B 4 C) and tungsten/silicon (W/Si) multilayers for optimizing their performance in synchrotron radiation based angiographical imaging systems at 33 keV. Varied parameters included alternative spacing geometries, material thickness ratios, and numbers of layer pairs. Planar optics with nominal design reflectivities of 30%--94% and bandwidths ranging from 0.6%--10% were designed at the Stanford Radiation Laboratory, fabricated by the Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company, and characterized on Beam Line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, in this paper we report selected results of these tests and review the possible use of the multilayers for determining optimal signal to noise vs. artifact signal ratios in practical Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography systems

  8. Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA): a novel method to quantify individual radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in detail.

    Marijnissen, A C A; Vincken, K L; Vos, P A J M; Saris, D B F; Viergever, M A; Bijlsma, J W J; Bartels, L W; Lafeber, F P J G

    2008-02-01

    Radiography is still the golden standard for imaging features of osteoarthritis (OA), such as joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Objective assessment, however, remains difficult. The goal of the present study was to evaluate a novel digital method to analyse standard knee radiographs. Standardized radiographs of 20 healthy and 55 OA knees were taken in general practise according to the semi-flexed method by Buckland-Wright. Joint Space Width (JSW), osteophyte area, subchondral bone density, joint angle, and tibial eminence height were measured as continuous variables using newly developed Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA) software on a standard PC. Two observers evaluated the radiographs twice, each on two different occasions. The observers were blinded to the source of the radiographs and to their previous measurements. Statistical analysis to compare measurements within and between observers was performed according to Bland and Altman. Correlations between KIDA data and Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) grade were calculated and data of healthy knees were compared to those of OA knees. Intra- and inter-observer variations for measurement of JSW, subchondral bone density, osteophytes, tibial eminence, and joint angle were small. Significant correlations were found between KIDA parameters and K&L grade. Furthermore, significant differences were found between healthy and OA knees. In addition to JSW measurement, objective evaluation of osteophyte formation and subchondral bone density is possible on standard radiographs. The measured differences between OA and healthy individuals suggest that KIDA allows detection of changes in time, although sensitivity to change has to be demonstrated in long-term follow-up studies.

  9. Robust classification of motor imagery EEG signals using statistical time–domain features

    Khorshidtalab, A; Salami, M J E; Hamedi, M

    2013-01-01

    The tradeoff between computational complexity and speed, in addition to growing demands for real-time BMI (brain–machine interface) systems, expose the necessity of applying methods with least possible complexity. Willison amplitude (WAMP) and slope sign change (SSC) are two promising time–domain features only if the right threshold value is defined for them. To overcome the drawback of going through trial and error for the determination of a suitable threshold value, modified WAMP and modified SSC are proposed in this paper. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of statistical time–domain features in which their effectiveness is evaluated with a support vector machine (SVM) is presented. To ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by the SVM, the performance of each feature is reassessed with supervised fuzzy C-means. The general assessment shows that every subject had at least one of his performances near or greater than 80%. The obtained results prove that for BMI applications, in which a few errors can be tolerated, these combinations of feature–classifier are suitable. Moreover, features that could perform satisfactorily were selected for feature combination. Combinations of the selected features are evaluated with the SVM, and they could significantly improve the results, in some cases, up to full accuracy. (paper)

  10. Character-Defining Features of Contributing Buildings and Structures in the Fort Gordon, Georgia, Signal School Campus Historic District

    2016-07-01

    aluminum and plate- glass doors, sidelights, and transoms [right] (ERDC-CERL, 2015). .................. 178 Figure 243. Ceiling -mounted light fixture...Light pattern” effect on wall The typical Signal School building is of cast-in-place concrete columns with a waffle floor/ ceiling structure. The...would have a significant effect on the character-defining feature of the classroom hall- ways as would installing a dropped ceiling to cover the

  11. Comparison of the analog and digital pulse-shaping methods in signal processing in nuclear detections

    Golnabi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe the potential applications of the new improved digital techniques and provide a meaningful figure of merit for the comparison of the analog and digital methods. The experimental operation of a typical digital pulse shaper used in a spectrometer with the 23 Na source and a Ge y-ray detector is discussed. The effect of different imposed dead time on the counted pulses is investigated. It is noticed that nuclear events distribution in all ranges of dead time does not obey Poisson's law and deviation from this distribution depends on the counting rate. For a given dead time, deviation from this distribution increases linearly by increasing imposed dead time. For a fixed dead time, when counting rate increases deviation from Poisson's distribution law increases accordingly, and vice versa. (Author)

  12. EEG signal classification based on artificial neural networks and amplitude spectra features

    Chojnowski, K.; FrÄ czek, J.

    BCI (called Brain-Computer Interface) is an interface that allows direct communication between human brain and an external device. It bases on EEG signal collection, processing and classification. In this paper a complete BCI system is presented which classifies EEG signal using artificial neural networks. For this purpose we used a multi-layered perceptron architecture trained with the RProp algorithm. Furthermore a simple multi-threaded method for automatic network structure optimizing was shown. We presented the results of our system in the opening and closing eyes recognition task. We also showed how our system could be used for controlling devices basing on imaginary hand movements.

  13. Time Domain Feature Extraction Technique for earth's electric field signal prior to the Earthquake

    Astuti, W; Sediono, W; Akmeliawati, R; Salami, M J E

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake is one of the most destructive of natural disasters that killed many people and destroyed a lot of properties. By considering these catastrophic effects, it is highly important of knowing ahead of earthquakes in order to reduce the number of victims and material losses. Earth's electric field is one of the features that can be used to predict earthquakes (EQs), since it has significant changes in the amplitude of the signal prior to the earthquake. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the earth's electric field due to earthquakes which occurred in Greece, between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2008. In that period of time, 13 earthquakes had occurred. 6 of them were recorded with magnitudes greater than Ms=5R (5R), while 7 of them were recorded with magnitudes greater than Ms=6R (6R). Time domain feature extraction technique is applied to analyze the 1st significant changes in the earth's electric field prior to the earthquake. Two different time domain feature extraction techniques are applied in this work, namely Simple Square Integral (SSI) and Root Mean Square (RMS). The 1st significant change of the earth's electric field signal in each of monitoring sites is extracted using those two techniques. The feature extraction result can be used as input parameter for an earthquake prediction system

  14. The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.; Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing

  15. Decoding spatial and temporal features of neuronal cAMP/PKA signaling with FRET biosensors.

    Castro, Liliana R V; Guiot, Elvire; Polito, Marina; Paupardin-Tritsch, Daniéle; Vincent, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulate a plethora of cellular functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. In neurons, the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade controls a number of biological properties such as axonal growth, pathfinding, efficacy of synaptic transmission, regulation of excitability, or long term changes. Genetically encoded optical biosensors for cAMP or PKA are considerably improving our understanding of these processes by providing a real-time measurement in living neurons. In this review, we describe the recent progress made in the creation of biosensors for cAMP or PKA activity. These biosensors revealed profound differences in the amplitude of the cAMP signal evoked by neuromodulators between various neuronal preparations. These responses can be resolved at the level of individual neurons, also revealing differences related to the neuronal type. At the sub-cellular level, biosensors reported different signal dynamics in domains like dendrites, cell body, nucleus, and axon. Combining this imaging approach with pharmacology or genetic models points at phosphodiesterases and phosphatases as critical regulatory proteins. Biosensor imaging will certainly emerge as a forefront tool to decipher the subtle mechanics of intracellular signaling. This will certainly help us to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs and foster the development of novel molecules for neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Features of measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of electrical machines

    Gyzhko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of the electrical machines using the diagnostic information-measuring system that uses Bluetooth wireless standard for the transmission of the measured data from moving parts of electrical machine is discussed.

  17. A Digital Signal Processor for Doppler Radar Sensing of Vital Signs

    2001-10-25

    shows a small spike halfway each heartbeat. This is known as the dicrotic notch , which signifies a sudden drop in pressure after systolic contraction...It is caused by a small reflux flow of blood back into the aortic valve and coronary vessels. This dicrotic notch in the heart signal is clipped...signal, and amax was the maximum amplitude of the signal in the specified window. The user could set the factor k, and it determined the threshold at

  18. Design and Implementation of a linear-phase equalizer in digital audio signal processing

    Slump, Cornelis H.; van Asma, C.G.M.; Barels, J.K.P.; Barels, J.K.P.; Brunink, W.J.A; Drenth, F.B.; Pol, J.V.; Schouten, D.S.; Samsom, M.M.; Samsom, M.M.; Herrmann, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution presents the four phases of a project aiming at the realization in VLSI of a digital audio equalizer with a linear phase characteristic. The first step includes the identification of the system requirements, based on experience and (psycho-acoustical) literature. Secondly, the

  19. Automatic sleep staging using empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transform, time-domain, and nonlinear dynamics features of heart rate variability signals.

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV

  20. Prediction of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation using recurrence plot-based features of the RR-interval signal

    Mohebbi, Maryam; Ghassemian, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and increases the risk of stroke. Predicting the onset of paroxysmal AF (PAF), based on noninvasive techniques, is clinically important and can be invaluable in order to avoid useless therapeutic intervention and to minimize risks for the patients. In this paper, we propose an effective PAF predictor which is based on the analysis of the RR-interval signal. This method consists of three steps: preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. In the first step, the QRS complexes are detected from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and then the RR-interval signal is extracted. In the next step, the recurrence plot (RP) of the RR-interval signal is obtained and five statistically significant features are extracted to characterize the basic patterns of the RP. These features consist of the recurrence rate, length of longest diagonal segments (L max  ), average length of the diagonal lines (L mean ), entropy, and trapping time. Recurrence quantification analysis can reveal subtle aspects of dynamics not easily appreciated by other methods and exhibits characteristic patterns which are caused by the typical dynamical behavior. In the final step, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier is used for PAF prediction. The performance of the proposed method in prediction of PAF episodes was evaluated using the Atrial Fibrillation Prediction Database (AFPDB) which consists of both 30 min ECG recordings that end just prior to the onset of PAF and segments at least 45 min distant from any PAF events. The obtained sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and negative predictivity were 97%, 100%, 100%, and 96%, respectively. The proposed methodology presents better results than other existing approaches

  1. Underwater Cylindrical Object Detection Using the Spectral Features of Active Sonar Signals with Logistic Regression Models

    Yoojeong Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of detecting objects bottoming on the sea floor is significant in various fields including civilian and military areas. The objective of this study is to investigate the logistic regression model to discriminate the target from the clutter and to verify the possibility of applying the model trained by the simulated data generated by the mathematical model to the real experimental data because it is not easy to obtain sufficient data in the underwater field. In the first stage of this study, when the clutter signal energy is so strong that the detection of a target is difficult, the logistic regression model is employed to distinguish the strong clutter signal and the target signal. Previous studies have found that if the clutter energy is larger, false detection occurs even for the various existing detection schemes. For this reason, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT magnitude spectrum of acoustic signals received by active sonar is applied to train the model to distinguish whether the received signal contains a target signal or not. The goodness of fit of the model is verified in terms of receiver operation characteristic (ROC, area under ROC curve (AUC, and classification table. The detection performance of the proposed model is evaluated in terms of detection rate according to target to clutter ratio (TCR. Furthermore, the real experimental data are employed to test the proposed approach. When using the experimental data to test the model, the logistic regression model is trained by the simulated data that are generated based on the mathematical model for the backscattering of the cylindrical object. The mathematical model is developed according to the size of the cylinder used in the experiment. Since the information on the experimental environment including the sound speed, the sediment type and such is not available, once simulated data are generated under various conditions, valid simulated data are selected using 70% of the

  2. An Evaluation of optional timing/synchronization features to support selection of an optimum design for the DCS digital communication network

    Bradley, D. B.; Cain, J. B., III; Williard, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The task was to evaluate the ability of a set of timing/synchronization subsystem features to provide a set of desirable characteristics for the evolving Defense Communications System digital communications network. The set of features related to the approaches by which timing/synchronization information could be disseminated throughout the network and the manner in which this information could be utilized to provide a synchronized network. These features, which could be utilized in a large number of different combinations, included mutual control, directed control, double ended reference links, independence of clock error measurement and correction, phase reference combining, and self organizing.

  3. Immunophilin ligands demonstrate common features of signal transduction leading to exocytosis or transcription.

    Hultsch, T; Albers, M W; Schreiber, S L; Hohman, R J

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the actions and interactions of the immunophilin ligands FK506, cyclosporin A (CsA), rapamycin, and 506BD suggest that complexes of FK506 with an FK506-binding protein or of CsA with a cyclophilin (CsA-binding protein) inhibit the T-cell receptor-mediated signal transduction that results in the transcription of interleukin 2. Now we report an identical spectrum of activities of FK506, CsA, rapamycin, and 506BD on IgE receptor-mediated signal transduction that results in exocytosis of secretory granules from the rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3, a mast cell model. Both FK506 and CsA inhibit receptor-mediated exocytosis (CsA IC50 = 200 nM; FK506 IC50 = 2 nM) without affecting early receptor-associated events (hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol, synthesis and release of eicosanoids, uptake of Ca2+). In contrast, rapamycin and 506BD, which share common structural elements with FK506, by themselves have no effect on IgE receptor-mediated exocytosis. Both compounds, however, prevent inhibition by FK506 but not by CsA. Affinity chromatography with FK506, CsA, and rapamycin matrices indicates that the same set of immunophilins present in RBL-2H3 cells have been found in Jurkat T cells and calf thymus; however, the relative amounts of these proteins differ in the two cell types. These results suggest the existence of a common step in cytoplasmic signaling in T cells and mast cells that may be part of a general signaling mechanism. Images PMID:1712484

  4. Development of an experimental device based on the digitalization of the signal and dedicated to the characterization of fission fragments and prompt neutrons

    Varapai, N.

    2006-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the digital technique for nuclear measurements. This new technique is based on the digitalization of the signals from the detectors and has several advantages. This technique allows us to extract the maximum amount of information contained in the signal shape. In the case of an ionization chamber this signal contains the necessary information on the particle kinetic energy, emission angle and mass. This method has been implemented for measurements of promptly emitted fission neutrons in coincidence with fission fragments from 252 Cf(sf). A double Frisch-grid ionization chamber is used as fission fragment detector. The promptly emitted neutrons are detected by a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. This work displays how delicate analysis of the digitalized signals permitted us to infer the mass and kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments as well as the neutron energy spectrum and multiplicity. The outline of this thesis is as follows: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the experimental tools used in this work. Chapter 3 explains the analysis procedure of the digitalized anode signal from an ionization chamber. Chapter 4 gives a detailed explanation of the analysis procedure of the digitalized signal from a neutron detector. In Chapter 5 the analysis procedure of the fission fragment events in coincidence with neutrons is given

  5. Non-conventional features of peripheral serotonin signalling - the gut and beyond.

    Spohn, Stephanie N; Mawe, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin was first discovered in the gut, and its conventional actions as an intercellular signalling molecule in the intrinsic and extrinsic enteric reflexes are well recognized, as are a number of serotonin signalling pharmacotherapeutic targets for treatment of nausea, diarrhoea or constipation. The latest discoveries have greatly broadened our understanding of non-conventional actions of peripheral serotonin within the gastrointestinal tract and in a number of other tissues. For example, it is now clear that bacteria within the lumen of the bowel influence serotonin synthesis and release by enterochromaffin cells. Also, serotonin can act both as a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling molecule in the intestinal mucosa via activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT 7 or 5-HT 4 receptors, respectively). For decades, serotonin receptors have been known to exist in a variety of tissues other than the gut, but studies have now provided strong evidence for physiological roles of serotonin in several important processes, including haematopoiesis, metabolic homeostasis and bone metabolism. Furthermore, evidence for serotonin synthesis in peripheral tissues outside of the gut is emerging. In this Review, we expand the discussion beyond gastrointestinal functions to highlight the roles of peripheral serotonin in colitis, haematopoiesis, energy and bone metabolism, and how serotonin is influenced by the gut microbiota.

  6. Digital Holography and 3D Imaging: introduction to the joint feature issue in Applied Optics and Journal of the Optical Society of America A.

    Kang, Hoonjong; Lee, Byoungho; Kozacki, Tomasz; Picart, Pascal; Situ, Guohai

    2018-01-01

    The OSA Topical Meeting on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH) was held 29 May to 1 June 2017 in Jeju Island, South Korea. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO) since 2007. This year, AO and the Journal of the Optical Society of America A (JOSA A) jointly decided to have one such feature issue in each journal. This feature issue includes 33 papers in AO and 9 in JOSA A and covers a large range of topics, reflecting the rapidly expanding techniques and applications of digital holography and 3D imaging. The upcoming DH meeting (DH 2018) will be held 25-28 June 2018 in Orlando, Florida, USA, as part of the OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress.

  7. Digital Holography and 3D Imaging: introduction to the joint feature issue in Applied Optics and Journal of the Optical Society of America B.

    Banerjee, Partha P; Osten, Wolfgang; Picart, Pascal; Cao, Liangcai; Nehmetallah, George

    2017-05-01

    The OSA Topical Meeting on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH) was held 25-28 July 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany, as part of the Imaging Congress. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO) since 2007. This year, AO and the Journal of the Optical Society of America B (JOSA B) jointly decided to have one such feature issue in each journal. This feature issue includes 31 papers in AO and 11 in JOSA B, and covers a large range of topics, reflecting the rapidly expanding techniques and applications of digital holography and 3D imaging. The upcoming DH meeting (DH 2017) will be held from 29 May to 1 June in Jeju Island, South Korea.

  8. Multi-Stage Feature Selection by Using Genetic Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Gearboxes Based on Vibration Signal

    Mariela Cerrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and techniques to improve the reliability, effectiveness and accuracy for fault diagnosis are considered valuable contributions. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance in the diagnosis system. The main aim of this research is to propose a multi-stage feature selection mechanism for selecting the best set of condition parameters on the time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals for fault diagnosis purposes in gearboxes. The selection is based on genetic algorithms, proposing in each stage a new subset of the best features regarding the classifier performance in a supervised environment. The selected features are augmented at each stage and used as input for a neural network classifier in the next step, while a new subset of feature candidates is treated by the selection process. As a result, the inherent exploration and exploitation of the genetic algorithms for finding the best solutions of the selection problem are locally focused. The Sensors 2015, 15 23904 approach is tested on a dataset from a real test bed with several fault classes under different running conditions of load and velocity. The model performance for diagnosis is over 98%.

  9. Advanced signal separation and recovery algorithms for digital x-ray spectroscopy

    Mahmoud, Imbaby I.; El-Tokhy, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is widely used for in-situ applications for samples analysis. Therefore, spectrum drawing and assessment of x-ray spectroscopy with high accuracy is the main scope of this paper. A Silicon Lithium Si(Li) detector that cooled with a nitrogen is used for signal extraction. The resolution of the ADC is 12 bits. Also, the sampling rate of ADC is 5 MHz. Hence, different algorithms are implemented. These algorithms were run on a personal computer with Intel core TM i5-3470 CPU and 3.20 GHz. These algorithms are signal preprocessing, signal separation and recovery algorithms, and spectrum drawing algorithm. Moreover, statistical measurements are used for evaluation of these algorithms. Signal preprocessing based on DC-offset correction and signal de-noising is performed. DC-offset correction was done by using minimum value of radiation signal. However, signal de-noising was implemented using fourth order finite impulse response (FIR) filter, linear phase least-square FIR filter, complex wavelet transforms (CWT) and Kalman filter methods. We noticed that Kalman filter achieves large peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and lower error than other methods. However, CWT takes much longer execution time. Moreover, three different algorithms that allow correction of x-ray signal overlapping are presented. These algorithms are 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm, second derivative peak search algorithm and extrema algorithm. Additionally, the effect of signal separation and recovery algorithms on spectrum drawing is measured. Comparison between these algorithms is introduced. The obtained results confirm that second derivative peak search algorithm as well as extrema algorithm have very small error in comparison with 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm. However, the second derivative peak search algorithm takes much longer execution time. Therefore, extrema algorithm introduces better results over other algorithms. It has the advantage of recovering and

  10. Digital signal processing for the Johnson noise thermometry: a time series analysis of the Johnson noise

    Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon; David, E. H.; Kisner, R.A.

    2004-06-01

    In this report, we first proved that a random signal obtained by taking the sum of a set of signal frequency signals generates a continuous Markov process. We used this random signal to simulate the Johnson noise and verified that the Johnson noise thermometry can be used to improve the measurements of the reactor coolant temperature within an accuracy of below 0.14%. Secondly, by using this random signal we determined the optimal sampling rate when the frequency band of the Johnson noise signal is given. Also the results of our examination on how good the linearity of the Johnson noise is and how large the relative error of the temperature could become when the temperature increases are described. Thirdly, the results of our analysis on a set of the Johnson noise signal blocks taken from a simple electric circuit are described. We showed that the properties of the continuous Markov process are satisfied even when some channel noises are present. Finally, we describe the algorithm we devised to handle the problem of the time lag in the long-term average or the moving average in a transient state. The algorithm is based on the Haar wavelet and is to estimate the transient temperature that has much smaller time delay. We have shown that the algorithm can track the transient temperature successfully

  11. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  12. Mixed-signal early vision chip with embedded image and programming memories and digital I/O

    Linan-Cembrano, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel; Dominguez-Castro, Rafael; Espejo, Servando

    2003-04-01

    From a system level perspective, this paper presents a 128x128 flexible and reconfigurable Focal-Plane Analog Programmable Array Processor, which has been designed as a single chip in a 0.35μm standard digital 1P-5M CMOS technology. The core processing array has been designed to achieve high-speed of operation and large-enough accuracy (~7bit) with low power consumption. The chip includes on-chip program memory to allow for the execution of complex, sequential and/or bifurcation flow image processing algorithms. It also includes the structures and circuits needed to guarantee its embedding into conventional digital hosting systems: external data interchange and control are completely digital. The chip contains close to four million transistors, 90% of them working in analog mode. The chip features up to 330GOPs (Giga Operations per second), and uses the power supply (180GOP/Joule) and the silicon area (3.8 GOPS/mm2) efficiently, as it is able to maintain VGA processing throughputs of 100Frames/s with about 15 basic image processing tasks on each frame.

  13. Robust 9-QAM digital recovery for spectrum shaped coherent QPSK signal

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    division multiplexing (NWDM). The final equalized signal is detected by maximum likelihood sequence decision (MLSD) for data bit-error-ratio (BER) measurement. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) tolerance is improved by 0.5 dB at a BER of 1x10-3 compared to constant modulus algorithm (CMA) plus post......We propose 9-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (9-QAM) data recovery for polarization multiplexing-quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) signal in presence of strong filtering to approach Nyquist bandwidth. The decision-directed least radius distance (DD-LRD) algorithm for blind equalization...

  14. CMOS time-to-digital converters for mixed-mode signal processing

    Fei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth review of the principles, architectures and design techniques of CMOS time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The classification of TDCs is introduced. It is followed by the examination of the parameters quantifying the performance of TDCs. Sampling TDCs including direct-counter TDCs, tapped delay-line TDCs, pulse-shrinking delay-line TDCs, cyclic pulse-shrinking TDCs, direct-counter TDCs with interpolation, vernier TDCs, flash TDCs, successive approximation TDCs an...

  15. [Improved detection of the pulse oximeter signal with a digital nerve block in patients in poor health status].

    Cordoví de Armas, L; Espinaco Valdés, J; Jiménez Paneque, R E; Costa Hidalgo, T; Vallongo Menéndez, M B

    2008-10-01

    To demonstrate the efficacy of a digital nerve block for improving pulse oximetry in conditions of low tissue perfusion. A randomized single-blind study of adult patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia for conditions characterized by hypoperfusion. Patients were assigned to a control group or an experimental group. The experimental group received a digital nerve block in the middle finger of the left hand; a sensor was then placed on the finger for between 120 and 300 minutes. Age, sex, diagnosis, total observation time (TOT), percentage of time with no pulse oximeter signal (NoPO), and percentage of time with an unstable pulse oximeter signal (UnstPO) were recorded. Each patient was questioned between 16 and 24 hours after surgery and was examined for flushing, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, pain, and ecchymosis. The chi2 test was used to compare dichotomized or nominal variables and the t test was used to compare age, TOT, NoPO, and UnstPO. Values of P<.05 were considered statistically significant in both cases. Fifty patients were randomized to each group. A total of 82 patients remained in the study (control group=42, experimental group=40). There were no significant between-group differences in diagnoses or TOT. The mean values for NoPO and UnstPO were higher in the control group than in the experimental group (11.1% vs 4.4% and 35.9% vs 15.7%, respectively; P<.001). A digital nerve block can be used to prevent pulse oximetry failures in conditions of low peripheral perfusion.

  16. Effect of the Torrance Creative Thinking Test on Heart Rate Signal Features

    Zakeri S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Showing a meta-cognitive aspect, creativity is related to higher mental processes such as thinking, intelligence, imagination, and information process. There are many studies on the physiological bases of creativity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of creative thinking on the heart rate signal. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 52 medical engineering, electrical, and control students of Sahand University were studied in 2012. The subjects were selected via accessible sampling method. To assess the level of the students’ creative thinking, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (B form; figural was used. Before and during creative thinking test, heart signal in the rest position was recorded by 1000Hz sampling frequency. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon non-parametric test.   Findings: There was an increase in the mean heart power amplitude during creative thinking than the rest position. However, passing time and conducting the last sessions of the creativity test, it showed a reduction. There was an increase in the heart rate in persons with high creativity than those with low creativity. In addition, based on the test scores, there was a higher creativity level in females and three-lingual persons than males and bi-lingual persons, respectively. There was an increase in the heart rate in females than males (p=0.0398. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between three-lingual and bilingual persons (p>0.05.    Conclusion: Creative thinking results in an increase in the heart rate in persons with high creativity than persons with low creativity. Therefore, the creativity level can be detected via heart signal

  17. Digital Tracking Array for FM Signals Based on Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies

    Edmund, Hui K

    2007-01-01

    ... a 2.4 GHz frequency modulation (FM) video signal from an unmanned air vehicle. The tracking is done using a monopulse technique Various numbers of elements were simulated to access the pattern coverage...

  18. The DECMU: a digital device for delayed analysis of multi-frequency eddy current signals

    Pigeon, Michel.

    1981-08-01

    A delayed data analysis system has been realized by the CEA and Intercontrole for in-service inspection of steam generators of nuclear plants by multifrequency eddy current testing. This device allows, out of the plant, adjustment during switching of the probes, graph recording and analysis for defect signal qualification. The equipment contains an analog mixing device, as IC3FA multi-frequency appartus, but has in addition a memory allowing data cycling and signal isolation for adjustment or analysis [fr

  19. Notch signaling is required for maintaining stem-cell features of neuroprogenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Chung Hyung-Min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have provided important findings about the roles of Notch signaling in neural development. Unfortunately, however, most of these studies have investigated the neural stem cells (NSCs of mice or other laboratory animals rather than humans, mainly owing to the difficulties associated with obtaining human brain samples. It prompted us to focus on neuroectodermal spheres (NESs which are derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC and densely inhabited by NSCs. We here investigated the role of Notch signaling with the hESC-derived NESs. Results From hESCs, we derived NESs, the in-vitro version of brain-derived neurospheres. NES formation was confirmed by increased levels of various NSC marker genes and the emergence of rosette structures in which neuroprogenitors are known to reside. We found that Notch signaling, which maintains stem cell characteristics of in-vivo-derived neuroprogenitors, is active in these hESC-derived NESs, similar to their in-vivo counterpart. Expression levels of Notch signaling molecules such as NICD, DLLs, JAG1, HES1 and HES5 were increased in the NESs. Inhibition of the Notch signaling by a γ-secretase inhibitor reduced rosette structures, expression levels of NSC marker genes and proliferation potential in the NESs, and, if combined with withdrawal of growth factors, triggered differentiation toward neurons. Conclusion Our results indicate that the hESC-derived NESs, which share biochemical features with brain-derived neurospheres, maintain stem cell characteristics mainly through Notch signaling, which suggests that the hESC-derived NESs could be an in-vitro model for in-vivo neurogenesis.

  20. Influence of the position of the foot on MRI signal in the deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in the standing horse.

    Spriet, M; Zwingenberger, A

    2009-05-01

    Hyperintense signal is sometimes observed in ligaments and tendons of the equine foot on standing magnetic resonance examination without associated changes in size and shape. In such cases, the presence of a true lesion or an artifact should be considered. A change in position of a ligament or tendon relative to the magnetic field can induce increased signal intensity due to the magic angle effect. To assess if positional rotation of the foot in the solar plane could be responsible for artifactual changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and in the deep digital flexor tendon. Six isolated equine feet were imaged with a standing equine magnetic resonance system in 9 different positions with different degrees of rotation in the solar plane. Rotation of the limb induced a linear hyperintense signal on all feet at the palmar aspect of one of the lobes of the deep digital flexor tendon and at the dorsal aspect of the other lobe. Changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint occurred with rotation of the limb only in those feet where mediolateral hoof imbalance was present. The position and conformation of the foot influence the signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint. The significance of increased signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint should be interpreted with regard to the position and the conformation of the foot.

  1. Inferring imagined speech using EEG signals: a new approach using Riemannian manifold features

    Nguyen, Chuong H.; Karavas, George K.; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2018-02-01

    Objective. In this paper, we investigate the suitability of imagined speech for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Approach. A novel method based on covariance matrix descriptors, which lie in Riemannian manifold, and the relevance vector machines classifier is proposed. The method is applied on electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and tested in multiple subjects. Main results. The method is shown to outperform other approaches in the field with respect to accuracy and robustness. The algorithm is validated on various categories of speech, such as imagined pronunciation of vowels, short words and long words. The classification accuracy of our methodology is in all cases significantly above chance level, reaching a maximum of 70% for cases where we classify three words and 95% for cases of two words. Significance. The results reveal certain aspects that may affect the success of speech imagery classification from EEG signals, such as sound, meaning and word complexity. This can potentially extend the capability of utilizing speech imagery in future BCI applications. The dataset of speech imagery collected from total 15 subjects is also published.

  2. The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics

    Elmsjö, Albert; Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K.R.; Nestor, Marika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation. - Highlights: • The co-feature ratio (CFR) is introduced. • CFR measures chromatographic and signal selectivity of a feature. • CFR can be used for evaluating experimental procedures in metabolomics. • CFR can aid in locating features with poor selectivity.

  3. The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics

    Elmsjö, Albert, E-mail: Albert.Elmsjo@farmkemi.uu.se [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K.R. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Nestor, Marika [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University (Sweden); Arvidsson, Torbjörn [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Medical Product Agency, Uppsala (Sweden); Pettersson, Curt [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation. - Highlights: • The co-feature ratio (CFR) is introduced. • CFR measures chromatographic and signal selectivity of a feature. • CFR can be used for evaluating experimental procedures in metabolomics. • CFR can aid in locating features with poor selectivity.

  4. Comparing observer models and feature selection methods for a task-based statistical assessment of digital breast tomsynthesis in reconstruction space

    Park, Subok; Zhang, George Z.; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.

    2014-03-01

    A task-based assessment of image quality1 for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can be done in either the projected or reconstructed data space. As the choice of observer models and feature selection methods can vary depending on the type of task and data statistics, we previously investigated the performance of two channelized- Hotelling observer models in conjunction with 2D Laguerre-Gauss (LG) and two implementations of partial least squares (PLS) channels along with that of the Hotelling observer in binary detection tasks involving DBT projections.2, 3 The difference in these observers lies in how the spatial correlation in DBT angular projections is incorporated in the observer's strategy to perform the given task. In the current work, we extend our method to the reconstructed data space of DBT. We investigate how various model observers including the aforementioned compare for performing the binary detection of a spherical signal embedded in structured breast phantoms with the use of DBT slices reconstructed via filtered back projection. We explore how well the model observers incorporate the spatial correlation between different numbers of reconstructed DBT slices while varying the number of projections. For this, relatively small and large scan angles (24° and 96°) are used for comparison. Our results indicate that 1) given a particular scan angle, the number of projections needed to achieve the best performance for each observer is similar across all observer/channel combinations, i.e., Np = 25 for scan angle 96° and Np = 13 for scan angle 24°, and 2) given these sufficient numbers of projections, the number of slices for each observer to achieve the best performance differs depending on the channel/observer types, which is more pronounced in the narrow scan angle case.

  5. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  6. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Nancy L Etcoff

    Full Text Available Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural, to moderate (professional, to dramatic (glamorous. Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important

  7. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  8. Research on feature extraction and classification of AE signals of fibers' tensile failure based on HHT and SVM

    Yanding SHEN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the feature extraction and recognition method of fibers' tensile failure, AE technology is used to collect AE signals of fiber bundle's tensile fracture of two kinds of fibers of Aramid 1313 and viscose. A transform called wavelet is used to deal with the signals to reduce noise. A method called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT is used to extract characteristic frequencies of the signals after the noise is reduced. And a classification method called Least Squares support vector machines (LSSVM is used for the classification and recognition of characteristic frequencies of the two kinds of fibers. The results show that wavelet de-noise method can reduce some noise of the signals. Hilbert spectrum can reflect fracture circumstances of the two kinds of fibers in the time dimension to some extent. Characteristic frequencies' extraction can be done from marginal spectrum. The LSSVM can be used for the classification and recognition of characteristic frequencies. The recognition rates of Aramid 1313 and viscose reach 40%, 80% respectively, and the total recognition rate reaches 60%.

  9. Hand and digital ischemia due to arteriosclerosis and thromboembolization in young adults: pathologic features with clinical correlations.

    Guarda, L A; Borrero, J L

    1990-11-01

    Twenty young adult patients with hand and digital ischemia were found to have obstructive arterial disease. All patients were surgically explored, and the occluded vessels were resected and by-passed. Eighteen patients had obstruction at the level of the distal ulnar artery and palmar arch, and 12 had obstruction of the common digital and digital proper arteries. Occlusive arteriosclerotic lesions were found in all patients; these lesions were characterized by prominent fibromuscular intimal plaques with superimposed thrombosis. Six patients had also thromboembolism to distal digital vessels. Vasculitis, calcifications, cholesterol deposits, and atheromatous emboli were not observed. Five patients had transmural neovascularization of the lesions in a similar manner to that described in coronary artery lesions. Obstructive lesions due to fibromuscular intimal proliferation with associated thrombosis and/or distal thromboembolization affecting arteries of hands and digits appear to be an important lesion that can affect young patients.

  10. Intelligence diagnosis method for roller bearings using features of AE signal

    Pan, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, F; Yang, J F; Liu, W B

    2012-01-01

    Rolling bearings are important components in rotating machines, which are wildly used in industrial production. The fault diagnosis technology plays a very important role for quality and life of machines. Based on symptom parameters of acoustic emission (AE) signals, this paper presents an intelligent diagnosis method for roller bearings using the principal component analysis, rough sets, and BP neural network to detect faults and distinguish fault types. The principal component analysis and the rough sets algorithm are used to reduce details of time-domain symptom parameters for training the BP neural network. The BP neural network, which is used for condition diagnosis of roller bearings, can obtain good convergence using the symptom parameters acquired by the principal component analysis and the rough sets during learning, and automatically distinguish fault types during diagnosing. Practical examples are provided to verify the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part I: Cell signalling in radiation response

    Bourguignon, Michel H.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. It has been proposed that the occurrence and severity of the adverse reactions to radiation therapy are also influenced by such genetic susceptibility. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. This paper, the first of two parts, reviews the main mechanisms involved in cell response to ionising radiation. DNA repair machinery and cell signalling pathways are considered and their role in radiosensitivity is analysed. The implication of non-targeted and delayed effects in radiosensitivity is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  13. Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor

    Graumann Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal recognition particle (SRP receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs to the membrane bound Sec translocon. The eukaryotic SRP receptor (SR is a heterodimeric protein complex, consisting of two unrelated GTPases. The SRβ subunit is an integral membrane protein, which tethers the SRP-interacting SRα subunit permanently to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The prokaryotic SR lacks the SRβ subunit and consists of only the SRα homologue FtsY. Strikingly, although FtsY requires membrane contact for functionality, cell fractionation studies have localized FtsY predominantly to the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. So far, the exact function of the soluble SR in E. coli is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in contrast to eukaryotes, the prokaryotic SR might bind SRP-RNCs already in the cytosol and only then initiates membrane targeting. Results In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo. Conclusion The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is

  14. 76 FR 38306 - Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension and Reauthorization...

    2011-06-30

    ... contact Cathy Williams on (202) 418-2918 or via e-mail to: cathy.williams@fcc.gov mailto: cathy.williams... strength that a household received. The information gathered as part of the Grade B signal strength tests... written records of test results will be made after testing and predicting the strength of a television...

  15. Digital signal processing in ultrasonic based navigation system for mobile robots

    Stączek Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for estimating the coordinates of automated guided vehicles (AGV was presented in this article. Ultrasonic waves for distance measurement were applied. Used hardware was characterised, as well as signal processing algorithms. The system was tested on wheeled mobile robot in model 2D environment. The results of working range and errors of position estimation were discussed.

  16. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing, hip extension from a sitting position (sitting and gait (walking are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV, Root-Mean-Square (RMS, integrated EMG (iEMG, Zero Crossing (ZC and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF and Median Frequency (MDF are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0

  17. An effective coded excitation scheme based on a predistorted FM signal and an optimized digital filter

    Misaridis, Thanasis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a coded excitation imaging system based on a predistorted FM excitation and a digital compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications, in order to preserve both axial resolution and contrast. In radars, optimal Chebyshev windows efficiently weight a nearly...... as with pulse excitation (about 1.5 lambda), depending on the filter design criteria. The axial sidelobes are below -40 dB, which is the noise level of the measuring imaging system. The proposed excitation/compression scheme shows good overall performance and stability to the frequency shift due to attenuation...... be removed by weighting. We show that by using a predistorted chirp with amplitude or phase shaping for amplitude ripple reduction and a correlation filter that accounts for the transducer's natural frequency weighting, output sidelobe levels of -35 to -40 dB are directly obtained. When an optimized filter...

  18. IIR digital filter design for powerline noise cancellation of ECG signal using arduino platform

    Rahmatillah, Akif; Ataulkarim

    2017-05-01

    Powerline noise has been one of significant noises of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal measurement. This noise is characterized by a sinusoidal signal which has 50 Hz of noise and 0.3 mV of maximum amplitude. This paper describes the design of IIR Notch filter design to reject a 50 Hz power line noise. IIR filter coefficients were calculated using pole placement method with three variations of band stop cut off frequencies of (49-51)Hz, (48 - 52)Hz, and (47 - 53)Hz. The algorithm and coefficients of filter were embedded to Arduino DUE (ARM 32 bit microcontroller). IIR notch filter designed has been able to reject power line noise with average square of error value of 0.225 on (49-51) Hz filter design and 0.2831 on (48 - 52)Hz filter design.

  19. Digital mammography: Signal-extraction strategies for computer-aided detection of microcalcifications

    Chan, H.P.; Doi, K.; Metz, C.E.; Vyborny, C.J.; Lam, K.L.; Schmidt, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors found that the structured background of a mammogram can be removed effectively by either a difference-image technique (using a matched filter in combination with a median filter, a contrast-reversal filter, or a box-rim filter) or a visual response filter alone. Locally adaptive gray-level thresholding and region-growing techniques can then be employed to extract microcalcifications from the processed image. Signals are further distinguished from noise or artifacts by their size, contrast, and clustering properties. The authors studied the dependence of the detectability of microcalcifications on the various signal-extraction strategies. Potential application of the computer-aided system to mammography is assessed by its performance on clinical mammograms

  20. Band extension in digital methods of transfer function determination – signal conditioners asymmetry error corrections

    Zbigniew Staroszczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. In the paper, the calibrating method for error correction in transfer function determination with the use of DSP has been proposed. The correction limits/eliminates influence of transfer function input/output signal conditioners on the estimated transfer functions in the investigated object. The method exploits frequency domain conditioning paths descriptor found during training observation made on the known reference object.[b]Keywords[/b]: transfer function, band extension, error correction, phase errors

  1. Digital signal processing for a thermal neutron detector using ZnS(Ag):{sup 6}LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs

    Mosset, J.-B., E-mail: jean-baptiste.mosset@psi.ch; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Hildebrandt, M.; Schlumpf, N.

    2016-07-11

    We present a digital signal processing system based on a photon counting approach which we developed for a thermal neutron detector consisting of ZnS(Ag):{sup 6}LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs. Three digital filters have been evaluated: a moving sum, a moving sum after differentiation and a digital CR-RC{sup 4} filter. The performances of the detector with these filters are presented. A full analog signal processing using a CR-RC{sup 4} filter has been emulated digitally. The detector performance obtained with this analog approach is compared with the one obtained with the best performing digital approach. - Highlights: • Application of digital signal processing for a SiPM-based ZnS:6LiF neutron detector. • Optimisation of detector performances with 3 different digital filters. • Comparison with detector performances with a full analog signal processing.

  2. Digital radiography

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  3. The obtaining of statistical characteristics of informative features of signals in the Autonomous information systems using neural networks

    V. K. Hohlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a neural network approach to obtain the statistical characteristics of the input vector implementations of signal and noise at ill-conditioned matrices of correlation moments to solve the problems to select and reduce the vector dimensions of informative features at detection and recognition of signals and noise based on regression methods.A scientific novelty is determined by applying neural network algorithms for the efficient solution of problems to select the informative features and determine the parameters of regression algorithms in terms of the degeneracy or ill-conditioned data with unknown expectation and covariance matrices.The article proposes to use a single-layer neural network with no zero weights and activation functions to calculate the initial regression characteristics and the mean-square value error of multiple initial regression representations, which are necessary to justify the selection of informative features, reduce a dimension of sign vectors and implement the regression algorithms. It is shown that when excluding direct links between the inputs and their corresponding neurons, in the training network the weight coefficients of neuron inputs are the coefficients of initial multiple regression, the error meansquare value of multiple initial regression representations is calculated at the outputs of neurons. The article considers conditionality of the problem to calculate the matrix that is inverse one for matrix of correlation moments. It defines a condition number, which characterizes the relative error of stated task.The problem concerning the matrix condition of the correlation moment of informative signal features and noise arises when solving the problem to find the multiple coefficients of initial regression (MCIR and the residual mean-square values of the multiple regression representations. For obtaining the MCIR and finding the residual mean-square values the matrix of correlation moments of

  4. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  5. Feedback correction of injection errors using digital signal-processing techniques

    N. S. Sereno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of electron beams from one accelerator to another is important for 3rd-generation light sources that operate using top-up. In top-up mode, a constant amount of charge is injected at regular intervals into the storage ring to replenish beam lost primarily due to Touschek scattering. Top-up therefore requires that the complex of injector accelerators that fill the storage ring transport beam with a minimum amount of loss. Injection can be a source of significant beam loss if not carefully controlled. In this note we describe a method of processing injection transient signals produced by beam-position monitors and using the processed data in feedback. Feedback control using the technique described here has been incorporated in the Advanced Photon Source (APS booster synchrotron to correct injection transients.

  6. An efficient digital signal processing method for RRNS-based DS-CDMA systems

    Peter Olsovsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an efficient method for achieving low power and high speed in advanced Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple-Access (DS-CDMA wireless communication systems based on the Residue Number System (RNS. A modified algorithm for multiuser DS-CDMA signal generation in MATLAB is proposed and investigated. The most important characteristics of the generated PN code are also presented. Subsequently, a DS-CDMA system based on the combination of the RNS or the so-called Redundant Residue Number System (RRNS is proposed. The enhanced method using a spectrally efficient 8-PSK data modulation scheme to improve the bandwidth efficiency for RRNS-based DS-CDMA systems is presented. By using the C-measure (complexity measure of the error detection function, it is possible to estimate the size of the circuit. Error detection function in RRNSs can be efficiently implemented by LookUp Table (LUT cascades.

  7. Evaluation of Short-Term Cepstral Based Features for Detection of Parkinson’s Disease Severity Levels through Speech signals

    Oung, Qi Wei; Nisha Basah, Shafriza; Muthusamy, Hariharan; Vijean, Vikneswaran; Lee, Hoileong

    2018-03-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one type of progressive neurodegenerative disease known as motor system syndrome, which is due to the death of dopamine-generating cells, a region of the human midbrain. PD normally affects people over 60 years of age, which at present has influenced a huge part of worldwide population. Lately, many researches have shown interest into the connection between PD and speech disorders. Researches have revealed that speech signals may be a suitable biomarker for distinguishing between people with Parkinson’s (PWP) from healthy subjects. Therefore, early diagnosis of PD through the speech signals can be considered for this aim. In this research, the speech data are acquired based on speech behaviour as the biomarker for differentiating PD severity levels (mild and moderate) from healthy subjects. Feature extraction algorithms applied are Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Linear Predictive Coefficients (LPC), Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC), and Weighted Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (WLPCC). For classification, two types of classifiers are used: k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). The experimental results demonstrated that PNN classifier and KNN classifier achieve the best average classification performance of 92.63% and 88.56% respectively through 10-fold cross-validation measures. Favourably, the suggested techniques have the possibilities of becoming a new choice of promising tools for the PD detection with tremendous performance.

  8. Massively parallel signal processing using the graphics processing unit for real-time brain-computer interface feature extraction

    J. Adam Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past five years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card (GPU was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI. The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter, followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally-intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a CPU-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  9. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  10. Digital Signal Processing. A review of DSP formalism, algorithms and networks for the beam instrumentation workshop, Vancouver, Canada, October 4, 1994

    Linscott, I.

    1995-01-01

    The formalism of Digital Signal Processing (DSP), is reviewed with the objective of providing a framework for understanding the utility of DSP techniques for Beam Instrumentation and developiong criteria for assessing the merits of DSP applications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Criteria for the use of digital signal processors in the control technique of the COSY particle accelerator using the example of the MOTOROLA DSP56000

    Rath, U.

    1989-11-01

    On the Cooler Synchrotron project (COSY), the beam measurement data and their processing are collected digitally. From the requirements for quick computing time (real time operation) and exact results, the use of digital signal processors is intended. The digital signal processor DSP 56000 from MOTOROLA was selected as the test object. The DSP 56000 has a development environment which makes it possible to test it on an IBM-PC AT. Tests are carried out which show that the simulation program corresponds to the functions and processes of the DSP 56000. The above-mentioned applications program calculates a 'fast Fourier transform' (FFT). This program is used to judge the speed of calculation and the accuracy of calculation of the signal processor. The algorithm used by the FFT program is explained. In order to judge the results of the DSP 56000, a comparison is made with the equivalent FORTRAN FFT. The results which the DSP gives on the ADM and the Fortran program are compared and assessed. The speed of calculation of the DSP 56000 is determined and is judged in comparison with the manufacturer's data for other digital signal processors. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Quantitative assessment of the influence of anatomic noise on the detection of subtle lung nodule in digital chest radiography using fractal-feature distance

    Imai, Kuniharu; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Enchi, Yukihiro; Niimi, Takanaga

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To confirm whether or not the influence of anatomic noise on the detection of nodules in digital chest radiography can be evaluated by the fractal-feature distance. Materials and methods: We used the square images with and without a simulated nodule which were generated in our previous observer performance study; the simulated nodule was located on the upper margin of a rib, the inside of a rib, the lower margin of a rib, or the central region between two adjoining ribs. For the square chest images, fractal analysis was conducted using the virtual volume method. The fractal-feature distances between the considered and the reference images were calculated using the pseudo-fractal dimension and complexity, and the square images without the simulated nodule were employed as the reference images. We compared the fractal-feature distances with the observer's confidence level regarding the presence of a nodule in plain chest radiograph. Results: For all square chest images, the relationships between the length of the square boxes and the mean of the virtual volumes were linear on a log-log scale. For all types of the simulated nodules, the fractal-feature distance was the highest for the simulated nodules located on the central region between two adjoining ribs and was the lowest for those located in the inside of a rib. The fractal-feature distance showed a linear relation to an observer's confidence level. Conclusion: The fractal-feature distance would be useful for evaluating the influence of anatomic noise on the detection of nodules in digital chest radiography

  13. Digital LLRF System for RFQ

    Agashe, Alok; Motiwala, P.D.; Bharade, S.K.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Das, D.

    2015-01-01

    A Low level RF (LLRF) system based on digital techniques has been developed for RFQ of Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA). The basic LLRF system for RFQ is composed of a Front end analog module housed in a 19 inch bin and a 6U cPCI based Digital board having a high speed and high density FPGA onboard, supporting 32 bit/33MHz PCI ver2.0 protocol and housed in a 19 inch cPCI crate. It also has a cPCI based CPU board with QNX operating system. The cPCI crate is connected to control room via Ethernet. Analog module conditions the input field signals from RF cavity and makes it compatible to digital board. It also amplifies RF Drive signal (Modulator output) from digital board, which goes to high power amplifier. The digital board digitally processes the input RF signals, and generates RF drive signal, which after amplification, used for driving the resonant cavity. The main features of digital board are under-sampling of input RF signals, digital in-phase and quadrature detection, and a proportional- integral (PI) controller algorithm implemented in a FPGA. The LLRF system works in CW as well as in PULSE mode. It also has a DDS implemented in VHDL, used for conditioning and tracking/tuning of the cavity. LLRF system operates under QNX based equipment frontend application and client running from control room. One analog module and one digital board set, supports one resonant cavity. The present paper describes the development of an LLRF system and its results with a test cavity. (author)

  14. Digital and analog communication systems

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  15. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods

  16. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual fixed pattern noise. The main features of these modules are summarized together with measured performance data for long range detection systems with moderately fast to slow F-numbers like F/2.0 - F/3.5. An outlook shows most recent activities at AIM, heading for multicolor and faster frame rate detector modules based on MCT devices.

  17. A DEMODULATOR OF PWM SIGNALS GENERATED FOR A DIGITAL ACCELEROMETER IS DEVELOPED USING A MICROCONTROLLER UN DEMODULADOR DE SEÑALES PWM GENERADAS POR UN ACELERÓMETRO DIGITAL ES DESARROLLADO USANDO UN MICROCONTROLADOR

    Eduardo Pérez Lobato

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a microcontroller to demodulate two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM signals which are being generated by a digital accelerometer, to obtain their pulse widths and transmit them serially to a parallel port of a general purpose computer.Esta publicación presenta el uso de un microcontrolador para demodular dos señales PWM que están siendo generadas por un acelerómetro digital, obtener sus anchos y enviarlas en forma serial al puerto paralelo de un computador de propósitos generales.

  18. Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme is required for proper segmentation and subsequent formation and growth of digit bones.

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Densmore, Michael; Fan, Yi; Lanske, Beate

    2016-02-01

    Digit formation is a process, which requires the proper segmentation, formation and growth of phalangeal bones and is precisely regulated by several important factors. One such factor is Ihh, a gene linked to BDA1 and distal symphalangism in humans. In existing mouse models, mutations in Ihh have been shown to cause multiple synostosis in the digits but lead to perinatal lethality. To better study the exact biological and pathological events which occur in these fused digits, we used a more viable Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) model in which Cre recombinase is expressed during mesenchymal condensation in the earliest limb buds at E9.5 dpc and found that mutant digits continuously fuse postnatally until phalanges are finally replaced by an unsegmented "one-stick bone". Mutant mice displayed osteocalcin-positive mature osteoblasts, but had reduced proliferation and abnormal osteogenesis. Because of the close interaction between Ihh and PTHrP during endochondral ossification, we also examined the digits of Prx1-Cre;PTH1R(fl/fl) mice, where the receptor for PTHrP was conditionally deleted. Surprisingly, we found PTH1R deletion caused symphalangism, demonstrating another novel function of PTH1R signaling in digit formation. We characterized the symphalangism process whereby initial cartilaginous fusion prevented epiphyseal growth plate formation, resulting in resorption and replacement of the remaining cartilage by bony tissue. Chondrocyte differentiation displayed abnormal directionality in both mutants. Lastly, Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl);Jansen Tg mice, in which a constitutively active PTH1R allele was introduced into Ihh mutants, were established to address the possible involvement of PTH1R signaling in Ihh mutant digits. These rescue mice failed to show significantly improved phenotype, suggesting that PTH1R signaling in chondrocytes is not sufficient to restore digit formation. Our results demonstrate that Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme are both essential to regulate

  19. Bio-inspired digital signal processing for fast radionuclide mixture identification

    Thevenin, M.; Bichler, O.; Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Lourenço, V.

    2015-05-01

    Countries are trying to equip their public transportation infrastructure with fixed radiation portals and detectors to detect radiological threat. Current works usually focus on neutron detection, which could be useless in the case of dirty bomb that would not use fissile material. Another approach, such as gamma dose rate variation monitoring is a good indication of the presence of radionuclide. However, some legitimate products emit large quantities of natural gamma rays; environment also emits gamma rays naturally. They can lead to false detections. Moreover, such radio-activity could be used to hide a threat such as material to make a dirty bomb. Consequently, radionuclide identification is a requirement and is traditionally performed by gamma spectrometry using unique spectral signature of each radionuclide. These approaches require high-resolution detectors, sufficient integration time to get enough statistics and large computing capacities for data analysis. High-resolution detectors are fragile and costly, making them bad candidates for large scale homeland security applications. Plastic scintillator and NaI detectors fit with such applications but their resolution makes identification difficult, especially radionuclides mixes. This paper proposes an original signal processing strategy based on artificial spiking neural networks to enable fast radionuclide identification at low count rate and for mixture. It presents results obtained for different challenging mixtures of radionuclides using a NaI scintillator. Results show that a correct identification is performed with less than hundred counts and no false identification is reported, enabling quick identification of a moving threat in a public transportation. Further work will focus on using plastic scintillators.

  20. Method for Establishing Direction of Arrival by Use of Signals of Opportunity

    2017-08-29

    digital converter (ADC). The analog-to-digital converter sampling process that locks the relative time features of the digital signal processing...path and is sampled by the ADC. The ADC sampling process locks the relative time properties of the individual signals components arriving at...that signal. For each wave vector, the angles that define the direction of arrival are assumed to be identical at each RF port phase center in the

  1. Aesthetic Features of Digital M edia Creation%数字媒体创意的审美特征

    张剑

    2014-01-01

    Digital media creations are solutions or means for implementing strategic thinking and specific goal of propagation w hich is scientific , artistic , cultural , and applicable . While inheriting and transcending originality from traditional media , digital media represents aesthetic tactics providing demassification in objects , minimization in style , interactivity in experience , entertainment in form , visual/audio stimulation in performance , and branding in effect , w hich will have far-reaching influence on the future trend of digital media .%数字媒体创意是贯彻战略思想、实现传播目的可执行的具有科学性、艺术性、文化性的策略或方法。数字媒体创意在对传统媒体创意继承与超越的基础上,具有以下几个显著的审美特征:审美对象的分众化、审美风格的简略化、审美体验的互动化、审美样式的娱乐化、审美表现的视听化、审美效果的品牌化,它们对数字媒体的发展方向有着深刻的影响。

  2. SOI Digital Accelerometer Based on Pull-in Time Configuration

    Pakula, L.S.; Rajaraman, V.; French, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The operation principle, design, fabrication and measurement results of a quasi digital accelerometer fabricated on a thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate is presented. The accelerometer features quasi-digital output, therefore eliminating the need for analogue signal conditioning. The

  3. New Approach of Feature Extraction Method Based on the Raw Form and his Skeleton for Gujarati Handwritten Digits using Neural Networks Classifier

    K. Moro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optical character recognition (OCR system for Gujarati handwritten digits. One may find so much of work for latin writing, arabic, chines, etc. but Gujarati is a language for which hardly any work is traceable especially for handwritten characters. Here in this work we have proposed a method of feature extraction based on the raw form of the character and his skeleton and we have shown the advantage of using this method over other approaches mentioned in this article.

  4. Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling

    Zayed, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...

  5. Applicability of computer-aided comprehensive tool (LINDA: LINeament Detection and Analysis) and shaded digital elevation model for characterizing and interpreting morphotectonic features from lineaments

    Masoud, Alaa; Koike, Katsuaki

    2017-09-01

    Detection and analysis of linear features related to surface and subsurface structures have been deemed necessary in natural resource exploration and earth surface instability assessment. Subjectivity in choosing control parameters required in conventional methods of lineament detection may cause unreliable results. To reduce this ambiguity, we developed LINDA (LINeament Detection and Analysis), an integrated tool with graphical user interface in Visual Basic. This tool automates processes of detection and analysis of linear features from grid data of topography (digital elevation model; DEM), gravity and magnetic surfaces, as well as data from remote sensing imagery. A simple interface with five display windows forms a user-friendly interactive environment. The interface facilitates grid data shading, detection and grouping of segments, lineament analyses for calculating strike and dip and estimating fault type, and interactive viewing of lineament geometry. Density maps of the center and intersection points of linear features (segments and lineaments) are also included. A systematic analysis of test DEMs and Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery datasets in the North and South Eastern Deserts of Egypt is implemented to demonstrate the capability of LINDA and correct use of its functions. Linear features from the DEM are superior to those from the imagery in terms of frequency, but both linear features agree with location and direction of V-shaped valleys and dykes and reference fault data. Through the case studies, LINDA applicability is demonstrated to highlight dominant structural trends, which can aid understanding of geodynamic frameworks in any region.

  6. Analysis of the imaging performance in indirect digital mammography detectors by linear systems and signal detection models

    Liaparinos, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of imaging performance in digital mammography, using indirect detector instrumentation, by combining the Linear Cascaded Systems (LCS) theory and the Signal Detection Theory (SDT). Observer performance was assessed, by examining frequently employed detectors, consisting of phosphor-based X-ray converters (granular Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb and structural CsI:Tl), coupled with the recently introduced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. By applying combinations of various irradiation conditions (filter-target and exposure levels at 28 kV) on imaging detectors, our study aimed to find the optimum system set-up for digital mammography. For this purpose, the signal to noise transfer properties of the medical imaging detectors were examined for breast carcinoma detectability. Methods: An analytical model was applied to calculate X-ray interactions within software breast phantoms and detective media. Modeling involved: (a) three X-ray spectra used in digital mammography: 28 kV Mo/Mo (Mo: 0.030 mm), 28 kV Rh/Rh (Rh: 0.025 mm) and 28 kV W/Rh (Rh: 0.060 mm) at different entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) of 3 mGy and 5 mGy, (b) a 5 cm thick Perspex software phantom incorporating a small Ca lesion of varying size (0.1–1 cm), and (c) two 200 μm thick phosphor-based X-ray converters (Gd2O2S:Tb, CsI:Tl), coupled to a CMOS based detector of 22.5 μm pixel size. Results: Best (lowest) contrast threshold (CT) values were obtained with the combination: (i) W/Rh target-filter, (ii) 5 mGy (ESAK), and (iii) CsI:Tl-CMOS detector. For lesion diameter 0.5 cm the CT was found improved, in comparison to other anode/filter combinations, approximately 42% than Rh/Rh and 55% than Mo/Mo, for small sized carcinoma (0.1 cm) and approximately 50% than Rh/Rh and 125% than Mo/Mo, for big sized carcinoma (1 cm), considering 5 mGy X-ray beam. By decreasing lesion diameter and thickness, a limiting CT (100%) was occurred for size

  7. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics.

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health.

  8. Human cardiac stem cells exhibit mesenchymal features and are maintained through Akt/GSK-3β signaling

    Tateishi, Kento; Ashihara, Eishi; Honsho, Shoken; Takehara, Naofumi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Yaku, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested that human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) may have the clinical application for cardiac repair; however, their characteristics and the regulatory mechanisms of their growth have not been fully investigated. Here, we show the novel property of hCSCs with respect to their origin and tissue distribution in human heart, and demonstrate the signaling pathway that regulates their growth and survival. Telomerase-active hCSCs were predominantly present in the right atrium and outflow tract of the heart (infant > adult) and had a mesenchymal cell-like phenotype. These hCSCs expressed the embryonic stem cell markers and differentiated into cardiomyocytes to support cardiac function when transplanted them into ischemic myocardium. Inhibition of Akt pathway impaired the hCSC proliferation and induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) enhanced their growth and survival. We conclude that hCSCs exhibit mesenchymal features and that Akt/GSK-3β may be crucial modulators for hCSC maintenance in human heart

  9. Digital dewaxing of Raman signals: discrimination between nevi and melanoma spectra obtained from paraffin-embedded skin biopsies.

    Tfayli, Ali; Gobinet, Cyril; Vrabie, Valeriu; Huez, Regis; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most severe tumor affecting the skin and accounts for three quarters of all skin cancer deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a promising nondestructive tool that has been increasingly used for characterization of the molecular features of cancerous tissues. Different multivariate statistical analysis techniques are used in order to extract relevant information that can be considered as functional spectroscopic descriptors of a particular pathology. Paraffin embedding (waxing) is a highly efficient process used to conserve biopsies in tumor banks for several years. However, the use of non-dewaxed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for Raman spectroscopic investigations remains very restricted, limiting the development of the technique as a routine analytical tool for biomedical purposes. This is due to the highly intense signal of paraffin, which masks important vibrations of the biological tissues. In addition to being time consuming and chemical intensive, chemical dewaxing methods are not efficient and they leave traces of the paraffin in tissues, which affects the Raman signal. In the present study, we use independent component analysis (ICA) on Raman spectral images collected on melanoma and nevus samples. The sources obtained from these images are then used to eliminate, using non-negativity constrained least squares (NCLS), the paraffin contribution from each individual spectrum of the spectral images of nevi and melanomas. Corrected spectra of both types of lesion are then compared and classified into dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  10. Using LabVIEW for the design and control of digital signal processing systems. Simulation of the ultra slow extraction at COSY

    Heinrichs, G.; Rongen, H.; Jamal, R.

    1994-01-01

    For the ultraslow extraction system of the COler SYnchrotron COSY a direct digital synthesis system is being developed. LabVIEW from National Instruments has been chosen as a tool for the simulation of the digital signal processing algorithms as well as the generation of test sequences. In order to generate adjustable band-limited noise centered at a carrier frequency, alternative algorithms have been studied. LabVIEW permits the interactive variation of relevant system parameters by means of a graphical language in order to study the quality of the frequency band limitation as a function of noise parameters, digital accuracy and frequency range and to generate test sequences by means of a real-time function generator. Advantages and limitations of LabVIEW for such applications are discussed. ((orig.))

  11. Automated identification of stream-channel geomorphic features from high‑resolution digital elevation models in West Tennessee watersheds

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Diehl, Timothy H.

    2017-01-17

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) enable investigations of stream-channel geomorphology with much greater precision than previously possible. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the DEM Geomorphology Toolbox, containing seven tools to automate the identification of sites of geomorphic instability that may represent sediment sources and sinks in stream-channel networks. These tools can be used to modify input DEMs on the basis of known locations of stormwater infrastructure, derive flow networks at user-specified resolutions, and identify possible sites of geomorphic instability including steep banks, abrupt changes in channel slope, or areas of rough terrain. Field verification of tool outputs identified several tool limitations but also demonstrated their overall usefulness in highlighting likely sediment sources and sinks within channel networks. In particular, spatial clusters of outputs from multiple tools can be used to prioritize field efforts to assess and restore eroding stream reaches.

  12. Digital Signal Processors

    modems, audio systems and video game terminals, to cite a few. Their use is growing ... For example, the systems used to reserve railway tickets is on-line as the ... Many scientific instruments today use DSPs to enhance their performance and.

  13. SU-F-R-36: Validating Quantitative Radiomic Texture Features for Oncologic PET: A Digital Phantom Study

    Yang, F; Yang, Y; Young, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiomic texture features derived from the oncologic PET have recently been brought under intense investigation within the context of patient stratification and treatment outcome prediction in a variety of cancer types; however, their validity has not yet been examined. This work is aimed to validate radiomic PET texture metrics through the use of realistic simulations in the ground truth setting. Methods: Simulation of FDG-PET was conducted by applying the Zubal phantom as an attenuation map to the SimSET software package that employs Monte Carlo techniques to model the physical process of emission imaging. A total of 15 irregularly-shaped lesions featuring heterogeneous activity distribution were simulated. For each simulated lesion, 28 texture features in relation to the intensity histograms (GLIH), grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCOM), neighborhood difference matrices (GLNDM), and zone size matrices (GLZSM) were evaluated and compared with their respective values extracted from the ground truth activity map. Results: In reference to the values from the ground truth images, texture parameters appearing on the simulated data varied with a range of 0.73–3026.2% for GLIH-based, 0.02–100.1% for GLCOM-based, 1.11–173.8% for GLNDM-based, and 0.35–66.3% for GLZSM-based. For majority of the examined texture metrics (16/28), their values on the simulated data differed significantly from those from the ground truth images (P-value ranges from <0.0001 to 0.04). Features not exhibiting significant difference comprised of GLIH-based standard deviation, GLCO-based energy and entropy, GLND-based coarseness and contrast, and GLZS-based low gray-level zone emphasis, high gray-level zone emphasis, short zone low gray-level emphasis, long zone low gray-level emphasis, long zone high gray-level emphasis, and zone size nonuniformity. Conclusion: The extent to which PET imaging disturbs texture appearance is feature-dependent and could be substantial. It is thus

  14. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  15. A low-power and low-phase-noise LC digitally controlled oscillator featuring a novel capacitor bank

    Tian Huanhuan; Li Zhiqiang; Chen Pufeng; Wu Rufei; Zhang Haiying, E-mail: thuan8@126.com [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A monolithic low-power and low-phase-noise digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) based on a symmetric spiral inductor with center-tap and novel capacitor bank was implemented in a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process with six metal layers. A third new way to change capacitance is proposed and implemented in this work. Results show that the phase noise at 1 MHz offset frequency is below -122.5 dBc/Hz while drawing a current of only 4.8 mA from a 1.8 V supply. Also, the DCO can work at low supply voltage conditions with a 1.6 V power supply and 4.1 mA supply current for the DCO's core circuit, achieving a phase-noise of -21.5 dBc/Hz at offset of 1 MHz. It demonstrates that the supply pushing of DCO is less than 10 MHz/V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Digital filters

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  17. Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling in the context of whole plants. In our previous study, the time course of bystander signaling in plants has been well demonstrated using the root micro-grafting technique. In this study, we further investigated the temporal cooperation pattern of multiple bystander signals, the directionality of bystander signaling, and the effect of bystander tissues on the bystander signaling. The results showed that the bystander response could also be induced efficiently when the asynchronously generated bystander signals reached the bystander tissues in the same period, but not when they entered into the bystander tissues in an inversed sequence. The absence of bystander response in root-inversed grafting indicated that the bystander signaling along roots might be of directionality. The bystander signaling was shown to be independent of the bystander tissues. PMID:23072991

  18. Computer based extraction of phenoptypic features of human congenital anomalies from the digital literature with natural language processing techniques.

    Karakülah, Gökhan; Dicle, Oğuz; Koşaner, Ozgün; Suner, Aslı; Birant, Çağdaş Can; Berber, Tolga; Canbek, Sezin

    2014-01-01

    The lack of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of most of the congenital anomalies renders the physical examination of the case crucial for the diagnosis of the anomaly; and the cases in the diagnostic phase are mostly being evaluated in the light of the literature knowledge. In this respect, for accurate diagnosis, ,it is of great importance to provide the decision maker with decision support by presenting the literature knowledge about a particular case. Here, we demonstrated a methodology for automated scanning and determining of the phenotypic features from the case reports related to congenital anomalies in the literature with text and natural language processing methods, and we created a framework of an information source for a potential diagnostic decision support system for congenital anomalies.

  19. Integrated Optimization of Long-Range Underwater Signal Detection, Feature Extraction, and Classification for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    Tuma, M.; Rorbech, V.; Prior, M.; Igel, C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed and jointly optimized an integrated signal processing chain for detection and classification of long-range passive-acoustic underwater signals recorded by the global geophysical monitoring network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Starting at the level of raw

  20. Comparison of feature and classifier algorithms for online automatic sleep staging based on a single EEG signal

    Radha, M.; Garcia Molina, G.; Poel, M.; Tononi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic sleep staging on an online basis has recently emerged as a research topic motivated by fundamental sleep research. The aim of this paper is to find optimal signal processing methods and machine learning algorithms to achieve online sleep staging on the basis of a single EEG signal. The

  1. Defined spatiotemporal features of RAS-ERK signals dictate cell fate in MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells.

    Herrero, Ana; Casar, Berta; Colón-Bolea, Paula; Agudo-Ibáñez, Lorena; Crespo, Piero

    2016-06-15

    Signals conveyed through the RAS-ERK pathway are essential for the determination of cell fate. It is well established that signal variability is achieved in the different microenvironments in which signals unfold. It is also known that signal duration is critical for decisions concerning cell commitment. However, it is unclear how RAS-ERK signals integrate time and space in order to elicit a given biological response. To investigate this, we used MCF-7 cells, in which EGF-induced transient ERK activation triggers proliferation, whereas sustained ERK activation in response to heregulin leads to adipocytic differentiation. We found that both proliferative and differentiating signals emanate exclusively from plasma membrane-disordered microdomains. Of interest, the EGF signal can be transformed into a differentiating stimulus by HRAS overexpression, which prolongs ERK activation, but only if HRAS localizes at disordered membrane. On the other hand, HRAS signals emanating from the Golgi complex induce apoptosis and can prevent heregulin-induced differentiation. Our results indicate that within the same cellular context, RAS can exert different, even antagonistic, effects, depending on its sublocalization. Thus cell destiny is defined by the ability of a stimulus to activate RAS at the appropriate sublocalization for an adequate period while avoiding switching on opposing RAS signals. © 2016 Herrero et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Fast transient digitizer

    Villa, F.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display

  3. An introductory analysis of digital infrared thermal imaging guided oral cancer detection using multiresolution rotation invariant texture features

    Chakraborty, M.; Das Gupta, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Anjum, N.; Patsa, S.; Ray, J. G.

    2017-03-01

    This manuscript presents an analytical treatment on the feasibility of multi-scale Gabor filter bank response for non-invasive oral cancer pre-screening and detection in the long infrared spectrum. Incapability of present healthcare technology to detect oral cancer in budding stage manifests in high mortality rate. The paper contributes a step towards automation in non-invasive computer-aided oral cancer detection using an amalgamation of image processing and machine intelligence paradigms. Previous works have shown the discriminative difference of facial temperature distribution between a normal subject and a patient. The proposed work, for the first time, exploits this difference further by representing the facial Region of Interest(ROI) using multiscale rotation invariant Gabor filter bank responses followed by classification using Radial Basis Function(RBF) kernelized Support Vector Machine(SVM). The proposed study reveals an initial increase in classification accuracy with incrementing image scales followed by degradation of performance; an indication that addition of more and more finer scales tend to embed noisy information instead of discriminative texture patterns. Moreover, the performance is consistently better for filter responses from profile faces compared to frontal faces.This is primarily attributed to the ineptness of Gabor kernels to analyze low spatial frequency components over a small facial surface area. On our dataset comprising of 81 malignant, 59 pre-cancerous, and 63 normal subjects, we achieve state-of-the-art accuracy of 85.16% for normal v/s precancerous and 84.72% for normal v/s malignant classification. This sets a benchmark for further investigation of multiscale feature extraction paradigms in IR spectrum for oral cancer detection.

  4. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  5. Pilot study of a novel tool for input-free automated identification of transition zone prostate tumors using T2- and diffusion-weighted signal and textural features.

    Stember, Joseph N; Deng, Fang-Ming; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2014-08-01

    To present results of a pilot study to develop software that identifies regions suspicious for prostate transition zone (TZ) tumor, free of user input. Eight patients with TZ tumors were used to develop the model by training a Naïve Bayes classifier to detect tumors based on selection of most accurate predictors among various signal and textural features on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Features tested as inputs were: average signal, signal standard deviation, energy, contrast, correlation, homogeneity and entropy (all defined on T2WI); and average ADC. A forward selection scheme was used on the remaining 20% of training set supervoxels to identify important inputs. The trained model was tested on a different set of ten patients, half with TZ tumors. In training cases, the software tiled the TZ with 4 × 4-voxel "supervoxels," 80% of which were used to train the classifier. Each of 100 iterations selected T2WI energy and average ADC, which therefore were deemed the optimal model input. The two-feature model was applied blindly to the separate set of test patients, again without operator input of suspicious foci. The software correctly predicted presence or absence of TZ tumor in all test patients. Furthermore, locations of predicted tumors corresponded spatially with locations of biopsies that had confirmed their presence. Preliminary findings suggest that this tool has potential to accurately predict TZ tumor presence and location, without operator input. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Memory effects on mechanically stimulated electric signal; diversification of stimuli impact on material memory and comments on the observed features

    Kyriazis, Panagiotis; Stavrakas, Ilias; Anastasiadis, Cimon; Triantis, Dimos; Stonham, John

    2010-05-01

    Memory is defined as the ability of marble and generally of brittle geomaterials to retain 'imprints' from previous treatments and to reproduce information about these treatments under certain conditions, by analogy to the memory of human beings. Memory effects have been observed in the evolution of a variety of physical properties like the acoustic emissions of brittle materials during fracture. The existence of memory effects for the mechanically stimulated electric signal, either by Pressure (PSC) or by Bending (BSC), is examined in this work, alongside with an attempt to distinguish between the two different manifestations of 'memory' based on the electrification mechanism that is triggered at different levels of externally applied load on samples. Having identified two main mechanisms (i.e. the dynamic and the cracking) and following the human memory model, we suggest the separation of memory of a material specimen into two levels i.e. the short or temporary and long or permanent memory. For the observation and analysis of the short memory of brittle materials we have conducted experiments using the PSC technique in marble specimens. The materials are imposed to cyclic stepwise loading of the same level, scheme and direction (axial stress - unchanged position of material) in order to comply with the conditions that are proposed as suitable for memory effects study by other researchers. We have also conducted experimental tests of cyclic high level stepwise loading on amphibolite rock specimens in order to verify and study the existence of permanent memory effects. Modelling the signal recordings and studying the effects of memory on the signals, we have identified certain trends manifestation for the two types of memory that are summarised to the following points. (a) Both types of memory influence the PSC peaks evolution (exponential decrease) in cyclic loadings of the same level. (b) Permanent memory cannot be erased and affects PSC signal permanently and

  7. Optical and digital GaAs technologies for signal-processing applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Bendett, Mark P.; Butler, Daniel H., Jr.; Prabhakar, Arati; Yang, Andrew

    1990-10-01

    Practical problems that need to be solved for the introduction of optical modules into processing systems are reviewed. Some papers deal with the state of the art in such key devices as Bragg cells, spatial light modulators, and fast CCDs. Issues unique to optical packaging are also highlightened. New architectures to enable real-time operations are demonstrated, and optical interconnects for parallel processors are discussed. Particular attention is given to the status and operational advantages of government-sponsored efforts to upgrade existing military systems with digital GaAs signal processors and the state of the art in computer-aided design and advanced system architectures.

  8. Digital rectal exam

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  9. Fatigue level estimation of monetary bills based on frequency band acoustic signals with feature selection by supervised SOM

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued monetary bills adversely affect the daily operation of automated teller machines (ATMs). In order to make the classification of fatigued bills more efficient, the development of an automatic fatigued monetary bill classification method is desirable. We propose a new method by which to estimate the fatigue level of monetary bills from the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern of banking machines. By using a supervised self-organizing map (SOM), we effectively estimate the fatigue level using only the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern. Furthermore, the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern improves the estimation accuracy of the fatigue level of monetary bills by adding frequency domain information to the acoustic energy pattern. The experimental results with real monetary bill samples reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  11. Statistical features of seismoelectric signals prior to M7.4 Guerrero-Oaxaca earthquake (México

    A. Ramírez-Rojas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a statistical analysis of seismoelectric ULF signals prior to the M7.4 Guerrero-Oaxaca earthquake (EQ occurred at the Mexican Pacific coast on 14 September 1995, has been performed. The signals were simultaneously recorded at three monitoring stations from the last months of 1994 until July of 1996. The nonlinear time series methods of Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA have been used. In the three data sets we found some complex dynamical behaviors that seemingly reflect a relaxation-EQ preparation-main shock-relaxation process. In particular, clear spike-like anomalies in both DFA- and HFD-exponents some months before the main shock are revealed.

  12. High-density digital links optimization of signal integrity and noise performance of the high-density digital links of the ATLAS-TRT readout system

    Mandl, M.

    2000-02-01

    The TRT - Transition Radiation Tracker - is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS - A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS. About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data, which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage. (author)

  13. High-Density Digital Links Optimization of Signal Integrity and Noise Performance of the High-Density Digital Links of the ATLAS-TRT Readout System

    Mandl, M

    2000-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS). About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage.

  14. Hardware-efficient robust biometric identification from 0.58 second template and 12 features of limb (Lead I) ECG signal using logistic regression classifier.

    Sahadat, Md Nazmus; Jacobs, Eddie L; Morshed, Bashir I

    2014-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG), widely known as a cardiac diagnostic signal, has recently been proposed for biometric identification of individuals; however reliability and reproducibility are of research interest. In this paper, we propose a template matching technique with 12 features using logistic regression classifier that achieved high reliability and identification accuracy. Non-invasive ECG signals were captured using our custom-built ambulatory EEG/ECG embedded device (NeuroMonitor). ECG data were collected from healthy subjects (10), between 25-35 years, for 10 seconds per trial. The number of trials from each subject was 10. From each trial, only 0.58 seconds of Lead I ECG data were used as template. Hardware-efficient fiducial point detection technique was implemented for feature extraction. To obtain repeated random sub-sampling validation, data were randomly separated into training and testing sets at a ratio of 80:20. Test data were used to find the classification accuracy. ECG template data with 12 extracted features provided the best performance in terms of accuracy (up to 100%) and processing complexity (computation time of 1.2ms). This work shows that a single limb (Lead I) ECG can robustly identify an individual quickly and reliably with minimal contact and data processing using the proposed algorithm.

  15. Exploratory Data Analysis of Acceleration Signals to Select Light-Weight and Accurate Features for Real-Time Activity Recognition on Smartphones

    Seok-Won Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR recognizes users’ activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR or long data-window (DW to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz and a small DW (3 s. The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  16. Exploratory data analysis of acceleration signals to select light-weight and accurate features for real-time activity recognition on smartphones.

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Seok-Won

    2013-09-27

    Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR) recognizes users' activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification) is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR) or long data-window (DW) to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR) process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz) and a small DW (3 s). The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  17. Equation-of-state dependent features in shock-oscillation modulated neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from supernovae

    Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.

    2009-03-01

    We present two-dimensional (axisymmetric) neutrino-hydrodynamic simulations of the long-time accretion phase of a 15 M_⊙ progenitor star after core bounce and before the launch of a supernova explosion, when non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities like convection occur in different regions of the collapsing stellar core and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) leads to large-amplitude oscillations of the stalled shock with a period of tens of milliseconds. Our simulations were performed with the Prometheus-Vertex code, which includes a multi-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport scheme and employs an effective relativistic gravitational potential. Testing the influence of a stiff and a soft equation of state for hot neutron star matter, we find that the non-radial mass motions in the supernova core impose a time variability on the neutrino and gravitational-wave signals with larger amplitudes, as well as higher frequencies in the case of a more compact nascent neutron star. After the prompt shock-breakout burst of electron neutrinos, a more compact accreting remnant produces higher neutrino luminosities and higher mean neutrino energies. The observable neutrino emission in the SASI sloshing direction exhibits a modulation of several ten percent in the luminosities and around 1 MeV in the mean energies with most power at typical SASI frequencies between roughly 20 and 100 Hz. The modulation is caused by quasi-periodic variations in the mass accretion rate of the neutron star in each hemisphere. At times later than ~50-100 ms after bounce, the gravitational-wave amplitude is dominated by the growing low-frequency (⪉200 Hz) signal associated with anisotropic neutrino emission. A high-frequency wave signal results from nonradial gas flows in the outer layers of the anisotropically accreting neutron star. Right after bounce such nonradial mass motions occur due to prompt post-shock convection in both considered cases and contribute mostly to the early

  18. A genome-scale RNA-interference screen identifies RRAS signaling as a pathologic feature of Huntington's disease.

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available A genome-scale RNAi screen was performed in a mammalian cell-based assay to identify modifiers of mutant huntingtin toxicity. Ontology analysis of suppressor data identified processes previously implicated in Huntington's disease, including proteolysis, glutamate excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition to established mechanisms, the screen identified multiple components of the RRAS signaling pathway as loss-of-function suppressors of mutant huntingtin toxicity in human and mouse cell models. Loss-of-function in orthologous RRAS pathway members also suppressed motor dysfunction in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease. Abnormal activation of RRAS and a down-stream effector, RAF1, was observed in cellular models and a mouse model of Huntington's disease. We also observe co-localization of RRAS and mutant huntingtin in cells and in mouse striatum, suggesting that activation of R-Ras may occur through protein interaction. These data indicate that mutant huntingtin exerts a pathogenic effect on this pathway that can be corrected at multiple intervention points including RRAS, FNTA/B, PIN1, and PLK1. Consistent with these results, chemical inhibition of farnesyltransferase can also suppress mutant huntingtin toxicity. These data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of RRAS signaling may confer therapeutic benefit in Huntington's disease.

  19. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  20. A Fastbus module for trigger applications based on a digital signal processor and on programmable gate arrays

    Battaiotto, P.; Colavita, A.; Fratnik, F.; Lanceri, L.; Udine Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The new generation of DSP microprocessors based on RISC and Harvard-like architectures can conveniently take the place of specially built processors in fast trigger circuits for high-energy physics experiments. Presently available programmable gate arrays are well matched to them in speed and contribute to simplify the design of trigger circuits. Using these components, we designed and constructed a Fastbus module. We describe an application for the total-energy trigger of DELPHI, performing the readout of digitized calorimeter trigger data and some simple computations in less than 3 μs. (orig.)