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Sample records for features underlying perceived

  1. Establishing the situated features associated with perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebois, Lauren A M; Hertzog, Christopher; Slavich, George M; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2016-09-01

    We propose that the domain general process of categorization contributes to the perception of stress. When a situation contains features associated with stressful experiences, it is categorized as stressful. From the perspective of situated cognition, the features used to categorize experiences as stressful are the features typically true of stressful situations. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to evaluate the perceived stress of 572 imagined situations, and to also evaluate each situation for how much it possessed 19 features potentially associated with stressful situations and their processing (e.g., self-threat, familiarity, visual imagery, outcome certainty). Following variable reduction through factor analysis, a core set of 8 features associated with stressful situations-expectation violation, self-threat, coping efficacy, bodily experience, arousal, negative valence, positive valence, and perseveration-all loaded on a single Core Stress Features factor. In a multilevel model, this factor and an Imagery factor explained 88% of the variance in judgments of perceived stress, with significant random effects reflecting differences in how individual participants categorized stress. These results support the hypothesis that people categorize situations as stressful to the extent that typical features of stressful situations are present. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to establish a comprehensive set of features that predicts perceived stress.

  2. Establishing the situated features associated with perceived stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebois, Lauren A.M.; Hertzog, Christopher; Slavich, George M.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the domain general process of categorization contributes to the perception of stress. When a situation contains features associated with stressful experiences, it is categorized as stressful. From the perspective of situated cognition, the features used to categorize experiences as stressful are the features typically true of stressful situations. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to evaluate the perceived stress of 572 imagined situations, and to also evaluate each situation for how much it possessed 19 features potentially associated with stressful situations and their processing (e.g., self-threat, familiarity, visual imagery, outcome certainty). Following variable reduction through factor analysis, a core set of 8 features associated with stressful situations—expectation violation, self-threat, coping efficacy, bodily experience, arousal, negative valence, positive valence, and perseveration—all loaded on a single Core Stress Features factor. In a multilevel model, this factor and an Imagery factor explained 88% of the variance in judgments of perceived stress, with significant random effects reflecting differences in how individual participants categorized stress. These results support the hypothesis that people categorize situations as stressful to the extent that typical features of stressful situations are present. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to establish a comprehensive set of features that predicts perceived stress. PMID:27288834

  3. Spatial selection of features within perceived and remembered objects

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    Duncan E Astle

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Our representation of the visual world can be modulated by spatially specific attentional biases that depend flexibly on task goals. We compared searching for task-relevant features in perceived versus remembered objects. When searching perceptual input, selected task-relevant and suppressed task-irrelevant features elicited contrasting spatiotopic ERP effects, despite them being perceptually identical. This was also true when participants searched a memory array, suggesting that memory had retained the spatial organisation of the original perceptual input and that this representation could be modulated in a spatially specific fashion. However, task-relevant selection and task-irrelevant suppression effects were of the opposite polarity when searching remembered compared to perceived objects. We suggest that this surprising result stems from the nature of feature- and object-based representations when stored in visual short-term memory. When stored, features are integrated into objects, meaning that the spatially specific selection mechanisms must operate upon objects rather than specific feature-level representations.

  4. Dimensions Underlying the Perceived Similarity of Acoustic Environments

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    Francesco Aletta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on how people perceive or experience and/or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape is still in development. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify its underlying acoustic properties. This was the purpose of the present study. Three successive experiments were conducted. With the aid of 30 university students, the first experiment mapped the underlying dimensions of perceived similarity among 50 acoustic environments, using a visual sorting task of their spectrograms. Three dimensions were identified: (1 Distinguishable–Indistinguishable sound sources, (2 Background–Foreground sounds, and (3 Intrusive–Smooth sound sources. The second experiment was aimed to validate the results from Experiment 1 by a listening experiment. However, a majority of the 10 expert listeners involved in Experiment 2 used a qualitatively different approach than the 30 university students in Experiment 1. A third experiment was conducted in which 10 more expert listeners performed the same task as per Experiment 2, with spliced audio signals. Nevertheless, Experiment 3 provided a statistically significantly worse result than Experiment 2. These results suggest that information about the meaning of the recorded sounds could be retrieved in the spectrograms, and that the meaning of the sounds may be captured with the aid of holistic features of the acoustic environment, but such features are still unexplored and further in-depth research is needed in this field.

  5. Perceived suprathreshold depth under conditions that elevate the stereothreshold.

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    Bedell, Harold E; Gantz, Liat; Jackson, Danielle N

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies considered the possibility that individuals with impaired stereoacuity can be identified by estimating the perceived depth of a target with a suprathreshold retinal image disparity. These studies showed that perceived suprathreshold depth is reduced when the image presented to one eye is blurred, but they did not address whether a similar reduction of perceived depth occurs when the stereothreshold is elevated using other manipulations. Stereothresholds were measured in six adult observers for a pair of bright 1-degree vertical lines during normal viewing and under five conditions that elevated the stereothreshold: monocular dioptric blur, monocular glare, binocular luminance reduction, monocular luminance reduction, and imposed disjunctive image motion. The observers subsequently matched the perceived depth of degraded targets presented with crossed or uncrossed disparities corresponding to two, four, and six times the elevated stereothreshold for each stimulus condition. The image manipulations used elevated the stereothreshold by a factor of 3.7 to 5.5 times. For targets with suprathreshold disparities, monocular blur, monocular luminance reduction, and disjunctive image motion resulted in a significant decrease in perceived depth. However, the magnitude of perceived suprathreshold depth was unaffected when monocular glare was introduced or the binocular luminance of the stereotargets was reduced. Not all conditions that increase the stereothreshold reduce the perceived depth of targets with suprathreshold disparities. Observers who have poor stereopsis therefore may or may not exhibit an associated reduction of perceived suprathreshold depth.

  6. Neuronal population coding of perceived and memorized visual features in the lateral prefrontal cortex

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    Mendoza-Halliday, Diego; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C.

    2017-01-01

    The primate lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) encodes visual stimulus features while they are perceived and while they are maintained in working memory. However, it remains unclear whether perceived and memorized features are encoded by the same or different neurons and population activity patterns. Here we record LPFC neuronal activity while monkeys perceive the motion direction of a stimulus that remains visually available, or memorize the direction if the stimulus disappears. We find neurons with a wide variety of combinations of coding strength for perceived and memorized directions: some neurons encode both to similar degrees while others preferentially or exclusively encode either one. Reading out the combined activity of all neurons, a machine-learning algorithm reliably decode the motion direction and determine whether it is perceived or memorized. Our results indicate that a functionally diverse population of LPFC neurons provides a substrate for discriminating between perceptual and mnemonic representations of visual features. PMID:28569756

  7. Exploring the relationships among service quality features, perceived value and customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Ismail; Muhammad Madi Bin Abdullah; Sebastian K. Francis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among service quality features (responsiveness, assurance, and empathy), perceived value and customer satisfaction in the context of Malaysia. The empirical data are drawn from 102 members of an academic staff of a Malaysian public institution of higher learning using a survey questionnaire. The results indicate three important findings: firstly, the interaction between perceived value and responsiveness was not signific...

  8. Exploring the relationships among service quality features, perceived value and customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among service quality features (responsiveness, assurance, and empathy, perceived value and customer satisfaction in the context of Malaysia. The empirical data are drawn from 102 members of an academic staff of a Malaysian public institution of higher learning using a survey questionnaire. The results indicate three important findings: firstly, the interaction between perceived value and responsiveness was not significantly correlated with customer satisfaction. Secondly, the interaction between perceived value and assurance also did not correlate significantly with customer satisfaction. Thirdly, the interaction between perceived value and empathy correlated significantly with customer satisfaction. Thus the results demonstrate that perceived value had increased the effect of empathy on customer satisfaction, but it had not increased the effect of responsiveness and assurance on customer satisfaction. In sum, this study confirms that perceived value act as a partial moderating variable in the service quality models of the organizational sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Features of borderline personality disorder, perceived childhood emotional invalidation, and dysfunction within current romantic relationships.

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    Selby, Edward A; Braithwaite, Scott R; Joiner, Thomas E; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-12-01

    The mechanisms through which current romantic relationship dysfunction develops in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are still unclear. One possible pathway may be childhood experiences of emotional invalidation by parents, which may result in the development of poor social problem-solving skills or cognitive responses such as splitting, which impair current romantic relationships. This study examines the relationship between features of BPD and current romantic relationship dysfunction, and demonstrates that perceived emotional invalidation by parents during childhood mediates the relationship between BPD features and current romantic relationship dysfunction. Structural equations modeling was used to test the hypothesized model in 758 young adults in an ethnically diverse community sample. The proposed model fit the data well; perceived childhood emotional invalidation partially mediated the relationship between features of BPD and romantic relationship dysfunction, even when controlling for the presence of a major depressive episode in the last year. The findings of this study suggest that individuals with features of BPD experience relationship dysfunction that cannot be accounted for by comorbid depression and that perceived childhood emotional invalidation may contribute to these problems. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

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    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  11. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

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    José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  12. Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics.

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    Sun, Shuhua; Chen, Huaizhong

    2017-05-22

    We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A THEORY OF CONSUMER’S PERCEIVED RISK UNDER THE HALO EFFECT

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    Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely tackled by a manifold of sciences, perceived risk is still a rather unclear concept concerning its formation and update. In today’s economy, where poor purchase decisions are so easy to make, consumers have developed mental shields residing in actions based on perceived risk. This paper develops and tests a theory of perceived risk formation under the halo effect, based on correlation analysis in two forms: rankings individuals on their contribution to the correlations increase and partial correlations. Both internal and external halo effects were found, emerging from the perceived risk component – functional risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk, psychological risk and time risk –, brand attitude, product category attitude, consumer’s regret, others’ regret expressed through word-of-mouth, recency, and awareness of awareness. The intricate halo that was revealed needs further attention from the scientific community in order to better delimit halo sources and, eventually, to explain its variability.

  14. Contextual Multi-armed Bandits under Feature Uncertainty

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    Yun, Seyoung [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nam, Jun Hyun [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Sangwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-03

    We study contextual multi-armed bandit problems under linear realizability on rewards and uncertainty (or noise) on features. For the case of identical noise on features across actions, we propose an algorithm, coined NLinRel, having O(T⁷/₈(log(dT)+K√d)) regret bound for T rounds, K actions, and d-dimensional feature vectors. Next, for the case of non-identical noise, we observe that popular linear hypotheses including NLinRel are impossible to achieve such sub-linear regret. Instead, under assumption of Gaussian feature vectors, we prove that a greedy algorithm has O(T²/₃√log d)regret bound with respect to the optimal linear hypothesis. Utilizing our theoretical understanding on the Gaussian case, we also design a practical variant of NLinRel, coined Universal-NLinRel, for arbitrary feature distributions. It first runs NLinRel for finding the ‘true’ coefficient vector using feature uncertainties and then adjust it to minimize its regret using the statistical feature information. We justify the performance of Universal-NLinRel on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

  15. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  16. Methods for diagnosing perceived age on the basis of an ensemble of phenotypic features.

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    Coma, Mireia; Valls, Raquel; Mas, José Manuel; Pujol, Albert; Herranz, Miquel Angel; Alonso, Vicente; Naval, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Perceived age has been defined as the age that a person is visually estimated to be on the basis of physical appearance. In a society where a youthful appearance are an object of desire for consumers, and a source of commercial profit for cosmetic companies, this concept has a prominent role. In addition, perceived age is also an indicator of overall health status in elderly people, since old-looking people tend to show higher rates of morbidity and mortality. However, there is a lack of objective methods for quantifying perceived age. In order to satisfy the need of objective approaches for estimating perceived age, a novel algorithm was created. The novel algorithm uses supervised mathematical learning techniques and error retropropagation for the creation of an artificial neural network able to learn biophysical and clinically assessed parameters of subjects. The algorithm provides a consistent estimation of an individual's perceived age, taking into account a defined set of facial skin phenotypic traits, such as wrinkles and roughness, number of wrinkles, depth of wrinkles, and pigmentation. A nonintervention, epidemiological cross-sectional study of cases and controls was conducted in 120 female volunteers for the diagnosis of perceived age using this novel algorithm. Data collection was performed by clinical assessment of an expert panel and biophysical assessment using the ANTERA 3D(®) device. Employing phenotype data as variables and expert assignments as objective data, the algorithm was found to correctly classify the samples with an accuracy of 92.04%. Therefore, we have developed a method for determining the perceived age of a subject in a standardized, consistent manner. Further application of this algorithm is thus a promising approach for the testing and validation of cosmetic treatments and aesthetic surgery, and it also could be used as a screening method for general health status in the population.

  17. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

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    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  18. Perceived mathematical ability under challenge: a longitudinal perspective on sex segregation among STEM degree fields.

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    Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge-in particular in mathematics domains-influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC). Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type 2 years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women's 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased their probability of selecting PEMC majors over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students' selection of health science majors. Perceptions of ability under challenge in general and verbal domains also influenced retention in and declaration of certain STEM majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women's perceptions of

  19. Perceived Mathematical Ability under Challenge: A Longitudinal Perspective on Sex Segregation among STEM Degree Fields

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    Samantha eNix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM degree choice. Related, students’ perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. We investigate how perceived ability under challenge – in particular in mathematics domains – influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC. Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type two years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women’s 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased the probability that they would select PEMC majors, increasing women's probability of selecting PEMC over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students’ selection of health science majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women’s perceptions of their ability to facilitate their pathways to scientific degrees.

  20. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

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    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  1. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

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    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  2. Features of electroretinogram on rat under different color stimulation

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    Qing-Lin Cao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To research the feature of normal SD rat and retinal cone dysfunction(RCDrat electroretinogram(ERGunder different color stimulation and to explore its possible diagnostic value. METHODS: Six male SD rats and six RCD rats were used, all of which were mature rats. They were stimulated by red, white, blue and green light and the ERG was recorded. The wavelength of red, green and blue light were 625nm, 525nm and 470nm respectively and the white light was mixed by three color light.RESULTS: The response of ERG in normal SD rat under green and blue light stimulation were stronger than under red and white stimulation. The dark-adapted ERG of RCD rat responsed to color stimulation was similar to the ERG of normal SD rat, but the amplitude under each color stimulation was lower than that of normal SD rat. Light-adapted ERG response was hardly detected waveform.CONCLUSION: Rat is sensitive to blue and green light, which can be used as a suggested light stimulation in the ERG recording. The ERG of RCD rat is not specific for color stimulation, and at present we could not use color ERG as a diagnostic indicator.

  3. Medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive gender bias within imagery featuring anatomy.

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    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al. , J. Anat. 224:352-365; , Clin. Anat. 29:892-910). To further investigate this issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n = 142) and professional anatomists (n = 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained from the universities at both Cardiff and Paris. In the light of previous findings, the hypothesis tested was that medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive a gender bias when reflected in imagery that is based on anatomical iconography. Our survey results support this hypothesis and suggest that most students and anatomists are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within the culture of anatomy. We consequently recommend that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomical textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues when using imagery. Clin. Anat. 30:711-732, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. How a central bank perceives the (visual) communication of security features on its banknotes

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    Tornare, Roland

    1998-04-01

    The banknotes of earlier generations were protected by two or three security features with which the general public was familiar: watermark, security thread, intaglio printing. The remaining features pleased primarily printers and central banks, with little thought being given to public perception. The philosophy adopted two decades ago was based on a certain measure of discretion. It required patience and perseverance to discover the built-in security features of the banknotes. When colour photocopiers appeared on the scene in the mid- eighties we were compelled to take precautionary measures to protect our banknotes. One such measure consisted of an information campaign to prepare ourselves for this new potential threat. At this point, we actually became fully aware of the complex design of our banknotes and how difficult it is to communicate clearly the difference between a genuine and a counterfeit banknote. This difficult experience has nevertheless been a great benefit. It badgered us continually during the initial phase of designing the banknotes and preparing the information campaign.

  5. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

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    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  6. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

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    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  7. Face recognition using SIFT features under 3D meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng; GU Yu-zhang; HU Ke-li; WANG Ying-guan

    2015-01-01

    Expression, occlusion, and pose variations are three main challenges for 3D face recognition. A novel method is presented to address 3D face recognition using scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features on 3D meshes. After preprocessing, shape index extrema on the 3D facial surface are selected as keypoints in the difference scale space and the unstable keypoints are removed after two screening steps. Then, a local coordinate system for each keypoint is established by principal component analysis (PCA). Next, two local geometric features are extracted around each keypoint through the local coordinate system. Additionally, the features are augmented by the symmetrization according to the approximate left-right symmetry in human face. The proposed method is evaluated on the Bosphorus, BU-3DFE, and Gavab databases, respectively. Good results are achieved on these three datasets. As a result, the proposed method proves robust to facial expression variations, partial external occlusions and large pose changes.

  8. How long is too long? How pause features after requests affect the perceived willingness of affirmative answers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohtz, Lea Susan; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    A perception experiment involving 28 German listeners is presented. It investigates – for sequences of request, pause, and affirmative answer – the effect of pause duration on the answerer's perceived willingness to comply with the request. Replicating earlier results on American English, perceiv......) on perceived willingness judgments. The overall results picture is discussed with respect to the origin of the "tolerance threshold", the status of breathing in speech, and the function of pauses in communication....

  9. Examining Perceived Family Support and Family Environment under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman İLĞAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the family support and family environment level according to students’ perceptions under socio-economic variables. The sample of the research consists of 747 middle and high school students in Izmir, Menderes town. In respect of finding out family support and environment ‘family support and environment’ scale has been developed by researchers. As a descriptive survey model research has revealed that students’ perception about family support was in high level. In terms of perceived family support, middle school students have more positive perception than high school student. Students whose fathers don’t work have less positive perception in comparison to students whose fathers are freelancers and officials; students’ whose mothers are alive have higher perception of family support and environment than whose mothers are dead; students whose mothers and fathers live together have higher perception of family support and environment in comparison to the others; students who live with their families have higher perception of family support and environment in comparison to the others; students who have health problems have less perception of family support and environment than those who have no health problems; students’ perception of family support and environment differed according to number of brothers and sisters in the family.

  10. Neural emotion regulation circuitry underlying anxiolytic effects of perceived control over pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Tim V; Nusslock, Robin; Detloff, Allison; Johnstone, Tom; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-02-01

    Anxiolytic effects of perceived control have been observed across species. In humans, neuroimaging studies have suggested that perceived control and cognitive reappraisal reduce negative affect through similar mechanisms. An important limitation of extant neuroimaging studies of perceived control in terms of directly testing this hypothesis, however, is the use of within-subject designs, which confound participants' affective response to controllable and uncontrollable stress. To compare neural and affective responses when participants were exposed to either uncontrollable or controllable stress, two groups of participants received an identical series of stressors (thermal pain stimuli). One group ("controllable") was led to believe they had behavioral control over the pain stimuli, whereas another ("uncontrollable") believed they had no control. Controllable pain was associated with decreased state anxiety, decreased activation in amygdala, and increased activation in nucleus accumbens. In participants who perceived control over the pain, reduced state anxiety was associated with increased functional connectivity between each of these regions and ventral lateral/ventral medial pFC. The location of pFC findings is consistent with regions found to be critical for the anxiolytic effects of perceived control in rodents. Furthermore, interactions observed between pFC and both amygdala and nucleus accumbens are remarkably similar to neural mechanisms of emotion regulation through reappraisal in humans. These results suggest that perceived control reduces negative affect through a general mechanism involved in the cognitive regulation of emotion.

  11. Features of fiber fermentation under bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedakova Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data on the study of fermentation of dietary fibers of different origin under the action of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Citrus and apple pectin, flax fiber and glucose were used as substrate. The dynamics of the process was determined by the dependence of the content of short-chain fatty acids (propionic, butyric, valeric in the analyzed systems on time. Qualitative and quantitative composition of shot-chain fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. It was found that the amount of metabolites (propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids depends both on the type of the fermentable substrate, and the type of bacteria used for fermentation.

  12. Cellular mechanisms underlying spatiotemporal features of cholinergic retinal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin J.; Félix, Aude L.; Feller, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to vision, a transient network of recurrently connected cholinergic interneurons, called starburst amacrine cells (SACs), generates spontaneous retinal waves. Despite an absence of robust inhibition, cholinergic retinal waves initiate infrequently and propagate within finite boundaries. Here we combine a variety of electrophysiological and imaging techniques and computational modeling to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these spatial and temporal properties of waves in developing mouse retina. Waves initiate via rare spontaneous depolarizations of SACs. Waves propagate through recurrent cholinergic connections between SACs and volume release of ACh as demonstrated using paired recordings and a cell-based ACh optical sensor. Perforated patch recordings and two-photon calcium imaging reveal that individual SACs have slow afterhyperpolarizations that induce SACs to have variable depolarizations during sequential waves. Using a computational model in which the properties of SACs are based on these physiological measurements, we reproduce the slow frequency, speed, and finite size of recorded waves. This study represents a detailed description of the circuit that mediates cholinergic retinal waves and indicates that variability of the interneurons that generate this network activity may be critical for the robustness of waves across different species and stages of development. PMID:22262883

  13. Impact of Online Instructional Game Features on College Students' Perceived Motivational Support and Cognitive Investment: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhao David; Johnson, Tristan E.; Han, Seung-Hyun Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have begun to understand the instructional potential of digital game-based learning (DGBL) due to digital games' immersive features. These features, however, might overload learners as excessive motivational and cognitive stimuli thus impeding intended learning. Current research, however, lacks empirical evidences to…

  14. Perceived moral traits of others differentiate the neural activation that underlies inequity-aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Hironori; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Suzuki, Chisato; Asamizuya, Takeshi; Ueno, Kenichi; Cheng, Kang; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We have a social preference to reduce inequity in the outcomes between oneself and others. Such a preference varies according to others. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging during an economic game to investigate how the perceived moral traits of others modulate the neural activities that underlie inequity-aversion. The participants unilaterally allocated money to three partners (good, neutral, and bad). During presentation of the good and neutral partners, the anterior region of the rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC) showed increased functional connectivity with the caudate head and the anterior insula, respectively. Following this, participants allocated more money to the good partner, and less to the bad partner, compared with the neutral partner. The caudate head and anterior insula showed greater activation during fair allocation to the good and unfair allocation to the neutral partners, respectively. However, these regions were silent during allocations to the bad partner. Therefore, the arMFC-caudate/insula circuit encompasses distinct neural processes that underlie inequity-aversion in monetary allocations that the different moral traits of others can modulate. PMID:28230155

  15. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  16. Features of light propagation in insulating materials of electronics under laser processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Tochilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of light propagation in insulating materials of electronics is carried out under evaporating mode of laser influence. As a result of experimental data analysis the rate of through hole formation is determined and the temporal features of the absorption coefficient in investigated samples are established.

  17. Examining Perceived Family Support and Family Environment under Different Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurrahman İLĞAN; Mehmet Akif HELVACI; Yapar, Burcu; Salih Zafer YAPAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to describe the family support and family environment level according to students’ perceptions under socio-economic variables. The sample of the research consists of 747 middle and high school students in Izmir, Menderes town. In respect of finding out family support and environment ‘family support and environment’ scale has been developed by researchers. As a descriptive survey model research has revealed that students’ perception about family support was in high...

  18. Dermoscopic features of basal cell carcinomas: differences in appearance under non-polarized and polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Tracey N; Jaimes-Lopez, Natalia; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Wang, Steven Q; Dusza, Stephen W; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2012-03-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) can be diagnosed using different dermoscopic modalities. To evaluate dermoscopic features of BCCs using nonpolarized and polarized dermoscopy to highlight similarities and differences between dermoscopic modalities. Retrospective study of 149 BCCs under nonpolarized dermoscopy (NPD), polarized contact dermoscopy (PCD), and polarized noncontact dermoscopy (PNCD). Images were evaluated for a range of dermoscopic colors, structures, and vessels. Features were compared according to histopathologic subtype. The most common dermoscopic structures in BCCs across all modalities included globules (50.3-51.0%), dots (49.7-50.3%), white structureless areas (63.1-74.5%), structureless gray-brown areas (24.2-24.8%), and ulcerations (28.2%). The most frequently observed vasculature included arborizing vessels (18.8-38.3%), short fine telangiectasias (SFTs) (73.8-82.6%), and vascular blush (41.6-83.2%). Structures with higher levels of agreement across modalities included pigmented structures and ulcerations. Lower levels of agreement existed between contact and noncontact modalities for certain vascular features. White shiny structures, which include shiny white lines (chrysalis and crystalline structures) (0-69.1%), shiny white areas (0-25.5%), and rosettes (0-11.4%), exhibited no agreement between NPD and polarized modalities. This study highlights differences in dermoscopic features of BCCs under three dermoscopic modalities. Shiny white lines (chrysalis and crystalline structures) and shiny white areas may be used as additional criteria to diagnose BCCs. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Experimental Study on Bubble Pulse Features Under the Combined Action of Horizontal and Vertical Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诗平; 初文华; 张阿漫

    2014-01-01

    The pulse features of a bubble have a close connection with the boundary condition. When a bubble moves near a rigid wall, it will be attracted by the Bjerknes force of the wall, and a jet pointing at the wall will be generated. In real application, the bubble may move under the combined action of walls in different directions when it forms at the corner of a pipe or at the bottom of a dam. The motion of the bubble shows complex and nonlinear characteristics under these conditions. In order to investigate the bubble pulse features near complex walls, a horizontal wall and a vertical wall are put into the experimental water tank synchronously, and an electric circuit with 200 voltages is designed to generate discharge bubbles, and then experimental study on the bubble pulse features under the combined action of horizontal and vertical walls is carried out. The influences of the combined action of two walls on the bubble shape, pulse period, moving trace and inside jet are obtained by changing the distances from bubble center to the two walls. It aims at providing references for the relevant theoretical and numerical research.

  20. Enhanced retinal modeling for face recognition and facial feature point detection under complex illumination conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Li, Zuoyong; Jiao, Liangbao; Lu, Hong; Cao, Xuehong

    2016-07-01

    We improved classic retinal modeling to alleviate the adverse effect of complex illumination on face recognition and extracted robust image features. Our improvements on classic retinal modeling included three aspects. First, a combined filtering scheme was applied to simulate functions of horizontal and amacrine cells for accurate local illumination estimation. Second, we developed an optimal threshold method for illumination classification. Finally, we proposed an adaptive factor acquisition model based on the arctangent function. Experimental results on the combined Yale B; the Carnegie Mellon University poses, illumination, and expression; and the Labeled Face Parts in the Wild databases show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate illumination difference of images under complex illumination conditions, which is helpful for improving the accuracy of face recognition and that of facial feature point detection.

  1. Consistent Feature Extraction From Vector Fields: Combinatorial Representations and Analysis Under Local Reference Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Harsh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents research on addressing some of the contemporary challenges in the analysis of vector fields—an important type of scientific data useful for representing a multitude of physical phenomena, such as wind flow and ocean currents. In particular, new theories and computational frameworks to enable consistent feature extraction from vector fields are presented. One of the most fundamental challenges in the analysis of vector fields is that their features are defined with respect to reference frames. Unfortunately, there is no single “correct” reference frame for analysis, and an unsuitable frame may cause features of interest to remain undetected, thus creating serious physical consequences. This work develops new reference frames that enable extraction of localized features that other techniques and frames fail to detect. As a result, these reference frames objectify the notion of “correctness” of features for certain goals by revealing the phenomena of importance from the underlying data. An important consequence of using these local frames is that the analysis of unsteady (time-varying) vector fields can be reduced to the analysis of sequences of steady (timeindependent) vector fields, which can be performed using simpler and scalable techniques that allow better data management by accessing the data on a per-time-step basis. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art analysis of steady vector fields is not robust, as most techniques are numerical in nature. The residing numerical errors can violate consistency with the underlying theory by breaching important fundamental laws, which may lead to serious physical consequences. This dissertation considers consistency as the most fundamental characteristic of computational analysis that must always be preserved, and presents a new discrete theory that uses combinatorial representations and algorithms to provide consistency guarantees during vector field analysis along with the uncertainty

  2. Soil fractal features of subalpine coniferous forests in western Sichuan under different anthropogenic disturbances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yongmei; CHEN Jingsong

    2006-01-01

    Fractal theory,used to study natural figures and images with self-similarity but without characteristic lengths,offers an effective tool to investigate quantitatively the complex systems such as soil.In this paper,we have discussed about our study of the fractal features of the subalpine coniferous forests,soil particles,and microaggregates under different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances in the Miyaluo area of west Sichuan and investigated the effects of the disturbances on the forest soils attributed to different fractal dimensions.The study introduces a new way to investigate the recovery and reestablishment of subalpine coniferous forests.

  3. Very-to-barely remote sensing of prehistoric features under tephra in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Payson D.

    1991-01-01

    A wide variety of remote sensing instruments have been utilized to attempt to detect archaeological features under volcanic ash in Central America. Some techniques have not been successful, such as seismic refraction, for reasons that are not difficult to understand. Others have been very successful and provide optimism for archaeologists witnessing the destruction of unburied sites throughout Central America. The sudden burial of buildings, gardens, and footpaths by volcanic ash can preserve them extremely well providing a rich data base for understanding human life and culture at certain points in time.

  4. The features of HPOA on dynamic bone scintigraphy: A reflection of underlying pathophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Macauley, D.I.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexander Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) is the clinical syndrome of clubbing, arthritis and periostitis which may accompany a spectrum of underlying disease processes. Increased blood flow through involved extremities is an invariable accompaniment of the syndrome and it is hypothesised that the chronic increase in peripheral blood flow results in the known pathological changes of periosteal inflammation and proliferation, oedema, synovial congestion and exudation and hyperplasia of the finger pulp. The dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy provide a unique tool for examining the vascular changes in bone and soft tissues and we describe the previously unreported features of the dynamic bone scan in HPOA. We performed three-phase bone scans on two adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis with knee discomfort. Both studies showed marked hyperaemia to the knees. On the blood pool phase, hyperaemia was seen to the tissues closely related to the periosteum of the long bones in upper and lower limbs, periarticular tissues and finger pulps. The delayed images showed the classic features of HPOA with linear uptake of tracer in the shafts and metaphyseal regions of the long bones and minor periarticular uptake of tracer. A WBC scan performed in one patient showed WBC accumulation in the periosteum of the metaphyseal regions, extending in the shafts, of the distal femurs and proximal tibias. Negligible WBC accumulation was seen in the synovium of the knees reflecting the non-inflammatory nature of the articular changes as is described in most patients with HPOA. In conclusion, the dynamic phases of the bone scan examination in HPOA reflect the pivotal underlying pathophysiological process of abnormally increased blood flow to the periosteal and periarticular tissues of involved long bones and finger pulps and further expands the known diagnostic features of this disease on bone scintigraphy.

  5. Renal masses measuring under 2 cm: Pathologic outcomes and associations with MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B., E-mail: Andrew.Rosenkrantz@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Wehrli, Natasha E. [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Melamed, Jonathan [Department of Pathology, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Taneja, Samir S. [Department of Urology, Division of Urologic Oncology, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shaikh, Mohammed B. [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate pathologic outcomes and associations with MRI features in small renal masses measuring up to 20 mm Methods: 86 patients (61 ± 13 years; 45 M/41F) with 92 renal masses measuring up to 20 mm that underwent MRI prior to tissue diagnosis were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated all masses for microscopic lipid, hemorrhage, T2-hyperintensity, T2-homogeneity, cystic/necrotic areas, hypervascularity, enhancement homogeneity, circumscribed margins, and predominantly exophytic location. These MRI features, as well as patient age, gender, and history of RCC, were compared with pathologic findings using Fisher's exact test, unpaired t-test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results: 26.1% (24/92) of masses under 2 cm were benign, only 32.6% (30/92) were clear-cell RCC, and only 7.6% (7/92) were high-grade. Among 16 masses measuring up to 1 cm, only 12.5% (2/16) were clear-cell RCC, and none was high-grade. Within the entire cohort, no MRI or clinical feature showed a significant difference between benign and malignant lesions (p ≥ 0.053). However, for both readers, clear-cell RCC exhibited a significantly higher frequency of T2-hyperintensity, cystic/necrotic areas, and hypervascularity, and a significantly lower frequency of hemorrhage, T2-homogeneity, and enhancement homogeneity (p < 0.001–0.036). Hypervascularity was a significant independent predictor of clear-cell RCC for both readers (p = 0.002–0.007), as was T2-hyperintensity for reader 2 (p = 0.007). Conclusion: A substantial fraction of small renal masses were benign, and when malignant, largely exhibited indolent pathologic characteristics, particularly when measuring under 1 cm Although small benign and malignant masses could not be differentiated on MRI, hypervascularity showed a significant independent association with clear-cell RCC in comparison with other lesions.

  6. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  7. Clinicopathological and imaging features of breast cancer in Korean Women under 40 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Mi Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Eun Kyu; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in Korean women under 40 years of age according to molecular subtypes. We included 183 breast cancers in 176 consecutive women under 40 years old who had been diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and November 2014. The patients' clinical and pathologic records were available as electronic medical records. A retrospective review of the pre-operative imaging studies was performed with 177 mammographies, 183 ultrasonographies, and 178 MRIs. Eighty-six percent (158/183) of lesions were symptomatic, with masses (147/183) as the most common presentation. Eighty percent (22/25) of the asymptomatic lesions were diagnosed via screening ultrasonography. The luminal A subtype was the most common (n = 79, 43%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched subtype showed indistinct margins on mammography (p = 0.006), the triple negative subtype depicted a posterior enhancement on ultrasonography (p < 0.001) and rim enhancement on MRI (p < 0.001). Breast cancers in Korean women under 40 years of age are commonly presented with a palpable mass, and luminal A is the most common molecular subtype. In our study, the imaging and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger women were similar to those previously reported for older patients.

  8. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kostin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  9. Features of Responsibility for Commission of Tax Crimes Regulation under the Criminal Legislation of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Gruzinskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses features of regulating liability for tax offenses in British criminal law. Author researches question of taxation criminalization. Author emphasizes that it is important to separate tax evasion (illegal different ways from tax optimization (within the law. Author analyzes concept of "tax fraud", which can be defined as the deliberate actions of person to reduce taxes and committed through falsification of documents relevant to the tax authorities. In addition author considers tax fraud and other forms of criminal actions on the tax system under the British law, including tax cuts, tax resistance and refusal to pay taxes. Author concludes that forms of British economic crime compositions, depending on the way they were committed differentiates criminal liability. This question is more relevant in the process of punishment individualization because not all fraudulent evasion techniques will actually produce a much greater danger to society than "passive avoidance".

  10. Breast cancer features in women under the age of 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Santiago Girão Eugênio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To describe the clinical features, imaging findings and pathological aspects of breast cancer diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years. Method: A retrospective, descriptive study was performed through analysis of medical records between November 2008 and August 2012. One hundred and twenty (120 patients were included, of whom 112 underwent mammography, 113 underwent ultrasonography, and 105 underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The histopathological data was obtained in most cases from post-surgical analysis, which was available for 113 patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis of primary breast cancer was 34 years. Only 11 patients (9.0% had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relative. Ninety-two (92 patients sought medical attention after showing breast symptoms, and the presence of a palpable nodule was the main complaint. One hundred and twenty-two (122 primary tumors were diagnosed, of which 112 were invasive (95%. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.8%. Luminal B was the predominant molecular subtype (42.6%. Ultrasonography was positive in 94.5% of the cases and the most common finding were nodules (94.8%. At mammography, the malignancy was observed in 92.8% and the presence of suggestive calcifications was the dominant feature. The MRI was positive in 98% of patients, and mass lesions were the most common. Conclusion: Most cases of breast cancer diagnosed in patients under the age of 40 years, in our population, had symptoms at diagnosis and tumor with more aggressive biological behavior. Despite the ultrasound has been the most widely used method, we found improved characterization of breast lesions when also used mammography and MRI.

  11. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm2 and 4 J/cm2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm2, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the laser fluence as well as environmental conditions. The difference in surface morphology is attributable to cooling, confinement and shielding effects as well as difference in plasma temperature, density and pressure of environmental media that corresponds to different energy deposition

  12. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  13. Features of deformation of metal body surfaces under impact of a water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganin, A. A.; Khismatullina, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model and computational results on dynamics of a perfect elastic-plastic body under the load arising during impact of a high-velocity liquid jet with the hemispherical end. The body is simulated by the isotropic linearly-elastic semi-space, its plastic state is described by the von Mises condition. The dependence of features of the body surface deformation on the body material is studied. The problem is considered in the axisymmetric statement. The axis of symmetry is that of the jet. The loaded domain is a circle with its radius rapidly growing from zero to the jet radius. The pressure in the loaded domain is non-uniform both in time and space. Three metal alloys (aluminium, copper-nickel and steel) are considered as the body material. The loading of the body surface in all the cases corresponds to the impact of a water jet with the radius 100 pm and the velocity 300 m/s. It has been shown that under such impact a nanometer pit arises on the body surface at the center of the domain of the jet action. The profile of the pit and its maximal depth depend on the body material.

  14. A Feature Subtraction Method for Image Based Kinship Verification under Uncontrolled Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The most fundamental problem of local feature based kinship verification methods is that a local feature can capture the variations of environmental conditions and the differences between two persons having a kin relation, which can significantly decrease the performance. To address this problem...... the feature distance between face image pairs with kinship and maximize the distance between non-kinship pairs. Based on the subtracted feature, the verification is realized through a simple Gaussian based distance comparison method. Experiments on two public databases show that the feature subtraction method...

  15. Infants born to mothers under phenobarbital treatment: correlation between serum levels and clinical features of neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, Antonio A; Carducci, Chiara; Scorrano, Antonio; Antichi, Eleonora; Catenazzi, Piero; Piras, Andrea; Pozzoli, Giacomo; Cardiello, Valentina; D'Antuono, Annamaria; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2011-11-01

    Phenobarbital crosses the placenta quickly, and the balance between maternal and fetal blood is achieved in a few minutes. Data on the clinical outcomes of infants born to mothers under phenobarbital treatment during pregnancy show that they are at risk of adverse events, such as sedation and abstinence syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between serum levels of phenobarbital and clinical features of neonates. Twenty-three infants born between 2001 and 2008 were studied. Maternal, neonatal and pharmacological variables were considered. Eleven infants displayed symptoms related to phenobarbital. Withdrawal syndrome was seen in seven infants and sedation syndrome was seen in four infants. One infant had severe cardiorespiratory depression at birth. None of the infants had severe neonatal abstinence syndrome. No statistically significant differences were found between symptomatic and asymptomatic infants. At birth, the mean serum level of phenobarbital of the 23 infants was 15.4 [standard deviation (SD) 6.2] μg/ml. A peak (16.1 μg/ml, SD 5.5) was seen on Day 3, followed by a gradual decrease to non-therapeutic levels (Phenobarbital levels were higher in symptomatic infants than asymptomatic infants, although the difference was not statistically significant. Serum levels of phenobarbital remained in the therapeutic range for both mothers and infants, and reduced gradually in infants. However, some infants displayed symptoms related to phenobarbital. As such, a clinical pharmacological surveillance protocol is necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Monitoring Features Under Eosinophilic Phenotype of Bronchial Asthma Among the Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bilous

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: to study features of monitoring in the dynamics of the basic treatment of eosinophilic phenotype of asthma in school-age children. Materials and methods. Surveyed 88 school-age children with bronchial asthma. The first group included 45 patients who met eosinophilic phenotype (EFBA and group II formed the 43 patients with evidence of neutrophilic phenotype (NFBA. Results and discussion. It should be noted that if the early inflammatory therapy destination exchange only 10.5% of the patients disease was defined as EFBA controlled and the finishing treatment increased the proportion of cases of controlled to 25.6% (Pφ>0,05 and in the second clinical group – at 22.3% of 50.0% patients, Pφ<0,05. Also marked anti-inflammatory effect in both groups in exhaled breath condensate and increase in the lability of the bronchi occurred in 39.1% of children with EFBA, and 60.0% of the representatives of the comparison group. Conclusions. Thus, in patients with signs of eosinophilic phenotype compared with children with neutrophilic airway inflammation markers hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the bronchi more expressive as the lability of the respiratory tract. Under the influence of the basic anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with eosinophilic asthma phenotype is a reduction of inflammation of the bronchi, but not lability and hyperresponsiveness.

  17. Features of metabolic disturbances in rat myocardium under effect of alternating magnetic fields of different parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodub, F.A.; Chernysheva, O.N.; Yevtushenko, G.I.

    1981-04-01

    The high sensitivity of the cardiovascular system, in particular of the myocardium, to the effect of constant and, especially, alternating magnetic fields was demonstrated by many authors. However, the biochemical mechanisms forming the basis for the development of functional and structural disturbances in the myocardium have not been clarified in many respects. N.A. Udintsev and N.V. Kanskaya have established that the effect of alternating magnetic fields leads to the activation in the heart muscle of glycolysis and glycogenolysis and to the inhibition of the pentose cycle. In the literature there are no data on the state of oxidation processes and phosphorylation associated with them, in the course of which energy needed both for synthesis and contraction processes' in the myocardium is accumulated. The study of the features of metabolism of carbohydrates, macroergic phosphates and low-molecular nitrogen compounds in the rat heart under the effect of alternating magnetic fields of various voltages and exposures was the object of this investigation.

  18. Not in the mood? Men under- (not over-) perceive their partner's sexual desire in established intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muise, Amy; Stanton, Sarah C E; Kim, James J; Impett, Emily A

    2016-05-01

    Men's sexual overperception bias-where men tend to perceive greater sexual interest in women's behavior than actually exists-is a well-documented finding in previous research. All of the existing research, however, has tested this effect in the context of initial encounters or for fictitious or unknown targets. No research currently exists on how people perceive their romantic partner's sexual desire in the context of ongoing, intimate relationships. In 3 dyadic studies, we provide evidence that men in established romantic relationships err in the direction of the opposite bias and underperceive their romantic partner's sexual desire. We also demonstrate that this underperception bias is functional (particularly for men) in that it is associated with their partner feeling more satisfied and committed to the relationship. In addition, people are particularly likely to underperceive their partner's desire on days when they are motivated to avoid sexual rejection, and men's underperception bias is, in part, accounted for by men's higher general levels of sexual desire than women. The current studies extend previous findings on sexual perceptual biases and demonstrate the important role of context in men's judgments of a partner's sexual interest. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Low self-esteem as a risk factor for loneliness in adolescence: perceived - but not actual - social acceptance as an underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Low self-esteem has been shown to relate to concurrent and later feelings of loneliness in adolescence. However, it remains unclear why low self-esteem puts adolescents at risk for experiencing loneliness. Further, longitudinal research on the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem is virtually non-existent. The present study aims to fill these gaps in the literature. First, the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem was investigated in two independent longitudinal studies: a five-wave study sampling Dutch adolescents (M age = 15.22 years at T1; 47 % female; N = 428) and a three-wave study sampling Belgian adolescents (M age = 14.95 years at T1; 63 % female; N = 882). Second, the underlying role of social acceptance was investigated in the latter sample by applying a multi-method approach that included actual (i.e., peer-reported) and perceived (i.e., self-reported) social acceptance. Results indicated that self-esteem and loneliness influenced one another in a reciprocal manner. Furthermore, the dominant path from self-esteem to loneliness was partially mediated by perceived--but not actual--social acceptance. The importance of distinguishing actual from perceived social acceptance is discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  20. Morpho-anatomical features of Schisandra chinensis leaf under conditions of introduction in forest-steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Skrypchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the morpho-anatomical study of the leaves of Schisandra chinensis under conditions of foreststeppe of Ukraine are given. Since the specific features were found, in particular the presence of intercellular spaces with essential oils in leaf blade and petioles.

  1. A New Multi Fractal Dimension Method for Face Recognition with Fewer Features under Expression Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksud Ahamad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new method is presented as a mingle of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multi-Fractal Dimension analysis (MFD for feature extraction. Proposed method makes use of best decisiontaken from both the methods and make use of fewer and effective features than traditional algorithms without compromise in recognition accuracy. In order to ease the pre-processing we controlled the variance in each mode. It is done to train the system to understand and recognize facial variance present in image. Experiments with different datasets show that proposed method is more suitable for larger dataset, with higher efficiency.

  2. ABOUT SOME FEATURES OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE DISCIPLINARY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER NEW ECONOMIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Abdulkhakovna Shakirova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the features of the developing separate kinds of disciplinary liability in the period of new economic policy. Some features of legislative registration of a disciplinary responsibility in days of new economic policy as during the specified period there was a formation of separate types of this responsibility which treated are analyzed: disciplinary responsibility on internal regulations, disciplinary responsibility on subordination and disciplinary responsibility of employees according to the statutes on discipline and special provisions as a special type of disciplinary responsibility on subordination. The features of legal regulation of disciplinary responsibility considered in article were of great importance in further development of institute of a disciplinary liability and the legislation on a disciplinary liability.The purpose is on the basis of new achievements of legal science to comprehend process of disciplinary liability institute development.Method or methodology of work: the modern methods of learning and special historical, comparative and legal methods were used.Results: scientific analysis of theoretical, historical and legal sources, determining the peculiarity and the content of disciplinary liability institute.Application of results: conclusions achieved as a result of scientific research can find practical application in law-making activities of governmental institutions.

  3. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌杰; 陈昆松; FERGUSONIanB

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple celi death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  4. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-jie; Chen, Kun-song; Ferguson, Ian B

    2004-02-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  5. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie(徐昌杰); CHEN Kun-song(陈昆松); FERGUSON Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  6. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  7. [Characteristic features of systemic hemodynamics during cesarean section under general anesthesia with ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, V N

    1983-02-01

    On the basis of a comparative investigation of the central hemodynamics by the method of integrative rheography of the body in two groups of women during the operation of cesarean section under general anesthesia with ether or ketamin the author makes a conclusion that ketamin is a good drug for anesthesia in urgent surgical situations.

  8. Topological features in crystal structures: a quotient graph assisted analysis of underlying nets and their embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eon, Jean Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties of crystal structures may be analysed at different levels, depending on the representation and the topology that has been assigned to the crystal. Considered here is the combinatorial or bond topology of the structure, which is independent of its realization in space. Periodic nets representing one-dimensional complexes, or the associated graphs, characterize the skeleton of chemical bonds within the crystal. Since periodic nets can be faithfully represented by their labelled quotient graphs, it may be inferred that their topological features can be recovered by a direct analysis of the labelled quotient graph. Evidence is given for ring analysis and structure decomposition into building units and building networks. An algebraic treatment is developed for ring analysis and thoroughly applied to a description of coesite. Building units can be finite or infinite, corresponding to 1-, 2- or even 3-periodic subnets. The list of infinite units includes linear chains or sheets of corner- or edge-sharing polyhedra. Decomposing periodic nets into their building units relies on graph-theoretical methods classified as surgery techniques. The most relevant operations are edge subdivision, vertex identification, edge contraction and decoration. Instead, these operations can be performed on labelled quotient graphs, evidencing in almost a mechanical way the nature and connection mode of building units in the derived net. Various examples are discussed, ranging from finite building blocks to 3-periodic subnets. Among others, the structures of strontium oxychloride, spinel, lithiophilite and garnet are addressed.

  9. Features of deformation localization in stable austenitic steel under thermomechanical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Polekhina, N. A.; Tyumentsev, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    Features of structural states of Fe-18Cr-14Ni-Mo austenitic steel after thermomechanical treatment, including low-temperature and warm rolling deformation, were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that mechanical twinning in multiple systems and strain localization bands contribute to grain fragmentation with the formation of the submicrocrystalline austenitic structure. These bands lie in the microtwin structure, have high-angle (≈60°-90°, ) misorientations of the crystal lattice relative to the matrix and localize significant (up to ≈1) shear strain. In areas of the bands, structural states with high (tens of deg/μm) curvature of the crystal lattice and high local internal stresses are observed. The internal structure of the bands is presented by nanoscale fragments of austenite and α'-martensite. The presence of specific misorientations and fragments of martensite means that the formation mechanism of localized deformation bands are direct plus reverse (γ → α' → γ) martensitic transformations with the reverse transformation follows by an alternative path. These structural states provide high strength properties of steel: the yield strength is up to 1150 MPa.

  10. Development of Feature Set, Classification Implementation and Applications for Vowel Migration/Modification in Sung Filipino (Tagalog Texts and Perceived Intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia B. Bustos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of research on real-time visual feedback to supplement vocal pedagogy, the utilization of technology in the world of music is now seen to accelerate skills learning and enhance cognitive development. The researchers of this project aim to further analyze vowel intelligibility and develop software applications intended to be used not only by professional singers but also by individuals who wish to improve their singing capability. Data in the form of sung vowels and song pieces were obtained from 46 singers. A Listening Test was then conducted on these samples to obtain the ground truth for vowel classification based on human perception. Simulation of the human auditory perception of sung Filipino vowels was performed using formant frequencies and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as feature vector inputs to a two-stage Discriminant Analysis classifier. The setup resulted in an over-all Training Set accuracy of 89.4% and an over-all Test Set accuracy of 90.9%. The accuracy of the classifier, measured in terms of the correspondence of vowel classifications obtained from the classifier with the results of the Listening Test, reached 92.3%. Using information obtained from the classifier, offline and online/real-time software applications were developed. The main application features include the display of the spectral envelope and spectrogram, pitch and vibrato analysis and direct feedback on the classification of the sung vowel. These features were recommended by singers who were surveyed and were incorporated in the applications to aid singers to adjust formant locations, directly determine listener’s perception of sung vowels, perform modeling effectively and carry out vowel migration.

  11. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  12. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEAST CHINA UNDER WARMING BACKGROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; GONG Qiang; ZHAO Lian-wei

    2005-01-01

    By using, summer temperature data in 26 stations from 1951 to 2003, the variation characteristics of summer temperature in Northeast China (NET) were analyzed based on the background of climate warming. The results showed that the warming in summer was 0.15℃/10a in Northeast China, which was higher than that on the global, Northern Hemisphere or Northeast Asia scale in the recent 50 years. The responses of NET to global warming were shown in 3 aspects mainly. Firstly, it became warm and the average temperature increased in summer;secondly,the temperature variability increased, which displayed the increase of climatic instability;thirdly, the disaster of low temperature decreased and high temperature damage increased obviously, but the disaster of low temperature still existed in some areas under global warming background, which would be worthy of notice further.

  13. Can simple interactions capture complex features of neural activity underlying behavior in a virtual reality environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Leenoy; Gauthier, Jeffrey; Brody, Carlos; Tank, David; Bialek, William

    The complex neural interactions which are abundant in most recordings of neural activity are relatively poorly understood. A prime example of such interactions can be found in the in vivo neural activity which underlies complex behaviors of mice, imaged in brain regions such as hippocampus and parietal cortex. Experimental techniques now allow us to accurately follow these neural interactions in the simultaneous activity of large neuronal populations of awake behaving animals. Here, we demonstrate that pairwise maximum entropy models can predict a surprising number of properties of the neural activity. The models, that are constrained with activity rates and interactions between pairs of neurons, are well fit to the activity `states' in the hippocampus and cortex of mice performing cognitive tasks while navigating in a virtual reality environment.

  14. Linear and nonlinear resonance features of an erbium-doped fibre ring laser under cavity-loss modulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Ghosh; R Vijaya

    2014-07-01

    The continuous-wave output of a single-mode erbium-doped fibre ring laser when subjected to cavity-loss modulation is found to exhibit linear as well as nonlinear resonances. At sufficiently low driving amplitude, the system resembles a linear damped oscillator. At higher amplitudes, the dynamical study of these resonances shows that the behaviour of the system exhibits features of a nonlinear damped oscillator under harmonic modulation. These nonlinear dynamical features, including harmonic and subharmonic resonances, have been studied experimentally and analysed with the help of a simple time-domain and frequency-domain information obtained from the output of the laser. All the studies are restricted to the modulation frequency lying in a regime near the relaxation oscillation frequency.

  15. Inherent structure features of beryllium and their influence on the performance polycrystalline metal under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomutov, A.M.; Mikhailov, V.S.; Pronin, V.N.; Pakhomov, Ya.D. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation `A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM)`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The anisotropy of physical properties of beryllium single crystals resulting from covalent bonds in crystal lattice leads to significant residual thermal microstresses (RTM) in the polycrystalline metal. It is demonstrated experimentally that there is a simple linear dependence between the magnitude of RTM and the ultimate tensile strength. The factors controlling RTM are analysed and in the framework of powder metallurgy process the technological methods of producing beryllium with the needed properties are recommended. Primarily it is necessary to control the quantity and extent of dispersity of intergranular oxide inclusions and mean grain size in combination with the high degree of macro- and microhomogenity of the structure. The requirements to beryllium microstructure for different operating conditions including neutron fluxes and transient temperature fields are formulated. In the framework of the concept under development one can explain formerly not fully understandable effects, which are characteristic of polycrystalline beryllium such as unexpected Petch-Stro curve, the role of twinning etc., and predict new ones. In particular, it can be possible to expect the growth of ductility of high strength beryllium grades as neutron irradiated. (author)

  16. [Impacts of hypoxia on the features and chemoresistance of cancer stem cells in Hep-2 cells and underlying mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yong-tao; Li, Xiao-ming; Xu, Ou; Wang, Mao-xin; Lu, Xiu-ying

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the features and chemoresistance of cancer stem cells in Hep-2 cells and underlying mechanism. The shRNA interference recombinant plasmid targeting HIF-1α was synthesized and transfected into Hep-2 cells. The HIF-1α knockdown Hep-2 cells were established after clonal selection and the expression of HIF-1α was measured. The cellular features including proliferation, clonal formation, cell cycle, apoptosis and CD133 phenotype were measured in Hep-2 cells cultured under hypoxic condition in vitro. CD133+ cells were sorted from Hep-2 cells with flow cytometry. Clonal formation test and cisplatin treatment were carried out, and the expressions of related genes (Oct-4, suvivin and p53) in CD133+ cells were measured. HIF-1α knockdown Hep-2 cells was successfully established, as evidenced by the reduced mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α. The Hep-2 cells cultured under hypoxic microenvironment showed higher proliferation and clonal formation activity, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, lower apoptosis, up-regulated CD133, however the effects of hypoxia reduced in HIF-1α knockdown Hep-2 cells. CD133+ cells were successfully sorted from Hep-2 cells, and the CD133+ cells showed increased clonal formation activity and cisplatin treatment resistance in hypoxia. Also the effects of hypoxia on CD133+ cells decreased with HIF-1α knockdown, showing down-regulated Oct-4 and survivin and up-regulated p53. Hypoixa can induce the features of cancer stem cells in Hep-2 cells and increase proliferation, differentiation and chemoresistant ability of CD133+ cells, which might be correlated with the changes in expressions of HIF-1α and related genes regulated by HIF-1α.

  17. ROLE OF ACCOUNTING PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH PROBLEMS IN INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER REALIZATION OF NEW EDUCATIONAL STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Aslamazova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In our country a variety of measures have taken to improve the situation of children with disabilities, including the conditions for their quality education. Ignorance by teachers the features of such children and unavailability to interact with them can significantly hamper the inclusion of students in the educational environment. The purpose of the article is the actualization of the problem of introduction of New Educational Standard for students with disabilities, involving a change in the requirements of the system to all participants of the educational process, and to the teachers, first. The article discusses the features of children with problems in intellectual development, because the mastering of educational programs and necessary skills are directly related to student mental abilities. We can select the most typical features of primary school students with problems in intellectual development: various disorders in cognitive, emotional and personal spheres that hamper the assimilation of educational material and development of skills; there are relative reversibility of symptoms in children with delayed mental development, which decreases under the influence of correction; developmental disorders are present throughout life in children with mental retardation; students have potential capabilities of formation of the psyche as a «zone of proximal development», wherein a significant source of formation of mental functions is the social (including the teacher impact.

  18. A Stackelberg Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentive Effects under Perceived Risk for China’s Straw-Based Power Plant Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the biomass power generation industry has resulted in the conversion of substantial agricultural waste (crop straw into energy feedstock, thereby increasing the income of farmers and promoting the development of rural areas. However, the promising industry faces financial deficits because of difficulties in collecting straw from farmers. To determine strategies for overcoming the biomass supply problem, we apply Stackelberg game theory in modeling the Chinese biomass supply chain and design incentive scenarios under stakeholder risk perception. We illustrate the proposed methodology through an empirical case study on China and demonstrate the effects of incentives on farmers and middlemen. Results show that with incentives, straw quantity and stakeholder profit are expected to increase. Incentives exert a particularly remarkable effect on farmers, with such inducements producing the highest social welfare. Moreover, perceived risk dramatically affects stakeholder profit. Mitigating the risk perception of farmers is expected to significantly advance the development of the biomass power generation industry, increase stakeholder profit, and decrease the amount of incentives needed.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants show common metabolic features in central metabolism irrespective of the underlying auxotrophism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eKriegeskorte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical phenotype, Staphylococcus aureus may exhibit the small colony-variant (SCV phenotype, which has been associated with chronic, persistent and/or relapsing infections. SCVs are characterized by common phenotypic features such as slow growth, altered susceptibility to antibiotic agents and pathogenic traits based on increased internalization and intracellular persistence. They show frequently auxotrophiesms mainly based on two different mechanisms: (i deficiencies in electron transport as shown for menadione- and/or hemin-auxotrophs and (ii thymidylate biosynthetic-defective SCVs. To get a comprehensive overview of the metabolic differences between both phenotypes, we compared sets of clinically derived menadione-, hemin- and thymidine-auxotrophic SCVs and stable site directed mutants exhibiting the SCV phenotype with their corresponding isogenic parental strains displaying the normal phenotype. Isotopologue profiling and transcriptional analysis of central genes involved in carbon metabolism, revealed large differences between both phenotypes. Labeling experiments with [U-13C6]glucose showed reduced 13C incorporation into aspartate and glutamate from all SCVs irrespective of the underlying auxotrophism. More specifically, these SCVs showed decreased fractions of 13C2-aspartate and glutamate; 13C3-glutamate was not detected at all in the SCVs. In comparison to the patterns in the corresponding experiment with the classical S. aureus phenotype, this indicated a reduced carbon flux via the citric acid cycle in all SCV phenotypes. Indeed, the aconitase-encoding gene (acnA was found down-regulated in all SCV phenotypes under study. In conclusion, all SCV phenotypes including clinical isolates and site-directed mutants displaying the SCV phenotype were characterized by down-regulation of citric acid cycle activity. The common metabolic features in central carbon metabolism found in all SCVs may explain similar

  20. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants show common metabolic features in central metabolism irrespective of the underlying auxotrophism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, André; Grubmüller, Stephanie; Huber, Claudia; Kahl, Barbara C; von Eiff, Christof; Proctor, Richard A; Peters, Georg; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Becker, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the classical phenotype, Staphylococcus aureus may exhibit the small colony-variant (SCV) phenotype, which has been associated with chronic, persistent and/or relapsing infections. SCVs are characterized by common phenotypic features such as slow growth, altered susceptibility to antibiotic agents and pathogenic traits based on increased internalization and intracellular persistence. They show frequently auxotrophies mainly based on two different mechanisms: (i) deficiencies in electron transport as shown for menadione- and/or hemin-auxotrophs and (ii) thymidylate biosynthetic-defective SCVs. To get a comprehensive overview of the metabolic differences between both phenotypes, we compared sets of clinically derived menadione-, hemin- and thymidine-auxotrophic SCVs and stable site directed mutants exhibiting the SCV phenotype with their corresponding isogenic parental strains displaying the normal phenotype. Isotopologue profiling and transcriptional analysis of central genes involved in carbon metabolism, revealed large differences between both phenotypes. Labeling experiments with [U-(13)C6]glucose showed reduced (13)C incorporation into aspartate and glutamate from all SCVs irrespective of the underlying auxotrophism. More specifically, these SCVs showed decreased fractions of (13)C2-aspartate and glutamate; (13)C3-glutamate was not detected at all in the SCVs. In comparison to the patterns in the corresponding experiment with the classical S. aureus phenotype, this indicated a reduced carbon flux via the citric acid cycle in all SCV phenotypes. Indeed, the aconitase-encoding gene (acnA) was found down-regulated in all SCV phenotypes under study. In conclusion, all SCV phenotypes including clinical isolates and site-directed mutants displaying the SCV phenotype were characterized by down-regulation of citric acid cycle activity. The common metabolic features in central carbon metabolism found in all SCVs may explain similar characteristics of the S

  1. Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Genomic Features of Campylobacter jejuni Bf, an Atypical Strain Able to Grow under Aerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnec, Vicky; Turoňová, Hana; Bouju, Agnès; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Rodrigues, Ramila; Demnerova, Katerina; Tresse, Odile; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in Europe. Human campylobacteriosis cases are frequently associated to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To survive under environmental conditions encountered along the food chain, i.e., from poultry digestive tract its natural reservoir to the consumer’s plate, this pathogen has developed adaptation mechanisms. Among those, biofilm lifestyle has been suggested as a strategy to survive in the food environment and under atmospheric conditions. Recently, the clinical isolate C. jejuni Bf has been shown to survive and grow under aerobic conditions, a property that may help this strain to better survive along the food chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion capacity of C. jejuni Bf and its ability to develop a biofilm. C. jejuni Bf can adhere to abiotic surfaces and to human epithelial cells, and can develop biofilm under both microaerobiosis and aerobiosis. These two conditions have no influence on this strain, unlike results obtained with the reference strain C. jejuni 81-176, which harbors only planktonic cells under aerobic conditions. Compared to 81-176, the biofilm of C. jejuni Bf is more homogenous and cell motility at the bottom of biofilm was not modified whatever the atmosphere used. C. jejuni Bf whole genome sequence did not reveal any gene unique to this strain, suggesting that its unusual property does not result from acquisition of new genetic material. Nevertheless some genetic particularities seem to be shared only between Bf and few others strains. Among the main features of C. jejuni Bf genome we noticed (i) a complete type VI secretion system important in pathogenicity and environmental adaptation; (ii) a mutation in the oorD gene involved in oxygen metabolism; and (iii) the presence of an uncommon insertion of a 72 amino acid coding sequence upstream from dnaK, which is involved in stress resistance. Therefore, the atypical behavior of this strain under

  2. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  3. Features at diagnosis of 324 patients with acromegaly did not change from 1981 to 2006; Acromegaly remains under-recognized and under-diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Tirissa J.; Post, Kalmon D.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Kanibir, M. Nabi; Reyes-Vidal, Carlos M.; Freda, Pamela U.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Traditionally, acromegaly evaded diagnosis until in its clinically obvious later stages when treatment is more difficult. Over the last 25 years diagnostic tests have improved, but whether clinical disease detection also improved was unknown so we tested if disease severity at diagnosis had changed from 1981 to 2006. METHODS Data on 324 consecutive acromegaly patients presenting from 1981–2006 at two New York City hospitals were collected by retrospective review (n=324) and by interview (n=200). The main complaint, acromegaly-associated co-morbidities, signs, symptoms, healthcare providers visited, pre-operative growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and pituitary tumor size at diagnosis were compared in patients presenting in the earlier vs. later halves of the time period. RESULTS Times from symptom onset to diagnosis were 5.9 yr. (early) vs. 5.2 yr. (late)(p=ns). At diagnosis, 96% of early and late groups had facial feature changes and/or hand/foot enlargement. Co-morbidities included hypertension (HTN) 37 % (early) vs. 36% (late), carpal tunnel syndrome (24 vs. 24%), sleep apnea (13 vs. 29%)(p acromegaly patients were unchanged from 1981–2006. Most patients still have marked manifestations of acromegaly at diagnosis suggesting that acromegaly remains clinically under-recognized. Healthcare professionals should more commonly consider acromegaly, which can lead to earlier diagnosis and better treatment outcome. PMID:19473180

  4. 基于感知收益-感知风险框架的O2O模式下生鲜农产品购买意愿研究%The Research on Purchasing Intention of Fresh Agricultural Products under O2 O Mode Based on the Framework of Perceived Benefits-Perceived Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应语; 张梦佳; 王强; 任莹; 马阳光; 马爽; 邵伟; 尹世久; 石忠国

    2015-01-01

    The development of technology promotes the combination of traditional industries and the Internet,creating a new mobile International business mode—O2O(online to offline). O2O mode combines the advantages of online and shopping malls,has become a marketing innovation paradigm. The framework of perceived benefits-perceived risk is a mainstream framework of consumer behavior research. Based on this framework,this paper gives the theoretical framework of purchase intention of fresh agricultural products under the mode of O2O and puts forward a series of hypothesis. The empirical results show that:the general attitude has a positive influence on perceived benefits,has a negative influence on perceived risk;trust has a positive influence on perceived benefits,has a negative influence on perceived risk;perceived benefits have a positive influence on purchasing intention;perceived risk has a negative influence on purchasing intention.%技术的发展推动了传统产业与互联网的结合,创造了一种全新的移动互联网商业模式O2O( online to offline)。 O2O模式融合了实体店和线上商城经营的诸多优点,成为一个营销模式创新的范式。感知收益-感知风险框架是消费行为研究的一个主流框架。基于这一框架,本文给出了O2 O模式下生鲜农产品购买意愿的理论框架并提出了一系列假设。实证结果表明:总体态度对感知收益有正面影响,总体态度对感知风险有负面影响;信任对感知收益有正面影响,信任对感知风险有负面影响;感知收益对购买意愿有正面影响;感知风险对购买意愿有负面影响。

  5. A STUDY ON DETERMINATION OF THE ORGANIZATION PERCEIVED QUALITY, SATISFACTION LEVEL AND REVISIT: THE CASE STUDY OF FIFA UNDER - 20 WORLD CUP ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Ersin SİLİK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to determine the organization quality perception of foreign spectators who visited Turkey for FIFA (Federation Inter nationale de Football Association Under - 20 World Cup Organization in 2013. The matches are performed in seven cities (İstanbul, Bursa, Antalya, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Trabzon, Rize and the population of the study is foreign spectators in İstanbul and Bursa due to the population, number of games played and the capacity of stadiums in the cities. Perception of organization quality scale which developed by Shonk (2006 is used to collect data from the population and surveyed men (f=74, woman (26 total of 100 foreign spectators who come to Turkey to watch World Cup matches. Foreign spectators participated in research are asked to evaluate the perceived quality about access quality, accommodation quality, venue quality and contest quality and asked to evaluate s atisfaction levels of organization, intent to return and quality of sport tourism. The t test and one - way analysis of variance (ANOVA is used to determine differences between foreign spectators‟ individual characteristics with perceptions of quality of or ganization. In addition, simple correlation analysis is conducted to determine level and direction relationship between foreign spectators‟ satisfaction levels of organization, perceptions of quality of sport tourism and intent to return. According to anal ysis, there are not any significant differences with perception of quality of organization between individual characteristics (age and gender. However, there are a significant relationship between spectators‟ satisfaction levels of organization with venue quality (r=.200; p=.046 and contest quality (r=.394; p=.000. There is not any significant relationship between access quality and accommodation quality with participants‟ satisfaction levels of organization and there is not also any relationship between sport tourism quality and

  6. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  7. 无感知分组丢失下的无线传感器网络链路质量评估模型%Link quality estimation model for wireless sensor networks under non-perceived packet loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒坚; 刘琳岚; 樊佑磊; 李君

    2011-01-01

    针对现有链路质量评估方法没有考虑到不完整分组对链路产生的影响,将无线传感器网络的链路分组丢失分为感知分组丢失和无感知分组丢失,分析了无感知分组丢失产生的原因,在对无感知分组丢失进行度量的基础上,提出一种无感知分组丢失下的链路质量评估模型.该模型采用卡尔曼滤波对获取的CCI进行降噪处理,基于Cubic模型、最小二乘法拟合出CCI与无感知分组丢失率的关系模型.实验结果表明,无感知分组丢失下的链路质量评估模型是合理的,通过该模型求得的无感知分组丢失率与实测值接近.%For the existing link quality estimation with no consideration of the incomplete packet impact on link quality in wireless sensor networks, the packet loss was divided into two categories-perceived packet loss and non-perceived packet loss. A link quality estimation model under non-perceived packet loss has been proposed on the basis of the analysis of the causes for the non-perceived packet loss and the measurement of the non-perceived packet loss. When the model is being built, Kalman filter is introduced to denoise the acquired CCI (chip correlation indicator). The cubic model and the least squares method are employed in the fitting relationship between CCI and non-perceived packet loss ratio. The experiment results show that the link quality estimation model is reasonable, and non-perceived packet loss ratio coming from this model is very close to the measured value.

  8. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the utility of thermodynamic features for microRNA target prediction under relaxed seed and no conservation requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parawee Lekprasert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many computational microRNA target prediction tools are focused on several key features, including complementarity to 5'seed of miRNAs and evolutionary conservation. While these features allow for successful target identification, not all miRNA target sites are conserved and adhere to canonical seed complementarity. Several studies have propagated the use of energy features of mRNA:miRNA duplexes as an alternative feature. However, different independent evaluations reported conflicting results on the reliability of energy-based predictions. Here, we reassess the usefulness of energy features for mammalian target prediction, aiming to relax or eliminate the need for perfect seed matches and conservation requirement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detect significant differences of energy features at experimentally supported human miRNA target sites and at genome-wide sites of AGO protein interaction. This trend is confirmed on datasets that assay the effect of miRNAs on mRNA and protein expression changes, and a simple linear regression model leads to significant correlation of predicted versus observed expression change. Compared to 6-mer seed matches as baseline, application of our energy-based model leads to ∼3-5-fold enrichment on highly down-regulated targets, and allows for prediction of strictly imperfect targets with enrichment above baseline. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, our results indicate significant promise for energy-based miRNA target prediction that includes a broader range of targets without having to use conservation or impose stringent seed match rules.

  10. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  11. Principal Components of Superhigh-Dimensional Statistical Features and Support Vector Machine for Improving Identification Accuracies of Different Gear Crack Levels under Different Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gears are widely used in gearbox to transmit power from one shaft to another. Gear crack is one of the most frequent gear fault modes found in industry. Identification of different gear crack levels is beneficial in preventing any unexpected machine breakdown and reducing economic loss because gear crack leads to gear tooth breakage. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method for identification of different gear crack levels under different working conditions is proposed. First, superhigh-dimensional statistical features are extracted from continuous wavelet transform at different scales. The number of the statistical features extracted by using the proposed method is 920 so that the extracted statistical features are superhigh dimensional. To reduce the dimensionality of the extracted statistical features and generate new significant low-dimensional statistical features, a simple and effective method called principal component analysis is used. To further improve identification accuracies of different gear crack levels under different working conditions, support vector machine is employed. Three experiments are investigated to show the superiority of the proposed method. Comparisons with other existing gear crack level identification methods are conducted. The results show that the proposed method has the highest identification accuracies among all existing methods.

  12. Features under dermoscopy as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, TGF-β signaling pathway and apoptosis molecules of psoriasis vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yang; Shi-Chao Lv

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the features under dermoscopy as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, TGF-β signaling pathway and apoptosis molecules of psoriasis vulgaris. Methods:A total of 134 cases of skin lesion tissues diagnosed with psoriasis vulgaris in our hospital between May 2012 and December 2015 were collected as the pathological group, fresh normal limb skin tissues trimmed in the orthopaedic surgery during the same period were selected as control group, dermoscopy was used to observe the features of pathological group, and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors, TGF-β signal molecules and apoptosis-related molecules in pathological group and control group were determined.Results: The typical features of patients with psoriasis vulgaris under dermoscopy were pink background, dotted vascular morphology and regular vascular arrangement pattern; IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, c-myc, Bcl-2 and Survivin content in pathological group were significantly higher than those in control group while IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β1, TGF-β1R-I, TGF-β1R-II, Smad2, Smad3, PTEN and CEACAM1 content were significantly lower than those in control group.Conclusions:The feature of psoriasis vulgaris under dermoscopy is regular dotted angiogenesis, and the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg disorder as well as abnormal apoptotic signals in skin lesion tissue are associated with the occurrence of psoriasis.

  13. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  14. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melillo Paolo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. Methods 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. Results Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  15. Theoretical indications of singular structural and electronic features of Laves-phase CaLi2 under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji; Ashcroft, N W; Hoffmann, Roald

    2007-06-15

    In spite of the presence of ostensibly simple constituents, CaLi2 should be a very peculiar material under pressure. Its two 1-atmosphere polymorphs each undergo a structural bifurcation on densification to structures compressed or elongated in one lattice direction. A Hume-Rothery-type mechanism is proposed to account for the indicated lattice distortion. The narrowing of valence bands under pressure in this material, a large density of states at the Fermi level, and the expected high dynamical scales also hint at superconductivity.

  16. The effects of the integration of external and internal communication features in digital magazines on consumers' magazine attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwers, F.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of external and internal communication features on consumers' digital magazine attitude, and the processes (i.e., perceived interactivity and social presence) underlying these effects. Both feature types enable communication between two or more people. Though, in

  17. Clinical features, acute complications, and outcome of Salmonella meningitis in children under one year of age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Meng-Luen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella meningitis remains a threat to children below two years of age in both developing and developed countries. However, information on such infections has not been well characterized. We analyzed data related to twelve years of experience in order to clarify the comprehensive features of Salmonella meningitis in our patients, including admission characteristics, acute complications, and long-term outcome. Methods The records of patients with spontaneous Salmonella meningitis from 1982 to 1994 were retrospectively reviewed. The long-term outcome was prospectively determined for survivors at school age by the developmental milestones reported by their parents and detailed neurological evaluation along with intelligence, hearing, visual, speech and language assessments. Results Of the twenty-four patients, seizures were noted in fifteen (63% before admission and thirteen (54% during hospitalization. Acute complications mainly included hydrocephalus (50%, subdural collection (42%, cerebral infarction (33%, ventriculitis (25%, empyema (13%, intracranial abscess (8%, and cranial nerve palsy (8%. Three patients (13% died during the acute phase of Salmonella meningitis. The twenty-one survivors, on whom we followed up at school age, have sequelae consisting of language disorder (52%, motor disability (48%, intelligence quotient Conclusion Salmonella meningitis in neonates and infants had a wide spectrum of morbidity and acute complications, leading to a complicated hospital course and subsequently a high prevalence of permanent adverse outcome. Thus, early recognition of acute complications of Salmonella meningitis and a follow-up plan for early developmental assessment of survivors are vital.

  18. EEG Feature Under Binaural Beat Stimulation%双耳差频声刺激下的脑电特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏; 高翔; 王晓璐; 綦宏志; 王学民; 明东

    2015-01-01

    为了研究双耳差频声刺激影响大脑状态的神经机制,采用功率谱、Lempel-Ziv复杂度(LZC)和基于互信息的脑网络等线性及非线性方法,深入探讨了两种不同模式的双耳差频声刺激(alpha & beta)对脑电的影响规律.13名受试者分别进行了alpha & beta差频刺激,结果表明自发脑电的功率谱并没有发现频率跟随响应效应,LZC也没有显著变化.而脑网络图则能够发现在 alpha 差频刺激下大脑皮层不同区域的信息连接性显著减弱,在 beta 差频声刺激下信息连接性则显著增强.因此,互信息脑网络图可以有效地监测大脑在双耳差频声刺激下的变化,为双耳差频声刺激的生物学效应提供了一种合理的解释.%In order to study the neural mechanism of brain state induced by binaural beat(BB),linear and nonlinear methods,such as power spectral density,Lempel-Ziv complexity(LZC)and brain network based on cross mutual information were applied to discuss the change of brain under two kinds of BB stimulations(alpha & beta). Thirteen subjects were involved in alpha & beta BB stimulations,and the results showed no frequency following re-sponse(FFR)by PSD of spontaneous electroencephalogram(EEG)and no obvious change by LZC. However,the information transmission among various cortical areas reduced under alpha BB stimulation but enhanced under beta BB stimulation by brain network. Therefore,brain network based on mutual information can effectively monitor the change of cerebral cortex under BB stimulation,which provides a new perspective for biological effects induced by BB stimulation.

  19. Identification of ground motion features for high-tech facility under far field seismic waves using wavelet packet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Tsun

    2016-04-01

    Seismic records collected from earthquake with large magnitude and far distance may contain long period seismic waves which have small amplitude but with dominant period up to 10 sec. For a general situation, the long period seismic waves will not endanger the safety of the structural system or cause any uncomfortable for human activity. On the contrary, for those far distant earthquakes, this type of seismic waves may cause a glitch or, furthermore, breakdown to some important equipments/facilities (such as the high-precision facilities in high-tech Fab) and eventually damage the interests of company if the amplitude becomes significant. The previous study showed that the ground motion features such as time-variant dominant frequencies extracted using moving window singular spectrum analysis (MWSSA) and amplitude characteristics of long-period waves identified from slope change of ground motion Arias Intensity can efficiently indicate the damage severity to the high-precision facilities. However, embedding a large hankel matrix to extract long period seismic waves make the MWSSA become a time-consumed process. In this study, the seismic ground motion data collected from broadband seismometer network located in Taiwan were used (with epicenter distance over 1000 km). To monitor the significant long-period waves, the low frequency components of these seismic ground motion data are extracted using wavelet packet transform (WPT) to obtain wavelet coefficients and the wavelet entropy of coefficients are used to identify the amplitude characteristics of long-period waves. The proposed method is a timesaving process compared to MWSSA and can be easily implemented for real-time detection. Comparison and discussion on this method among these different seismic events and the damage severity to the high-precision facilities in high-tech Fab is made.

  20. Modeling the Relationship between Vibration Features and Condition Parameters Using Relevance Vector Machines for Health Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings under Varying Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotational speed and load usually change when rotating machinery works. Both this kind of changing operational conditions and machine fault could make the mechanical vibration characteristics change. Therefore, effective health monitoring method for rotating machinery must be able to adjust during the change of operational conditions. This paper presents an adaptive threshold model for the health monitoring of bearings under changing operational conditions. Relevance vector machines (RVMs are used for regression of the relationships between the adaptive parameters of the threshold model and the statistical characteristics of vibration features. The adaptive threshold model is constructed based on these relationships. The health status of bearings can be indicated via detecting whether vibration features exceed the adaptive threshold. This method is validated on bearings running at changing speeds. The monitoring results show that this method is effective as long as the rotational speed is higher than a relative small value.

  1. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  2. Geochemical features of heavy metals distribution in soils under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YakovenkoO.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objects of researches are soil adjournment under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. The total maintenance and the maintenance of mobile forms of heavy metalsdefined by means of a method of nuclear adsorption and the spectral analysis. Definition of forms of heavy metals spent with use of a method of consecutive extraction. As a result of researches it is established that the basic source of issue of heavy metals in environment is functioning of svintsovo-zinc industrial complex. It is established that heavy metals are in soils in residual, sorbed on hydroxides and organic forms. The share of the mobile form makes 16 %. It is shown that the maintenance of mobile forms of metals in the polluted soils exceeds indicators of pure soils. On geochemical indicators define level of pollution of soils. On factor of total pollution an ecological situation in a zone of influence of industrial complex it is estimated as catastrophic (ZC = 1,7·104.

  3. Changes in Photosystem Ⅱ Activity and Leaf Reflectance Features of Several Subtropical Woody Plants Under Simulated SO2 Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Ling-Ling Zhang; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of simulated SO2 treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. After leaf sections had been immersed in 0, 20, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaHSO3 for 20 h, total chlorophyll (Chl) content, Chl a/b, maximal photochemical efficiency, and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem Ⅱ of all five woody plants were reduced to different degrees, whereas lutein content (Chl base) was increased. Two protective mechanisms, namely the xanthophyll cycle (de-epoxidation) and an anti-oxidant system (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity), showed differences in the degree of modulation under simulated SO2 treatment. Compared with control (distilled water treatment), the revised normalized difference vegetation index, a leaf reflectance index, was lowered with increasing concentrations of NaHSO3. Cryptocarya concinna, a dominant species in the late succession stage of subtropical forests in South China, exhibited less sensitivity to NaHSO3. Conversely, Pinus massoniana, the pioneer heliophyte species, was most susceptible to NaHSO3 treatment. It is suggested that SO2 pollution may accelerate the succession of subtropical forest.

  4. Personality of social robots perceived through the appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Benedict Tay Tiong; Taezoon, Park; Xu, Qianli; Ng, Jamie; Tan, Odelia

    2012-01-01

    Past research showed that people are able to perceive the personality of others at zero acquaintances. There are two main ways, verbal and non-verbal methods, which play an important role for one in perceiving personality of others. Extensive research was conducted in relating personality with verbal, paralinguistic and gestures cues. However, there are not much research, to our knowledge, that relates the appearance and perceived personality of robots. The main objective of this research is to relate individual design features with big five perceived personality of the robots. We used the results of rated perceptions across 100 pictorial images of robots and relate the results with the 40 individual design features using General Linear Model (GLM). The initial results of the GLM analysis showed that participants' rating of personality of robot fell along the dimension of perceived friendliness which is a common rotation of extroversion and agreeableness. Some relationships were found between humanlike design features and perceived friendliness of robots. Since participants are more familiar with humans, participants perceived robots with humanlike features friendlier than the others. Some other findings such as color and surface material were found related with participants' perceived friendliness as well. In the future, we will work on the analysis of the main and interaction effects of individual features on user's perceived friendliness.

  5. The affecting of perceived product quality and perceived risk on perceived product value

    OpenAIRE

    Pisnik Korda, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Perceived value is an extremely important concept in marketing and many authors have dealt with it in the recent years. There are numerous factors affecting perceived product value and we focused on three: perceived product price, perceived product quality and perceived risk. In this paper we present two of them: perceived product quality and perceived risk. Perceived product value is the difference between value in use and price. Value in use is a mix of benefits, which a customer is likely ...

  6. Objects capture perceived gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Fischer, Martin H; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The interpretation of another person's eye gaze is a key element of social cognition. Previous research has established that this ability develops early in life and is influenced by the person's head orientation, as well as local features of the person's eyes. Here we show that the presence of objects in the attended space also has an impact on gaze interpretation. Eleven normal adults identified the fixation points of photographed faces with a mouse cursor. Their responses were systematically biased toward the locations of nearby objects. This capture of perceived gaze direction probably reflects the attribution of intentionality and has methodological implications for research on gaze perception.

  7. Mental well-being mediates the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel

    2015-02-01

    The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sub-Tg features of glasses formed by cooling glycerol under pressure - Additional incompatibility of vibrational with configurational states in the depressurized, high density glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ove; Johari, G. P.

    2016-11-01

    The vibrational state of a glass is naturally incompatible with its configurational state, which makes the glass structurally unstable. When a glass is kept at constant temperature, both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass change with time until it becomes metastable (equilibrium) liquid and the two states become compatible. The process, known as structural relaxation, occurs at a progressively higher rate during heating, and the properties of a glass change accordingly. We add to this incompatibility by depressurizing a glass that had been formed by cooling a liquid under a high pressure, p, and then investigate the effects of the added incompatibility by studying thermal conductivity, κ , and the heat capacity per unit volume ρ Cp of the depressurized glass. We use glycerol for the purpose and study first the changes in the features of κ and of ρ Cp during glass formation on cooling under a set of different p. We then partially depressurize the glass and study the effect of the p-induced instability on the features of κ and ρ Cp as the glass is isobarically heated to the liquid state. At a given low p, the glass configuration that was formed by cooling at high-p had a higher κ than the glass configuration that was formed by cooling at a low p. The difference is more when the glass is formed at a higher p and/or is depressurized to a lower p. On heating at a low p, its κ decreases before its glass-liquid transition range is reached. The effect is the opposite of the increase in κ observed on heating a glass at the same p under which it was formed. It is caused by thermally assisted loss of the added incompatibility of configurational and vibrational states of a high-p formed glass kept at low p. If a glass formed under a low-p is pressurized and then heated under high p, it would show the opposite effect, i.e., its κ would first increase to its high p value before its glass-to-liquid transition range.

  9. Relationship between Perceived Fairness of Performance Appraisal and Employees' Performance under Difference Matrices%差序格局下绩效评价公平与员工绩效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君; 王雎; 杨灿

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes referent cognitions theory to probe into the impact of perceived fairness of performance appraisal on job performance under difference matrices. Considerting the differences in personal perception and difference matrices, using multiple data from 39 work groups comprising 274 employees and applying the hierarchical linear model, we examine the cross-level interactions between individuals' perceived fairness of performance appraisal and difference matrices on job performance and test the effort of strengthening fairness of performance appraisal in order to reduce favoritism. The result shows that pereeption of performance appraisal fairness is positively related to task performance only under the atmosphere of low different matrices, which is different from the classic western theories. Thus, reducing the impact of different matrices and lessening director's dominant rights are two ways to improve the predictive power of perceived fairness on task performance. The interactive effect on job performance between formalization and procedural fairness perception, as well as distributive fairness perception, is negative, which shows a fairness paradox in practices which means that if we don't use rigidity appraisal system, it is difficult to eliminate the black box operation; otherwise it would be easy to fall into the trap of on the folly for rewarding A, while hoping for B. However, the interactive effects on job performance between formalization and interaction fairness perception is positive, which indicates that integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis, and enhancing the tension of rules will improve the effectiveness of performance appraisal.%运用参照认知理论,探讨差序格局下员工绩效评价公平感知对工作绩效的特殊作用机理.以本土企业39个工作组274名员工为研究对象,结合个体感知差异和组织差序氛围两个层面的影响因素,运用线性阶层模型检验二者

  10. The features of soil aggregation and its eco—environmental effects under different subalpine forests on the east slope of Gongga Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBao-hua; HEYu-rong; ZHOUHong-yi; CHENGGen-wei

    2003-01-01

    Structural properties of forest soils have important hydro-ecological function and can influence the soil water-physical characters and soil erosion.The experimental soil samples were obtained in surface horizon (0-10cm) from different subalpine forest types on east slope of Gongga Mountain in the upriver area of Yangtze River China in May 2002.The soil bulk density,porosity,stable infiltration rate,aggregate distribution and particle-size distribution were analyzed by the routine methods in room,and the features and effects on eco-environment of soil aggregation were studied.The results showed that the structure of soil under mixed mature forest is in the best condition and can clearly enhance the eco-environmental function of soil,and the soil structure under the clear-cutting forest is the worst,the others are ranked between them.The study results can offer a basic guidance for the eco-environmental construction in the upper reaches of Yangtze River.

  11. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies Aceptabilidad y efectos secundarios percibidos del rociado residual intradomiciliario de insecticidas bajo diferentes esquemas de manejo de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo David Rodríguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptabilidad y los efectos secundarios del rociado intradomiciliar de insecticidas pyrethroides (PYR, carbamato y organophosphato rociados

  12. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  13. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  14. Implicit and explicit features of paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Slobodan; Radonjić, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Implicit features of the paintings are properties that are imposed by the observer (e.g. how pleasant, interesting, tense a painting appears), whereas explicit features refer to properties that can be directly perceived (form, color, depth, etc.). The aim of Experiments 1 and 2 was to investigate the underlying structure of implicit and explicit features of paintings using the factor analysis of elementary judgments. In the preliminary studies, representative sets of paintings and elementary implicit and explicit dimensions (in the form of bipolar scales) were selected. Four implicit factors were extracted: Regularity, Relaxation, Hedonic Tone and Arousal. Four explicit factors were extracted: Form, Color, Space and Complexity. The following significant correlations between implicit and explicit factors were obtained: Regularity-Form, Regularity-Space, Hedonic Tone-Form and Arousal-Complexity. In Experiment 3 the role of implicit and explicit factors in similarity-dissimilarity ratings was specified. Significant correlations between the position of paintings in MDS space and mean judgments of explicit factors Color, Space and Complexity and implicit factor Relaxation were obtained, suggesting that similarity ratings of paintings are primarily based on explicit features. The causal relation of explicit and implicit features is discussed.

  15. Special Features of Structure Formation in Pipes from Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steel 32G2F Under Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Belikov, S. V.; Musikhin, S. A.; Burmasov, S. P.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Special features of formation of structure and properties of seamless pipes from medium-carbon low-alloy steel for oil and gas applications are considered and associated with chemical inhomogeneity of the metal of the pipes.

  16. Variability of the morphometric features of Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae under the varying and constant micro-climatic condi-tions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Faly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the main morphometric features of imago flies Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera, Calliphoridae of two samples was studied. First sample consists of individuals caught in the wild (park ecosystems of Dnipropetrovsk, the second one – specimens cultured in the laboratory under the constant temperature and humidity. Possible using of C. vicina R.-D. as a bioindicator of anthropogenic factors is analysed. Environmental factors may act as the stimulators of adaptive changes in physiological functions, as the constraints that cause impossibility of the existence of certain species in particular conditions, and as modifiers that determine the morpho- anatomical and physiological changes in organisms. The most significant differences between studied samples were found for the width (“laboratory” individuals are characterized by larger head size and for the length of limbs segments. The fluctuating range of the head width in specimens collected in the wild is much wider, due to the heterogeneity of the micro-climatic conditions of the larvae development and trophic resources. Maximal negative asymmetry of the head width is observed in individuals C. vicina R.-D. of the “natural” sample as compared with “laboratory” individuals. Among imagoes caught in the wild the individuals with a relatively wide head are dominated, as evidenced by the large positive value of kurtosis. At the same time, the distribution of values in “laboratory” individuals is almost normal. In adults bred in the laboratory the shortening of segments of the leg pair I is observed in comparison with the individuals of “natural” sample. Similar results were recorded for other insect groups cultivated in a laboratory. For most other linear measurements of the C. vicina R.-D. body the differences between samples are not registered. Ephemeral existence of the substrate of blow flies leads to higher prevailing evolutionary adaptation of species to varying

  17. Coral reef fish perceive lightness illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elisha E.; Marshall, N. Justin; Cheney, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Visual illusions occur when information from images are perceived differently from the actual physical properties of the stimulus in terms of brightness, size, colour and/or motion. Illusions are therefore important tools for sensory perception research and from an ecological perspective, relevant for visually guided animals viewing signals in heterogeneous environments. Here, we tested whether fish perceived a lightness cube illusion in which identical coloured targets appear (for humans) to return different spectral outputs depending on the apparent amount of illumination they are perceived to be under. Triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus) were trained to peck at coloured targets to receive food rewards, and were shown to experience similar shifts in colour perception when targets were placed in illusory shadows. Fish therefore appear to experience similar simultaneous contrast mechanisms to humans, even when targets are embedded in complex, scene-type illusions. Studies such as these help unlock the fundamental principles of visual system mechanisms. PMID:27748401

  18. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  19. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  20. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Belder (Tessa); M.H. ter Beek (Maurice); E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProgress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS) generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled

  1. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  2. Perceptual separability of featural and configural information in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia; Amishav, Rama

    2012-01-01

    The deficit in face recognition in individuals with prosopagnosia has often been attributed to an underlying impairment in holistic processing. Exactly what constitutes holistic processing has remained controversial, however. Here, we compare how configural information and featural information interact during face processing in a group of individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) and matched controls. We adopted Amishav and Kimchi's version of Garner's speeded classification task, in which observers classify upright faces based on configural (intereyes and nose-mouth spacing) or featural (shape of eyes, nose, and mouth) information while the other dimension remains constant or varied randomly. We replicated the finding that normal observers evince symmetric Garner interference--failure to selectively attend to features without being influenced by irrelevant variation in configuration, and vice versa--indicating that featural and configural information are integral in normal face processing. In contrast, the CPs showed no Garner interference: They were able to attend to configural information without interference from irrelevant variation in featural information, and they were able to attend to featural information without interference from irrelevant variation in configural information. The absence of Garner interference in CP provides strong evidence that featural information and configural information are perceptually separable in CP's face processing. These findings indicate that CPs do not perceive faces holistically; rather, they process featural and configural information independently.

  3. Students' perceived supervisory needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S; Wittkopp, J

    1982-07-01

    One hundred and ninety-one students from six Michigan University speech-language pathology training programs completed a 43-item questionnaire concerning their perceived supervisory needs in five areas: lesson plan and report writing, supervisor observation, conferencing, professional responsibility, and general supervisory practices. Selection criteria for students were academic status, university attended, and earned clinical clock hours. Student's perceptions of positive and negative supervisory practices differed significantly as a function of earned clinical clock hours and site of training. However, there were no differences in perception between undergraduate and graduate students.

  4. Efficient pricing of Asian options under Lévy processes based on Fourier cosine expansions. Part II. Early-exercise features and GPU implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient pricing method for Asian options with early–exercise features. It is based on a two–dimensional integration and a backward recursion of the Fourier coefficients, in which several numerical techniques, like Fourier cosine expansions, Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature

  5. Efficient pricing of Asian options under Lévy processes based on Fourier cosine expansions. Part II. Early-exercise features and GPU implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient pricing method for Asian options with early–exercise features. It is based on a two–dimensional integration and a backward recursion of the Fourier coefficients, in which several numerical techniques, like Fourier cosine expansions, Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature

  6. Heritability estimate and genetic correlations of reproductive features in Nellore bulls, offspring of super precocious, precocious and normal cows under extensive farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J B; Oba, E; Pinho, R O; Quintino, H P; Eler, J P; Miranda Neto, T; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2012-04-01

    The present work aimed to estimate heritability and genetic correlations of reproductive features of Nellore bulls, offspring of mothers classified as superprecocious (M1), precocious (M2) and normal (M3). Twenty one thousand hundred and eighty-six animals with average age of 21.29 months were used, evaluated through the breeding soundness evaluation from 1999 to 2008. The breeding soundness features included physical semen evaluation (progressive sperm motility and sperm vigour), semen morphology (major, minor and total sperm defects), scrotal circumference (SC), testicular volume (TV) and SC at 18 months of age (SC18). The components of variance, heritability and genetic correlations for and between the features were estimated simultaneously by restricted maximum likelihood, with the use of the vce software system vs 6. The heritability estimates were high for SC18, SC and TV (0.43, 0.63 and 0.54; 0.45, 0.45 and 0.44; 0.42, 0.45 and 0.41, respectively for the categories of mothers M1, M2 and M3) and low for physical and morphological semen aspects. The genetic correlations between SC18 and SC were high, as well as between these variables with TV. High and positive genetic correlations were recorded among SC18, SC and TV with the physical aspects of the semen, although no favourable association was verified with the morphological aspects, for the three categories of mothers. It can be concluded that the mother's sexual precocity did not affect the heritability of their offspring reproduction features.

  7. Thyroid function testing in primary care: overused and under-evidenced? A study examining which clinical features correspond to an abnormal thyroid function result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhun, Alexander; Hamilton, William

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic testing is increasing in primary care, including for thyroid disease. This study examined which clinical features were associated with an abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) result. This was a cross-sectional study in one general practice of 16,487 patients in Exeter, Devon, UK. We examined the primary care records relating to every TSH test taken in the year from August 2012, and extracted symptoms and/or the indication for testing. Associations with an abnormal result were tested using multivariable logistic regression. A cohort study was then performed of 100 patients newly recorded with each of the six features associated with an abnormal test result in the cross-sectional study, and the proportions tested for TSH and the results of that testing identified. Two thousand thirty-five patients (12% of the practice population) had TSH testing in the year. Of these 35 (1.7%) had a TSH >4.5 mIU/l, suggesting hypothyroidism, and 7 (0.3%) had TSH <0.01 mIu/l suggesting hyperthyroidism. Features associated with an abnormal TSH were: pregnancy, odds ratio 41 (95% confidence interval 9.3-180), constipation 9.7 (2.1-45), palpitations 23 (3.4-150), hair loss, 21 (2.0-230), weight gain, 18 (1.6-190) and diarrhoea, 13 (1.2-130); in separate analyses only pregnancy and constipation were associated with a raised TSH, and the remaining four features with a low TSH. The diagnostic yield of thyroid disease in this study was 2.1% suggests testing could be better targeted without missing diagnoses. The symptoms associated with thyroid disease differ from those generally reported. This may represent fewer patients presenting with advanced disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  9. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  10. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  11. Feature Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  12. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  13. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  14. Managing Perceived Stress among College Students: The Roles of Social Support and Dysfunctional Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…

  15. Perceived criticism : Associations with perceiver characteristics and interpersonal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Hale III, W.W; van Hout, Wiljo

    2009-01-01

    Perceived Criticism (PC) evolved in the context of Expressed Emotion (EE) research and, like EE, predicts the course of various psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about PC's validity. We examined (in Study 1) to what extent PC reflects the perceiver's current depressive and marital

  16. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3 d ions in tetrahedral environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U eff is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d 5 configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d 4 configurations, the parameter U eff increases after a spin crossover. For d 2 and d 7 configurations, U eff increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  17. Perceived Income Justice Depends on the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Stefan; Valet, Peter; Schupp, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    At least half of all employees in Germany described their wages in all three survey years under consideration here - 2005, 2007, and 2009 - as just. Still, major changes occurred over this period in how people perceived their earnings. Data from the Socio- Economic Panel (SOEP) Study show that after an increase in income dissatisfaction in 2007, the percentage of the population who consider their income unjust has again decreased substantially in 2009 - at 30 percent - to 2005 levels. This su...

  18. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  19. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  20. [Morphological features of stromal-vascular component of the thymus of stillborn children and children under one year of life from mothers that do not follow a healthy lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Gorianikova I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Morphofunctional state of the thymus of child in most cases is directly dependent on the mother health and her lifestyle. Objective. The purpose of the research was to reveal the morphological features of stromal-vascular component of the thymus of stillborn children and children under one year of life born from women who conducted a sedentary lifestyle, smoked, drank alcohol and ate the foods containing tartrazine. Methods. The material of the study was 67 thymuses of stillborn c...

  1. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3d ions in tetrahedral environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, K. A., E-mail: ks-ad@yandex.ru; Ovchinnikov, S. G., E-mail: sgo@iph.krasn.ru [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, T. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U{sub eff} is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d{sup 5} configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d{sup 4} configurations, the parameter U{sub eff} increases after a spin crossover. For d{sup 2} and d{sup 7} configurations, U{sub eff} increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  2. Perceiving haptic feedback in virtual reality simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Mårvik, Ronald; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina

    2013-07-01

    To improve patient safety, training of psychomotor laparoscopic skills is often done on virtual reality (VR) simulators outside the operating room. Haptic sensations have been found to influence psychomotor performance in laparoscopy. The emulation of haptic feedback is thus an important aspect of VR simulation. Some VR simulators try to simulate these sensations with handles equipped with haptic feedback. We conducted a survey on how laparoscopic surgeons perceive handles with and without haptic feedback. Surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopy were asked to test two handles: Xitact IHP with haptic feedback and Xitact ITP without haptic feedback (Mentice AB, Gothenburg, Sweden), connected to the LapSim (Surgical Science AB, Sweden) VR simulator. They performed two tasks on the simulator before answering 12 questions regarding the two handles. The surgeons were not informed about the differences in the handles. A total of 85 % of the 20 surgeons who participated in the survey claimed that it is important that handles with haptic feedback feel realistic. Ninety percent of the surgeons preferred the handles without haptic feedback. The friction in the handles with haptic feedback was perceived to be as in reality (5 %) or too high (95 %). Regarding the handles without haptic feedback, the friction was perceived as in reality (45 %), too low (50 %), or too high (5 %). A total of 85 % of the surgeons thought that the handle with haptic feedback attempts to simulate the resistance offered by tissue to deformation. Ten percent thought that the handle succeeds in doing so. The surveyed surgeons believe that haptic feedback is an important feature on VR simulators; however, they preferred the handles without haptic feedback because they perceived the handles with haptic feedback to add additional friction, making them unrealistic and not mechanically transparent.

  3. Structural features underlying the selective cleavage of a novel exo-type maltose-forming amylase from Pyrococcus sp. ST04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myeong-Eun; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-06-01

    A novel maltose-forming α-amylase (PSMA) was recently found in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04. This enzyme shows exo-type manner. Here, the crystal structure of PSMA at a resolution of 1.8 Å is reported, showing a tight ring-shaped tetramer with monomers composed of two domains: an N-domain (amino acids 1-341) with a typical GH57 family (β/α)7-barrel fold and a C-domain (amino acids 342-597) composed of α-helical bundles. A small closed cavity observed in proximity to the catalytic residues Glu153 and Asp253 at the domain interface has the appropriate volume and geometry to bind a maltose unit, accounting for the selective exo-type maltose hydrolysis of the enzyme. A narrow gate at the putative subsite +1 formed by residue Phe218 and Phe452 is essential for specific cleavage of glucosidic bonds. The closed cavity at the active site is connected to a short substrate-binding channel that extends to the central hole of the tetramer, exhibiting a geometry that is significantly different from classical maltogenic amylases or β-amylases. The structural features of this novel exo-type maltose-forming α-amylase provide a molecular basis for its unique enzymatic characteristics and for its potential use in industrial applications and protein engineering.

  4. Monthly values of the standardized precipitation index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: trends and spectral features under the normality assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe monthly series of the Standardized Precipitation Index obtained from four weather stations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were carried out by evaluating the normality assumption of the SPI distributions, the spectral features of these series and, the presence of climatic trends in these datasets. It was observed that the Pearson type III distribution was better than the gamma 2-parameter distribution in providing monthly SPI series closer to the normality assumption inherent to the use of this standardized index. The spectral analyses carried out in the time-frequency domain did not allow us to establish a dominant mode in the analyzed series. In general, the Mann-Kendall and the Pettitt tests indicated the presence of no significant trend in the SPI series. However, both trend tests have indicated that the temporal variability of this index, observed at the months of October over the last 60 years, cannot be seen as the result of a purely random process. This last inference is due to the concentration of decreasing trends, with a common beginning (1983/84 in the four locations of the study.

  5. New Features of the University Library under Network Environment%浅析高校图书馆在网络环境下的新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽君

    2012-01-01

    随着计算机网络通信技术的快速发展和网上数字文献资源的日益丰富,高校图书馆作为信息的中枢地位,正面临着日益严峻的挑战,图书馆不再是向人们提供信息的唯一渠道。很多图书馆查不到的资料,在互联网上都有可能查到。因此图书馆服务的各个环节都要发生改变,发生服务对象社会化,服务内容多样化,服务手段现代化,服务方式多元化等新特征。%With the rapid development of computer network communication technology,and online digital document resources are becoming richer,the university library as the central position of information,is facing a growing challenge,the library is no longer the only channel of information to provide people with.Many libraries finding out information on the Internet are likely to be found.Therefore,all aspects of library services should be changed,the occurrence of the new features of the clients socialization,diversification of services,the modernization of the service means a service diversification.

  6. The study of the morphological features of autophagy as a type of programmed death of plant cells under the condition of bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Іванович Шевченко

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the destruction of the plant cells protoplast is studied under the condition of bacterial infection. According to the autophagy processes in animal cells, the morphological ways of plant cells autophagy – vacuolization of cytoplasm, condensation and decondensation of the nuclear mass, multivesicular nucleation, phagophore expansion and macroautophagosome ripening, autophagolysosome formation by the way of tonoplast invagination, mitophagy phenomenon are determined. The places of the final degradation of the ruined cytoplasm in the vacuoles of destroyed cells are shown

  7. Money Talks: Perceived Advertising Expense and Expected Product Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirmani, Amna; Wright, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Does the perceived expense of a new product's advertising campaign influence expectations about the product's quality? This article conceptualizes the process by which perceived advertising expense acts as a cue to quality. Results from six experiments indicate that under some conditions, knowledge of cost-related campaign elements can evoke advertising expense inferences the influence quality predictions, and these inferences may be spontaneous. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.

  8. Evolutionary and structural features of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions underlying the differences in HIV-1 and HIV-2 biology and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Barroso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unlike in HIV-1 infection, the majority of HIV-2 patients produce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, control viral replication and survive as elite controllers. The identification of the molecular, structural and evolutionary footprints underlying these very distinct immunological and clinical outcomes may lead to the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a side-by-side molecular, evolutionary and structural comparison of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions from HIV-1 and HIV-2. These regions contain major antigenic targets and are important for receptor binding. In HIV-2, these regions also have immune modulatory properties. We found that these regions are significantly more variable in HIV-1 than in HIV-2. Within each virus, C3 is the most entropic region followed by either C2 (HIV-2 or V3 (HIV-1. The C3 region is well exposed in the HIV-2 envelope and is under strong diversifying selection suggesting that, like in HIV-1, it may harbour neutralizing epitopes. Notably, however, extreme diversification of C2 and C3 seems to be deleterious for HIV-2 and prevent its transmission. Computer modelling simulations showed that in HIV-2 the V3 loop is much less exposed than C2 and C3 and has a retractile conformation due to a physical interaction with both C2 and C3. The concealed and conserved nature of V3 in the HIV-2 is consistent with its lack of immunodominancy in vivo and with its role in preventing immune activation. In contrast, HIV-1 had an extended and accessible V3 loop that is consistent with its immunodominant and neutralizing nature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identify significant structural and functional constrains to the diversification and evolution of C2, V3 and C3 in the HIV-2 envelope but not in HIV-1. These studies highlight fundamental differences in the biology and infection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and in their mode of

  9. A recessive founder mutation in regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1, RTEL1, underlies severe immunodeficiency and features of Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari J Ballew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis congenita (DC is a heterogeneous inherited bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome in which germline mutations in telomere biology genes account for approximately one-half of known families. Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome (HH is a clinically severe variant of DC in which patients also have cerebellar hypoplasia and may present with severe immunodeficiency and enteropathy. We discovered a germline autosomal recessive mutation in RTEL1, a helicase with critical telomeric functions, in two unrelated families of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ ancestry. The affected individuals in these families are homozygous for the same mutation, R1264H, which affects three isoforms of RTEL1. Each parent was a heterozygous carrier of one mutant allele. Patient-derived cell lines revealed evidence of telomere dysfunction, including significantly decreased telomere length, telomere length heterogeneity, and the presence of extra-chromosomal circular telomeric DNA. In addition, RTEL1 mutant cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the interstrand cross-linking agent mitomycin C. The molecular data and the patterns of inheritance are consistent with a hypomorphic mutation in RTEL1 as the underlying basis of the clinical and cellular phenotypes. This study further implicates RTEL1 in the etiology of DC/HH and immunodeficiency, and identifies the first known homozygous autosomal recessive disease-associated mutation in RTEL1.

  10. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  11. Features of transformation of impurity-defect complexes in СdTe:Сl under the influence of microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzulyak S. I.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resistance cadmium telluride single crystals are promising material for production of ionizing radiation detectors. To increase crystal resistance, they are doped with chlorine. The detector quality depends on uniformity of chlorine impurity distribution over crystal. It is known that low-dose microwave irradiation can homogenize impurity distribution in a specimen. In the present work, we made an attempt to improve the detector material quality by using such post-technological treatment, as well as to study state variation for impurity-defect complexes. To this end, the effect of microwave irradiation on transformation of impurity-defect complexes in CdTe:Cl single crystals was investigated using low-temperature photoluminescence. It is shown that activation of ClTe donor centers by microwave irradiation for 10 s and presence of VCd acceptor centers in the specimens under investigation effectively facilitate formation of (VNd–ClTe defect centers at which excitons are bound. Detailed investigations of the band form for donor-acceptor pairs (DAPs in CdTe:Cl single crystals made it possible to determine the Huang—Rhys factor (that characterizes electron-phonon interaction in CdTe:Cl DAPs as a function of microwave treatment duration. It is shown for single crystals with NCl = 5·1017 cm–3 and 5·1019 cm–3 that the Huang—Rhys factor grows with microwave irradiation dose. This is related to both homogenization of donor and acceptor centers distribution and increase of donor—acceptor spacing. It is shown that microwave irradiation of CdTe:Cl single crystals results in concentration reduction for separate cadmium vacancies VCd because of formation of (VNd—ClTe defect centers at which excitons are bound.

  12. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content....... This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive...... an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model...

  13. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  14. Investigation of self-perceived burden of elderly patients with chronic diseases under different care-giver conditions%不同照顾者照顾情境下老年慢性病患者自我感受负担的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂云; 刘宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the self-perceived burden of elderly patients with chronic diseases under different care-giver conditions. Methods: We investigated 72 hospitalized elderly patients with chronic diseases by demographic questionnaire, Activity of Daily Living Scale and Self-perceived Burden Scale. Results: About 90.28% elderly patients with chronic diseases had self-care ability deficiency and 77.78% patients' perceived moderate to serious burden. The scores of self-perceived burden among patients who were taken care of by their spouses were higher than those of patients who were take care of by their children (F=5.26, F=0.026) or the haired caregivers (F=8.19, P=0.001) Conclusion: The nurses should pay attention to the self-perceived burden of elderly patients with chronic diseases, especially the patients with spouses as caregivers. The nurses should mobilize available social support system, provide targeted nursing measures, and improve the quality of nursing service to reduce the self-perceived burden of elderly patients with chronic diseases and to improve their psychosomatic health.%目的:探讨住院老年慢性病患者在不同照顾者提供照顾的情境下其自我感受负担的状况.方法:以患者一般资料调查问卷、日常生活能力量表和自我感受负担量表作为测量工具,对72名住院老年慢性病患者进行调查.结果:老年慢性病患者中90.28%的患者生活自理能力有缺陷;77.78%的患者自我感受到轻度至重度的负担;由配偶组照顾的老年慢性病患者自我感受负担高于子女组(F=5.26,P=0.026)和护工组、保姆组(F=8.19,P=0.001).结论:护理人员应了解老年慢性病患者自我感受负担状况,特别要关注由配偶照顾的群体,调动可利用的社会支持系统,提供有针对性的护理措施,提高护理服务质量,从而达到减轻老年慢性病患者自我感受负担的目的,提高其身心健康水平.

  15. Contraction of Perceived Size and Perceived Depth in Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Atsuki; Shimono, Koichi; Zaitsu, Wataru

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how size and depth are perceived in a plane or convex mirror. In Experiment 1, using a plane or convex mirror, 20 observers viewed a separation between two objects that were presented at a constant distance and reproduced it by a separation between other two objects in a natural viewing situation. The mean matches generally…

  16. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  18. Perceived prominence and scale types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndering, John; Jensen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Three different scales which have been used to measure perceived prominence are evaluated in a perceptual experiment. Average scores of raters using a multi-level (31-point) scale, a simple binary (2-point) scale and an intermediate 4-point scale are almost identical. The potentially finer gradat...

  19. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Danielle RM; Henneman, Lidewij; Hirasing, Remy A; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763) parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination. PMID:18241345

  20. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763 parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination.

  1. Tool Use Influences Perceived Shape and Perceived Parallelism, Which Serve as Indirect Measures of Perceived Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.

    2011-01-01

    Targets presented just beyond arm's reach look closer when observers intend to touch them with a reach-extending tool rather than without the tool. This finding is one of several that suggest that a person's ability to act influences perceived distance to objects. However, some critics have argued that apparent action effects were actually due to…

  2. The Problems Facing Multidisciplinary Teams: As Perceived by Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the problems team members perceive to exist on multidisciplinary teams. Results indicated the two major areas of concern for urban, multidisciplinary team members were: too constrictive a set of team roles and goals, and teams functioning under extensive pressure with minimal support. (Author)

  3. The Perceived Effects of Flipped Teaching on Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Galen; Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Ryun Jung; Brown, Brandy A.; Huston, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Increased demands for technological integration in higher education have resulted in new forms of course instruction. Under a flipped approach, students learn course materials outside the classroom while active learning methods are employed inside. This study focuses on the perceived effects of flipped instruction on knowledge acquisition in…

  4. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self......-perceived risk of fractures and enabled calculation of absolute fracture risk by FRAX®. Data were analyzed using bivariate tests and regression models. RESULTS: Women generally underestimated their fracture risk compared to absolute risk estimated by FRAX®. Women with risk factors for facture estimated......-rated heath, conditions related to secondary osteoporosis, and inability to do housework. CONCLUSIONS: These women aged 65-81 years underestimated their risk of fracture. However, they did seem to have an understanding of the importance of some risk factors such as previous fractures, parental hip fracture...

  5. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which...... a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two...... levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). Results: The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control...

  6. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  7. Perceived Organisational Support and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Graafland, J.J.; Rutten, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived organizational support (POS) on performance.We predict that POS will be reciprocated by positive discretionary employee behavior, which in turn has a positive impact on performance.Empirical research on a sample of Dutch construction companies indeed corroborates a positive relationship between POS and performance. Moreover, the POS-performance link is found to be stronger for good performing firms than for bad performing firms, which supports t...

  8. The Role of Perceived Understanding in Supervisor-Subordinate Communication and Organizational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Dudley D.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that perceived understanding underlies two important dimensions of organizational effectiveness: consideration and initiation of structure. Describes the Perceived Understanding Instrument and explains how it can be used to identify specific verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors that influence organizational effectiveness. (JD)

  9. 基于底层图像特征组合的文本图像分类研究%A text image classification research based on the underlying image feature combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾东红; 黄朝志; 黄细妹

    2013-01-01

    针对文本图像特有的图像特征,提出了一种基于底层图像特征组合的文本图像分类方法,该方法使用了两层C4.5决策树分类器,能将文本图像有效地分为标题文本图像、文档图像和场景文本图像.首先将样本图像转换为灰度图像,提取灰度直方图的特征,根据灰度直方图特征的不同,可以先区分文档图像;然后把余下的图像转换为二值图像,提取图像的GLCM纹理特征,根据GLCM特征区分场景文本和标题文本图像.在开源的WEKA数据挖掘软件环境下进行仿真实验,结果表明该方法是可行的,并能够得到较高的查全率和查准率.%A text image classification method based on the combination of underlying image feature was proposed in this paper. With two layers of C4.5 decision tree classifier, the method can divide the text image into caption text image, document image and scene text image. The text image classification is a two-step process. In the first place, the sample image is converted into gray image for histogram feature extraction. Document images could then be well distinguished according to the variable characteristics of the gray histogram. In the second place, the rest of the images are converted into binary images to extract their GLCM features, according to which the scene text and caption text images are distinguished. Simulation experiments were carried out in the open source WEKA data mining software, the results showed that the method is feasible, and is able to get favorable recall and good precision ratio.

  10. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat.

  11. On the Conceptual Ambiguity Surrounding Perceived Message Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; LoRusso, Susan; Nagler, Rebekah H.

    2015-01-01

    Health message quality is best understood in terms of a message’s ability to effectively produce change in the variables that it was designed to change. The importance of determining a message’s effectiveness in producing change prior to implementation is clear: The better a message’s potential effectiveness is understood, the better able interventionists are to distinguish effective from ineffective messages before allocating scarce resources to message implementation. For this purpose, research has relied on perceived message effectiveness measures as a proxy of a message’s potential effectiveness. Remarkably, however, very little conceptual work has been done on perceived message effectiveness, which renders its measures under-informed and inconsistent across studies. To encourage greater conceptual work on this important construct, we review several threats to the validity of existing measures and consider strategies for improving our understanding of perceived message effectiveness. PMID:25470437

  12. Measuring perceived racism and psychosis in African-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom: the modified perceived racism scale

    OpenAIRE

    Leavey Gerard; McKenzie Kwame; Chakraborty Apu T; King Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim The increased rate of psychosis and poorer service-related outcomes in UK African-Caribbeans may in part be related to racism; racism as an aetiological factor remains comparatively under-investigated. We wanted to develop a measure of perceived racism in UK African-Caribbean patients with psychosis Methods We modified the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) by substituting a mental-health-services' racism domain for the employment-racism domain and administered it to a sample of 150 in...

  13. Perceived social presence reduces fact-checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Youjung; Meng, Rachel; Johar, Gita Venkataramani

    2017-06-06

    Today's media landscape affords people access to richer information than ever before, with many individuals opting to consume content through social channels rather than traditional news sources. Although people frequent social platforms for a variety of reasons, we understand little about the consequences of encountering new information in these contexts, particularly with respect to how content is scrutinized. This research tests how perceiving the presence of others (as on social media platforms) affects the way that individuals evaluate information-in particular, the extent to which they verify ambiguous claims. Eight experiments using incentivized real effort tasks found that people are less likely to fact-check statements when they feel that they are evaluating them in the presence of others compared with when they are evaluating them alone. Inducing vigilance immediately before evaluation increased fact-checking under social settings.

  14. The view from the looking glass: how are narcissistic individuals perceived by others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Mallory L; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Barry, Christopher T; Southard, Ashton C

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have found that narcissistic individuals are often viewed negatively by those who know them well. The present study sought to extend these previous findings by examining whether normal and pathological aspects of narcissism were associated with perceiver ratings of narcissistic characteristics and aggression. This was accomplished by having each of our undergraduate participants (288 targets) recruit friends or family members to complete ratings of the target who recruited them (1,296 perceivers). Results revealed that perceived entitlement was strongly associated with perceived aggression. Further, self-reported levels of pathological narcissism moderated these results such that vulnerable narcissism exacerbated the association between perceived entitlement and aggression, whereas grandiose narcissism mitigated the association. The discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the various features of narcissism.

  15. Perceived Social Support Mediating the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…

  16. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  17. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  18. Perceived visual informativeness (PVI): construct and scale development to assess visual information in printed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A; Carcioppolo, Nick

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the visual images used in health communication messages and campaign materials. Even though many studies suggest further investigation of these visual messages and their features, few studies provide specific constructs or assessment tools for evaluating the characteristics of visual messages in health communication contexts. The authors conducted 2 studies to validate a measure of perceived visual informativeness (PVI), a message construct assessing visual messages presenting statistical or indexical information. In Study 1, a 7-item scale was created that demonstrated good internal reliability (α = .91), as well as convergent and divergent validity with related message constructs such as perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived attractiveness. PVI also converged with a preference for visual learning but was unrelated to a person's actual vision ability. In addition, PVI exhibited concurrent validity with a number of important constructs including perceived message effectiveness, decisional satisfaction, and three key public health theory behavior predictors: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy. Study 2 provided more evidence that PVI is an internally reliable measure and demonstrates that PVI is a modifiable message feature that can be tested in future experimental work. PVI provides an initial step to assist in the evaluation and testing of visual messages in campaign and intervention materials promoting informed decision making and behavior change.

  19. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M; Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Elliott, Michael B; Handy, Susan L; Brownson, Ross C

    2005-02-01

    Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. For this cross-sectional study, high- and low-income study areas were selected among census tracts in St. Louis MO ("low-walkable" city) and Savannah GA ("high-walkable" city). Between February and June 2002, a telephone survey of 1068 adults provided measures of the perceived environment and physical activity behavior. In this timeframe, objective measures were collected through environmental audits of all street segments (n =1158). These measures were summarized using 400-m buffers surrounding each respondent. Neighborhood characteristics included the land use environment, transportation environment, recreational facilities, aesthetics, and social environment. Associations were examined between neighborhood features and transportation- and recreation-based activity. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, transportation activity was negatively associated with objective measures of sidewalk levelness and perceived and objective neighborhood aesthetics. It was positively associated with perceived and objectively measured number of destinations and public transit, perceived access to bike lanes, and objective counts of active people in the neighborhood. Recreational activity was positively associated with perceived access to recreational facilities and objective measures of attractive features. These findings indicate that physical activities for transportation or recreational are associated with different perceived and objective environmental characteristics. Modifications to these features may change the physical activity behavior of residents exposed to them.

  20. Perceived stress has genetic influences distinct from neuroticism and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietschel, Liz; Zhu, Gu; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Strohmaier, Jana; Wüst, Stefan; Rietschel, Marcella; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated whether the genetic determinants of neuroticism and depressive symptoms differ from those underlying perceived psychological stress. Multivariate structural equation models, which included age and sex as modifiers, were fitted to the total sample of 798 adolescents and young adults (female, n = 459; mean age 15.5 years). The sample included 139 monozygotic and 241 dizygotic twin pairs. Stress was measured using item response theory (IRT) scores, as derived from the Perceived Stress Scale and/or the Daily Life and Stressors Scale. Neuroticism was measured using the Neo-Five Factor Inventory or the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, depending on the age of the participant. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the IRT-scores of the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. The results suggest that the genetic effects underlying perceived psychological stress are largely shared with those that influence neuroticism and liability to depressive symptoms. However, separate genetic effects for perceived psychological stress that are not shared with neuroticism and depressive symptoms were also identified. The source of the identified trait specific effects requires further investigation.

  1. Photometric determinants of perceived transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish; Anderson, Barton L

    2006-03-01

    Photometric constraints for the perception of transparency were investigated using stereoscopic textured displays. A contrast discontinuity divided the textured displays into two lateral halves, with one (reference) half fixed. Observers adjusted the luminance range within the other (test) half in order to perform two tasks: (i) indicate the highest luminance range for which the test side is perceived to be transparent, and (ii) indicate the lowest luminance range for which the test side is seen as being in plain view. Settings were obtained for multiple values of test mean luminance, in order to map out the perceptual locus of transition between transparency and non-transparency. The results revealed a systematic violation of Metelli's magnitude constraint in predicting the percept of transparency. Observer settings were approximated instead by a constraint based on perceived contrast (which matched Michelson contrast for the textures used). The results also revealed large asymmetries between darkening and lightening transparency. When the test was darker than the reference, settings were highly consistent across observers and closely followed the Michelson-contrast prediction. When the test was lighter, however, there was greater variability across observers, with two observers exhibiting shifts toward Metelli's magnitude constraint. Moreover, each observer's setting reliability was significantly worse for lightening transparency than darkening transparency. These results suggest that (polarity-preserving) darkening serves as an additional cue to perceptual transparency.

  2. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  3. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance.

  4. Explaining variation in perceived team effectiveness: Results from eleven quality improvement collaboratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims and objectives. Explore effectiveness of 11 collaboratives focusing on 11 different topics, as perceived by local improvement teams and to explore associations with collaborative-, organisational- and team-level factors. Background. Evidence underlying the effectiveness of quality

  5. Perceived complexity of care, perceived autonomy, and career satisfaction among primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Parchman, Michael; Wood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships of both perceived autonomy and perceived complexity of care with career satisfaction. This secondary analysis used 3 consecutive surveys of family physicians, internists, and pediatricians from the Community Tracking Survey. Two-way analysis of variance assessed interaction effects of perceived complexity of care and perceived autonomy on satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis identified physician characteristics, practice characteristics, practice improvement strategies, perceived complexity, and perceived autonomy that accounted for variance in career satisfaction among physicians. Although 24% to 27% of physicians felt perceived complexity of care expected was greater than it should be, 83% to 86% felt free to make clinical decisions. Approximately 80% of physicians were satisfied with their careers. Differences in probability of career satisfaction were highly significant (P satisfaction. Higher perceived autonomy and lower perceived patient complexity as higher than desirable were associated with high career satisfaction among primary care physicians.

  6. An Empirical Study on Antecedents of Perceived Service Recovery Quality in E-banking Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejikumar G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The wide usage of IT enabled options for service delivery has increased the occurrence of irrepressible service failures in the contemporary banking landscape. The enhanced service quality levels exhibited by the dedicated employees suffer badly due to ever-increasing number of tech-driven service failures. The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages among constructs such as perceived service quality, perceived organizational service orientation, perceived automation quality, perceived employee proficiency and perceived service recovery quality to recovery satisfaction in the E-banking context. This investigation examined the moderating role of perceived initial negative feelings of the customer due to service failures, on recovery satisfaction. Data collected from 248 banking customers were analyzed by structural equation modeling approach using, Smart PLS 2.0 M 3, software to identify significant linkages among variables under study. Apart from perceived employee proficiency, all other variables significantly developed perceived service recovery quality leading to recovery satisfaction. Initial negative feelings from a service failure failed to cause significant moderating effect on post recovery satisfaction. The most disturbing service failures in the automated service delivery environment was identified as technical failures such as delay in online transactions, issues related to ATMs and interrupted connectivity. The study could establish that excellent service recovery quality develops service recovery satisfaction and customers gain more confidence in the bank and perceive higher value in their association with the bank.

  7. Compression of perceived depth as a function of viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ann; Delshad, Rebecca; Sedgwick, Harold A

    2012-12-01

    The magnification produced by a low-vision telescope has been shown to compress perceived depth. Looking through such a telescope, however, also entails monocular viewing and visual field restriction, and these viewing conditions, taken together, were also shown to compress perceived depth. The research presented here quantitatively explores the separate effects of each of these viewing conditions on perceived depth. Participants made verbal estimates of the length, relative to the width, of rectangles presented in a controlled table-top setting. In experiment 1, the rectangles were either in the frontal plane or receding in depth, and they were viewed either binocularly or monocularly with an unrestricted field of view (FOV). In experiment 2, the rectangles were in depth and were viewed monocularly with an unrestricted FOV, a moderately (40 degrees) restricted FOV, or a severely (11.5 degrees) restricted FOV. Viewed in the frontal plane, either monocularly or binocularly, the vertical dimension was expanded by about 10%. Viewed in depth, with an unrestricted FOV, the (projectively vertical) depth dimension was compressed by 12% when seen binocularly or 24% when seen monocularly. A monocular moderately (40 degrees) restricted FOV was very similar to the unrestricted monocular FOV. A severely (11.5 degrees) restricted FOV, however, produced a substantially greater 44% compression of perceived depth. Even under near-optimal binocular viewing conditions, there is some compression of perceived depth. The compression found when viewing through a low-vision telescope has been shown to be substantially greater. In addition to the previously demonstrated contribution of telescopic magnification to this effect, we have now shown that the viewing conditions of monocularity and severely restricted (11.5 degrees) FOV can each produce substantial increments in the compression of perceived depth. We found, however, that a moderately restricted (40 degrees) FOV does not increase

  8. 社交网络环境下大学生人际交往行为特征分析%Analysis of the Features of College Student's Interpersonal Behavior Under Social Network Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖斌

    2014-01-01

    社交网络已经成为当代大学生日常生活和学习密不可分的一种网络活动的主要载体。本文研究的是在微信等新媒体下的大学生人际交往行为特征。研究结果表明,目前大学生使用微信等新型媒体处于正常状态,大学生在使用微信等新型媒体行为活动中具有正向预测作用的变量有“参与微信互动测试”、“关注公众号”等,负向预测变量有“发布照片”、“点赞”等。%Social network has become the main carrier of network activities, which is inseparable for college students from daily life and study. This paper analyzes the features of college student's interpersonal behavior under social network environment, and empirical studies on the usage of WeChat in China, which has an important sig-nificance in guiding their behaviors. The results show that Chinese students use the WeChat and other new media in a normal state. Analysis showes that they have positive predictive variables of"participation of WeChat test","public WeChat account", and negative predictive variables is"share photos"and"like"in the use of WeChat and other new media behavioral activities.

  9. Synovial features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in clinical and ultrasound remission differ under anti-TNF therapy: a clue to interpret different chances of relapse after clinical remission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivernini, Stefano; Tolusso, Barbara; Petricca, Luca; Bui, Laura; Di Sante, Gabriele; Peluso, Giusy; Benvenuto, Roberta; Fedele, Anna Laura; Federico, Franco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Gremese, Elisa

    2017-07-01

    To define the synovial characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in clinical and ultrasound remission achieved by combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. Patients with RA in remission (n=25) (disease activity score (DAS)<1.6 for at least 6 months), patients with RA in low disease activity (LDA) (n=10) (1.6features than PDUS-negative patients with RA in LDA. However, patients with PsA in remission are characterised by a higher degree of residual synovial inflammation than patients with RA in remission, despite PDUS negativity under TNF inhibition. Published by the BMJ

  10. [Perceived quality: illusion or perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, C R

    2011-01-01

    Patients as human beings determined by their structure cannot, while having an experience, distinguish between an illusion and reality, therefore they experience the different domains of existence and the different domains of reality. For them, the perception of service quality is experienced as a personal domain of reality, and this reality is a personal construction, generating as many realities as patients perceiving their experience with elements of their experience, whose distinctions that validate it are not necessarily shared or agreed. Health management must abandon the idea in that it is possible to build an objective quality service, to be able to make progress in building effective communication strategies and common consensus criteria for a quality service of distinction, in order to achieve effective satisfaction and patient loyalty.

  11. 江西省艾滋病成年治疗患者分布及临床特征%Distribution and Clinical Features of AIDS in Adult Patients under Treatment in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端翔; 邓爱花; 周小军; 李燕; 廖新利; 钟荣梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and clinical features of AIDS in adult pa-tients under treatment in Jiangxi province,and to provide scientific basis for formulating appropri-ate scheme and policy for preventing and controlling AIDS.Methods The basic information and clinical data of 2 194 adult AIDS patients treated between 2004 and 2012 in Jiangxi province were collected,and the distribution regularities and clinical features of AIDS were analyzed using de-scriptive epidemiological method.Results Among the 2 194 adult AIDS patients,males accounted for 71.4%,patients aged 30-40 years accounted for 31.7%,and married and cohabiting patientsaccounted for 60.8%.The percentages of patients in WHO clinical stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ were 35.2%,23.0%,22.4% and 19.4%,respectively.The main route of transmission was sexual con-tact(79.6%).The opportunistic infection rate was 31.9%.However,the opportunistic infection rate was different in various clinical stages(P<0.001).The top five opportunistic infection diseases were persistent or intermittent fever(17.2%),skin lesion(5.7%),persistent diarrhea(5.6%),herpes zoster(5.2%)and thrush(3.6%).One or more symptoms and signs(fever,cough and expectora-tion,night sweats,diarrhea,nausea,hypopsia,rash,lymphadenectasis,etc.)were found in 37.5%of the patients.The tuberculosis occurred in 7.9% of the patients in the recent one year.The inci-dences of hepatitis B and C were 16.8% and 7.5%,respectively.Conclusion The majority of AIDS patients under treatment in Jiangxi province are young adult males and sexual contact is the main route of AIDS transmission.The opportunistic infection rate is high among adult AIDS pa-tients and is significantly correlated with clinical staging.Many characteristic clinical signs were accompanied by hepatitis B and C.Therefore,comprehensive prevention and treatment measures should be established aiming at the clinical features of AIDS in adult patients under treatment to control the spread of AIDS.%

  12. An investigation of the relationships between perceived age discrimination, personality and quality of life: Validation and implementation of the Perceived Age Discrimination scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Banas, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    The problem of age discrimination is relatively new to psychology and is a topic which has been under-researched. The present study aimed to provide a better understanding of age discrimination by exploring the correlates of perceived age discrimination including personality traits and quality of life. Currently, there is no psychometrically sound instrument which is capable of measuring perceived age discrimination. Therefore, a second aim of this study was to create an instrument that would...

  13. Perceived Muscle Soreness in Recreational Female Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, D; Smith, K; Smeltzer, C.; Young, K.; Burns, S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion correlated with perceived muscle soreness during delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in female runners. This study examined the pre and post running economy measures and perceived muscle soreness before and after a 30-min downhill run (DHR) at −15% grade and 70% of the subjects predetermined maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Six female recreational runners (mean age = 24.5) performed level running at 65%, 75%, and 85%...

  14. The Interactive Influence of Perceived Ownership and Perceived Choosership of Stocks on Brain Response to Stock Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhe; Wang, Lei; Wu, Han

    2017-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of perceived ownership (self/other) and perceived chooser (self/other) of stocks on brain activity, and investigated whether differential brain responses to stock outcomes as a result of perceived differences in ownership of stock would be modulated by perceived chooser of stock. We used a 2 (stock chooser: self, other) × 2 (stock owner: self, other) within-subject design to represent four types of chooser-owner relationships. Brain potentials were recorded while participants observed increasing and decreasing stock prices. Results showed that observations of stock outcomes among four types of chooser-owner relationships elicited differentiated feedback-related negativity (d-FRN: differences in FRN waves between losses and gains, reflecting violations of expectancy to stock outcomes): (1) Self-chosen-other-owned stocks evoked significantly larger d-FRN discrepancies than self-chosen-self-owned stocks, indicating a greater expectancy violation to others' losses than to one's own, demonstrating a reversed ownership effect. Moreover, people high in conscientiousness showed an increase in this trend, suggesting a stronger other-consideration; (2) Self-chosen-self-owned stocks and other-chosen-self-owned stocks revealed no significant d-FRN discrepancy, showing no choosership effect beyond the ownership effect; (3) Other-chosen-self-owned stocks evoked a significantly stronger d-FRN discrepancy than other-chosen-other-owned stocks, demonstrating an ownership effect; (4) Self-chosen-other-owned stocks evoked a significantly stronger d-FRN discrepancy than other-chosen-other-owned stocks, revealing a choosership effect. These findings suggest that the ownership effect could be reversed by conscientiousness induced by perceived choosership in the agency relationship, while the choosership effect is attenuated and even disappears under the influence of perceived ownership. PMID:28194118

  15. 离心泵空化状态下声发射信号的小波能量特征%Wavelet energy features of acoustic emission signals under centrifugal pump cavitation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠; 邹淑云; 李志鹏; 巨伟

    2015-01-01

    为了探究离心泵空化状态下声发射信号的频率分布特征及其变化规律,该文采用小波分析方法对离心泵空化试验过程中不同空化状态下的声发射信号进行了能量特征提取,研究了不同频段内声发射信号的能量特征随离心泵汽蚀余量变化的关系。试验分析结果表明,在离心泵的空化现象尚未出现以及不同的发展阶段,离心泵进、出口处声发射信号的全频段和各分频段绝对能量和相对能量的变化具有各不相同的特点。>31.25~62.5、>62.5~125和>125~250 kHz这3个分频段的绝对能量随空化状态改变而变化明显,且变化趋势与全频段的变化趋势类似。>31.25~62.5 kHz分频段的相对能量在空化状态变化过程中基本保持不变,而>62.5~125和>125~250 kHz 分频段的相对能量变化更为明显。研究结果可为离心泵空化状态的判别提供技术参考。%With the development of Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques, researches on the AE signals emitted during the cavitation process to judge whether the cavitation has occurred or not and its development degrees are getting more and more attentions. However, the frequency distribution features and their variation laws with the cavitation states of centrifugal pumps remain to be further studied. In this paper, the wavelet energy features of the AE signals under the cavitation conditions of a centrifugal pump were extracted with the wavelet analysis method, and the variation laws of these features were also revealed. Firstly, the cavitation processes of the centrifugal pump with constant flows and constant speeds at the 60%, 100%and 120%rated flow respectively were simulated on an open centrifugal pump test bench. Each cavitation process included such different stages as no cavitation, cavitation just appearing and cavitation developed with different degrees. Simultaneously, the corresponding operational parameters of the centrifugal pump

  16. Role Of Perceived Value, Customer Expectation, Corporate Image And Perceived Service Quality On The Customer Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizwan Ali; Gao Leifu; Muhammad YasirRafiq; Mudassar Hassan

    2015-01-01

      This study sets out to investigate the influence of perceived value, customer expectation, corporate image and perceived service quality on the customer satisfaction particularly in Pakistan telecommunication industry...

  17. Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilmien Smit; Karel Stanz; Mark Bussin

    2015-01-01

    .... Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee's decision to stay at an organisation...

  18. A Study on Weak Overburden Failure Features and Water Controlling Technology under Fully Mechanized Caving Winning%综放开采条件下软弱覆岩破坏特征及防治水技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2015-01-01

    煤层回采后覆岩破坏特征与煤层开采方法及覆岩性质相关,覆岩破坏特征主要指导水裂缝带发育高度及其形态,是顶板水害防治的关键技术参数。在分析矿井水文地质条件的基础上,采用钻孔冲洗液漏失量观测、数值模拟与经验公式3种方法综合确定了敏东一矿软弱覆岩综放开采条件下导水裂缝带发育高度,结果表明:综放开采厚度为7.7 m时,导水裂缝带发育高度为80 m。研究成果填补了我国北方大雁、扎赉诺尔、伊敏河等矿区的研究空白。通过对南一采区东西翼水文地质条件的对比分析,发现西翼水文地质条件较为复杂,提出以加强煤层顶板探放水与控制煤层开采厚度为主的防治水技术方法,并计算出工作面不同范围内的煤层开采厚度。%Overburden failure features after coal seam extraction are correlated to coal winning method and overburden properties. The features include mainly water conducted zone developed height and its configuration, thus the key parameters in roof water hazard con⁃trolling. On the basis of coalmine hydrogeological condition analysis, using borehole flushing fluid leakage observation, numerical simu⁃lation and empirical formula 3 methods comprehensively determined weak overburden water conducted zone developed height in the Mindong No.1 coalmine under fully mechanized caving condition. The result has shown that when the fully mechanized caving coal win⁃ning thickness is 7.7m, water conducted zone developed height is 80m. The research findings have bridged a studying gap in Dayan, Ja⁃lai Nur and Yiminhe mining areas in northern China. Through contrastive analysis of hydrogeological conditions in east and west limbs of S1 winning district has found that the hydrogeological condition in west limb is relatively complex, thus a water controlling technolo⁃gy of to mainly strengthen coal roof water exploring, drainage and control coal

  19. Search features of digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional on-line search services such as Dialog, DataStar and Lexis provide a wide range of search features (boolean and proximity operators, truncation, etc. This paper discusses the use of these features for effective searching, and argues that these features are required, regardless of advances in search engine technology. The literature on on-line searching is reviewed, identifying features that searchers find desirable for effective searching. A selective survey of current digital libraries available on the Web was undertaken, identifying which search features are present. The survey indicates that current digital libraries do not implement a wide range of search features. For instance: under half of the examples included controlled vocabulary, under half had proximity searching, only one enabled browsing of term indexes, and none of the digital libraries enable searchers to refine an initial search. Suggestions are made for enhancing the search effectiveness of digital libraries, for instance by: providing a full range of search operators, enabling browsing of search terms, enhancement of records with controlled vocabulary, enabling the refining of initial searches, etc.

  20. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  1. The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: An investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Danhong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, it remains unclear how perceived discrimination gets under the skin. This paper develops a comprehensive structural equation model (SEM) by incorporating both the direct effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH), a powerful predictor for many health outcomes, and the indirect effects of perceived discrimination on SRH through health care system distrust, neighborhood s...

  2. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  3. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  4. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  5. Perceived Parenting Styles on College Students' Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…

  6. Orthographic Contributions to Perceived Word Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin H.

    2004-01-01

    We have a surprising tendency to misperceive the center of visually presented words (Fischer, 1996, 2000a, 2000b). To understand the origin of this bias, four experiments assessed the impact of letter font, letter size, and grapheme-phoneme convergences on perceived stimulus center. Fourteen observers indicated the perceived centers of words,…

  7. Perceived Equity and Intimacy in Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffrey H.; Hammond, Clark H.; Harper, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the extent to which perceived inequity is related to perceived marital intimacy with couples married five or less years. Inequity was associated with lower levels of overall intimacy, identity, and expressiveness among wives. Among husbands, inequity was not associated with any types of intimacy. When comparing husbands and wives in…

  8. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  9. Perceived sleep quality of psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, G. J. (Gerrit); Tiemens, B. G. (Bea); Lendemeijer, H. H. G. M. (Bert); Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (Giel)

    This paper aims at acquiring knowledge about the quality of sleep of adult and elderly psychiatric patients who receive clinical or outpatient nursing care, and identifying key factors in perceiving a sleep problem. To do so, a sample of 1699 psychiatric patients were asked whether they perceived a

  10. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    : how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  11. The Aestetic and Perceived Attributes of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Johnson, Kara; Ashby, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    . The character of a product depends on more than this – its technical attributes are a part, but so too are its aesthetic or perceived attributes. The aesthetic attributes are those to which the senses respond: touch, sight, sound, smell and even taste. Perceived attributes of a product – its style and its...

  12. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  13. Measuring perceived racism and psychosis in African-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom: the modified perceived racism scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavey Gerard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The increased rate of psychosis and poorer service-related outcomes in UK African-Caribbeans may in part be related to racism; racism as an aetiological factor remains comparatively under-investigated. We wanted to develop a measure of perceived racism in UK African-Caribbean patients with psychosis Methods We modified the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS by substituting a mental-health-services' racism domain for the employment-racism domain and administered it to a sample of 150 individuals. Results 110 people completed the PRS with a total mean perceived racism score of 54.2 for the previous year and 71.3 for the lifetime. The modified instrument had good internal consistency, and both a similar factor-analytic structure and sampling adequacy to the original instrument. Clinical Implications The modified PRS was acceptable to the sample, withstands statistical scrutiny and produced similar totals to those in previously-tested populations. Subjective measurement of perceived racism may improve understanding of psychosis in African-Caribbeans, improve engagement and, hopefully, outcome.

  14. Measuring perceived racism and psychosis in African-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom: the modified perceived racism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apu T; McKenzie, Kwame; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2009-05-20

    The increased rate of psychosis and poorer service-related outcomes in UK African-Caribbeans may in part be related to racism; racism as an aetiological factor remains comparatively under-investigated. We wanted to develop a measure of perceived racism in UK African-Caribbean patients with psychosis We modified the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) by substituting a mental-health-services' racism domain for the employment-racism domain and administered it to a sample of 150 individuals. 110 people completed the PRS with a total mean perceived racism score of 54.2 for the previous year and 71.3 for the lifetime. The modified instrument had good internal consistency, and both a similar factor-analytic structure and sampling adequacy to the original instrument. The modified PRS was acceptable to the sample, withstands statistical scrutiny and produced similar totals to those in previously-tested populations. Subjective measurement of perceived racism may improve understanding of psychosis in African-Caribbeans, improve engagement and, hopefully, outcome.

  15. Designing using manufacturing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  16. Features of the Bible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘隽

    2008-01-01

    Every literature has its features in some aspects,so is the Bible,one of the greatest literary works in the world that has great impact on western literature.This paper summarizes two features of the Bible,namely,cultural feature and literary feature.

  17. Perceived Usefulness as Key Stimulus to the Behavioral Intention to Use 3G Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Susilo Lukito Budi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technology usually faces the challenge to be accepted by consumers. Because of the unique features of new technology, it needs certain approaches to enhance its acceptance. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM is widely used to study the behavior of organizations and consumers in ac-cepting a new technology. A modified TAM model is applied in the current study to test the impact of advertising appeals of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social factors on behavioral intention to use 3G technology. Experimental method is utilized on four groups (30 people each of undergraduate students of Atma Jaya Catholic Univesity. The result shows significant impact of the advertising multimedia exposed to the subjects, specifically perceived usefulness. It is concluded that perceived usefulness is the most salient reason among Atma Jaya Catholic University’s students in consuming 3G technology.

  18. Perceived overall contrast and quality of the tone scale rendering for natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.

    2002-06-01

    Past research has demonstrated the complexity of perceived contrast as an attribute of natural images. This attribute is affected by the tone reproduction characteristics in an imaging system, the observer's viewing environment, and the scene itself. Development of digital photography with new tools to affect tone reproduction prompts the necessity for further insights into parameters that influence the perception of contrast to computationally predict and optimize this attribute for a large variety of individual images. To elucidate the relationship between perceived overall contrast and image properties, we performed a series of experiments where observers estimated perceived overall contrast, defined as an integrated impression of difference in lightness, for images of natural scenes presented on a monitor screen. The ratings were used to develop a computational prediction based on assessment of features, which hypothetically could be used by the subjects' visual system when evaluating perceived overall contrast.

  19. Catastrophizing and perceived partner responses to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Jennifer L; Thorn, Beverly E; Overduin, Lorraine Y; Ward, L Charles

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between catastrophizing and patient-perceived partner responses to pain behaviors. The Catastrophizing subscale of the Cognitive Coping Strategy Inventory and the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory were completed by 62 adult chronic pain patients. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing and patient-perceived solicitous partner behaviors were positively correlated with negative pain outcomes. The communal coping theory of catastrophizing suggests that catastrophizing might be undertaken to solicit support and empathy from others. However, catastrophizing was not related to perceived solicitous partner behavior in this study. Rather, catastrophizing was associated with perceived punishing partner responses. Implications are that catastrophizing and perceived solicitous partner behaviors are independently associated with pain and that catastrophizing may not be reinforced by empathy from significant others.

  20. Physical features, coherence and positive outcomes of person-environment interactions : A virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, R.; Steg, L.; Dontje, J.; Siero, F. W.; van der Zee, K.I.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined how physical features of a natural setting influenced perceived coherence and three positive outcome variables: preference, pleasure, and (self-reported) restoration. Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of perceived coherence. One hundred thirty-one students evaluat

  1. The effect of illuminant position on perceived curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, W; Johnston, A

    1996-05-01

    In shaded scenes surface features can appear either concave or convex, depending upon the viewer's judgement about the direction of the prevailing illumination. If other curvature cues are added to the image this ambiguity can be removed. However, it is not clear to what extent, if any, illuminant position exerts an influence on the perceived magnitude of surface curvature. Subjects were presented with pairs of spherical surface patches in a curvature matching task. The patches were defined by shading and texture cues. The perceived curvature of a standard patch was measured as a function of light source position. We found a clear effect of light source position on apparent curvature. Perceived curvature decreased as light source tilt increased and as light source slant decreased. We also found that the strength of this effect is determined partly by a surface's reflectance function and partly by the relative weight of the texture cue. When a specular component was added to the stimuli, the effect of light source orientation was weakened. The weight of the texture cue was manipulated by disrupting the regular distribution of texture elements. We found an inverse relationship between the strength of the effect and the weight of the texture cue: lowering the texture cue weight resulted in an enhancement of the illuminant position effect.

  2. Shape perception enhances perceived contrast: evidence for excitatory predictive feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-03-14

    Predictive coding theory suggests that predictable responses are "explained away" (i.e., reduced) by feedback. Experimental evidence for feedback inhibition, however, is inconsistent: most neuroimaging studies show reduced activity by predictive feedback, while neurophysiology indicates that most inter-areal cortical feedback is excitatory and targets excitatory neurons. In this study, we asked subjects to judge the luminance of two gray disks containing stimulus outlines: one enabling predictive feedback (a 3D-shape) and one impeding it (random-lines). These outlines were comparable to those used in past neuroimaging studies. All 14 subjects consistently perceived the disk with a 3D-shape stimulus brighter; thus, predictive feedback enhanced perceived contrast. Since early visual cortex activity at the population level has been shown to have a monotonic relationship with subjective contrast perception, we speculate that the perceived contrast enhancement could reflect an increase in neuronal activity. In other words, predictive feedback may have had an excitatory influence on neuronal responses. Control experiments ruled out attention bias, local feature differences and response bias as alternate explanations.

  3. Predictors of discordance between perceived and objective neighborhood data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Erin J; Malecki, Kristen C; Engelman, Corinne D; Walsh, Matthew C; Bersch, Andrew J; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Peppard, Paul E; Nieto, F Javier

    2014-03-01

    Pathways by which the social and built environments affect health can be influenced by differences between perception and reality. This discordance is important for understanding health impacts of the built environment. This study examines associations between perceived and objective measures of 12 nonresidential destinations, as well as previously unexplored sociodemographic, lifestyle, neighborhood, and urbanicity predictors of discordance. Perceived neighborhood data were collected from participants of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, using a self-administered questionnaire. Objective data were collected using the Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment, an audit-based instrument assessing built environment features around each participant's residence. Overall, there was relatively high agreement, ranging from 50% for proximity to parks to more than 90% for golf courses. Higher education, positive neighborhood perceptions, and rurality were negatively associated with discordance. Associations between discordance and depression, disease status, and lifestyle factors appeared to be modified by urbanicity level. These data show perceived and objective neighborhood environment data are not interchangeable and the level of discordance is associated with or modified by individual and neighborhood factors, including the level of urbanicity. These results suggest that consideration should be given to including both types of measures in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feature-Aware Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, Sven; Wendler, Philipp; von Rhein, Alexander; Beyer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    A software product line is a set of software products that are distinguished in terms of features (i.e., end-user--visible units of behavior). Feature interactions ---situations in which the combination of features leads to emergent and possibly critical behavior--- are a major source of failures in software product lines. We explore how feature-aware verification can improve the automatic detection of feature interactions in software product lines. Feature-aware verification uses product-line verification techniques and supports the specification of feature properties along with the features in separate and composable units. It integrates the technique of variability encoding to verify a product line without generating and checking a possibly exponential number of feature combinations. We developed the tool suite SPLverifier for feature-aware verification, which is based on standard model-checking technology. We applied it to an e-mail system that incorporates domain knowledge of AT&T. We found that feat...

  5. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  6. Inverse cue priming is not limited to masks with relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Daniel; Mattler, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    Apart from positive priming effects, masked prime stimuli can impair responses to a subsequent target stimulus which shares response-critical features in contrast to a target assigned to the opposite response. This counterintuitive phenomenon is called inverse priming (or negative compatibility effect). Here we examine the generality of this phenomenon beyond priming of motor responses. We used a non-motor cue-priming paradigm to study the underlying mechanism of inverse priming for relevant features masks which include task-relevant stimulus features and for irrelevant masks which omit task-relevant features. We found inverse cue-priming effects with both types of masks. With task-irrelevant masks inverse cue-priming was emphasized in those participants being unable to perceive the prime. The existence of inverse non-motor priming under conditions where simple perceptual interactions between the stimuli are ruled out as the source of inverse priming is at odds with the view that inverse priming reflects motor inhibition. Alternatives are discussed.

  7. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  8. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment as drivers for the user acceptance of interactive mobile maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the user perception of usefulness, ease of use and enjoyment as drivers for the users' complex interaction with map on mobile devices. TAM model was used to evaluate users' intention to use and their acceptance of interactive mobile map using the above three beliefs as antecedents. Quantitative research (survey) methodology was employed and the analysis and findings showed that all the three explanatory variables used in this study, explain the variability in the user acceptance of interactive mobile map technology. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment each have significant positive influence on user acceptance of interactive mobile maps. This study further validates the TAM model.

  9. Perceived Gender Equality in Managerial Positions in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominc Polona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to achieve two main objectives: to investigate differences between male and female managers regarding the perceived gender equality in organizations and to analyze the gender differences in relationships among the perceived gender equality, the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career, the perceived satisfaction with work, and the perceived work-family conflict.

  10. Cognitive processes among skilled miniature golf players: effects of instructions on motor performance, concentration time, and perceived difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, L; Molander, B

    1991-01-01

    Highly skilled miniature golf players were examined on a simplified miniature golf task under different instructional conditions. Results indicated that requirements to attend to a variety of technical aspects of the game during preparation impaired motor performance, whereas providing players with those aspects of the game they reported thinking of did not affect motor performance. Data on concentration time and perceived difficulty indicated that increasing cognitive demands were associated with a decline in motor precision. The overall pattern of results was interpreted such that attention directed at technical aspects of the game interfered with the players' normal cognitive activity. Susceptibility to interference is a characteristic feature of controlled cognitive operations. Thus, the present results are consistent with the view that conscious cognitive activity may support motor behavior also at late stages of skill development.

  11. Relationship among patients' perceived capacity for communication, health literacy, and diabetes self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela Yee Man; Cheung, Mike Kwun Ting; Chi, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relations among health literacy, perceived capacity for communication, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care are unclear. This study tested this relation using structural equation modeling with a sample of 137 Chinese patients 65 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes. The model showed that health literacy, knowledge, communication capacity, and diabetes self-care formed complex relations. After adjusting for age, education, and Chinese cultural influence, health literacy affected diabetes self-care indirectly through perceived capacity for communication (standardized estimate coefficient=.641, phealth literacy and perceived capacity for communication with health care providers. Training should be provided to patients to enhance their communication abilities.

  12. Rethinking the Perceived Self: Samples from Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasabova Anita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How the self perceives reality is a traditional topic of research across several disciplines. I examine the perceived self on Facebook, as a case-study of self-knowledge on „classical” social media. Following Blascovich & Bailenson (2011, I consider the distinction between the real and the virtual as relative. Perceptual self-knowledge, filtered through social media, requires rethinking the perceived self in terms of social reality (Neisser, 1993. This claim dovetails Jenkins’s (2013 notion of the self as an active participant in consumption. I argue that the perceived self in social media could be conceived in terms of how it would like to be perceived and appraised by its virtual audience. Using Neisser’s (1993 typology of self-knowledge and Castañeda’s (1983 theory of I-guises, I analyse seven samples from Anglo-American and Bulgarian Facebook sites and show that the perceived self produces itself online as a captivating presence with a credible story. My samples are taken from FB community pages with negligible cultural differences across an online teenage/twens (twixter age group. I then discuss some problematic aspects of the perceived self online, as well as recent critiques of technoconsumerism.

  13. 'Sorting out' the PPQ: A mixed-methods approach to evaluate Perceived Persuasiveness Questionnaire constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kulyk, O.; Wentzel, M.J.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop and validate evaluation measures for studying the effects of software design features on perceived persuasion. The paper builds upon the Persuasive Systems Design model, which is frequently used in eHealth research. We present a study (n=25) investigating the internal val

  14. Measuring the Perceived Quality of an AR-Based Learning Application: A Multidimensional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Dragos Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technologies could enhance learning in several ways. The quality of an AR-based educational platform is a combination of key features that manifests in usability, usefulness, and enjoyment for the learner. In this paper, we present a multidimensional model to measure the quality of an AR-based application as perceived by…

  15. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  16. Mental Health,Perceived Stress and Coping Style of National Defence Students in Xinjiang under Stability Maintenance Situation%维稳形式下新疆高校国防生心理健康与觉察压力及应对方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宗义; 林鸿斌; 冉兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore mental health of national defence students and its related factors in Xinjiang under the situation of stability maintenance.Methods:A total of 222 national defence students were investigated with Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL-90 ) , Perceived Stress Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire.Results:①For perceived stress and coping style of national defence students,there were significant differences in grade,gender and disaster experience( P<0.05);mental health score of national defence students was significantly lower than students norm ( t =-2.14,-2.10,-2.82,-2.49,-2.30,-2.91,-2.71,-2.34;P<0.05)except obsessive symptoms and paranoid.②Foresee was positively correlative with obsessive symptoms,interpersonal sensitivity and depression(P<0.05);Control feeling and over load were negatively correlative with somatization,depression,anxiety,hostility,panic,psychoti-cism and average of SCL-90 ( P <0.01 );positive coping was negatively correlative with the mental health score except interpersonal sensitivity ( P <0.05 ) .③Foresee, over load and positive coping style had direct effect on mental health(Path coefficient:0.20,-0.22 and 0.17),Control feeling had indirect effect of 0.044 on mental health.Conclusion:Perceived stress and positive coping style may be two im-portant factors that affect mental health,positive coping style may have an intermediary role between con-trol feeling and mental health.%目的:探讨维稳形势下新疆高校国防生心理健康状况及相关因素。方法:采用SCL-90症状自评量表、觉察压力量表( PSS-C)和简易应对方式问卷( SCSQ)进行测验。结果:①维稳形势下,国防生觉察压力、应对方式在年级、性别和灾难经历上具有显著差异(P<0.01),SCL-90得分与大学生常模相比,除强迫症状和偏执外,其余各因子分和SCL-90总均分显著低于大学生常模( t =-2.14,-2.10,-2.82,-2.49,-2.30,-2

  17. Response Features of Red Edge Parameters for Lettuce Leaf Spectra under Different Nitrogen Levels%生菜叶片光谱红边参数对氮营养的响应特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱咏莉; 李萍萍; 毛罕平; 吴沿友

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimum red edge parameters for using rapid detection of the lettuce leaf nitrogen content, the response feature of red edge parameters for leaf spectra under different nitrogen levels and the relationship between red edge parameters and leaf nitrogen contents were investigated. Visible and near infrared ( Vis - NIR) spectroradiometer was used to collect the leaves' spectral data of water culture lettuce, and the chlorophyll meter ( SPAD 502 ) was used to measure the leaf chlorophyll content. Red edge parameters, which included red edge position (λred) , red edge area (Sred) , red edge differential ( Dλred) , the minimum of red edge differential ( Dλmin) and the ratio of Dλred to Dλmin ( Dλred/ Dλmin) , were calculated based on the first derivative reflectance spectra in the red edge region. The results showed that the dynamic characteristics of red edge parameters changed with different nitrogen nutrition levels in water culture. It was concluded that λred Dλmin, Sred and Dλred/Dλmin had significant relationship with the leaf chlorophyll content, respectively. In all red edge parameters, the correlation degree of λred was the highest with correlation coefficient 0. 942 0. And the root mean squared error was the lowest with 1. 803. Therefore, it was demonstrated that λred could be a predictor for lettuce leaf nitrogen content.%以不同氮素供应水平下的水培生菜为研究对象,采用光谱仪和叶绿素仪分别获得生菜叶片的漫反射光谱信息和叶绿素含量,通过提取生菜叶片光谱的红边参数,分析不同氮素供应水平下红边参数的变化规律,以及各个红边参数与生菜叶片叶绿素含量间的关系.结果表明,随氮营养供应水平的提高,生菜叶片各红边参数呈现不同的响应趋势.红边位置、最小振幅、红边面积以及红边振幅和最小振幅比值与生菜叶片SPAD值间均具有极显著的相关关系,其中以红边位置的相关程

  18. Clinical features of auditory neuropathy under pure tone audiometry and acoustic immitance examination%听神经病在纯音听阈测听和声导抗检查中的特征性表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 岑锦添; 黎志诚; 张革化

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨听神经病在纯音听阈测听及声导抗检查中的临床听力学特点及诊断要点.方法 回顾性分析中山大学附属第三医院耳鼻喉科收治的17例(32耳)听神经病确诊患者在纯音听阈测听、声导抗检查中的听力学特点.结果 17例患者中15例为双侧发病,呈左右对称性听力曲线;26耳以轻至中度低频感音性聋为主(听力图上升型);病程5年的听力损失主要为重度、极重度听力障碍.16例(31耳)声导抗为"A"型鼓室图,15例(30耳)同侧及交叉镫骨肌声反射均未引出,2例(2耳)镫骨肌声反射阈值升高.结论 听神经病在纯音听阔测听及声导抗检查中主要表现为:(1)为双侧对称性、渐进性听力下降;(2)早期为低频上升型听力图,后期为全频听力下降;(3)呈"A"型鼓室图,镫骨肌声反射阈值升高或引不出;(4)患耳无响度重振现象.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of auditory neuropathy under pure tone audiometry and acoustic immitance examination.Methods Seventeen patients (32 ears) diagnosed as having auditory neuropathy were examined for audiology features by pure tone audiometry and acoustic immitance.Results Bilateral and symmetrical hearing loss was found in 15 patients and low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss was noted in 26 ears.Seventeen ears with a course of disease less than 5 years presented light or moderate dysaudia,and those with more than 5 years presented grave loss of aural comprehension.16 patients (31 ears) in the acoustic immitance examination showed type A tympanogram,and absence of stapedius muscle reflex was found in 15 patients (30 ears).The threshold of acoustic stapedius reflex increased in 2 patients (2 ears).Conclusion Auditory neuropathy primarily presents bilateral and symmetrical hearing loss,low-frequency hearing loss at the initial stage and total-frequency hearing loss finally,absence of stapedius muscle reflex and type A tympanogram,and absence of

  19. Inequality and happiness: When perceived social mobility and economic reality do not match

    OpenAIRE

    Bjornskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina AV; Schnellenbach, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the association between happiness and inequality. We argue that the interaction between the perceived and the actual fairness of the income generation process affects this association. Building on a simple model of individual labor-market participation under uncertainty, we predict that higher levels of perceived fairness cause higher levels of utility, and lower preferred levels of income redistribution. In societies with a low level of actual social mobility, incom...

  20. Modeling perceived stress via HRV and accelerometer sensor streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Cao, Hong; Nguyen, Hai-Long; Surmacz, Karl; Hargrove, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Discovering and modeling of stress patterns of human beings is a key step towards achieving automatic stress monitoring, stress management and healthy lifestyle. As various wearable sensors become popular, it becomes possible for individuals to acquire their own relevant sensory data and to automatically assess their stress level on the go. Previous studies for stress analysis were conducted in the controlled laboratory and clinic settings. These studies are not suitable for stress monitoring in one's daily life as various physical activities may affect the physiological signals. In this paper, we address such issue by integrating two modalities of sensors, i.e., HRV sensors and accelerometers, to monitor the perceived stress levels in daily life. We gathered both the heart and the motion data from 8 participants continuously for about 2 weeks. We then extracted features from both sensory data and compared the existing machine learning methods for learning personalized models to interpret the perceived stress levels. Experimental results showed that Bagging classifier with feature selection is able to achieve a prediction accuracy 85.7%, indicating our stress monitoring on daily basis is fairly practical.

  1. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within......-subjects design, investigate higher priced products, and use samples from European countries but weaker for services, durable goods, and respondents who are familiar with the product. A striking null result indicates that the number of cues does not affect the price-perceived quality relationship significantly....

  2. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within......-subjects design, investigate higher priced products, and use samples from European countries but weaker for services, durable goods, and respondents who are familiar with the product. A striking null result indicates that the number of cues does not affect the price-perceived quality relationship significantly....

  3. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  4. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  5. New Perspective on Psychosocial Distress in Patients with Dysphonia: The Moderating Role of Perceived Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Stephanie; Meredith, Liza; Peterson, Carol B; Frazier, Patricia A

    2016-03-01

    Although an association between psychosocial distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and perceived stress) and voice disorders has been observed, little is known about the relationship between distress and patient-reported voice handicap. Furthermore, the psychological mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. Perceived control plays an important role in distress associated with other medical disorders. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the relationship between distress and patient-reported voice handicap and (2) examine the role of perceived control in this relationship. This is a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care academic voice clinic. Distress, perceived stress, voice handicap, and perceived control were measured using established assessment scales. Association was measured with Pearson correlation coefficients; moderation was assessed using multiple hierarchical regression. A total of 533 patients enrolled. Thirty-four percent of the patients met criteria for clinically significant distress (ie, depression, anxiety, and/or somatization). A weak association (r = 0.13; P = 0.003) was observed between severity of psychosocial distress and vocal handicap. Present perceived control was inversely associated with distress (r = -0.41; P relationship between voice handicap and psychosocial distress was moderated by perceived control (b for interaction term, -0.15; P < 0.001); greater vocal handicap was associated with greater distress in patients with low perceived control. Severity of distress and vocal handicap were positively related, and the relation between them was moderated by perceived control. Vocal handicap was more related to distress among those with low perceived control; targeting this potential mechanism may facilitate new approaches for improved care. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  7. Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Stress Management among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Stress Management among ... the difference in stress management among high and low emotional intelligent students. ... in the school curricula could be considered as important to enable students ...

  8. Perceived Effect of Agricultural Transformation Agenda on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ... CABI and Scopus http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jae ... This study assessed the perceived effect of Agricultural Transformation. Agenda (ATA) on .... environmental constraints, corruption and lack of viable development to rural areas as a ...

  9. The perceived fairness of performance evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.H. Hartmann (Frank)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen it comes to procedural justice, Management Accounting and Human Resources functions have to get closer to create systems of performance evaluation that are perceived as fair – and that also take uncertainty into consideration.

  10. Feature-based attention resolves depth ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Levinthal, B; Franconeri, S L

    2016-09-07

    Perceiving the world around us requires that we resolve ambiguity. This process is often studied in the lab using ambiguous figures whose structures can be interpreted in multiple ways. One class of figures contains ambiguity in its depth relations, such that either of two surfaces could be seen as being the "front" of an object. Previous research suggests that selectively attending to a given location on such objects can bias the perception of that region as the front. This study asks whether selectively attending to a distributed feature can also bias that region toward the front. Participants viewed a structure-from-motion display of a rotating cylinder that could be perceived as rotating clockwise or counterclockwise (as imagined viewing from the top), depending on whether a set of red or green moving dots were seen as being in the front. A secondary task encouraged observers to globally attend to either red or green. Results from both Experiment 1 and 2 showed that the dots on the cylinder that shared the attended feature, and its corresponding surface, were more likely to be seen as being in the front, as measured by participants' clockwise versus counterclockwise percept reports. Feature-based attention, like location-based attention, is capable of biasing competition among potential interpretations of figures with ambiguous structure in depth.

  11. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  12. How impulsivity relates to compulsive buying and the burden perceived by caregivers after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Lucien; Beni, Catia; Billieux, Joël; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the study is to investigate how a specific dimension of impulsivity, namely urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed), might shed new light on the aetiology of compulsive buying proneness in patients with TBI and to explore how urgency and compulsive buying relate to the burden perceived by the caregivers. Caregivers of 74 patients with TBI were given 3 questionnaires in order to assess their subjective burden as well as patients' impulsivity and compulsive buying proneness. Both urgency and compulsive buying tendencies significantly increased after TBI. Furthermore, path analyses revealed that current urgency was both directly and indirectly related to the subjective burden perceived by the caregivers, and this indirect pathway was mediated by compulsive buying. Urgency plays a central role in understanding specific problematic behaviours after TBI and their impact on caregivers. These findings are discussed in light of the cognitive processes underlying the urgency component of impulsivity in relation to the occurrence of compulsive buying behaviours after TBI. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Perceived Submaximal Force Production in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allen W.; Ludtke, Andrew W.; Martin, Scott B.; Koziris, L. (Perry); Dishman, Rod K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the force production patterns using perceived stimulus cues from 10% to 90% of maximal force. In Experiment 1, 54 men (age: 19-34 years) and 53 women (age: 18-37 years) performed leg extensions on a dynamometer at a speed of 60 degrees/s. Participants produced actual forces perceived to be 10-90% of…

  14. Gender and contraction mode on perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, D M; Polen, R R; Byrd, B N

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived exertion responses during concentric and eccentric elbow flexor contractions between young adult men and women. Thirty healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, subjects performed five concentric isokinetic maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of elbow flexion, followed by nine, randomly-ordered sub-maximal contractions (10-90% MVC). The same procedures were repeated during the second session, with the exception that eccentric contractions were performed. Subjects rated their perceived exertion following the sub-maximal contractions with the Borg category-ratio scale. Perceived exertion was significantly (pMVC. A three-factor interaction between 30-40% MVC indicated that perceived exertion increased more during the eccentric, than concentric, contractions in women, while the opposite pattern was evident for the men. There were no significant contraction mode or gender differences. Power function modeling revealed that perceived exertion increased in a negatively accelerating manner, except for the men performing eccentric exercise. Perceived exertion increases in a similar non-linear manner between men and women during concentric contractions, while men exhibited a statistically linear pattern during eccentric contractions.

  15. Construct validity of the Perceived Criticism Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L; Blake, Kimberly D

    2009-06-01

    The construct validity of the Perceived Criticism Measure (PCM) was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 50 community couples participated in problem-solving interactions after which they rated interaction-specific perceived criticism and their criticism of their spouses. In addition, they provided ratings of perceived criticism for their relationship overall and completed measures of psychopathology and marital satisfaction. For both husbands and wives, convergent validity was demonstrated by moderate-to-large correlations between the PCM and spouses' own ratings of their criticism for both general and interaction-specific perceived criticism. In Study 2, 37 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their spouses participated in problem-solving interactions and provided ratings of marital satisfaction and general perceived criticism. Five untrained coders rated the interactions according to their own definitions of the relatives' destructive criticism of the patient. Their aggregated ratings proved strongly related to patients' PCM scores. Higher PCM scores were related to lower marital satisfaction in both Studies 1 and 2. The results of these studies are supportive of the convergent validity of the Perceived Criticism Measure. Evidence of discriminant validity was mixed.

  16. Perceived Muscle Soreness in Recreational Female Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D; Smith, K; Smeltzer, C; Young, K; Burns, S

    The purpose of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion correlated with perceived muscle soreness during delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in female runners. This study examined the pre and post running economy measures and perceived muscle soreness before and after a 30-min downhill run (DHR) at -15% grade and 70% of the subjects predetermined maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Six female recreational runners (mean age = 24.5) performed level running at 65%, 75%, and 85% of their VO2 peak prior to DHR (baseline economy runs), as well as, immediately following and 4 successive days after the DHR. Subjective response related to perceived muscle soreness increased significantly from a mean of 2 (pre DHR) to 62 (2 days post DHR) on a scale of 1-100. Creatine kinase levels and oxygen consumption increased post DHR compared to pre DHR. Rating of perceived exertion did not change between the economy runs performed prior to or at any point after the DHR. Perceived muscle soreness is a better tool than the RPE scale to monitor exercise intensity for recreational female runners during periods of DOMS and running economy is adversely affected by DOMS.

  17. Perceived Muscle Soreness in Recreational Female Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D.; Smith, K.; Smeltzer, C.; Young, K.; Burns, S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion correlated with perceived muscle soreness during delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in female runners. This study examined the pre and post running economy measures and perceived muscle soreness before and after a 30-min downhill run (DHR) at −15% grade and 70% of the subjects predetermined maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Six female recreational runners (mean age = 24.5) performed level running at 65%, 75%, and 85% of their VO2 peak prior to DHR (baseline economy runs), as well as, immediately following and 4 successive days after the DHR. Results: Subjective response related to perceived muscle soreness increased significantly from a mean of 2 (pre DHR) to 62 (2 days post DHR) on a scale of 1–100. Creatine kinase levels and oxygen consumption increased post DHR compared to pre DHR. Rating of perceived exertion did not change between the economy runs performed prior to or at any point after the DHR. Conclusion: Perceived muscle soreness is a better tool than the RPE scale to monitor exercise intensity for recreational female runners during periods of DOMS and running economy is adversely affected by DOMS. PMID:27182336

  18. Polarization of perceived Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H; Hernandez-Marrero, Pablo; Wielemaker, Martin

    2006-02-01

    This study examined polarization of perceptions of Procedural Justice. Two polarization mechanisms are examined, Persuasive Arguments and Social Comparisons. Participants were students enrolled in a first-year introductory business class. There were 216 participants in the Persuasive Arguments study, 429 in the Social Comparisons study. The average age of all participants was 22.3 yr. (SD = 2.1); 56% were women. Fields of study represented were business, engineering, information technology, and sports. Analysis showed under conditions of low Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with the Persuasive Arguments mechanism. Under conditions of high Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with Social Comparisons. Implications for group polarization and Procedural Justice theories are considered.

  19. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  20. Nanoscale structural features determined by AFM for single virus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen W.; Odorico, Michael; Meillan, Matthieu; Vellutini, Luc; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Parot, Pierre; Bennetau, Bernard; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we propose ``single-image analysis'', as opposed to multi-image averaging, for extracting valuable information from AFM images of single bio-particles. This approach allows us to study molecular systems imaged by AFM under general circumstances without restrictions on their structural forms. As feature exhibition is a resolution correlation, we have performed AFM imaging on surfaces of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to demonstrate variations of structural patterns with probing resolution. Two AFM images were acquired with the same tip at different probing resolutions in terms of pixel width, i.e., 1.95 and 0.49 nm per pixel. For assessment, we have constructed an in silico topograph based on the three-dimensional crystal structure of TMV as a reference. The prominent artifacts observed in the AFM-determined shape of TMV were attributed to tip convolutions. The width of TMV rod was systematically overestimated by ~10 nm at both probing resolutions of AFM. Nevertheless, the effects of tip convolution were less severe in vertical orientation so that the estimated height of TMV by AFM imaging was in close agreement with the in silico X-ray topograph. Using dedicated image processing algorithms, we found that at low resolution (i.e., 1.95 nm per pixel), the extracted surface features of TMV can be interpreted as a partial or full helical repeat (three complete turns with ~7.0 nm in length), while individual protein subunits (~2.5 nm) were perceivable only at high resolution. The present study shows that the scales of revealed structural features in AFM images are subject to both probing resolution and processing algorithms for image analysis.

  1. Nanoscale structural features determined by AFM for single virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Odorico, Michael; Meillan, Matthieu; Vellutini, Luc; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Parot, Pierre; Bennetau, Bernard; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2013-11-21

    In this work, we propose "single-image analysis", as opposed to multi-image averaging, for extracting valuable information from AFM images of single bio-particles. This approach allows us to study molecular systems imaged by AFM under general circumstances without restrictions on their structural forms. As feature exhibition is a resolution correlation, we have performed AFM imaging on surfaces of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to demonstrate variations of structural patterns with probing resolution. Two AFM images were acquired with the same tip at different probing resolutions in terms of pixel width, i.e., 1.95 and 0.49 nm per pixel. For assessment, we have constructed an in silico topograph based on the three-dimensional crystal structure of TMV as a reference. The prominent artifacts observed in the AFM-determined shape of TMV were attributed to tip convolutions. The width of TMV rod was systematically overestimated by ~10 nm at both probing resolutions of AFM. Nevertheless, the effects of tip convolution were less severe in vertical orientation so that the estimated height of TMV by AFM imaging was in close agreement with the in silico X-ray topograph. Using dedicated image processing algorithms, we found that at low resolution (i.e., 1.95 nm per pixel), the extracted surface features of TMV can be interpreted as a partial or full helical repeat (three complete turns with ~7.0 nm in length), while individual protein subunits (~2.5 nm) were perceivable only at high resolution. The present study shows that the scales of revealed structural features in AFM images are subject to both probing resolution and processing algorithms for image analysis.

  2. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Uziel, Y. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Chuang, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Silverman, E. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Krafchik, B. (Div. of Dermatology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Laxer, R. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  3. Precise Facial Feature Localization under Non-Restraint Environment with Limited Training Images%非约束环境下基于小样本的人脸特征精确定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 张龙媛

    2013-01-01

    针对非约束环境下的人脸特征定位问题,在概率框架下提出一种基于小样本的精确定位策略.通过对比分析,提取人脸主要特征的颜色和灰度信息及人脸特征之间的几何约束信息,利用混合高斯模型分别对其进行概率建模.之后建立定位融合策略,不仅考虑每种人脸特征的概率分布,还考虑其周围元素的概率分布特性,及各元素之间的几何约束.实验结果表明,该方法能在少量训练样本图像且样本个体较为单一的条件下,实现人脸主要特征的精确定位,且定位精度高于现有方法.%After analyzing the limitation of current methods,a precise localization strategy with limited training data is proposed in a probability framework.Texture and geometry information of facial elements are extracted as model features after comparison analysis with other traditional descriptors.Gaussian mixture model is used for the probability modeling,which describes the distribution of each model features extracted from different facial conditions well.Then,a series of fusion strategies are designed for the facial features localization,which considers the probability distribution of each facial feature,the distribution characters of their surrounding elements and their geometry constraints.The experimental results show that the proposed method can realize precise localization for the facial features with limited training sample images which belong to a single subject,and it outperforms other methods in localization accuracy.

  4. Perceiving others' personalities: examining the dimensionality, assumed similarity to the self, and stability of perceiver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Guglielmo, Steve; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-03-01

    In interpersonal perception, "perceiver effects" are tendencies of perceivers to see other people in a particular way. Two studies of naturalistic interactions examined perceiver effects for personality traits: seeing a typical other as sympathetic or quarrelsome, responsible or careless, and so forth. Several basic questions were addressed. First, are perceiver effects organized as a global evaluative halo, or do perceptions of different traits vary in distinct ways? Second, does assumed similarity (as evidenced by self-perceiver correlations) reflect broad evaluative consistency or trait-specific content? Third, are perceiver effects a manifestation of stable beliefs about the generalized other, or do they form in specific contexts as group-specific stereotypes? Findings indicated that perceiver effects were better described by a differentiated, multidimensional structure with both trait-specific content and a higher order global evaluation factor. Assumed similarity was at least partially attributable to trait-specific content, not just to broad evaluative similarity between self and others. Perceiver effects were correlated with gender and attachment style, but in newly formed groups, they became more stable over time, suggesting that they grew dynamically as group stereotypes. Implications for the interpretation of perceiver effects and for research on personality assessment and psychopathology are discussed.

  5. Effect of perceived Price, Brand Image, perceived Quality and Trust on Consumer’s buying Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Afsar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of factors such as perceived price, brand image, perceived quality and trust on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Results showed that brand image has positive and significant impact on consumer trust. Increase in perceived quality and trust depicted increase in a particular brand preference. Decrease in perceived price showed significant and positive impact on brand preference. This study measured the effect of brand image, price, quality and consumer trust information on how individuals subjectively evaluate a brand.

  6. 产学研合作下的中医英语翻译人才教育的新特点%New Features of Chinese Medicine English Translators' Education under the Research Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余静

    2016-01-01

    Research cooperation refers to three aspects of business, universities and research institutions in the complementary advantages of cooperation and exchanges, mutual benefit and common development carried out. Traditional Chinese Transla-tion Studies is a unique expression system in Pharmaceutical Foreign exchange translation and evolving process. In the current context of the global integration of production and research cooperation presents new features. And cooperation in research at the Medical Translation personnel education model also presents new features. These new features and market development related to development and economic integration, and the blend of cultural exchanges related to translation quality training model and culture of traditional Chinese medicine have put forward new demands.%产学研合作是指企业、高等学校和科研机构三方面本着优势互补、互利互惠、共同发展的原则所进行的合作与交流。中医翻译学是在中医药对外翻译与交流过程中逐渐形成的一种独特的表达体系。在目前全球经一体化的背景下,产学研合作呈现出新的特点。而在产学研合作下的中医药翻译人才教育模式也呈现出新的特点。这些新的特点与市场发展有关,与经济一体化发展有关,与文化的交融交流有关,对中医药翻译人才培养模式和培养质量都提出了新的要求。

  7. Multisensory softness perceived compliance from multiple sources of information

    CERN Document Server

    Luca, Massimiliano Di

    2014-01-01

    Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D

  8. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Stephen

    Full Text Available Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

  9. Work perceiving by employees and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izabela Baruk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of work perceiving by employees of scientific organizations in the context of marketing orientation rules were presented. It has the theoretical-empirical character. The following research goals were to be gained: identifying the way of work perceiving by respondents; defining the potential dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially its stress dimension and chosen aspects of professional life. 4 research hypotheses were to be verified. In the empirical part the results of the field researches were presented. To analyse gathered field data the method of correspondence analysis was used. It allowed to gain the research goals and to verify the hypotheses. All of these hypotheses were confirmed. It means that there are statistically significant dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially as stress factor and analysed row variables. They are relatively the strongest in the case of respondents’ openness for improvement of their intellectual potential. The gained results show that scientific organizations playing the role of employers must conduct activities leading up to positive work perceiving by employees. In this case employees want to improve their knowledge and skills. They are ready to co-create the positive image of given employer too.

  10. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Falcón, Luis M; Lincoln, Alisa K; Price, Lori Lyn

    2010-09-01

    Racism and discrimination can have significant implications for health, through complex biopsychosocial interactions. Latino groups, and particularly Puerto Ricans, are an understudied population in the United States in terms of the prevalence of discrimination and its relevance to health. Participants in our study were 45- to 75-year-old (N = 1122) Puerto Ricans. The measures were perceived discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D), perceived stress (PSS), self-rated health, medical conditions, blood pressure, smoking and drinking behaviours, demographics. Our findings show that 36.9 per cent of participants had at some time experienced discrimination, with men, those with more years of education, currently employed and with higher incomes being more likely to report it. Experiences of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. When controlling for covariates, perceived discrimination was predictive of the number of medical conditions, of ever having smoked and having been a drinker, and having higher values of diastolic pressure. Depressive symptoms are a mediator of the effect of perceived discrimination on medical conditions, confirmed by the Sobel test: z = 3.57, p discrimination is associated with a greater number of medical diagnoses.

  11. Perceived controllability and fairness in performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schiehll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental uncertainty, decentralization of decisions rights, and the use of subjective performance measures on managers’ perceptions of outcome controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Based on a survey of 339 middle- and upper- level managers, our results suggest that environmental uncertainty adversely affects perceptions of outcome controllability and that this effect is not moderated by the decentralization of decision rights. Our results also show a positive association between perceived controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Although we found no direct effect of the use of subjective performance measures on perceived performance evaluation fairness, it appears to moderate the positive effect of perceived controllability on fairness. We also show that the positive effect of the use of subjective measures may depend on contextual and job-related factors. The overall results underscore the need to consider the organizational context (environmental uncertainty and decentralization of decision rights to investigate how performance measures affect perceived controllability and fairness. Because perceived controllability and fairness affect individual attitudes and behaviors within an organization, our results have important implications for the design and use of performance evaluation systems.

  12. An Examination of the Relationships among Perceived Risk, Perceived Knowledge, and Student College Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Yukyong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among perceived risk, perceived knowledge, education, age, and international students' external information search behavior in terms of extent of information search, types of information searched, and types of information sources used during the search phase of the college choice process. A…

  13. Perceiving action boundaries: Learning effects in perceiving maximum jumping-reach affordances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramenzoni, V.C.; Davis, T.J.; Riley, M.A.; Shockley, K.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinating with another person requires that one can perceive what the other is capable of doing. This ability often benefits from opportunities to practice and learn. Two experiments were conducted in which we investigated perceptual learning in the context of perceiving the maximum height to whi

  14. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  15. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  16. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  17. Perceived justice and recovery satisfaction: the moderating role of customer-perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Subhash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovery strategies are critical to service providers in their efforts to maintain satisfied and loyal customers. While the existing research shows that recovery satisfaction is a function of customer perception of distributive, procedural and interactional justice, the present study considers an important contextual factor - customer-perceived quality of the service provider in the evaluation of justice dimensions and satisfaction. To test the hypotheses proposed, a survey was carried out in the mobile services context. The findings reveal that customer-perceived quality affects the evaluation of justice dimensions and its outcomes. The findings reveal that while distributive justice enhances recovery satisfaction for low perceived quality services, the procedural justice resulted in greater satisfaction in high perceived quality services. Thus, by understanding the role of customer-perceived quality, service managers can deliver effective recovery strategies thereby enhancing satisfaction and loyalty.

  18. PENGARUH PERCEIVED VALUE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY TERHADAP KEPERCAYAAN KONSUMEN DI RUMAH SAKIT KARTIKA SARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Budi Dharma

    2012-07-01

    The objective (s of this research was identifying the effect perceived value and perceived quality toward consumer’s trust honesty and consumer’s trust benevolence. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing to examine all hypotheses in this study. The method used in this study is multiple regressions between independent variables and dependent variable. Data analysis used in this research was collected by distributing questionnaires which were distributed on 110 respondents at Kartika Sari Hospital. There were 107 responses of which 100 completed and usable for analyzed by multiple regressions. The result of this research conclude that the professionalism, perceived quality, value monetary costs, value non monetary costs have positive and significant impact on consumer’s trust honesty dan consumer’s trust benevolence. Keywords : Sonsumer loyalty, Perceived value, Perceived quality, Satisfaction

  19. Affective antecedents of the perceived effectiveness of antidrug advertisements: an analysis of adolescents' momentary and retrospective evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco C; Vohs, Kathleen D; Luciana, Monica; Cuthbert, Bruce N; MacDonald, Angus W

    2011-09-01

    Perceived message effectiveness is often used as a diagnostic tool to determine whether a health message is likely to be successful or needs modification before use in an intervention. Yet, published research on the antecedents of perceived effectiveness is scarce and, consequently, little is known about why a message is perceived to be effective or ineffective. The present study's aim was to identify and test the affective antecedents of perceived effectiveness of antidrug television messages in a sample of 190 adolescents in the 15-19 year age range. Factor-analytical tests of retrospective message evaluation items suggested two dimensions of perceived effectiveness, one that contained items such as convincingness whereas the other contained pleasantness items. Using retrospective data as well as real time valence and arousal ratings, we found that arousal underlies perceived convincingness and valence underlies perceived pleasantness. The results indicated activation of appetitive and defensive motivational systems, which suggests a clear motivational component to the concept of perceived message effectiveness.

  20. Perceived parental authority: Reasonable and unreasonable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, I D; Howard, K I

    1981-08-01

    A questionnaire study of 844 teenagers from four midwestern high schools focused on phenomena associated with their perceptions of which parent was "the real boss" and of how reasonable this "boss" was in dealing with the adolescent. Father was perceived to be the family authority about three times more often than was mother, although sons tended to see father as boss more often than did daughters, who tended to see mother as boss more often than did sons. Paternal and maternal authorities did not differ in perceived reasonableness. When either mother or father was perceived as a reasonable authority, the teenagers saw mother as highly involved, objective, and as enjoying life. Perception of high reasonableness in paternal authority was associated with the perception of father as involved, objective, enjoying life, and as not rigorous in his expectations for the child's compliance and achievement.

  1. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  2. The Perceived Size and Shape of Objects in Peripheral Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph; Burleigh, Alistair; Ruta, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how we perceive the size and shape of objects in far peripheral vision. Observations made during an artistic study of visual space suggest that objects appear smaller and compressed in the periphery compared with central vision. To test this, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, we asked participants to draw how a set of peripheral discs appeared when viewed peripherally without time or eye movement constraints. In Experiment 2, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure when a briefly presented peripheral stimulus appeared bigger or smaller compared with a central fixated one. In Experiment 3, we measured how accurate participants were in discriminating shapes presented briefly in the periphery. In Experiment 1, the peripheral discs were reported as appearing significantly smaller than the central disc, and as having an elliptical or polygonal contour. In Experiment 2, participants judged the size of peripheral discs as being significantly smaller when compared with the central disc across most of the peripheral field, and in Experiment 3, participants were quite accurate in reporting the shape of the peripheral object, except in the far periphery. Our results show that objects in the visual periphery are perceived as diminished in size when presented for long and brief exposures, suggesting diminution is an intrinsic feature of the structure of the visual space. Shape distortions, however, are reported only with longer exposures. PMID:27698981

  3. Stable Feature Selection for Biomarker Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zengyou

    2010-01-01

    Feature selection techniques have been used as the workhorse in biomarker discovery applications for a long time. Surprisingly, the stability of feature selection with respect to sampling variations has long been under-considered. It is only until recently that this issue has received more and more attention. In this article, we review existing stable feature selection methods for biomarker discovery using a generic hierarchal framework. We have two objectives: (1) providing an overview on this new yet fast growing topic for a convenient reference; (2) categorizing existing methods under an expandable framework for future research and development.

  4. Perceived quality in urgent transport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE ANTONIO MARTÍNEZ GARCÍA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research has focused on the customer evaluation of perceived quality in the urgent transport service in Spain. Using different statistical procedures, such as ordinal regression, between-groups comparison or multilevel modeling, this study shows how the perceived service quality of the public company «Correos» is lower than several of the main competitors: Seur, MRW and Nacex. Despite the investment achieved by this public institution in order to improve service quality, these efforts have not been reflected in the customer evaluation, at least to the same extent as competitors. Several recommendations for further research are discussed in the final part of the study.

  5. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...... of a microphone (monaural) and a dummy head (binaural) placed at the listening position. The results show that while loudness metrics fared well in predicting perceived loudness for any single-sound condition, they failed to predict loudness for two simultaneous sounds. This suggests that current loudness...... modelling will have to be extended to take the spatial distribution of sources into account....

  6. Pricing, agents, perceived value and the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Phillip G.; Brown, Herbert E.; Saunders, Paula M.

    2001-01-01

    The Internet has changed the way people buy things. A pointed difference is the use of Internet auctions and bots. But, are these differences actually changing the role and function of price in the firm's marketing program? Are they possibly changing options for pricing, and perhaps even, the very notion of perceived value? Or in fact, does the new set of Internet pricing mechanisms merely require marketers to do what good marketers have always done, and that is to build customer-perceived va...

  7. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  8. Time Varying Feature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  9. Do Children with Autism Perceive Second-Order Relational Features? The Case of the Thatcher Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Helen; Donnelly, Nick; Hadwin, Julie A.; Brown, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study presents two experiments that investigated whether children with autism were susceptible to the Thatcher illusion. Perception of the Thatcher illusion requires being able to compute second-order configural relations for facial stimuli. Method: In both experiments children with autism were matched for non-verbal and verbal…

  10. Diffusion of Courses with World Wide Web Features: Perceptions of Journalism and Mass Communication Program Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines perceptions of top administrators concerning courses with Web features at Association of Schools of Journalism and Mass Communication (ASJMC) programs. Studies the imperatives and pressures to implement courses with Web features as well as resistances to implementation. Suggests that administrators perceive an extensive set of needs and…

  11. Perceived Responsibilities of Anganwadi Workers and Malnutrition in Rural Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongre AR

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To find out the nutritional status of under-six children attending ICDS scheme and to study Anganwadi workers’ (AWW perceived work load and operational problems. Material and Methods: A triangulated research design of quantitative (survey and qualitative (Venn diagram, seasonal calendar methods was used. Nutritional status of children was assessed by a survey. Participatory methods like Venn diagram and Seasonal calendars were used to collect qualitative data regarding AWWs perceived work load and food security with malnourished children. Results: Overall, prevalence of underweight and severe underweight among children under-six was found to be 53% and 15% respectively and among children below three years it was 47% and 15% respectively. Venn diagram showed AWWs’ multiple responsibilities. In seasonal diagram exercise, the mothers of severely malnourished children showed enough food availability in their house across all months of a year. Conclusion: To efficiently tap the potential of AWWs for reducing multidimensional problem of malnutrition, ICDS needs to design and implement flexible, area-specific and focused activities for AWW

  12. Development Strategy of Primary Health Care Institutions under the Perspective of Customer Perceived Value--Based on Exploratory Factor Analysis%顾客感知价值下的基层医疗卫生机构发展策略研究--基于探索性因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪波; 段琪

    2014-01-01

    Based on the customer perceived value theory, this article extracts six factors from the patient perceived value of the primary health care institutions through factor analysis, which are the functional value, emotional value, image value, special value, the cost of time, and the cost of money, and each dimension has a reliable reliability. It applies the multiple regression method to analyze how the six factors influence the willingness to take treatment in the primary health care institutions. Based on conclusions, developing strategies are put forward for the primary health care institutions on how to attract the patients through raising patients’ customer perceived value.%以顾客感知价值为理论基础,运用探索性因子分析法,提取出基层医疗卫生机构患者价值感知的六类因子,分别是功能价值、情感价值、形象价值、特殊价值、时间成本和货币成本,且各维度具有较高信度。应用多元回归技术验证了六类因子对患者到基层医疗卫生机构就诊意愿的影响程度。并基于结论提出了基层医疗卫生机构如何通过提高患者感知价值以吸引患者的发展策略。

  13. Features of resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, Elizabeth B.; Allen, Craig R.; Hatfield, Kirk; Palma-Oliveira, José M.; Woods, David D.; Linkov, Igor

    2017-02-20

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) definition of resilience is used here to organize common concepts and synthesize a set of key features of resilience that can be used across diverse application domains. The features in common include critical functions (services), thresholds, cross-scale (both space and time) interactions, and memory and adaptive management. We propose a framework for linking these features to the planning, absorbing, recovering, and adapting phases identified in the NAS definition. The proposed delineation of resilience can be important in understanding and communicating resilience concepts.

  14. 新媒体背景下数字漫画出版的新特征%The New Features of Digital Comics Publishing under the Background of the New Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文利

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing development of the digital revolution, the comics publishing on traditional paper media is going through expansion and redirection. Digital comics will become a new form of contemporary comics. After years’of multi-disciplinary development and evolution, digital comics have some new features in the narrative methods, reading mode and online dissemination. The correct understanding of these new changes wil help to find a way to understanding the dilemma of comic publishing in the new dimension, so as to provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of digital comics.%伴随着数字化革命深入推进,传统纸媒漫画出版面临扩容与转向,数字漫画将成为漫画形态的扩展方向。经过几年的跨界发展与演变,数字漫画在叙事手段、阅读方式与网络传播等方面出现一些新变化。正确认识和把握这些新变化,有助于在新的维度找到解决漫画出版困境的方法,从而为数字漫画可持续发展提供理论支持。

  15. On the New Features of Management and the Transformation of Organization in Business under the Informational Economy%论信息经济下管理的新特点及企业组织的变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹休宁

    2001-01-01

    信息经济或网络经济是信息革命的产物,在信息经济下管理呈现出一些新的特点,如:重视社会整体目标、重视精神激励、重视领导方式转型等。相应的企业组织结构也面临着新的变革,如信息的分散处理与组织的民主化、金字塔型组织结构向扁平式结构转变等。%Informational economy or the net economy is the outcome of information innovation. New features of management push forward new actions such as applying more emphasis on the social integrative goal, spiritual encouragement and changing of leading style. Accordingly, the organization structure of the businesses faces the transformations such as the decentralization processing of the information and the changing of the organization structure from a pyramid to a flat- type one.

  16. Effects of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention: The mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-31

    The present study attempts to examine the effect of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention (e.g., bribe-taking intention) and then further explore the psychological mechanism underlying this effect. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediation model in which moral disengagement partially mediated the link between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. In Study 1, participants (N = 690) completed a series of questionnaires, and the results demonstrated that, while perceived descriptive norms were positively associated with corrupt intention, it was partially mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, we conducted a priming experiment (N = 161) to test the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. The results revealed that perceived descriptive norms triggered the propensity of individuals to morally disengage, which in turn, partially increased their corrupt intention. This study not only extends previous research by providing evidence that moral disengagement may be one of the reasons why perceived descriptive norms facilitate corrupt intention, but also suggests that reshaping normative beliefs and preventing the moral disengagement of individuals may be the effective ways to curb corrupt behaviours.

  17. A simple photometric factor in perceived depth order of bistable transparency patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukiage, Taiki; Oishi, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2014-05-05

    Previous studies on perceptual transparency defined the photometric condition in which perceived depth ordering between two surfaces becomes ambiguous. Even under this bistable transparency condition, it is known that depth-order perceptions are often biased toward one specific interpretation (Beck, Prazdny, & Ivry, 1984; Delogu, Fedorov, Belardinelli, & van Leeuwen, 2010; Kitaoka, 2005; Oyama & Nakahara, 1960). In this study, we examined what determines the perceived depth ordering for bistable transparency patterns using stimuli that simulated two partially overlapping disks resulting in four regions: a (background), b (portion of right disk), p (portion of left disk), and q (shared region). In contrast to the previous theory that proposed contributions of contrast against the background region (i.e., contrast at contour b/a and contrast at contour p/a) to perceived depth order in bistable transparency patterns, the present study demonstrated that contrast against the background region has little influence on perceived depth order compared with contrast against the shared region (i.e., contrast at contour b/q and contrast at contour p/q). In addition, we found that the perceived depth ordering is well predicted by a simpler model that takes into consideration only relative size of lightness difference against the shared region. Specifically, the probability that the left disk is perceived as being in front is proportional to (|b - q| - |p - q|) / (|b - q| + |p - q|) calculated based on lightness.

  18. Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Annette E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain foods might be more frequently eaten under stress or when higher levels of depressive symptoms are experienced. We examined whether poor nutritional habits are associated with stress and depressive symptoms and whether the relationships differ by country and gender in a sample from three European countries collected as part of a Cross National Student Health Survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among first-year students in Germany (N = 696, Poland (N = 489 and Bulgaria (N = 654. Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and a modified Beck Depression Index. Linear regression analyses were conducted for two outcomes, perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Results Food consumption frequencies differed by country and gender, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. For male students, none of the food consumption groups were associated with perceived stress or depressive symptoms. In females, perceived stress was associated with more frequent consumption of sweets/fast foods and less frequent consumption of fruits/vegetables. Additionally, depressive symptoms were associated with less frequent consumption of fruits/vegetables and meat. Conclusion Our data show consistent associations between unhealthy food consumption and depressive symptoms and perceived stress among female students from three European countries, but not among male students. This suggests that efforts to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among female students may also lead to the consumption of healthier foods and/or vice-versa.

  19. The Relationship between Social Capital Dimensions and Perceived Health in Yazd Urban Society, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Bahrami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health is the most fundamental parameter of society welfare and more than medical interferences is related to social factors. The concept of social capital, because of its nature and content, nearly is related to all under consideration subjects and topics in health, social and human areas. Social capital and social topics have a close connection with health. So the purpose of this research is the assessment of the social capital dimensions and perceived health in Yazd urban society. Methods: This research is analytic and temporary. The researched society includes all citizens of Yazd city. The number of sample volume equals 380 persons who have been chosen with random clustered sampling method. Data gathering tool was questionnaire including two questionnaires of social capital and perceived health. Results: Between dimensions of social capital; feeling of confidence and safety, the quality of family relationships, value of life, tolerance in the field of cultural variety and the quality of work relationships with perceived health there is a direct and meaningful connection but between participation in local society activities, proactivity in social context and the quality of relationships between neighbors with perceived health there is no meaningful connection. Conclusion: There is a direct and meaningful connection between social capital and it’s dimensions with perceived health. So, with increase in social capital the amount of perceived health increases too.

  20. FEATURES OF STUDENT PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorina PASCA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Student psychological counseling is one of the means to acknowledge student identity by employing counseling tools that allow the psychologist to make use of a set of skills essential in achieving envisaged outcomes. To act as counseling psychologist for students is to guide actions by the five wh- questions: who (the client is, why (the counselor is approached, who (the counselor talks to, what (problem the student has to tackle, how (the problem can be solved. Some of the most important features that contribute to solving student problems are the counselor’s deontology, trustworthiness and attitude that are to be relied on without impeding the client’s personality traits. Thus, developing awareness of the features underlying student psychological counseling and acting accordingly is the real test for any professional in the field. Therefore, the real challenge is not being in the lion’s den, but living with it.

  1. Perceived incivility during emergency department phone consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Vaghasiya, Milan; Boddy, Rachel; Byth, Karen; Unwin, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Perceived incivility during ED medical phone consultations is poorly researched. We aimed to determine frequency and factors influencing perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. We conducted a prospective self-reported survey of 40 consecutive phone consultations for 21 ED volunteer doctors. Consultations were classified based on the aim of consultation and deemed as 'positive', 'neutral' or 'negative' based on the perceptions of the consulting doctor. Training levels, time bands and specialty data were collected for both consulting and consulted parties. Fifty-seven of 714 included consultations (7.98%, 95% CI 6.2-10.2%) were reported as negative by ED medical staff. Factors associated with significant incidence of negative grading of consultation involved requests for investigations (19.3% vs 5.3%, P  4 (9.1% vs 3.8%, P incivility during ED phone consultations. Perceived incivility occurs infrequently during ED phone consultations. ED female medical staff are at an increased risk of perceived incivility during phone consultations with non-ED medical professionals. Health organisations should actively pursue programmes to investigate the occurrence of incivility during healthcare consultations and implement programmes to mitigate the risk of developing a negative workplace culture. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis Eduardo; Ruiz, Carlos Enrique; Hamlin, Bob; Velez-Calle, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify what Colombians perceive as effective and least effective/ineffective managerial behavior. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted following a qualitative methodology based on the philosophical assumptions of pragmatism and the "pragmatic approach" (Morgan, 2007). The…

  3. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  4. The Aestetic and Perceived Attributes of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Johnson, Kara; Ashby, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a product – technical, aesthetic or perceived – is determined by its attributes. Technical attributes of a product, such as its weight, power, scale, efficiency, cost and the chosen material or manufacturing technologies can be measured or expressed in standard, accepted, ways....

  5. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  6. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Meijer, Albert J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  7. Reactions to perceived fairness : the impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory’s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  8. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Research in the last three decades has shown that negative neighborhood factors such as neighborhood violence, noise, traffic, litter, low neighborhood socioeconomic status, and poor air quality increase the risk of poor health. Fewer studies have examined the potential protective effect that neighborhood factors can have on health, particularly stroke. We examined whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower stroke incidence after adjusting for traditional risk and psychological factors that have been linked with stroke risk. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used. Analyses were conducted on a subset of 6740 adults who were stroke-free at baseline. Analyses adjusted for chronic illnesses and relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Over a four-year follow-up, higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of stroke. Each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (O.R.) of 0.85 for stroke incidence (95% CI, 0.75-0.97, p social cohesion remained significant after adjusting for a comprehensive set of risk factors. Therefore, perceived neighborhood social cohesion plays an important role in protecting against stroke.

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  10. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  11. Employees' eldercare demands, strain, and perceived support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Schulz, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - In many countries, both the number of older people in need of care and the number of employed caregivers of elderly relatives will increase over the next decades. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which perceived organizational, supervisor, and coworker support for elde

  12. Reactions to perceived fairness : the impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory’s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state self-es

  13. Perceived stimulus complexity and food preference development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, C.M.; MacRae, A.; Köster, E.P.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of perceived complexity, a 'collative property' as defined by [Berlyne, D. E. (1967). Arousal and reinforcement. In Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 1-110). University of Nebraska Press], to the dynamic development of preference was investigated. Eighty-six female and 82 male sub

  14. Racial Discrimination in Occupations; Perceived and Actual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    1981-01-01

    A study of perceived discrimination by race and by sex for each of 21 occupations was compared with actual percentages of Blacks in each field. The study suggested that: (1) perception of opportunity corresponded to actual structure of opportunity; and (2) both a change in the social structure and individual belief systems is needed to further…

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  16. Perceived creaminess of semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Prinz, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Results of sensory, physiological and physico-chemical studies from our laboratory on perceived creaminess of semi-solids foods are reviewed. Most results stem from studies using model vanilla custard desserts, allowing systematic variation of fat, flavor and thickener properties. The generalizabili

  17. [Resilience in Individuals with Gender Dysphoria: Association with Perceived Social Support and Discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress associated with discrimination is proposed to have an indirect effect on the development of mental disorders, through its negative influence on individual's cognitive, affective and social coping strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between resilience, perceived social support, and perceived discrimination in individuals with gender dysphoria. Individuals with gender dysphoria were assessed with Turkish validated forms of Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Perceived Discrimination Scale (PDS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Diagnoses of mental disorders, history of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self injury were assessed with clinical interviews. Self-report forms were used to obtain demographic information and gender transition related features. Participants' (n=116, 88 trans men) median age was 25. Significantly low RSA scores, indicating poor resilience, were obtained in participants with lifetime (59.5 %) and present (27.6 %) diagnosis of any mental disorder, history of suicide attempt (23.3 %). There was significant direct correlation between RSA and MSPSS scores, inverse correlation with BDI and personal PDS scores, but not with group PDS. Regression analysis revealed that only friends domain score in MSPSS predicted better resilience, whereas personal perceived discrimination score predicted poor resilience. Findings support the association between poor resilience and vulnerability to mental and behavioral problems in individuals with gender dysphoria. The associations reveal the significance of addressing discrimination and assisting individuals with gender dysphoria in developing strategies to obtain peer support in providing mental health services.

  18. The agreeableness asymmetry in first impressions: perceivers' impulse to (mis)judge agreeableness and how it is moderated by power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel R; Bianchi, Emily C

    2008-12-01

    Prior research shows that perceivers can judge some traits better than others in first impressions of targets. However, questions remain about which traits perceivers naturally do infer. Here, the authors develop an account of the "agreeableness asymmetry": Although perceivers show little ability to accurately gauge target agreeableness in first impressions, they find that agreeableness is generally the most commonly inferred disposition among the Big Five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability). Using open-ended impressions based on photographs, videos, and face-to-face encounters, three studies show agreeableness as the most prevalently judged of the Big Five, although it is also poorly judged in both absolute and relative terms. The authors use interpersonal power to reveal an underlying mechanism. Manipulating the power of perceivers relative to targets substantially shifts impression content, suggesting that habitual interaction and relational concerns may partially explain perceiver's chronic interest in assessing agreeableness despite their limited ability to do so.

  19. An investigation on effects of perceived value on brand popularity and brand loyalty: A B2B case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Karimi Rad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the effect of perceived value on brand popularity and brand loyalty for some organizations in business-to-business (B2B domain under the effect of risk and e-service quality. The practical relationships among six different kinds of risks including performance, social, financial, time, psychological and safety with consideration of quality in e-commerce business on customer’s perceived value are evaluated and the effects of this perception of value on consequences of perceived value are measured. In this study, using the partial least square method as well as gathering the information of some Iranian firms that use electronic services, the study finds that there was a significant relationship between various types of risks and perceived value. There is also considerable influence of perceived value on satisfaction, brand popularity, and brand loyalty.

  20. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  1. Depth of field affects perceived depth-width ratios in photographs of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefs, Harold T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out how much influence depth of field has on the perceived ratio of depth and width in photographs of natural scenes. Depth of field is roughly defined as the distance range that is perceived as sharp in the photograph. Four different semi-natural scenes consisting of a central and two flanking figurines were used. For each scene, five series of photos were made, in which the distance in depth between the central figurine and the flanking figurines increased. These series of photographs had different amounts of depth of field. In the first experiment participants adjusted the position of the two flanking figurines relative to a central figurine, until the perceived distance in the depth dimension equaled the perceived lateral distance between the two flanking figurines. Viewing condition was either monocular or binocular (non-stereo). In the second experiment, the participants did the same task but this time we varied the viewing distance. We found that the participants' depth/width settings increased with increasing depth of field. As depth of field increased, the perceived depth in the scene was reduced relative to the perceived width. Perceived depth was reduced relative to perceived width under binocular viewing conditions compared to monocular viewing conditions. There was a greater reduction when the viewing distance was increased. As photographs of natural scenes contain many highly redundant or conflicting depth cues, we conclude therefore that local image blur is an important cue to depth. Moreover, local image blur is not only taken into account in the perception of egocentric distances, but also affects the perception of depth within the scene relative to lateral distances within the scene.

  2. Feature selection in bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lipo

    2012-06-01

    In bioinformatics, there are often a large number of input features. For example, there are millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are genetic variations which determine the dierence between any two unrelated individuals. In microarrays, thousands of genes can be proled in each test. It is important to nd out which input features (e.g., SNPs or genes) are useful in classication of a certain group of people or diagnosis of a given disease. In this paper, we investigate some powerful feature selection techniques and apply them to problems in bioinformatics. We are able to identify a very small number of input features sucient for tasks at hand and we demonstrate this with some real-world data.

  3. Scents and sensibility: how biology perceives chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Firestein

    2014-07-01

    odor can be detected by several receptors and any given receptor can bind any of several presumably related odors. In our analogy, the keys fit very loosely to differing degrees into many locks. Chemists are particularly interested in those parts of a molecule that are likely to participate in various sorts of reactions and synthetic manipulations. These would include such things as the functional group (aldehyde, acid, ester, etc. or if there are double bonds or charge carrying atoms. However, what is relevant to the synthetic chemist may not be important to the biological system, and in particular to the odor receptor protein. Thus we should begin by taking a biological approach to odor chemistry. For example the definition of an odorant cannot be made chemically – many chemical compounds that appear nearly identical to a known odorant may have a different smell or none at all. The only definition of an odorant is that it binds to an odor receptor to give rise to a biological response. Precisely what parts of a chemical compound influence that binding is one of the most challenging questions in biology. The actual perception of an odorant depends on the particular combination of receptors that are activated. In a complex mixture of tens to hundreds of different odor molecules this can quickly become a very complicated matrix of activated receptors with an astronomical number of combinations. An open question is whether evolution has perhaps found a simplified way of performing this apparently incalculable task. One possible solution would be the existence of a few dozen common chemical structures that would serve as primary features from which all other odors are constructed. This would be similar to the way the visual system can perceive thousands of hues of light by combining only three (blue, green and red primary “colors” or wavelengths. Although the idea of primaries in olfaction has been discussed for several decades it was largely abandoned after the

  4. Deep Feature Transfer Learning in Combination with Traditional Features Predicts Survival Among Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rahul; Hawkins, Samuel H; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Schabath, Matthew B; Gillies, Robert J; Hall, Lawrence O; Goldgof, Dmitry B

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. It can be detected and diagnosed using computed tomography images. For an automated classifier, identifying predictive features from medical images is a key concern. Deep feature extraction using pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has recently been successfully applied in some image domains. Here, we applied a pretrained CNN to extract deep features from 40 computed tomography images, with contrast, of non-small cell adenocarcinoma lung cancer, and combined deep features with traditional image features and trained classifiers to predict short- and long-term survivors. We experimented with several pretrained CNNs and several feature selection strategies. The best previously reported accuracy when using traditional quantitative features was 77.5% (area under the curve [AUC], 0.712), which was achieved by a decision tree classifier. The best reported accuracy from transfer learning and deep features was 77.5% (AUC, 0.713) using a decision tree classifier. When extracted deep neural network features were combined with traditional quantitative features, we obtained an accuracy of 90% (AUC, 0.935) with the 5 best post-rectified linear unit features extracted from a vgg-f pretrained CNN and the 5 best traditional features. The best results were achieved with the symmetric uncertainty feature ranking algorithm followed by a random forests classifier.

  5. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  6. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  7. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Effect on Perceived Stimulation dan Perceived Crowding on the Decision of the Unplanned Purchase (Impulse Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purchase decisions aren’t made necessarily planned, because impulsive buying is such a result of environmental stimuli shopping. Things affecting unplanned purchasing decisions are perceived by stimulation and crowding. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are influences between perceived crowding and stimulation of impulse buying simultaneously or partial. The object used is one of the largest retailers in Cilegon. This research design is quantitative analysis of the consumer unit. The collecting data technique includes using questionnaires, interviews, and literature from previous research. Data processed using the SPSS 16.0 program through the validity and reliability, normality test, and regression analysis. The study states that there is significant influence between perceived crowding and perceived stimulation both simultaneous and partial response to impulse buying. 

  9. Perceiving action boundaries: Learning effects in perceiving maximum jumping-reach affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramenzoni, V.C; Davis, T.J; Riley, M.A; Shockley, K

    2010-01-01

    .... Those estimates were compared with estimates that perceivers made for themselves. In Experiment 1, participants initially underestimated the maximum jumping-reach height both for themselves and for the...

  10. Feature Technology in Product Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu; NING Ruxin

    2006-01-01

    A unified feature definition is proposed. Feature is form-concentrated, and can be used to model product functionalities, assembly relations, and part geometries. The feature model is given and a feature classification is introduced including functional, assembly, structural, and manufacturing features. A prototype modeling system is developed in Pro/ENGINEER that can define the assembly and user-defined form features.

  11. Perceived Blur in Naturally-Contoured Images Depends on Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Murray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceived blur is an important measure of image quality and clinical visual function. The magnitude of image blur varies across space and time under natural viewing conditions owing to changes in pupil size and accommodation. Blur is frequently studied in the laboratory with a variety of digital filters, without comparing how the choice of filter affects blur perception. We examine the perception of image blur in synthetic images composed of contours whose orientation and curvature spatial properties matched those of natural images but whose blur could be directly controlled. The images were blurred by manipulating the slope of the amplitude spectrum, Gaussian low-pass filtering or filtering with a Sinc function, which, unlike slope or Gaussian filtering, introduces periodic phase reversals similar to those in optically blurred images. For slope-filtered images, blur discrimination thresholds for over-sharpened images were extremely high and perceived blur could not be matched with either Gaussian or Sinc filtered images, suggesting that directly manipulating image slope does not simulate the perception of blur. For Gaussian and Sinc blurred images, blur discrimination thresholds were dipper-shaped and were well-fit with a simple variance discrimination model and with a contrast detection threshold model, but the latter required different contrast sensitivity functions for different types of blur. Blur matches between Gaussian and Sinc blurred images were used to test several models of blur perception and were in good agreement with models based on luminance slope, but not with spatial frequency based models. Collectively, these results show that the relative phases of image components, in addition to their relative amplitudes, determines perceived blur.

  12. The Edit Distance as a Measure of Perceived Rhythmic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Post

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ‘edit distance’ (or ‘Levenshtein distance’ measure of distance between two data sets is defined as the minimum number of editing operations – insertions, deletions, and substitutions – that are required to transform one data set to the other (Orpen and Huron, 1992. This measure of distance has been applied frequently and successfully in music information retrieval, but rarely in predicting human perception of distance. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of the edit distance as a predictor of perceived rhythmic dissimilarity under simple rhythmic alterations. Approaching rhythms as a set of pulses that are either onsets or silences, we study two types of alterations. The first experiment is designed to test the model’s accuracy for rhythms that are relatively similar; whether rhythmic variations with the same edit distance to a source rhythm are also perceived as relatively similar by human subjects. In addition, we observe whether the salience of an edit operation is affected by its metric placement in the rhythm. Instead of using a rhythm that regularly subdivides a 4/4 meter, our source rhythm is a syncopated 16-pulse rhythm, the son. Results show a high correlation between the predictions by the edit distance model and human similarity judgments (r = 0.87; a higher correlation than for the well-known generative theory of tonal music (r = 0.64. In the second experiment, we seek to assess the accuracy of the edit distance model in predicting relatively dissimilar rhythms. The stimuli used are random permutations of the son’s inter-onset intervals: 3-3-4-2-4. The results again indicate that the edit distance correlates well with the perceived rhythmic dissimilarity judgments of the subjects (r = 0.76. To gain insight in the relationships between the individual rhythms, the results are also presented by means of graphic phylogenetic trees.

  13. Effects of colored light, color of comparison stimulus, and illumination on error in perceived depth with binocular and monocular viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chen

    2007-06-01

    Two experiments assessed the effects of colored light, color of a comparison stimulus, and illumination on error in perceived depth with binocular and monocular vision. Exp. 1 assessed effects of colored light, color of comparison stimulus, and source of depth cues on error in perceived depth. A total of 29 women and 19 men, Taiwanese college or graduate students ages 20 to 30 years (M=24.0, SD= 2.5) participated; they were randomly divided into five groups, each being assigned to one of five possible colored light conditions. Analyses showed color of the comparison stimulus significantly affected the error in perceived depth, as this error was significantly greater for a red comparison stimulus than for blue and yellow comparison stimuli. Colored light significantly affected error in perceived depth since error under white and yellow light was significantly less than that under green light. Moreover, error in perceived depth under white light was significantly less than that under blue light but not sensitive to white, yellow, and red light. Error in perceived depth for binocular viewing was significantly less than that for monocular viewing but not sex. In Exp. 2, the effect of illumination on error in perceived depth was explored with 21 women and 15 men, Taiwanese college students with a mean age of 19.8 yr. (SD= 1.1). Analysis indicated that illumination significantly affected error in perceived depth, as error for a 40-W condition was significantly greater than under 20- and 60-W conditions, although the latter were not different.

  14. Analysis on Physical Features of Karst Small Watershed Soil under Different Land Uses%喀斯特小流域不同土地利用方式土壤物理性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏广实

    2012-01-01

    以广西都安澄江喀斯特小流域为研究单元,分析了流域不同土地利用方式下土壤主要物理性质的变化.结果表明:随着自然林地向灌丛地、灌草丛地、草地、人工林地、梯化旱地、旱地、坡耕地转变,土壤容量、pH呈增加趋势,而土壤含水量、土壤总孔隙度、电导率逐渐降低.土壤电导率对不同土地利用方式的响应程度最强烈,土壤容重、含水量和总孔隙度的响应程度居中,pH最小.在不同土地利用方式下,土壤总孔隙度、含水量、电导率及pH的变化均与土壤容重的变化有关.随着土壤容重的增加,总孔隙度和含水量均减少,电导率降低,而pH升高.综合分析土壤物理性质各项主要指标,发现自然林地土壤物理性质最优,灌丛地、灌草丛地、草地、人工林地、退耕地的土壤物理性质次之,梯化旱地、旱地、坡耕地最差.%With the karst small watershed of Chengjiung in Du'an Cnunty as the research unit, the changes in the physical properties of soil under different land use patterns were analyzed. As indicated by the results,soil bulk density and pH are increasing while the soil water content,the total porusily and electrical conductivity of soil are gradually reducing along with the natural woodland converting to shrub land, irrigation of bushes and grass, artificial forest, ladder dry lands, dry land, sloping cultivated land. Electrical conductivity responds the strongest under different land uses, while the level of response for soil bulk density, water content and total porosity are moderate, while that of pH is minimal. Under different land uses, the changes of soil porosity, water content, electrical conductivity and pH are related to the changes of soil bulk density, with the increase of soil bulk density, total porosity and water content all reduce, the conductivity reduces, too, but the pH increases. Comprehensive analysis of main indicators of soil physical properties

  15. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology.

  16. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers’ perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  17. Primary Visual Cortex Scales Individual's Perceived Brightness with Power Function: Inner Psychophysics with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Perceived brightness is well described by Stevens' power function (S. S. Stevens, 1957, On the psychophysical law, "Psychological Review", Vol. 64, pp. 153-181), with a power exponent of 0.33 (the cubic-root function of luminance). The power exponent actually varies across individuals, yet little is known about neural substrates underlying this…

  18. Primary Visual Cortex Scales Individual's Perceived Brightness with Power Function: Inner Psychophysics with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Perceived brightness is well described by Stevens' power function (S. S. Stevens, 1957, On the psychophysical law, "Psychological Review", Vol. 64, pp. 153-181), with a power exponent of 0.33 (the cubic-root function of luminance). The power exponent actually varies across individuals, yet little is known about neural substrates underlying this…

  19. Perceived Performance Anxiety in Advanced Musicians Specializing in Different Musical Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Welch, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Most research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to…

  20. Perceived Cultural Responsiveness and Effectiveness of a Speech and Language Program for Indigenous Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Craft, Calli B.; MacKay, Leslie D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an increasing need for culturally relevant curricula, what is considered culturally responsive and how it is assessed is under-researched. The present study examined the perceived cultural responsiveness and effectiveness of an early intervention program designed to teach early language skills and expose students to Indigenous culture, the…

  1. Graduate Students' Communication Practices and Perceived Sense of Community: An Examination of Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between graduate students' communication practices and their perceived sense of program-level community within a graduate program. The program under study consists of both traditional on-campus students, as well as students who take classes via a distributed-learning model. This particular program has made a…

  2. Sex Differences in Interaction Style as a Product of Perceived Sex Differences in Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Karten, Stephen J.

    Males' and females' interaction styles were observed while they worked in four-person, mixed-sex groups on a discussion task. In some groups, members were only given information about each others' names and gender. Under these conditions, males were perceived higher in competence than females. Further, males were found to engage in a greater…

  3. On slope leakage features of high-fill embankment under rainfall effect and its stability analysis%降雨作用下高路堤边坡渗流特征及其稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻进辉

    2014-01-01

    采用Geostudio岩土工程有限元计算软件中Seep模块对某高速公路二级高路堤填方边坡在降雨条件下的路堤内部渗流状态变化趋势进行了分析,得到其变化规律;采用简化Bishop法对边坡安全系数进行了计算,得到不同降雨时间内边坡安全系数的下降趋势;同时对比分析了不同降雨时间内边坡潜在滑动面的位置,得到不同降雨条件下高路堑边坡在发生滑坡时最容易受损的位置。%The paper adopts the Seep model of Geostudio geotechnical engineering finite element calculating software to analyzes the tendency for the changes of the inner leakage status of the secondary high-fill embankment slope on some expressway,concludes its law of changes,adopts the simplified Bishop method to calculate its slope safe coefficient,concludes its downtrend of the slope safe coefficient in different rainfall time, compares and analyzes the potential location of the sliding surface in various raining time,and concludes the vulnerable location of the high-fill embankment under raining conditions.

  4. Face in profile view reduces perceived facial expression intensity: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Shaw, Heather

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies measuring the facial expressions of emotion have focused primarily on the perception of frontal face images. As we frequently encounter expressive faces from different viewing angles, having a mechanism which allows invariant expression perception would be advantageous to our social interactions. Although a couple of studies have indicated comparable expression categorization accuracy across viewpoints, it is unknown how perceived expression intensity and associated gaze behaviour change across viewing angles. Differences could arise because diagnostic cues from local facial features for decoding expressions could vary with viewpoints. Here we manipulated orientation of faces (frontal, mid-profile, and profile view) displaying six common facial expressions of emotion, and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. In comparison with frontal faces, profile faces slightly reduced identification rates for disgust and sad expressions, but significantly decreased perceived intensity for all tested expressions. Although quantitatively viewpoint had expression-specific influence on the proportion of fixations directed at local facial features, the qualitative gaze distribution within facial features (e.g., the eyes tended to attract the highest proportion of fixations, followed by the nose and then the mouth region) was independent of viewpoint and expression type. Our results suggest that the viewpoint-invariant facial expression processing is categorical perception, which could be linked to a viewpoint-invariant holistic gaze strategy for extracting expressive facial cues.

  5. L'identità percepita: applicare la Grounded Theory in biblioteca Perceived Identity: applying Grounded Theory in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Faggiolani

    2011-06-01

    procedures capable of systematically generating a theory based on data. It is one of the interpretative methods aimed at describing the meanings attributed to phenomena under examination and is particularly suitable for exploring underlying social and psychological processes. Data are examined through different phases – open, selective, axial coding – and then elaborated. In libraries, the use of the GT is a fundamental tool in order to understand the difference between what users perceive and librarians really do. This article takes a look at the history and the main features of the Grounded Theory through its application to four Italian public libraries. The results show that users perceive the library more as "place" and "space" than "service".

  6. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...... the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education....

  7. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  8. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Busk Kofoed, Lise

    2013-10-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education.

  9. A cognitive approach to classifying perceived behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Dale Paul; Lyons, Damian

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes our work on integrating distributed, concurrent control in a cognitive architecture, and using it to classify perceived behaviors. We are implementing the Robot Schemas (RS) language in Soar. RS is a CSP-type programming language for robotics that controls a hierarchy of concurrently executing schemas. The behavior of every RS schema is defined using port automata. This provides precision to the semantics and also a constructive means of reasoning about the behavior and meaning of schemas. Our implementation uses Soar operators to build, instantiate and connect port automata as needed. Our approach is to use comprehension through generation (similar to NLSoar) to search for ways to construct port automata that model perceived behaviors. The generality of RS permits us to model dynamic, concurrent behaviors. A virtual world (Ogre) is used to test the accuracy of these automata. Soar's chunking mechanism is used to generalize and save these automata. In this way, the robot learns to recognize new behaviors.

  10. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    of a microphone (monaural) and a dummy head (binaural) placed at the listening position. The results show that while loudness metrics fared well in predicting perceived loudness for any single-sound condition, they failed to predict loudness for two simultaneous sounds. This suggests that current loudness......In noise-control engineering, one is often faced with the task of identifying the most problematic of several simultaneous sound sources. Traditionally, this has been done by deriving sound pressure (or intensity) maps by means of a microphone array. This approach does not, however, take...... psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...

  11. Bayesian Analysis of Perceived Eye Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendorff, Elaine E.; Kalesinskas, Laurynas; Palumbo, Robert T.; Albert, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    To accurately perceive the world, people must efficiently combine internal beliefs and external sensory cues. We introduce a Bayesian framework that explains the role of internal balance cues and visual stimuli on perceived eye level (PEL)—a self-reported measure of elevation angle. This framework provides a single, coherent model explaining a set of experimentally observed PEL over a range of experimental conditions. Further, it provides a parsimonious explanation for the additive effect of low fidelity cues as well as the averaging effect of high fidelity cues, as also found in other Bayesian cue combination psychophysical studies. Our model accurately estimates the PEL and explains the form of previous equations used in describing PEL behavior. Most importantly, the proposed Bayesian framework for PEL is more powerful than previous behavioral modeling; it permits behavioral estimation in a wider range of cue combination and perceptual studies than models previously reported. PMID:28018204

  12. Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Adolescent School Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between adolescents’ perceptions of their neighborhoods’ safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling that were more psychosocial in nature (e.g., school attachment) than those that were more cognitive (e.g., test scores). Examination of neighborhoo...

  13. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation—for the first time—in a group of university students in Italy. Methods We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the P...

  14. Consumer Perceived Ethicality: An Impression Formation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brunk, Katja H.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the process of how consumers form ethical perceptions of companies or brands by means of twenty in-depth interviews with general consumers. The study offers illustrative examples of evidence that the formation of consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) appears more in line with the configural model of impression formation, suggesting that perception formation is holistic and gestalt-like, rather than following the algebraic model, which takes a piecemeal information int...

  15. Cultural Factors Contributing to the Perceived Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Romero and Roberts’ model (1998) and Phinney’s causal model (1997) were used as frameworks to test the relationship between ethnic identity, in-group attitudes, out-group attitudes, and the perception of discrimination. Among Asian American, Korean American, and Korean students. These models tested direct effects of ethic identity on perceived discrimination and indirect effects mediated by in-group attitudes and out-group attitudes. School-based surveys in California and Korea...

  16. Perceived Power Resources in Situations of Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Theesfeld

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various concepts of power. Its goal is to shed light on a better method for implementing the power concept. The case of Bulgaria’s water user associations’ failure shows the abuse of power by local actors who fear they will lose their influence and the private benefits that they have enjoyed under the former system. The paper provides an empirical study of power resources verified by actors’ perceptions rather than having resource endowments quantified. It also illustrates the contrast between empirically revealed perceived power resources in a local context and their theoretical examination in the distributional theory of institutional change. Studies that set power resources in relation to one another are scarce. Therefore, in this study an innovative, interactive method is used that leads to a ranking of perceived power resources, which is robust against the impact of belonging to different territorial, social, and agricultural producer groups: 1 unrestricted access to information, 2 personal relationships, 3 trustworthiness, 4 cash resources for bribing, 5 menace, and 6 physical power and violence. The implication of this gradation of power resources on collective action solutions addresses complementary measures to disseminate information and compensation measures for those who fear losing their benefits and may therefore oppose the new institutions.

  17. Cyanobacteria perceive nitrogen status by sensing intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro-Pastor, M I; Reyes, J C; Florencio, F J

    2001-10-12

    The regulatory circuits that control nitrogen metabolism are relatively well known in several bacterial model groups. However, much less is understood about how the nitrogen status of the cell is perceived in vivo. In cyanobacteria, the transcription factor NtcA is required for regulation (activation or repression) of an extensive number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. In contrast, how NtcA activity is regulated is largely unknown. Assimilation of ammonium by most microorganisms occurs through the sequential action of two enzymes: glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase. Interestingly, regulation of the expression of NtcA-dependent genes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is altered in mutants with modified levels of GS activity. Two types of mutants were analyzed: glnA null mutants that lack GS type I and gif mutants unable to inactivate GS in the presence of ammonium. Changes in the intracellular pools of 19 different amino acids and the keto acid 2-oxoglutarate were recorded in wild-type and mutant strains under different nitrogen conditions. Our data strongly indicate that the nitrogen status in cyanobacteria is perceived as changes in the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate pool.

  18. Music enhances performance and perceived enjoyment of sprint interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-05-01

    Interval exercise training can elicit physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training, but with reduced time. However, the intense nature of specific protocols, particularly the "all-out" efforts characteristic of sprint interval training (SIT), may be perceived as being aversive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversiveness of an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation, and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance. Twenty moderately active adults (22 ± 4 yr) unfamiliar with interval exercise completed an acute session of SIT under two different conditions: music and no music. The exercise consisted of four 30-s "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test bouts on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4 min of rest. Peak and mean power output, RPE, affect, task motivation, and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in dependent measures over time and between the two conditions. Peak and mean power over the course of the exercise session were higher in the music condition (coefficient = 49.72 [SE = 13.55] and coefficient = 23.65 [SE = 11.30]; P music condition (coefficient = 7.00 [SE = 3.05]; P Music enhances in-task performance and enjoyment of an acute bout of SIT. Listening to music during intense interval exercise may be an effective strategy for facilitating participation in, and adherence to, this form of training.

  19. Perceived discrimination and acculturation among Iranian refugees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindert, A. te; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Kroon, S.; Arends-Tóth, J.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between perceived discrimination, perceived acceptance of immigrants, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological and sociocultural adjustment) were investigated in a sample of 232 Iranian refugees in the Netherlands. A good fit was found for a path model with

  20. Personal Innovativeness, Perceived Organizational Innovativeness, and Computer Anxiety: Updated Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses personal innovativeness, perceived organizational innovativeness, and computer anxiety in relation to distance education. Investigates the reliability of measures used in relevant research studies, including the Innovativeness Scale, Perceived Organizational Innovativeness Scale, and Computer Anxiety Index. (Contains 12 references.) (LRW)

  1. Health behaviour, decision making and perceived parenting: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and perceived parenting: are male and female learners significantly different? ... The study aimed to establish the perceived parenting styles, decision making ... decision making, gender, healthy lifestyle behaviours, learners, parenting ...

  2. How do you select the right security features for your company's products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Gordon E.

    1998-04-01

    this paper will attempt to assist you and your associates define (1) what products are or may be under threat and how many different ways the product(s) might be compromised, (2) who might attempt to compromise your company's product(s), (3) what product security features may be effective in deterring the perceived threats, (4) how many deterrent features are needed, and should the features be overt, covert, or a combination of the two, (5) how will the candidate features hold up in the 'usage' environment, and (6) who will 'validate' the features and what skill levels, or auxiliary equipment, will be needed? Obviously, the cost effectiveness for adding possible security features to the product(s) needs to be considered, but more than just the cost of the feature, or the value of the product, needs to be factored into these considerations. For example, the effect of any compromise on the company's reputation and legal liabilities. This paper obviously can not provide all of the 'answers' but will attempt to provide you with 'food for thought.'

  3. Soil Aggregate Features under Tamarindus indica Forest with Different Plant Compositions in Dry-hot Valley%干热河谷不同酸豆林土壤团聚体特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辉; 周红敏; 徐肇友; 瞿虹; 纪中华

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the soil aggregates underTamarindus indica forest with bared land(L+G)CK), with fireweed(L+Z), with Paspalum notatum (L+B), withPhyllanthus emblica (L+Y), and withCajanus cajan (L+M) in dry-hot valley of Yunnan. R0.25(percentage of soil aggregates with diameter larger than 0.25mm), mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD) and fractal dimension (D) were determined at 3 soil layers (0 - 10 cm, >10 - 20 cm, >20 – 40 cm). The results showed that L+B promoted the conservation of soil macro-aggregates, L+Z and L+G could improve the soil aggregate structure, L+Y and L+M forestlands reduced the proportion of macro-aggregates in the soil but increased micro-aggregates content. The experiment demonstrated that in dry-hot valley, conservation tillage was conducive to the sustainable management ofT. indica.%采用干筛法对金沙江干热河谷区酸豆林+光板地(裸地)、酸豆林+杂草、酸豆林+百喜草、酸豆林+余甘子、酸豆林+木豆5种酸豆林地在0~10 cm、>10~20 cm、>20~40 cm的3个土层中的R0.25、MWD、GMD和分形维数D变化进行研究,结果表明:5种酸豆林模式中,酸豆林+百喜草模式有利于土壤大团聚体的保存,酸豆林+杂草模式和酸豆林+光板地模式提升土壤团聚结构,但是效果并不显著,而酸豆林+余甘子模式和酸豆林+木豆模式则降低了土壤中大团聚体的比例,使土壤中的微团聚体含量增加;在干热河谷实施保护性耕作有利于酸豆林的可持续经营。

  4. Understanding beyond language: perceiving meaning in reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Scott

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to develop a counter-argument to the contention that meaning is bound by language. Locating itself within the realist ontology of language developed by Saint Anselm of Canterbury, it will be argued that language comprises representations of entities perceived both extra to the perceiver and through introspection. Thus, a language game cannot be a closed system in the sense that by its very existence representations of extralinguistic being are contained therein. If truth is defined as that which is the case, the task of the perceiver becomes apprehension of being beheld without the cloud imposed by symbols: representations are not what they represent, instead they serve as windows onto a view of what is. Following exploration of psychological studies on contemplation, it is argued that it is in desymbolised moments of attentive awareness of being that meaning, unfiltered by the representativeness of language (and indeed, other symbolic systems, can arise. It will be proposed that in contemplative traditions, being is not reduced in perception, and the moment of meaning comes to the fore in the engagement and encounter with being.

  5. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  6. Obesity as a perceived social signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasee Mankar

    Full Text Available Fat accumulation has been classically considered as a means of energy storage. Obese people are theorized as metabolically 'thrifty', saving energy during times of food abundance. However, recent research has highlighted many neuro-behavioral and social aspects of obesity, with a suggestion that obesity, abdominal obesity in particular, may have evolved as a social signal. We tested here whether body proportions, and abdominal obesity in particular, are perceived as signals revealing personality traits. Faceless drawings of three male body forms namely lean, muscular and feminine, each with and without abdominal obesity were shown in a randomized order to a group of 222 respondents. A list of 30 different adjectives or short descriptions of personality traits was given to each respondent and they were asked to allocate the most appropriate figure to each of them independently. The traits included those directly related to physique, those related to nature, attitude and moral character and also those related to social status. For 29 out of the 30 adjectives people consistently attributed specific body forms. Based on common choices, the 30 traits could be clustered into distinct 'personalities' which were strongly associated with particular body forms. A centrally obese figure was perceived as "lethargic, greedy, political, money-minded, selfish and rich". The results show that body proportions are perceived to reflect personality traits and this raises the possibility that in addition to energy storage, social selection may have played some role in shaping the biology of obesity.

  7. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  8. Perceived crosstalk assessment on patterned retarder 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bochao; Liu, Yue; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-03-01

    CONTEXT: Nowadays, almost all stereoscopic displays suffer from crosstalk, which is one of the most dominant degradation factors of image quality and visual comfort for 3D display devices. To deal with such problems, it is worthy to quantify the amount of perceived crosstalk OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk measurements are usually based on some certain test patterns, but scene content effects are ignored. To evaluate the perceived crosstalk level for various scenes, subjective test may bring a more correct evaluation. However, it is a time consuming approach and is unsuitable for real­ time applications. Therefore, an objective metric that can reliably predict the perceived crosstalk is needed. A correct objective assessment of crosstalk for different scene contents would be beneficial to the development of crosstalk minimization and cancellation algorithms which could be used to bring a good quality of experience to viewers. METHOD: A patterned retarder 3D display is used to present 3D images in our experiment. By considering the mechanism of this kind of devices, an appropriate simulation of crosstalk is realized by image processing techniques to assign different values of crosstalk to each other between image pairs. It can be seen from the literature that the structures of scenes have a significant impact on the perceived crosstalk, so we first extract the differences of the structural information between original and distorted image pairs through Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) algorithm, which could directly evaluate the structural changes between two complex-structured signals. Then the structural changes of left view and right view are computed respectively and combined to an overall distortion map. Under 3D viewing condition, because of the added value of depth, the crosstalk of pop-out objects may be more perceptible. To model this effect, the depth map of a stereo pair is generated and the depth information is filtered by the distortion map. Moreover, human attention

  9. Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbült, Petra; de Vries, Nanne K; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as less natural. The extent to which GM affects the perceived naturalness of a product partly depends on the kind of product.

  10. The relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Liou, Shwu-Ru; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-09-01

    To understand the relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived personal creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome (receiving the Nursing Innovation Award). Since the idea of applying creativity and innovation to clinical nursing practice and management was first advocated in the Nursing Administration Quarterly in 1982, the topic of nursing innovation has gained worldwide attention. To increase the prevalence of nursing innovation, it is important to identify and understand the related factors that influence nurses' innovative outcome. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 32 award winners and 506 nonawarded clinical nurses in Taiwan. The level of creativity perceived by all participants was moderate-to-high. Individual characteristics (r = 0·61) and worksite support (r = 0·27) were both correlated with perceived creativity. Individual characteristics and worksite support showed some correlation as well (r = 0·21). Individual characteristics and worksite support could predict perceived creativity after controlling for demographic variables, but only individual characteristics had an effect on innovative outcome. Perceived creativity did not have mediation effects either between individual characteristics and innovative outcome or between worksite support and innovative outcome. Clinical nurses' individual characteristics had a direct relationship to innovative outcome, whereas neither worksite support nor creativity was correlated with innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not show effects on innovative outcome, it was related to both perceived creativity and individual characteristics. As suggested by other scholars, there might be other related factors between creativity and innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not have effect on clinical nurses' innovative outcome, it was related to individual characteristics

  11. Searchable solar feature catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Aboudarham, J.; Zharkov, S.; Ipson, S. S.; Benkhalil, A. K.; Fuller, N.

    The searchable Solar Feature Catalogues (SFCs) are developed from digitized solar images using automated pattern recognition techniques. The techniques were applied for the detection of sunspots, active regions, filaments and line-of-sight magnetic neutral lines in automatically standardized full disk solar images in Ca II K1, Ca II K3 and Ha lines taken at the Paris-Meudon Observatory and white light images and magnetograms from SOHO/MDI. The results of the automated recognition were verified with manual synoptic maps and available statistical data that revealed good detection accuracy. Based on the recognized parameters, a structured database of Solar Feature Catalogues was built on a MySQL server for every feature and published with various pre-designed search pages on the Bradford University web site http://www.cyber.brad.ac.uk/egso/SFC/. The SFCs with nine year coverage (1996-2004) is to be used for deeper investigation of the feature classification and solar activity forecast.

  12. Weighted Feature Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Yazdani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of machine learning methods for clustering depends on the optimal selection of similarity functions. Conventional distance functions for the vector space might cause an algorithm to being affected by some dominant features that may skew its final results. This paper introduces a flexib...

  13. Can you perceive ensembles without perceiving individuals?: The role of statistical perception in determining whether awareness overflows access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emily J; Bear, Adam; Scholl, Brian J

    2016-07-01

    Do we see more than we can report? Psychologists and philosophers have been hotly debating this question, in part because both possibilities are supported by suggestive evidence. On one hand, phenomena such as inattentional blindness and change blindness suggest that visual awareness is especially sparse. On the other hand, experiments relating to iconic memory suggest that our in-the-moment awareness of the world is much richer than can be reported. Recent research has attempted to resolve this debate by showing that observers can accurately report the color diversity of a quickly flashed group of letters, even for letters that are unattended. If this ability requires awareness of the individual letters' colors, then this may count as a clear case of conscious awareness overflowing cognitive access. Here we explored this requirement directly: can we perceive ensemble properties of scenes even without being aware of the relevant individual features? Across several experiments that combined aspects of iconic memory with measures of change blindness, we show that observers can accurately report the color diversity of unattended stimuli, even while their self-reported awareness of the individual elements is coarse or nonexistent-and even while they are completely blind to situations in which each individual element changes color mid-trial throughout the entire experiment. We conclude that awareness of statistical properties may occur in the absence of awareness of individual features, and that such results are fully consistent with sparse visual awareness.

  14. Perceived Mistreatment of Graduating Dental Students: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 38 graduating dental students assessed the types and sources of perceived mistreatment. Students perceived an average of 35 separate incidents. Psychological mistreatment was most common; physical mistreatment was relatively infrequent. Classmates and clinical faculty were the most common sources. Sexual harassment was perceived by…

  15. Dimensions of Consumer's Perceived Risk in Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Naiyi

    2004-01-01

    Perceived risk is an important concept in consumer behavior in online shopping. It impedes the adopting online shopping. A structure model with seven factors of consumer's perceived risk in online shopping is developed in this paper. The results have the descriptive power about Chinese consumers' perceived risk in Internet shopping and provide framework for managerial use in China's e-commerce market environment.

  16. An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

  17. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  18. An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

  19. Feature saltation and the evolution of mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Balogh, Alexandra C V; Tullberg, Birgitta S; Leimar, Olof

    2012-03-01

    In Batesian mimicry, a harmless prey species imitates the warning coloration of an unpalatable model species. A traditional suggestion is that mimicry evolves in a two-step process, in which a large mutation first achieves approximate similarity to the model, after which smaller changes improve the likeness. However, it is not known which aspects of predator psychology cause the initial mutant to be perceived by predators as being similar to the model, leaving open the question of how the crucial first step of mimicry evolution occurs. Using theoretical evolutionary simulations and reconstruction of examples of mimicry evolution, we show that the evolution of Batesian mimicry can be initiated by a mutation that causes prey to acquire a trait that is used by predators as a feature to categorize potential prey as unsuitable. The theory that species gain entry to mimicry through feature saltation allows us to formulate scenarios of the sequence of events during mimicry evolution and to reconstruct an initial mimetic appearance for important examples of Batesian mimicry. Because feature-based categorization by predators entails a qualitative distinction between nonmimics and passable mimics, the theory can explain the occurrence of imperfect mimicry.

  20. Automatic measurement and representation of prosodic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Goangshiuan Shawn

    Effective measurement and representation of prosodic features of the acoustic signal for use in automatic speech recognition and understanding systems is the goal of this work. Prosodic features-stress, duration, and intonation-are variations of the acoustic signal whose domains are beyond the boundaries of each individual phonetic segment. Listeners perceive prosodic features through a complex combination of acoustic correlates such as intensity, duration, and fundamental frequency (F0). We have developed new tools to measure F0 and intensity features. We apply a probabilistic global error correction routine to an Average Magnitude Difference Function (AMDF) pitch detector. A new short-term frequency-domain Teager energy algorithm is used to measure the energy of a speech signal. We have conducted a series of experiments performing lexical stress detection on words in continuous English speech from two speech corpora. We have experimented with two different approaches, a segment-based approach and a rhythm unit-based approach, in lexical stress detection. The first approach uses pattern recognition with energy- and duration-based measurements as features to build Bayesian classifiers to detect the stress level of a vowel segment. In the second approach we define rhythm unit and use only the F0-based measurement and a scoring system to determine the stressed segment in the rhythm unit. A duration-based segmentation routine was developed to break polysyllabic words into rhythm units. The long-term goal of this work is to develop a system that can effectively detect the stress pattern for each word in continuous speech utterances. Stress information will be integrated as a constraint for pruning the word hypotheses in a word recognition system based on hidden Markov models.

  1. Feature Centrality and Property Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Sloman, Steven; Stevenson, Rosemary; Over, David

    2004-01-01

    A feature is central to a concept to the extent that other features depend on it. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people will project a feature from a base concept to a target concept to the extent that they believe the feature is central to the two concepts. This centrality hypothesis implies that feature projection is guided by a…

  2. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed. PMID:27280077

  3. Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: a mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Lourdes; Extremera, Natalio; Pena, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This study examined direct associations between emotional competence, perceived stress and burnout in 489 Spanish teachers. In addition, a model in which perceived stress mediated pathways linking emotional competence to teacher burnout symptoms was also examined. Results showed that emotional competence and stress were significantly correlated with teacher burnout symptoms in the expected direction. Moreover, mediational analysis indicated that perceived stress partly mediated the relationship between emotional competence and the three dimensions of burnout even when controlling for salient background characteristics. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional competence may increase the capacity to cope with symptoms of burnout, by reducing the experience of stress. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with teachers to prevent burnout are discussed.

  4. Associations between perceived chronic care quality, perceived patient centeredness, and illness representations among persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph; Iyer, Neeraj N; Collins, William B

    2014-01-01

    Patient beliefs about their illness can motivate behaviors consistent with good disease management. Perceived high-quality chronic care would be expected to increase likelihood of having such beliefs. Associations between perceived quality of chronic care and illness representations, and associations between patient centeredness and illness representations were assessed among persons with diabetes. A mail survey of diabetic patients visiting a multispecialty physician network serving urban and suburban populations in a large midwestern city was conducted. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care-5A questionnaire was used to assess perceived chronic care quality and patient centeredness. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to assess illness representations. Of 500 mailed surveys, 89 completed surveys were returned. The sample consisted mostly of retirees (61%), Whites (81%), and women (60%). Higher perceived chronic care quality was associated with better disease understanding of diabetes (0.24, p = .05). Patients reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) indicated better disease understanding (-0.26, p = .04) and those reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) perceived less impact of illness (0.29, p = .02). Chronic care quality as defined in the Chronic Care Model and consistency of chronic care with patient expectations (patient centeredness) was associated with illness representations favorable for good self-care management.

  5. Aesthetics by numbers:Links between perceived texture qualities and computed visual texture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed – and presumably for this reason– the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and apparent relevance, only recently the relationships between texture features and high-level judgments have captured the interest of mainstream science, despite long-standing indications for such relationships. In this study, we explore such relationships, as these might be used to predict perceived texture qualities. This is relevant, not only from a psychological/neuroscience perspective, but also for more applied fields such as design, architecture, and the visual arts. In two separate experiments, observers judged various qualities of visual textures such as beauty, roughness, naturalness, elegance, and complexity. Based on factor analysis, we find that in both experiments, ~75% of the variability in the judgments could be explained by a two-dimensional space, with axes that are closely aligned to the beauty and roughness judgments. That a two-dimensional judgment space suffices to capture most of the variability in the perceived texture qualities suggests that observers use a relatively limited set of internal scales on which to base various judgments, including aesthetic ones.Finally, for both of these judgments, we determined the relationship with a large number of texture features computed for each of the texture stimuli. We find that the presence of lower spatial frequencies, oblique orientations, higher intensity variation, higher saturation, and redness correlates with higher beauty ratings. Features that captured image intensity and uniformity correlated with roughness ratings. Therefore, a number of computational texture features are predictive of these judgments. This suggests that perceived texture qualities – including the aesthetic

  6. Boosted cascade of scattered rectangle features for object detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG WeiZe; TONG RuoFeng; DONG JinXiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a variant of Hear-like feature used In Viola and Jones detection framework, called scattered rectangle feature, based on the common-component analysis of local region feature. Three common components, feature filter, feature structure and feature form, are extracted without concern-Ing the details of the studied region features, which cast a new light on region feature design for spe-cific applications and requirements: modifying some component(s) of a feature for an Improved one or combining different components of existing features for a new favorable one. Scattered rectangle feature follows the former way, extending the feature structure component of Hear-like feature out of the restriction of the geometry adjacency rule, which results in a richer representation that explores much more orientations other than horizontal, vertical and diagonal, as well as misaligned, detached and non-rectangle shape information that is unreachable to Hear-like feature. The training result of the two face detectors in the experiments illustrates the benefits of scattered rectangle feature empirically; the comparison of the ROC curves under a rigid and objective detection criterion on MIT+CMU upright face test set shows that the cascade based on scattered rectangle features outperforms that based on Hear-like features.

  7. Luxury fashion brand consumers in China: Perceived value, fashion lifestyle, and willingness to pay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Guoxin; Li, Guofeng; Kambele, Zephaniah

    2012-01-01

    .... Practicality fashion lifestyle, perceived social/emotional value, perceived utilitarian value, and perceived economic value were found to have a significant influence on the willingness of Chinese...

  8. The construct validity of the Perceived Stress Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Germund; Ørnbøl, Eva; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    særligt de positivt formulerede spørgsmål, der giver udfordringer, og kønsforskelle kan ikke alene forklare de to dimensioner i skalaen. Der er i dag ingen psykometrisk test til måling af stress hos patienter i almen praksis, og et muligt instrument kunne være PSS-10 skalaen, hvis de identificerede......Denne artikel er en konstruktionsvalidering af Sheldon Cohens stress-skala, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), som anvendes i fx de nationale ”Hvordan har du det?”-undersøgelser til at måle graden af stress i den danske befolkning. I alt 32,374 borgere fra Region Midtjylland udfyldte PSS-10 som en...

  9. Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, selfesteem and life satisfaction in a sample of 316 Spanish adolescents (179 females and 137 males, ranging in age from 14 to 18. Demographic information was collected, along with data through the use of three self-report measures: the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As expected, perceived emotional dimensions, particularly mood clarity and repair, showed positive associations with life satisfaction. Self-esteem also correlated significantly and positively with levels of adolescents´ satisfaction with life. More interestingly, results of structural equation modelling indicated that mood clarity and emotional repair had a significant direct and indirect link (via selfesteem with life satisfaction in adolescents. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the underlying process between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Our findings encourage moving beyond the examination of direct association between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction and focusing on the role of potential mechanisms such as self-esteem involved in the link between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescents. Implications of the present findings for future research are discussed, as well as potential interventions for increasing subjective well-being in adolescents.

  10. Increase in perceived case suspiciousness due to local contrast optimisation in digital screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Roelant; Schuur, Klaas H. [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, P.O. Box 6873, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Veldkamp, Wouter J.H.; Bun, Petra A.M. [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, P.O. Box 6873, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J.M. [Centre/Mid-West, Utrecht (Netherlands); Imhof-Tas, Mechli W.; Snoeren, Miranda M.; Karssemeijer, Nico [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Heeten, Gerard J. den [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, P.O. Box 6873, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Academical Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Broeders, Mireille J.M. [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, P.O. Box 6873, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and HTA, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    To determine the influence of local contrast optimisation on diagnostic accuracy and perceived suspiciousness of digital screening mammograms. Data were collected from a screening region in the Netherlands and consisted of 263 digital screening cases (153 recalled,110 normal). Each case was available twice, once processed with a tissue equalisation (TE) algorithm and once with local contrast optimisation (PV). All cases had digitised previous mammograms. For both algorithms, the probability of malignancy of each finding was scored independently by six screening radiologists. Perceived case suspiciousness was defined as the highest probability of malignancy of all findings of a radiologist within a case. Differences in diagnostic accuracy of the processing algorithms were analysed by comparing the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A{sub z}). Differences in perceived case suspiciousness were analysed using sign tests. There was no significant difference in A{sub z} (TE: 0.909, PV 0.917, P = 0.46). For all radiologists, perceived case suspiciousness using PV was higher than using TE more often than vice versa (ratio: 1.14-2.12). This was significant (P <0.0083) for four radiologists. Optimisation of local contrast by image processing may increase perceived case suspiciousness, while diagnostic accuracy may remain similar. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of perceived hyperoxia in isolated primary cardiac fibroblasts and in the reoxygenated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sashwati; Khanna, Savita; Wallace, William A; Lappalainen, Jani; Rink, Cameron; Cardounel, Arturo J; Zweier, Jay L; Sen, Chandan K

    2003-11-21

    Under normoxic conditions, pO2 ranges from 90 to Bierl, M., Pendyala, S., Levy, D., Sharma, N., Venojarvi, M., Strauch, A., Orosz, C. G., and Sen, C. K. (2003) Circ. Res. 92, 264-271). Here, we sought to characterize the genomic response to perceived hyperoxia in CF using GeneChips trade mark. Candidate genes were identified, confirmed and clustered. Cell cycle- and differentiation-associated genes represented a key target of perceived hyperoxia. Bioinformatics-assisted pathway reconstruction revealed the specific signaling processes that were sensitive to perceived hyperoxia. To test the significance of our in vitro findings, a survival model of rat heart focal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) was investigated. A significant induction in p21 mRNA expression was observed in I-R tissue. The current results provide a comprehensive molecular definition of perceived hyperoxia in cultured CF. Furthermore, the first evidence demonstrating activation of perceived hyperoxia sensitive genes in the cardiac I-R tissue is presented.

  12. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

  13. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M

    2013-07-01

    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  14. Major depression with psychotic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  15. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  16. Features of Women's language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何延凌

    2008-01-01

    Language is a means of verbal communication.People use language to communicate with each other.In the society,no two speakers are exactly alike in the way of speaking.Some differences are due to age,gender,statue and personality. Above all,gender is one of the obvious reasons.The writer of this paper tries to describe the features of women's language from these perspectives: pronunciation,intonation,diction,subjects,grammar and discourse.From the discussion of the features of women's language,more attention should be paid to language use in social context.What's more,the linguistic phenomena in a speaking community can be understood more thoroughly.

  17. Imaging features of thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Dincol, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of {beta}-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  18. Features or tasks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks...... that the user has to perform rather than just focusing on technical features (and adapting system use to them)....

  19. Functions & Features of Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周来纳

    2015-01-01

    Idioms, or conventionalized multiword expressions, often but not always non-literal, are hardly marginal in English, though they have been relatively neglected in lexical studies of the language. This neglect is especially evident in respect of the functions of idioms. The aim of this article, accordingly, is to account for the functions of idioms by analyzing what they do with the features of idioms.

  20. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  1. Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans; Keller, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

  2. Effects of jet engine noise and performance feedback on perceived workload in a monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A B; Warm, J S; Dember, W N; Hancock, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to intermittent jet aircraft noise (70 dBA or 95 dBA maximum intensity) and knowledge of results concerning signal detections (hit-KR) on performance efficiency and perceived workload in a 40-min visual vigilance task. The noise featured a Doppler-like quality in which planes seemed to approach from the monitor's left and recede to the right. Perceptual sensitivity (d') was poorer in the context of noise than in quiet but only in the presence of hit-KR. The lack of noise-related performance differences in the absence of hit-KR most likely reflected a "floor effect" rather than some special relation between noise and feedback. When compared to subjects performing in quiet, those who operated in noise were less able to profit from hit-KR, a result that may reflect the effects of noise on information processing. In addition to its negative effects on signal detectability, noise elevated the perceived workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX. This effect was robust; it was independent of the presence of hit-KR, even though hit-KR generally lowered the overall level of perceived workload. The results provide the initial experimental demonstration that perceived workload is a sensitive measure of the effects of aircraft noise in monitoring tasks.

  3. Empirically testing the relationship between income distribution, perceived value of money and pay satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensation management literature highlights that income has three major features: salary, bonus and allowance. If the level and/or amount of income are distributed to employees based on proper rules this may increase pay satisfaction. More importantly, a thorough investigation in this area reveals that the effect of income distribution on pay satisfaction is not consistent if perceived value of money is present in organizations. The nature of this relationship is less emphasized in pay distribution literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure the effect of the perceived value of money and income distribution on pay satisfaction using 136 usable questionnaires gathered from employees who have worked in one city based local authority in Sabah, Malaysia (MSLAUTHORITY. Outcomes of hierarchical regression analysis showed that the interaction between perceived value of money and income distribution significantly correlated with pay satisfaction. This result confirms that perceived value of money does act as a moderating variable in the income distribution model of the organizational sample. In addition, discussion and implications of this study are elaborated.

  4. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  5. Perceived Speech Quality Estimation Using DTW Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arsenovski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for speech quality estimation is evaluated by simulating the transfer of speech over packet switched and mobile networks. The proposed system uses Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for test and received speech comparison. Several tests have been made on a test speech sample of a single speaker with simulated packet (frame loss effects on the perceived speech. The achieved results have been compared with measured PESQ values on the used transmission channel and their correlation has been observed.

  6. Undergraduate Bioinformatics Workshops Provide Perceived Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Herlands Cresiski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is becoming an important part of undergraduate curriculum, but expertise and well-evaluated teaching materials may not be available on every campus. Here, a guest speaker was utilized to introduce bioinformatics and web-available exercises were adapted for student investigation. Students used web-based nucleotide comparison tools to examine the medical and evolutionary relevance of a unidentified genetic sequence. Based on pre- and post-workshop surveys, there were significant gains in the students understanding of bioinformatics, as well as their perceived skills in using bioinformatics tools. The relevance of bioinformatics to a student’s career seemed dependent on career aspirations.

  7. Facebook Users’ Engagement and Perceived Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy R. Vigil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study extends existing research on Facebook’s impact on users’ life satisfaction. The results from two surveys of college students demonstrate a tension between Facebook use and users’ perceived contentment with their lives. Existing literature indicates students use Facebook to enhance self-esteem, yet the results from this study connect increased Facebook use to lower self-reported levels of happiness. In particular, respondents’ interactions with photos and videos increase users’ dissatisfaction. This phenomenon may be due to the impact photos have on the ways users engage in social comparisons with Facebook “friends” and the self-construals they create based on these comparisons.

  8. Facebook Users’ Engagement and Perceived Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy R. Vigil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study extends existing research on Facebook’s impact on users’ life satisfaction. The results from two surveys of college students demonstrate a tension between Facebook use and users’ perceived contentment with their lives. Existing literature indicates students use Facebook to enhance self-esteem, yet the results from this study connect increased Facebook use to lower self-reported levels of happiness. In particular, respondents’ interactions with photos and videos increase users’ dissatisfaction. This phenomenon may be due to the impact photos have on the ways users engage in social comparisons with Facebook “friends” and the self-construals they create based on these comparisons.

  9. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship.

  10. MODERN FEATURES OF FINANCIAL GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, financial globalization as latest stage of financial internationalization process becomes to be the most discussed subject by economic scientists. It has many forms of manifestation and directions of development. One of the main features of financial globalization is increasing the role of the financial sector, linked with the expansion of the scope and complexity of foreign economic relations. The financial system has increasingly become a means of redistribution of financial resources in accordance with the needs and possibilities of development of production not only at national but also at the global level. In this work are presented modern views on financial globalization under aspect of concepts, trends, effects and perspectives.

  11. Perceived timing of a postural perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Julian; Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2017-02-03

    Falling down is a common event that threatens the survival of an organism. Simple, yet sophisticated neural mechanisms allow for rapid detection of a fall as well as the generation of compensatory reflexes designed to prevent a fall. Fall awareness and preventative alerting devices could potentially mitigate the likelihood of a fall, however, relatively little is known about the perceived timing of a fall. Common anecdotal reports suggest that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time with very little recollection of what occurred during the fall. Previous research has also found that the vestibular system is perceptually slow compared to the other senses (45-160ms delay), indicating that vestibular stimuli must occur prior to other sensory stimuli in order for it to be perceived as synchronous. Here we examine whether fall perception is similarly slow. Participants made temporal order judgments identifying whether fall or sound onset came first to measure the point of subjective simultaneity. Results show that fall perception is slow, where the onset of a perturbation has to precede an auditory stimulus by ∼44 ms to appear coincident with the fall. We suggest that the central nervous system's rapid detection and response capabilities are restricted to reflexive behaviour, with conscious awareness of a fall being prioritized less. The additional lead times for detecting perturbation onset constrain possible fall detection and alert systems that have been proposed to inform a user to prevent falls and may also help explain the increased likelihood for fall incidence in the elderly.

  12. Optimally matching support and perceived spousal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Shaffer, Philip A; Wesner, Kristin A; Gardner, Kelli A

    2007-12-01

    Partner sensitivity is an important antecedent of both intimacy (H. T. Reis & P. Shaver, 1988) and attachment (M. D. S. Ainsworth, 1989). On the basis of the optimal matching model of social support (C. E. Cutrona & D. Russell, 1990), support behaviors that "matched" the support goals of the stressed individual were predicted to lead to the perception of partner sensitivity. Predictions were tested with 59 married couples, who engaged in a videotaped self-disclosure task. Matching support was defined as the disclosure of emotions followed by emotional support or a request for information followed by informational support. Partial evidence was found for the predictions. Matching support following the disclosure of emotions was predictive of perceived partner sensitivity. Mismatched support following the disclosure of emotions predicted lower marital satisfaction, through the mediation of partner sensitivity. Matching support following a request for information was not predictive of perceived partner sensitivity, but negative partner responses (e.g., criticism or sarcasm) following a request for information negatively predicted perceptions of partner sensitivity. The importance of considering the context of support transactions is discussed.

  13. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers

    CERN Document Server

    Barbado, Luis C; Garay, Luis J

    2011-01-01

    We use a method recently introduced in Barcel\\'o et al, arXiv:1011.5593 [gr-qc] to analyse Hawking radiation in a Schwarzschild black hole as perceived by different observers in the system. The method is based on the introduction of an "effective temperature" function that varies with time. First we introduce a non-stationary vacuum state for a quantum scalar field, which interpolates between the Boulware vacuum state at early times and the Unruh vacuum state at late times. In this way we mimic the process of switching on Hawking radiation in realistic collapse scenarios. Then, we analyse this vacuum state from the perspective of static observers at different radial positions, observers undergoing a free-fall trajectory from infinity, and observers standing at rest at a radial distance and then released to fall freely towards the horizon. The physical image that emerges from these analyses is rather rich and compelling. Among many other results, we find that generic freely-falling observes do not perceive vac...

  14. Relationship between social anxiety and perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ruth; Doehrmann, Oliver; Fang, Angela; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hoijtink, Herbert J A; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    Four different patterns of biased ratings of facial expressions of emotions have been found in socially anxious participants: higher negative ratings of (1) negative, (2) neutral, and (3) positive facial expressions than nonanxious controls. As a fourth pattern, some studies have found no group differences in ratings of facial expressions of emotion. However, these studies usually employed valence and arousal ratings that arguably may be less able to reflect processing of social information. We examined the relationship between social anxiety and face ratings for perceived trustworthiness given that trustworthiness is an inherently socially relevant construct. Improving on earlier analytical strategies, we evaluated the four previously found result patterns using a Bayesian approach. Ninety-eight undergraduates rated 198 face stimuli on perceived trustworthiness. Subsequently, participants completed social anxiety questionnaires to assess the severity of social fears. Bayesian modeling indicated that the probability that social anxiety did not influence judgments of trustworthiness had at least three times more empirical support in our sample than assuming any kind of negative interpretation bias in social anxiety. We concluded that the deviant interpretation of facial trustworthiness is not a relevant aspect in social anxiety.

  15. Self-perceived health in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes de; Lima, Bartolomeu Fagundes de; Medeiros, Rafaela Jordânia de; Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas de; Cabral, Sadote Macêdo; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to verify health self-perception, its prevalence and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted in 10 Long-Term care Institutions for the Elderly (LTIE) in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), between October and December 2013. Sociodemographic variables were analyzed, along with institution-related and health state variables. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out (Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test or linear trend Chi-squared test), as well as multivariate analysis (logistic regression). The final sample consisted of 127 elderly. The prevalence of negative self-perceived health was 63.19% (CI 95%: 55.07-70.63), and was associated with weight loss (PR: 1.54; CI 95%: 1.19-1.99), rheumatic disease (PR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.05-2.01) and not-for-profit LTIE (PR: 1.37; CI 95%: 1.03-1.83), adjusted by sex. More than half of the elderly reported negative self-perceived health, which was associated with weight loss, rheumatic disease and type of institution. Actions must be developed to promote better health conditions in LTIE, such as nutrition consulting and physical therapy, to improve quality of life.

  16. Valuing skill differences : Perceived skill complementary and dyadic helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.; van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.; Sanders, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  17. Valuing Skill Differences: Perceived Skill Complementarity and Dyadic Helping Behavior in Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Aad; Vegt, van der Gerben S.; Vliert, van de Evert; Sanders, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  18. Valuing skill differences : Perceived skill complementary and dyadic helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.; van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.; Sanders, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  19. Community Detection in Networks with Node Features

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for community detection in networks, but most of them do not take into account additional information on the nodes that is often available in practice. In this paper, we propose a new joint community detection criterion that uses both the network edge information and the node features to detect community structures. One advantage our method has over existing joint detection approaches is the flexibility of learning the impact of different features which may differ across communities. Another advantage is the flexibility of choosing the amount of influence the feature information has on communities. The method is asymptotically consistent under the block model with additional assumptions on the feature distributions, and performs well on simulated and real networks.

  20. Shapes and features of the primordial bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Sypsas, Spyros

    2017-05-01

    If time-dependent disruptions from slow-roll occur during inflation, the correlation functions of the primordial curvature perturbation should have scale-dependent features, a case which is marginally supported from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We offer a new approach to analyze the appearance of such features in the primordial bispectrum that yields new consistency relations and justifies the search of oscillating patterns modulated by orthogonal and local templates. Under the assumption of sharp features, we find that the cubic couplings of the curvature perturbation can be expressed in terms of the bispectrum in two specific momentum configurations, for example local and equilateral. This allows us to derive consistency relations among different bispectrum shapes, which in principle could be tested in future CMB surveys. Furthermore, based on the form of the consistency relations, we construct new two-parameter templates for features that include all the known shapes.

  1. If it's good it must be bad: the indirect effect of temptation strength on self-control through perceived unhealthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has shown that people tend to consume less from foods they consider more tempting. However, the underlying mechanism for these counterintuitive findings is still unknown. The current paper is the first to test the theoretically implied suggestion that the effect of food temptation strength on consumption is indirect and can be explained through temptations' perceived unhealthiness. Two studies were conducted among female students who were concerned about their weight to test the effect of food temptation strength on perceived unhealthiness as well as the amount that was consumed of the products. Results showed that temptation strength was associated with unhealthiness such that weak temptations were - unjustly - perceived to be less unhealthy compared to strong temptations, while perceived unhealthiness was negatively related to indulgence. As a consequence, people may consume more from weak than from strong temptations. It is concluded that weak temptations tend to be underestimated and can be more challenging for successful self-regulation than strong temptations.

  2. When visuo-motor incongruence aids motor performance : the effect of perceiving motion structures during transformed visual feedback on bimanual coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, H; Buekers, MJ; Zaal, FT; Swinnen, SP

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which bimanual coordination tasks were performed under correct and transformed visual feedback conditions. Participants were to generate cyclical line-drawing patterns, with varying degrees of coordinative stability, while perceiving correct or transformed visual info

  3. The relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and depressive symptomatology: the mediating role of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombas, Andrés S; Martín-Albo, José; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Jiménez, Teresa I

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A total of 661 high school Spanish students participated in the study. The analyses indicated that the effects of each of the perceived emotional intelligence sub-scales (namely, Attention, Clarity and Repair) on depressive symptomatology were partially mediated by perceived stress. Specifically, the mediating effect was negative for Clarity and Repair, but positive for attention. The analysis also showed that the direct effects were positive for all sub-scales. These results suggest that the promotion of stress management skills may be core in the development of prevention and treatment programs for depression in adolescents, and possibly more beneficial than the promotion of emotion regulation skills. Our findings, along with previous evidence, suggest that emotional attention, as measured in the present study, may be targeting a pathological type of attention. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  5. Perceived superiority of one's own relationship and perceived prevalence of happy and unhappy relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 141 Dutch undergraduate students, the participants perceived their relationship sn average ns better than the relationships of most others, and assumed that a majority was happy and that only a minority was unhappy with their relationship. The higher the relationship satisfaction, t

  6. Weight acceptance versus body dissatisfaction: Effects on stigma, perceived self-esteem, and perceived psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jessica M; Latner, Janet D

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown whether weight acceptance or body dissatisfaction impact anti-fat stigma. Therefore, this study utilized a 2×2 between-subject experimental design to examine of the relationship between body acceptance and stigmatization. Participants were university undergraduates (N=394, 70% women, mean age=20.8 years, mean BMI=23.61 kg/m(2)) who were randomly assigned to read vignettes describing an obese or normal-weight target described as either accepting or not accepting of her weight. Participants completed measures of stigma (the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), the modified Anti-fat Attitudes Scale (AFA)), perceived self-esteem (assessed with the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)), and perceived psychopathology. Analyses revealed significant main effects for acceptance. Notably, targets who accepted their weight were less stigmatized on the FPS (F(1, 354)=66.82, p<.001) and the AFA willpower subscale (F(1, 373)=37.90, p<.001), and they were perceived as having better self esteem (F(1, 371)=166.16, p<.001) and fewer psychological problems (F(1, 381)=123.19, p<.001) than those who did not accept their weight. Results from this study suggest that size acceptance, even when practiced by obese targets, was significantly less stigmatized than body dissatisfaction and associated with better perceived self esteem and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived superiority of one's own relationship and perceived prevalence of happy and unhappy relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 141 Dutch undergraduate students, the participants perceived their relationship sn average ns better than the relationships of most others, and assumed that a majority was happy and that only a minority was unhappy with their relationship. The higher the relationship satisfaction, t

  8. General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs under-diagnose common mental disorders, and that training courses hardly improve this practice. The influence of GPs' self-perceived ability to recognize the severity of such disorders on these facts has not been investigated. This study explores: 1 GPs' perceived ability to recognize major depressive episode (MDE and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in their patients; 2 The GPs' observed ability to recognize severity of these disorders; and 3 If the observed ability to recognize severity is associated with their perceived ability. Methods In a cross-sectional design 40 Norwegian GPs examined 15 – 28 patients each (total N = 724. The GPs' rated their perceived ability to recognize MDE and GAD on a four-point Likert-scale. The GPs' observed ability to recognize severity was defined as the mean of the correlations between the GPs rating of Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale and the diagnostic reference standards for MDE and GAD filled in by patients. Results Twenty-two GPs considered their perceived ability to recognize MDE as rather good, and the other 18 as moderate/bad. For GAD 12 GPs' perceived their ability as rather good, while 28 considered their ability to be moderate/bad. The observed ability to recognize severity concerning MDE was 0.63 and concerning GAD 0.45. There was no significant association between GPs' perceived and observed abilities to recognize MDE (p = 0.19 and GAD (p = 0.34 Conclusion This study found a discrepancy between the GPs' perceived and observed ability to recognize common mental disorders. The lack of association between GPs' perceived and observed ability to recognize such disorders indicate low understanding of own recognition abilities. This might contribute to explain the low effectiveness of interventions aimed to increase GPs' abilities to recognize mental disorders.

  9. Classifying web pages with visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Lupascu, T.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2010-01-01

    To automatically classify and process web pages, current systems use the textual content of those pages, including both the displayed content and the underlying (HTML) code. However, a very important feature of a web page is its visual appearance. In this paper, we show that using generic visual fea

  10. Feature selection with neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones.

  11. Dimensions of Racial Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2016-10-20

    Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, both dimensions of racial/ethnic identity contributed independently to perceived discrimination in health care. After controlling for self-identified race/ethnicity, respondents who reported being classified as Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American had higher likelihood of perceived discrimination than respondents who reported being classified as White. Similarly, after taking perceived attributed race/ethnicity into account, self-identified Blacks, Native Americans, and multiracial respondents were more likely to report perceived discrimination than counterparts who self-identified as White. The model using only perceived attributed race/ethnicity to predict perceived discrimination showed a superior fit with the data than the model using only self-identified race/ethnicity. Perceived attributed race/ethnicity captures an aspect of racial/ethnic identity that is correlated, but not interchangeable, with self-identified race/ethnicity and contributes uniquely to perceived discrimination in health care. Applying the concept of multidimensionality of race/ethnicity to health disparities research may reveal understudied mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to health risks.

  12. Feature Engineering for Drug Name Recognition in Biomedical Texts: Feature Conjunction and Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug name recognition (DNR is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  13. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  14. Monocular occlusions determine the perceived shape and depth of occluding surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2010-06-01

    Recent experiments have established that monocular areas arising due to occlusion of one object by another contribute to stereoscopic depth perception. It has been suggested that the primary role of monocular occlusions is to define depth discontinuities and object boundaries in depth. Here we use a carefully designed stimulus to demonstrate empirically that monocular occlusions play an important role in localizing depth edges and defining the shape of the occluding surfaces in depth. We show that the depth perceived via occlusion in our stimuli is not due to the presence of binocular disparity at the boundary and discuss the quantitative nature of depth perception in our stimuli. Our data suggest that the visual system can use monocular information to estimate not only the sign of the depth of the occluding surface but also its magnitude. We also provide preliminary evidence that perceived depth of illusory occluders derived from monocular information can be biased by binocular features.

  15. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feature separability analysis for SAR ATR using data description method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Du, Xiaoyong; Hu, WeiDong; Yu, Wenxian

    2007-11-01

    Feature extraction and selection play an important role in radar target recognition. This paper focuses on evaluating feature separability for SAR ATR and selecting the best subset of features. In details, fifteen features extracted from T72, BTR70 and BMP2 in MSTAR standard public dataset are examined, which are divided into seven categories: standard deviation, fractal dimension, weighted-rank fill ratio, size-related features, contrast-based features, count feature, projection feature, and moment features. Since the number of samples is small, a new separability criterion based on the overlap degree of each two class regions is proposed to assess the separability of these features. Here the class region is described by support vector data description (SVDD) method for good generalization. Based on the proposed criterion, a forward feature selection method is adopted to choose the best subset of features. Because of the strong variability of the feature against aspect, the features are analyzed under different aspect sectors within 360°angle range stepped by 15°, 30 °, and 60°, respectively. Experiments using MSTAR dataset validate the criterion, and the best subset of features is determined.

  17. Perceived trustworthiness shapes neural empathic responses toward others' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Paola; Meconi, Federica

    2015-12-01

    As might be expected, neural empathic responses toward someone in pain are shaped by the affective/social relationship between the observer and the suffering person. Brain activity associated with empathy is sensitive to previous knowledge on the other's social conduct, such that, for instance, an unfair person in pain elicits in the observer reduced activations of empathy-related brain regions compared to a fair person. We conjectured that even in the absence of information on the personality and social behavior of an individual, empathy might be modulated by the 'first impression' based on other's physical facial features, such that the other is perceived as trustworthy or untrustworthy. By means of event-related potentials technique, we monitored in two experiments the neural empathic responses associated with the pain of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces, either computerized and parametrically manipulated (Experiment 1) and real faces (Experiment 2) in a cue-based paradigm. We observed P3 empathic reactions towards individuals looking trustworthy whereas the reactions towards individuals looking untrustworthy were negligible, if not null. An additional experiment (Experiment 3) was conducted in order to substantiate our conclusions by demonstrating that the experimental paradigm we designed did very likely activate an empathic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived support in caregivers of patients legally dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Vázquez Merino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish law of Promoting the Personal Autonomy and Attention to people in dependence situation (39/2006 recognizes the enjoyment of assistance to its beneficiaries. General Objective: Determinate the degree of perceived social support in caregivers of persons receiving benefits established by the law. Specific Objectives: To establish the socio-sanitary profile of patients and caregivers and to know, on the basis of the degree of dependency recognized, the features catalogue offered and chosen by our patients. Methodology: descriptive cross-sectional study. Study population: 98 patient-caregiver pairs belonging to Isla Chica’s Health Center (Huelva. Results: The patient profile was a polymedicated woman aged around 74 years old, mainly with self-care deficits and a physical mobility impairment. The caregiver profile was a woman aged around 58 years old, who was taking care of her mother for two years. She showed arterial hypertension, adaptation disorders and osteoarticular diseases. 67.4% of the caregivers receive little total support. Discussion: The physical and mental efforts these dependent caregivers are subjected to has a negative influence on the perception of social support, despite the benefits granted.

  19. Robust feature-based object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Roberts, William; Wu, Dapeng; Li, Jian

    2007-04-01

    Object tracking is an important component of many computer vision systems. It is widely used in video surveillance, robotics, 3D image reconstruction, medical imaging, and human computer interface. In this paper, we focus on unsupervised object tracking, i.e., without prior knowledge about the object to be tracked. To address this problem, we take a feature-based approach, i.e., using feature points (or landmark points) to represent objects. Feature-based object tracking consists of feature extraction and feature correspondence. Feature correspondence is particularly challenging since a feature point in one image may have many similar points in another image, resulting in ambiguity in feature correspondence. To resolve the ambiguity, algorithms, which use exhaustive search and correlation over a large neighborhood, have been proposed. However, these algorithms incur high computational complexity, which is not suitable for real-time tracking. In contrast, Tomasi and Kanade's tracking algorithm only searches corresponding points in a small candidate set, which significantly reduces computational complexity; but the algorithm may lose track of feature points in a long image sequence. To mitigate the limitations of the aforementioned algorithms, this paper proposes an efficient and robust feature-based tracking algorithm. The key idea of our algorithm is as below. For a given target feature point in one frame, we first find a corresponding point in the next frame, which minimizes the sum-of-squared-difference (SSD) between the two points; then we test whether the corresponding point gives large value under the so-called Harris criterion. If not, we further identify a candidate set of feature points in a small neighborhood of the target point; then find a corresponding point from the candidate set, which minimizes the SSD between the two points. The algorithm may output no corresponding point due to disappearance of the target point. Our algorithm is capable of tracking

  20. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  1. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  2. European Nuclear Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-09-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  3. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density, but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platform. The barcodes used in this study are the well-characterized set derived from the Yeast KnockOut (YKO collection used for screens of pooled yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. We treated these pools with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin as a test compound. Three generations of barcode microarrays at 30, 8 and 5 μm features sizes independently identified the primary target of tunicamycin to be ALG7. Conclusion We show that the data obtained with 5 μm feature size is of comparable quality to the 30 μm size and propose that further shrinking of features could yield barcode microarrays with equal or greater resolving power and, more importantly, higher density.

  4. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk......Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...

  5. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  6. Perceived Coding Distortion Assessment for Streaming Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzheng Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For applications involving video streaming, full decoding is usually not acceptable for quality assessment. To address the inherent challenges, an efficient method for coding distortion assessment is proposed in this paper. Building on empirical analysis, the proposed method employs a linear model to assess the coding distortion using the quantization scale. Furthermore, the characteristics of the human visual system are exploited by taking into account the spatial and temporal masking. To estimate the required spatial and temporal complexities in absence of sufficient information, a rate-distortion model is theoretically derived to formulate their relationship with the coding bit-rate. Extensive experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for quality assessment with respect to perceived coding distortion.

  7. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  8. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... foods, whereas the use of different health claims, processing methods, enrichments, product types, and especially the interactions between the two latter, are important determinants of consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...

  9. Does target viewing time influence perceived reachability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Ammar, Diala

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the influence of target viewing time on perceived (estimates of) reachability. Right-handed participants were asked to judge the simulated reachability of midline targets using their dominant limb in viewing conditions of 150 ms, 500 ms, 1 s and 2 s. Responses were compared to actual maximum reach. In reference to percent error, interestingly, the 150 ms condition revealed the least error at peripersonal targets and the most inaccuracy with distal (extrapersonal) targets. This condition was also distinct with a significant overestimation bias -- a common observation in earlier studies. However, with increasing viewing time this bias was reduced. These data provide evidence that 150 ms is effective for estimating reach within one's general peripersonal workspace. However, with judgments distal from that point, more time enhanced accuracy, with 500 ms and 1 s being optimal. Overall results are discussed relative to perceptual effectiveness in programming reaching movements.

  10. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...

  11. Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A; Rappaport, J

    1988-10-01

    The research integrates the citizen participation literature with research on perceived control in an effort to further our understanding of psychological empowerment. Eleven indices of empowerment representing personality, cognitive, and motivational measures were identified to represent the construct. Three studies examined the relationship between empowerment and participation. The first study examined differences among groups identified by a laboratory manipulation as willing to participate in personally relevant or community relevant situations. Study II examined differences for groups defined by actual involvement in community activities and organizations. Study III replicated Study II with a different population. In each study, individuals reporting a greater amount of participation scored higher on indices of empowerment. Psychological empowerment could be described as the connection between a sense of personal competence, a desire for, and a willingness to take action in the public domain. Discriminant function analyses resulted in one significant dimension, identified as pyschological empowerment, that was positively correlated with leadership and negatively correlated with alienation.

  12. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  14. Perceived Organizational Red Tape and Organizational Performance in Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2017-01-01

    The claim that perceived organizational red tape hampers public services has become a central theme in public administration research. Surprisingly, however, few scholars have empirically examined the impact of perceived red tape on organizational performance. This study empirically analyzes how...... perceived organizational red tape among managers and frontline staff relates to objectively measured performance. The data consists of survey responses from teachers and principals at Danish upper secondary schools combined with grade-level administrative performance data. Based on theories of red tape...

  15. Maintaining Perceived Control with Unemployment Facilitates Future Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, J?rgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is a major challenge to individuals' development. An important personal resource to ameliorate the negative impact of unemployment may be perceived control, a general-purpose belief system. Little is known, however, about how perceived control itself changes with the experience of unemployment and what the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of such change in perceived control are in different ages. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N ...

  16. Stressors and coping mechanisms associated with perceived stress in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sasha M; Gavin, Jennifer K; Diaz, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between causes of perceived stress and the coping mechanisms used by Latino adults with perceived stress. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 200 Latino adults (aged ≥18 years). They were recruited from clinics, migrant camps, community events, and churches located in Charleston, S.C. This survey included questions regarding causes of perceived stress, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale 10), coping mechanisms (Brief COPE), and depression (Perceived Health Questionnaire 9). High perceived stress (PSS ≥15) was the primary outcome measure. Coping mechanisms and stressors were secondary outcomes. Most (92%) of the sample was born outside the United States, and 66% reported high perceived stress. Stressors associated with high perceived stress included discrimination (P=.0010), lack of insurance (P=.0193), health problems (P=.0058), and lack of money (P=.0015). The most frequently utilized coping mechanisms were self-distraction (54.77%), active coping (69.85%), positive reframing (56.78%), planning (63.82%), acceptance (57.87%), and religion (57.79%). Latinos with higher perceived stress were more likely to report discrimination (OR: 3.401; 95%CI 1.285-9.004) and health problems (OR: 2.782; 95%CI 1.088-7.111) as stressors, and to use denial as a coping mechanism (OR: 2.904; 95%CI 1.280-6.589). An increased prevalence of perceived stress among the Latinos evaluated in this study was associated with using denial as a coping mechanism, and encountering discrimination and health problems as sources of perceived stress. Most individuals responded to stressors by utilizing a variety of both adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms.

  17. Store brands’ purchase intention: Examining the role of perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calvo-Porral

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increase of the store brand's market share globally, the present study addresses the following question: “Does the consumer product perceived quality influence store brands’ proneness?”; or in other words “Does product perceived quality influence store brands’ purchase intention?”, since perceived quality is a customer-based undertaken variable. The present study proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model of the influence of perceived product quality of store brands relative to perceived value and purchase intention. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was developed on a sample of 439 consumers, distinguishing between consumers with high perceived quality (HPQ and low perceived quality (LPQ. Our findings highlight that store brands’ purchase intention is strongly influenced by confidence for both HPQ and LPQ customers, followed by product price. Additionally, our results suggest the moderating role of perceived quality on some of the proposed relationships. Store brand managers and retailers could develop market segmentation and perform marketing strategies based on customers’ perceived quality.

  18. Perceived causality, force, and resistance in the absence of launching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2016-07-29

    In the launching effect, a moving object (the launcher) contacts a stationary object (the target), and upon contact, the launcher stops and the target begins moving in the same direction and at the same or slower velocity as previous launcher motion (Michotte, 1946/1963). In the study reported here, participants viewed a modified launching effect display in which the launcher stopped before or at the moment of contact and the target remained stationary. Participants rated perceived causality, perceived force, and perceived resistance of the launcher on the target or the target on the launcher. For launchers and for targets, increases in the size of the spatial gap between the final location of the launcher and the location of the target decreased ratings of perceived causality and ratings of perceived force and increased ratings of perceived resistance. Perceived causality, perceived force, and perceived resistance exhibited gradients or fields extending from the launcher and from the target and were not dependent upon contact of the launcher and target. Causal asymmetries and force asymmetries reported in previous studies did not occur, and this suggests that such asymmetries might be limited to typical launching effect stimuli. Deviations from Newton's laws of motion are noted, and the existence of separate radii of action extending from the launcher and from the target is suggested.

  19. Impact of Perceived Security on Organizational Adoption of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Ibrahim; Yardimci Cetin, Yasemin; Turetken, Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Organizational adoption of new technologies is a practically important research area. The present study aims to investigate the impact of perceived security on organizational adoption of mobile communication technologies, specifically smartphones. For this purpose, a research model is developed extending the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The research model is tested using a structural equation modeling based on data that were collected from senior managers of 201 private sector organizations in Turkey. The results show that, along with the traditional constructs of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, perceived security significantly affects organizations' adoption of smartphones. Both the theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Effect of Perceived Politics and Perceived Support on Bullying and Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of Type A Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Saima; Raja, Usman; Donia, Magda Bezerra Leite

    2016-07-03

    Recognizing that bullying can occur in varying degrees of severity, the current study suggest the importance of individual traits in individual perceptions of being targets of bullying and ensuing emotional exhaustion. The present study extends the work environment hypothesis and trait activation theory by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) workplace bullying in linking perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion and (b) the moderating role of Type A behavioral pattern in influencing the mediation. Using a field sample of 262 employees working in different organizations of Pakistan, this study tested a moderated mediation model. Results were consistent with the hypothesized model, in that workplace bullying mediated the relationship of perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion. Type A behavior moderated the perceived politics-bullying, perceived support-bullying, and bullying-emotional exhaustion relationships. The mediation of bullying varied with levels of Type A behavior in these relationships.

  1. Mismatched feature detection with finer granularity for emotional speaker recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Ying-chun YANG; Zhao-hui WU

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of speakers’ vocal organs change under their different emotional states, which leads to the deviation of the emotional acoustic space of short-time features from the neutral acoustic space and thereby the degradation of the speaker recognition performance. Features deviating greatly from the neutral acoustic space are considered as mismatched features, and they negatively affect speaker recognition systems. Emotion variation produces different feature deformations for different phonemes, so it is reasonable to build a fi ner model to detect mismatched features under each phoneme. However, given the difficulty of phoneme recognition, three sorts of acoustic class recognition- phoneme classes, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) tokenizer, and probabilistic GMM tokenizer- are proposed to replace phoneme recognition. We propose feature pruning and feature regulation methods to process the mismatched features to improve speaker recognition performance. As for the feature regulation method, a strategy of maximizing the between-class distance and minimizing the within-class distance is adopted to train the transformation matrix to regulate the mismatched features. Experiments conducted on the Mandarin affective speech corpus (MASC) show that our feature pruning and feature regulation methods increase the identifi cation rate (IR) by 3.64% and 6.77%, compared with the baseline GMM-UBM (universal background model) algorithm. Also, corresponding IR increases of 2.09% and 3.32% can be obtained with our methods when applied to the state-of-the-art algorithm i-vector.

  2. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  3. Feature tracking and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy eAllard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting results regarding the effect of aging on second-order motion processing (i.e., motion defined by attributes other than luminance, such as contrast. Two studies (Habak & Faubert, 2000; Tang & Zhou, 2009 found that second-order motion processing was more vulnerable to aging than first-order motion processing. Conversely, Billino, Braun, Bremmer and Gegenfurtner (2011 recently found that aging affected first- and second-order motion processing by similar proportions. These three studies used contrast-defined motion as a second-order stimulus, but there can be at least two potential issues when using such a stimulus to evaluate age-related sensitivity losses. First, it has been shown that the motion system processing contrast-defined motion varies depending on the stimulus parameters. Thus, although all these three studies assumed that their contrast-defined motion was processed by a low-level second-order motion system, this was not necessarily the case. The second potential issue is that contrast-defined motion consists in a contrast modulation of a texture rich in high spatial frequencies and aging mainly affects contrast sensitivity at high spatial frequencies. Consequently, some age-related sensitivity loss to second-order motion could be due to a lower sensitivity to the texture rather than to motion processing per se. To avoid these two potential issues, we used a second-order motion stimulus void of high spatial frequencies and which has been shown to be processed by a high-level feature tracking motion system, namely fractal rotation (Lagacé-Nadon, Allard, & Faubert, 2009. We found an age-related deficit on second-order motion processing at all temporal frequencies including the ones for which no age-related effect on first-order motion processing was observed. We conclude that aging affects the ability to track features. Previous age-related results on second-order and global motion processing are discussed in light

  4. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation,grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English’s environment and features. However,there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features,including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  5. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English's environment and features. However, there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features , including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  6. Psychometric properties associated with perceived vocal roughness using a matching task

    OpenAIRE

    Eddins, David A.; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    A psychophysical matching paradigm has been used to better quantify voice quality under laboratory conditions. The goals of this study were to establish which of two candidate comparison stimuli would best ensure that the range of perceived vocal roughness could be adequately bracketed using a matching task and to provide a general solution to the problem of estimating vocal roughness. Psychometric functions for roughness matching indicated that a speech-like sawtooth-plus-noise complex (20 d...

  7. Perceived supervisor support: contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Robert; Stinglhamber, Florence; Vandenberghe, Christian; Sucharski, Ivan L; Rhoades, Linda

    2002-06-01

    Three studies investigated the relationships among employees' perception of supervisor support (PSS), perceived organizational support (POS), and employee turnover. Study 1 found, with 314 employees drawn from a variety of organizations, that PSS was positively related to temporal change in POS, suggesting that PSS leads to POS. Study 2 established, with 300 retail sales employees, that the PSS-POS relationship increased with perceived supervisor status in the organization. Study 3 found, with 493 retail sales employees, evidence consistent with the view that POS completely mediated a negative relationship between PSS and employee turnover. These studies suggest that supervisors, to the extent that they are identified with the organization, contribute to POS and, ultimately, to job retention.

  8. Featured Image: Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    This beautiful image shows two galaxies, IC 2163 and NGC 2207, as they undergo a grazing collision 114 million light-years away. The image is composite, constructed from Hubble (blue), Spitzer (green), and ALMA (red) data. In a recent study, Debra Elmegreen (Vassar College) and collaborators used this ALMA data to trace the individual molecular clouds in the two interacting galaxies, identifying a total of over 200 clouds that each contain a mass of over a million solar masses. These clouds represent roughly half the molecular gas in the two galaxies total. Elmegreen and collaborators track the properties of these clouds and their relation to star-forming regions observed with Hubble. For more information about their observations, check out the paper linked below.A closer look at the ALMA observations for these galaxies, with the different emission regions labeled. Most of the molecular gas emission comes from the eyelids of IC 2163, and the nuclear ring and Feature i in NGC 2207. [Elmegreen et al. 2017]CitationDebra Meloy Elmegreen et al 2017 ApJ 841 43. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6ba5

  9. Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmien Smit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently there is much debate whether modifying traditional reward packages to focus on the preferences of multi-generations would be essential in attracting, motivating and retaining talent. Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee’s decision to stay at an organisation.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the different total reward components that multi-generations prefer as most important for retention. In essence, the study aims to establish possible relationships between multi-generations’ total reward components, perceived organisational support, and perceived supervisor support.Motivation for the study: This study is useful as it conducts a contemporary retention exploration that considers both the emerging demographic workforce shift and the new paradigm shift towards talent management.Research methodology: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was applied to gather data from employees (N = 303 from different industry sectors in South African organisations.Main findings: The results showed that performance management and remuneration are considered to be the most important retention factors amongst multi-generation groups. Differences between total reward preferences and demographical variables, which include age, gender, race, industry and job level, were found.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should design their reward packages by taking employees preferences into account. More specifically, organisations should focus on remuneration, performance management and development opportunities in order to retain scarce skills.Contribution/value additions: The results of the study can assist managers to design effective retention strategies, whilst also providing crucial information for the retention and motivation of employees.

  10. Young and Older Adult Eyewitnesses' Use of Narrative Features in Testimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Meredith; Brimacombe, C. A. Elizabeth; Hunter, Michael A.; Kadlec, Helena

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between witness age, narrative features in testimony, and the perceived credibility of witnesses. Ninety older and young adult witnesses to a staged theft were videotaped as they freely recalled crime events. Later, participant-jurors viewed the videos and assessed the witnesses' credibility. Operational…

  11. Attributions and race are critical: perceived criticism in a sample of African American and White community participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Kelly M; Chambless, Dianne L

    2014-11-01

    The current investigation had two principal goals: (a) to examine whether attributions regarding the intentions underlying criticism from one's relative predict perceived criticism from that relative and (b) to explore differences between African Americans and Whites in attributions and perceived criticism. A new measure, the Attributions of Criticism Scale, was employed in the present study to assess attributions of perceived criticism. Results showed that the attributions scale demonstrated good psychometric properties in a sample of African American (n=78) and White (n=165) community participants. As hypothesized, attributions were correlated with perceptions of criticism. When racial differences in attributions and perceived criticism were explored, results showed that African Americans made more positive attributions but also perceived more destructive criticism than Whites. No racial differences were observed on overall and constructive criticism, but there was some evidence to suggest that African Americans made more negative attributions than Whites. However, these results were inconsistent across recruitment method. Taken together, these findings suggest that positive and negative attributions are important factors in the perception of criticism and that mean levels of attributions and perceived criticism may differ by race. Possible explanations for effects as well as clinical implications and directions for future research are considered.

  12. Brain activity from stimuli that are not perceived: Visual mismatch negativity during binocular rivalry suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Bradley N; Widmann, Andreas; O'Shea, Robert P; Schröger, Erich; Roeber, Urte

    2017-05-01

    Predictive coding explains visual perception as the result of an interaction between bottom-up sensory input and top-down generative models at each level of the visual hierarchy. Evidence for this comes from the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): a more negative ERP for rare, unpredictable visual stimuli-deviants, than for frequent, predictable visual stimuli-standards. Here, we show that the vMMN does not require conscious experience. We measured the vMMN from monocular luminance-decrement deviants that were either perceived or not during binocular rivalry dominance or suppression, respectively. We found that both sorts of deviants elicited the vMMN at about 250 ms after stimulus onset, with perceived deviants eliciting a bigger vMMN than not-perceived deviants. These results show that vMMN occurs in the absence of consciousness, and that consciousness enhances the processing underlying vMMN. We conclude that generative models of visual perception are tested, even when sensory input for those models is not perceived. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  14. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Results Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy, and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Conclusions Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance.

  15. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VISUAL AND AUDITORY INTERVENTION ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND PERCEIVED EFFORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Han Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE. We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible, and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort.

  16. Retrospective Cyberbullying and Suicide Ideation: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Thwarted Belongingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sean M; Seegan, Paige L; Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Sustaíta, Michael A; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2016-02-09

    Research suggests that being cyberbullied is associated with increased risk for suicide ideation; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of this relation, and fewer have examined this relation within a theory of suicide. Specifically, the interpersonal theory of suicide posits that thwarted belongingness (indicated by loneliness and a lack of reciprocal caring relationships) and perceived burdensomeness (indicated by feelings of liability and self-hatred) increase risk for suicide ideation. The current study aimed to examine depressive symptoms, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness as mediators between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation. Participants were college students (N = 348) who completed assessments of retrospective peer victimization, thwarted interpersonal needs (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness), and suicide ideation. The results indicated that after adjusting for sexual orientation, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the relation between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation. Furthermore, depressive symptoms and perceived burdensomeness serially mediated the relation between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation; however, thwarted belongingness was not a significant mediator. Clinical and research implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  17. Perceived control and maternal satisfaction with childbirth: a measure development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Natalie R; Wallston, Kenneth A; Hamilton, Nancy A

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two instruments: one to assess patient perceptions of control of the childbirth environment and the other, global satisfaction with the childbirth experience. Participants were 187 women recruited from obstetric clinics, breast-feeding support groups and online who had given birth in the past 4 months. Scale development involved item construction, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Perceived Control in Childbirth Scale (PCCh), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Satisfaction with Childbirth Scale (SWCh), reliability analysis and construct validity analyses. EFA identified a single factor underlying a set of items reflecting the patient's belief that her actions influenced the birth environment (i.e. perceived control). CFAs supported a single-factor model reflecting the degree to which the birth experience met the patient's ideal (i.e. satisfaction). Perceived control was associated with childbirth self-efficacy. Childbirth satisfaction was associated with both affective reactions to birth and childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results support the validity and reliability of two new scales that assess perceived control of the birth environment and global satisfaction with childbirth.

  18. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2004-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  19. Evaluation of perceived pain with various length insulin needles with correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akatli Kursat Ozsahin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Insulin treatment is mandatory for some diabetic patients. Although physicians explain the advantages and essentiality of insulin therapy, patients may refrain from using it due to the pain factor. The aim of this study was to determine the level of pain perceived with 4 and 8 mm insulin needles on a group of diabetic patients with respect to age, gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods: 296 diabetic patients (165 female, 131 male under insulin therapy were recruited in the study. Patients rated pain associated with the injection of both needles according to a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS. Results: The perceived pain was higher with 8 mm needles with respect to age, BMI and gender. The perceived pain increased with age with both needles but was more intense with 8 mm. Pain was positively associated with BMI with 4 mm needles, whereas for 8 mm needles it showed high intensity regardless of BMI. Gender was not found to be an effective factor for perceived pain. Conclusion: Although pain is unique for everyone, primary care health givers need to consider altering insulin needles to shorter ones. It may keep patients comply with the regimen and even if compliance exists it may help with the clinical results. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 181-184

  20. Perceived Interpersonal Burdensomeness as a Mediator between Nightmare Distress and Suicidal ideation in Nightmare Sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Suh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have supported the significant association between nightmares and suicidal ideation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness as mediators in the relationship between nightmare distress and suicidal ideation. This sample consisted of 301 undergraduate students who endorsed experiencing nightmares (mean age 21.87 ± 2.17, 78.1% female. All participants completed questionnaires on nightmare distress (Nightmare Distress Questionnaire, unmet interpersonal needs (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, and suicidal ideation (Depressive Symptom Inventory - Suicidality Subscale. Analyses were performed using multiple mediation regression. Results indicated that nightmare distress was associated with perceived burdensomeness (r = .17, p < .001 and suicidal ideation (r = .24, p < .001, but was not related to thwarted belongingness (r = .10, p = .06. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that perceived burdensomeness partially mediated the relationship between nightmares and suicidal ideation, but thwarted belongingness did not. Additionally, this mediating relationship for perceived burdensomeness was moderated by gender, being significant only for females. These findings highlight the important role of interpersonal factors in the relationship between nightmares and suicidal ideation.

  1. EXPLORING SERVICE QUALITY IMPACTS ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN MILITARY MEDICAL CENTRES: MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about service quality impacts on customer satisfaction. However, little research on this perspective has been carried out in military settings. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, and moderating effects of perceived value in military medical centre. A survey method was employed and data was collected from customers at medical centers under the administration of Malaysian army organization. Analysis was performed using SmartPLS path model analysis. The results show two important findings: first, the interaction between four service quality components (i.e., tangible, reliability, responsiveness and assurance and customers’ perceived value were significantly correlated with customer satisfaction. Second, the interaction between one service quality component (i.e., tangible were not significantly correlated with customer satisfaction. In overall, this result confirms that effect of tangible, reliability, responsiveness and assurance on customer satisfaction has been moderated by customers’ perceived value. Conversely, effect empathy on customer satisfaction has not been moderated by customers’ perceived value. Further, this study offers discussion, implications and conclusion.

  2. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs.

  3. Effects of Perceived Trust and Perceived Price on Customers’ Intention to Buy in Online Store in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Setiawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Price and trust are important factors that influence customer purchasing decision in online shopping. However, the synergy of these two factors in customer intention to buy still needs to get higher attention. This paper examines the relative influence of perceived trust and perceived price on customers intention to buy, both for customers who have bought item from the store (repeat customers and who have not (potential customers, and examines whether a difference exists on the strength of influence of price and trust to purchase intention in those groups. Data are analyzed with the multiple group analysis structural equation modeling, comparing the repeat customers and potential customers. The results of this paper reveal that there is no significant difference of effect between perceived trust and perceived price on intention to buy between potential and repeat customers and that perceived trust exerts a stronger effect than perceived price on purchase intentions for both potential and repeat customers of an online vendor. This paper also reveals that while perceived trust exerts a positive influence, perceived price exerts a negative influence on both perceived value and intention to buy.

  4. Relationships among factual and perceived knowledge of harms of waterpipe tobacco, perceived risk, and desire to quit among college users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Levy, Janet

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in the United States among college students. Through a web-based survey, we explored associations among factual and perceived knowledge, perceived risks and worry about harm and addiction, and desire to quit among 316 college waterpipe tobacco smoking users. Overall, factual knowledge of the harm of waterpipe tobacco smoking was poor, factual and perceived knowledge was weakly correlated, both forms of knowledge were related inconsistently to perceived risks and worry, and neither form of knowledge was associated with the desire to quit. Findings provide preliminary insights as to why knowledge gaps may not predict cessation among waterpipe users. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Acoustic Cues to Perceived Prominence Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Stefan; Niebuhr, Oliver; Schroeter, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    profiles that mainly differ in gradient phonetic features (F0 range, duration, intensity) and are only to some extent influenced by the choice of phonological accent type. Furthermore, the distinction between the two levels turned out to be largely independent of medial or final accent positions...

  6. Perceived barriers to guideline adherence: A survey among general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besters Casper F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable efforts to promote and support guideline use, adherence is often suboptimal. Barriers to adherence vary not only across guidelines but also across recommendations within guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to guideline adherence among GPs by focusing on key recommendations within guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey among 703 GPs in the Netherlands. Sixteen key recommendations were derived from four national guidelines. Six statements were included to address the attitudes towards guidelines in general. In addition, GPs were asked to rate their perceived adherence (one statement and the perceived barriers (fourteen statements for each of the key recommendations, based on an existing framework. Results 264 GPs (38% completed the questionnaire. Although 35% of the GPs reported difficulties in changing routines and habits to follow guidelines, 89% believed that following guidelines leads to improved patient care. Perceived adherence varied between 52 and 95% across recommendations (mean: 77%. The most perceived barriers were related to external factors, in particular patient ability and behaviour (mean: 30% and patient preferences (mean: 23%. Lack of applicability of recommendations in general (mean: 22% and more specifically to individual patients (mean: 25% were also frequently perceived as barriers. The scores on perceived barriers differed largely between recommendations [minimum range 14%; maximum range 67%]. Conclusions Dutch GPs have a positive attitude towards the NHG guidelines, report high adherence rates and low levels of perceived barriers. However, the perceived adherence and perceived barriers varied largely across recommendations. The most perceived barriers across recommendations are patient related, suggesting that current guidelines do not always adequately incorporate patient preferences, needs and abilities. It may be

  7. Image feature localization by multiple hypothesis testing of Gabor features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilonen, Jarmo; Kamarainen, Joni-Kristian; Paalanen, Pekka; Hamouz, Miroslav; Kittler, Josef; Kälviäinen, Heikki

    2008-03-01

    Several novel and particularly successful object and object category detection and recognition methods based on image features, local descriptions of object appearance, have recently been proposed. The methods are based on a localization of image features and a spatial constellation search over the localized features. The accuracy and reliability of the methods depend on the success of both tasks: image feature localization and spatial constellation model search. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm for image feature localization. The method is based on complex-valued multi resolution Gabor features and their ranking using multiple hypothesis testing. The algorithm provides very accurate local image features over arbitrary scale and rotation. We discuss in detail issues such as selection of filter parameters, confidence measure, and the magnitude versus complex representation, and show on a large test sample how these influence the performance. The versatility and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on two profoundly different challenging problems (faces and license plates).

  8. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

  9. Violence, Psychological Features, and Substance Use in High School Students in Hatay: a Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    İnandı, Tacettin; Özer, Cahit; AKDEMİR, ASENA; AKOĞLU, SABAHAT; BABAYİĞİT, CENK; Sangün, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of substance use among high school students and to examine the relationship between substance use and violence and psychological features. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 23 high schools in Hatay in 2006 using a questionnaire consisted of General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: A ...

  10. Finding phonological features in perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigated whether phonological features have perceptual bases. The search for features in perception was approached from several angles: from that of an adult listener who has a fully acquired language system in place, from that of a linguist who aims to uncover feature structures in

  11. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  12. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  13. The Effects of Handedness and Reachability on Perceived Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenauger, Sally A.; Witt, Jessica K.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceived distances are scaled by the action capabilities of the body. The present studies showed that when "reachability" is constrained due to a difficult grasp required to pick up an object, perceived distance to the object increases. Participants estimated the distances to tools with handle…

  14. Psychological Needs as the Predictor of Teachers' Perceived Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ahmet; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels. First of all, the differentiation status of teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels in terms of gender, type of institution and type of the school variables was examined. Then, the psychological need's level…

  15. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  16. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  17. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilation...... of a strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings....

  18. Addressing Perceived Skill Deficiencies in Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; Eckerle, Kayle; Martin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This article explores existing literature on perceived skill deficiencies among entry-level student affairs practitioners. Through a review of recent literature, seven perceived skill deficiencies were identified, including budgeting and financial management, strategic planning, research and assessment, legal knowledge and standards, supervision,…

  19. Perceived Multicultural Counseling Competence of Malaysian Counselors: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aga Mohd Jaladin, Rafidah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and extent of perceived multicultural counseling competence (MCC) of 508 professional counselors in Malaysia using a national survey approach. Differences in counselors' perceived MCC pertaining to gender, ethnicity, highest education, and multicultural training were examined. Results revealed 5 factors as…

  20. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…