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Sample records for features events processes

  1. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  2. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  3. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  4. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  5. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  6. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they

  7. Features, Events, and Processes: System Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-04-19

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate System Level features, events, and processes (FEPs). The System Level FEPs typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem level analyses and models reports. The System Level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. This evaluation determines which of the System Level FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the information presented in analysis reports, model reports, direct input, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  8. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  9. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  10. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  11. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. McGregor

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760)

  12. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the

  13. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    na

    2005-05-30

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The

  14. Features, events and processes evaluation catalogue for argillaceous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.; Pearson, F.J.; Volckaert, G.; Bock, H.

    2003-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations for the disposal of radioactive waste (known as the 'Clay Club') launched a project called FEPCAT (Features, Events and Processes Catalogue for argillaceous media) in late 1998. The present report provides the results of work performed by an expert group to develop a FEPs database related to argillaceous formations, whether soft or indurated. It describes the methodology used for the work performed, provides a list of relevant FEPs and summarises the knowledge on each of them. It also provides general conclusions and identifies priorities for future work. (authors)

  15. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process

  16. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  17. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Persoff

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA

  18. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA

  19. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Persoff

    2005-08-04

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  20. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Persoff

    2004-11-06

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  1. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economy, K.

    2004-01-01

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded)

  2. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2005-01-01

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded)

  3. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Economy

    2004-11-16

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  4. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kuzio

    2005-08-20

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  5. Features, Events and Processes for the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Greenberg, H.R.; Caporuscio, F.A.; Houseworth, J.E.; Freeze, G.A.; Mariner, P.; Cunnane, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within DOE-NE is evaluating storage and disposal options for a range of waste forms and a range of geologic environments. To assess the potential performance of conceptual repository designs for the combinations of waste form and geologic environment, a master set of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) has been developed and evaluated. These FEPs are based on prior lists developed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) and the international repository community. The objective of the UFD FEPs activity is to identify and categorize FEPs that are important to disposal system performance for a variety of disposal alternatives (i.e., combinations of waste forms, disposal concepts, and geologic environments). FEP analysis provides guidance for the identification of (1) important considerations in disposal system design, and (2) gaps in the technical bases. The UFD FEPs also support the development of performance assessment (PA) models to evaluate the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of candidate disposal system alternatives. For the UFD FEP development, five waste form groups and seven geologic settings are being considered. A total of 208 FEPs have been identified, categorized by the physical components of the waste disposal system as well as cross-cutting physical phenomena. The combination of 35 waste-form/geologic environments and 208 FEPs is large; however, some FEP evaluations can cut across multiple waste/environment combinations, and other FEPs can be categorized as not-applicable for some waste/environment combinations, making the task of FEP evaluation more tractable. A FEP status tool has been developed to document progress. The tool emphasizes three major areas that can be statused numerically. FEP Applicability documents whether the FEP is pertinent to a waste/environment combination. FEP Completion Status documents the progress of the evaluation for the FEP

  6. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Houseworth

    2001-04-10

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and

  7. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS MandO 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow

  8. Yucca Mountain Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.

    2005-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to help demonstrate compliance with applicable postclosure regulatory standards and support the License Application (LA). Two important precursors to the development of the TSPA model were (1) the identification and screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the Yucca Mountain disposal system (i.e., FEP analysis), and (2) the formation of scenarios from screened in (included) FEPs to be evaluated in the TSPA model (i.e., scenario development). YMP FEP analysis and scenario development followed a five-step process: (1) Identify a comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the long-term performance of the disposal system. (2) Screen the FEPs using specified criteria to identify those FEPs that should be included in the TSPA analysis and those that can be excluded from the analysis. (3) Form scenarios from the screened in (included) FEPs. (4) Screen the scenarios using the same criteria applied to the FEPs to identify any scenarios that can be excluded from the TSPA, as appropriate. (5) Specify the implementation of the scenarios in the computational modeling for the TSPA, and document the treatment of included FEPs. This paper describes the FEP analysis approach (Steps 1 and 2) for YMP, with a brief discussion of scenario formation (Step 3). Details of YMP scenario development (Steps 3 and 4) and TSPA modeling (Step 5) are beyond scope of this paper. The identification and screening of the YMP FEPs was an iterative process based on site-specific information, design, and regulations. The process was iterative in the sense that there were multiple evaluation and feedback steps (e.g., separate preliminary, interim, and final analyses). The initial YMP FEP list was compiled from an existing international list of FEPs from other radioactive waste disposal programs and was augmented by YMP site- and design

  9. Screening Analysis of Criticality Features, Events, and Processes for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. McClure

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the screening analysis of postclosure criticality features, events, and processes. It addresses the probability of criticality events resulting from degradation processes as well as disruptive events (i.e., seismic, rock fall, and igneous). Probability evaluations are performed utilizing the configuration generator described in ''Configuration Generator Model'', a component of the methodology from ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report''. The total probability per package of criticality is compared against the regulatory probability criterion for inclusion of events established in 10 CFR 63.114(d) (consider only events that have at least one chance in 10,000 of occurring over 10,000 years). The total probability of criticality accounts for the evaluation of identified potential critical configurations of all baselined commercial and U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel waste form and waste package combinations, both internal and external to the waste packages. This criticality screening analysis utilizes available information for the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor Absorber Plate, 12-Pressurized Water Reactor Absorber Plate, 44-Boiling Water Reactor Absorber Plate, 24-Boiling Water Reactor Absorber Plate, and the 5-Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste/U.S. Department of Energy Short waste package types. Where defensible, assumptions have been made for the evaluation of the following waste package types in order to perform a complete criticality screening analysis: 21-Pressurized Water Reactor Control Rod, 5-Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste/U.S. Department of Energy Long, and 2-Multi-Canister Overpack/2-Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste package types. The inputs used to establish probabilities for this analysis report are based on information and data generated for the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application, where available. This analysis report determines whether criticality is to be

  10. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  11. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  12. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT FEATURE, EVENT, AND PROCESS (FEP) DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.; Swift, P.; Brodsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment for Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) has recently been completed (CRWMS M andO, 2000b) for the potential high-level waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The TSPA-SR is an integrated model of scenarios and processes relevant to the postclosure performance of the potential repository. The TSPA-SR scenarios and model components in turn include representations of all features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified as being relevant (i.e., screened in) for analysis. The process of identifying, classifying, and screening potentially relevant FEPs thus provides a critical foundation for scenario development and TSPA analyses for the Yucca Mountain site (Swift et al., 1999). The objectives of this paper are to describe (a) the identification and classification of the comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, and (b) the development, structure, and use of an electronic database for storing and retrieving screening information about the inclusion and/or exclusion of these Yucca Mountain FEPs in TSPA-SR. The FEPs approach to scenario development is not unique to the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). General systematic approaches are summarized in NEA (1992). The application of the FEPs approach in several other international radioactive waste disposal programs is summarized in NEA ( 1999)

  14. Potentially disruptive hydrologic features, events and processes at the Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been selected by the United States to be evaluated as a potential site for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the site is determined to be suitable for repository development and construction is authorized, the repository at the Yucca Mountain site is planned to be constructed in unsaturated tuff at a depth of about 250 meters below land surface and at a distance of about 250 meters above the water table. The intent of locating a repository in a thick unsaturated-zone geohydrologic setting, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain under the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that currently prevail in the region, is to provide a natural setting for the repository system in which little ground water will be available to contact emplaced waste or to transport radioactive material from the repository to the biosphere. In principle, an unsaturated-zone repository will be vulnerable to water entry from both above and below. Consequently, a major effort within the site-characterization program at the Yucca Mountain site is concerned with identifying and evaluating those features, events, and processes, such as increased net infiltration or water-table rise, whose presence or future occurrence could introduce water into a potential repository at the site in quantities sufficient to compromise the waste-isolation capability of the repository system

  15. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. J. Tappen

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this revision of ''Evaluation of the Applicability of Biosphere-Related Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs)'' (BSC 2001) is to document the screening analysis of biosphere-related primary FEPs, as identified in ''The Development of Information Catalogued in REV00 of the YMP FEP Database'' (Freeze et al. 2001), in accordance with the requirements of the final U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR Part 63. This database is referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) FEP Database throughout this document. Those biosphere-related primary FEPs that are screened as applicable will be used to develop the conceptual model portion of the biosphere model, which will in turn be used to develop the mathematical model portion of the biosphere model. As part of this revision, any reference to the screening guidance or criteria provided either by Dyer (1999) or by the proposed NRC regulations at 64 FR 8640 has been removed. The title of this revision has been changed to more accurately reflect the purpose of the analyses. In addition, this revision will address Item Numbers 19, 20, 21, 25, and 26 from Attachment 2 of ''U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission/U.S. Department of Energy Technical Exchange and Management Meeting on Total System Performance Assessment and Integration (August 6 through 10, 2001)'' (Reamer 2001). This Scientific Analysis Report (SAR) does not support the current revision to the YMP FEP Database (Freeze et al. 2001). Subsequent to the release of the YMP FEP Database (Freeze et al. 2001), a series of reviews was conducted on both the FEP processes used to support Total System Performance Assessment for Site Recommendation and to develop the YMP FEP Database. In response to observations and comments from these reviews, particularly the NRC/DOE TSPA Technical Exchange in August 2001 (Reamer 2001), several Key Technical Issue (KTI) Agreements were developed. ''The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events and Processes

  16. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Tappen

    2003-02-16

    The purpose of this revision of ''Evaluation of the Applicability of Biosphere-Related Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs)'' (BSC 2001) is to document the screening analysis of biosphere-related primary FEPs, as identified in ''The Development of Information Catalogued in REV00 of the YMP FEP Database'' (Freeze et al. 2001), in accordance with the requirements of the final U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR Part 63. This database is referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) FEP Database throughout this document. Those biosphere-related primary FEPs that are screened as applicable will be used to develop the conceptual model portion of the biosphere model, which will in turn be used to develop the mathematical model portion of the biosphere model. As part of this revision, any reference to the screening guidance or criteria provided either by Dyer (1999) or by the proposed NRC regulations at 64 FR 8640 has been removed. The title of this revision has been changed to more accurately reflect the purpose of the analyses. In addition, this revision will address Item Numbers 19, 20, 21, 25, and 26 from Attachment 2 of ''U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission/U.S. Department of Energy Technical Exchange and Management Meeting on Total System Performance Assessment and Integration (August 6 through 10, 2001)'' (Reamer 2001). This Scientific Analysis Report (SAR) does not support the current revision to the YMP FEP Database (Freeze et al. 2001). Subsequent to the release of the YMP FEP Database (Freeze et al. 2001), a series of reviews was conducted on both the FEP processes used to support Total System Performance Assessment for Site Recommendation and to develop the YMP FEP Database. In response to observations and comments from these reviews, particularly the NRC/DOE TSPA Technical Exchange in August 2001 (Reamer 2001), several Key Technical Issue (KTI) Agreements were developed

  17. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek; P. Rogers

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the corresponding technical basis for the excluded FEPs and the descriptions of how the included FEPs were incorporated in the biosphere model. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report concern characteristics of the reference biosphere, the receptor, and the environmental transport and receptor exposure pathways for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios considered in biosphere modeling. This revision provides the summary of the implementation of included FEPs in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included); for excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report is one of the 10 documents constituting the biosphere model documentation suite. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' describes in detail the biosphere conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters and their development. Outputs from these six reports are used in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis and Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

  18. The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Freeze

    2002-01-01

    A performance assessment is required to demonstrate compliance with the post-closure performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), as stated in 10 CFR Part 63.1 13 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). A performance assessment is defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (66 FR 55732, p. 55794) as an analysis that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of those FEPs upon the performance of the potential geologic repository; and (3) estimates the expected dose incurred by a specified reasonably maximally exposed individual as a result of releases caused by significant FEPs. The performance assessment must also provide the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs in the performance assessment as stated in 10 CFR 63.114 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). An initial approach for FEP development, in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (CRWMS M and O 2000e), was documented in Freeze et al. (2001). The development of a comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the post-closure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository is an ongoing, iterative process based on site-specific information, design, and regulations. Although comprehensiveness of the FEPs list cannot be proven with absolute certainty, confidence can be gained through a combination of formal and systematic reviews (both top-down and bottom-up), audits, and comparisons with other FEP lists and through the application of more than one classification scheme. To support TSPA-SR, DOE used a multi-step approach for demonstrating comprehensiveness of the initial list of FEPs. Input was obtained from other international radioactive waste disposal programs as compiled by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to establish a general list of FEPs. The list was subsequently refined to include YMP

  19. The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events, and Processes (FEPS) at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Freeze

    2002-03-25

    A performance assessment is required to demonstrate compliance with the post-closure performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), as stated in 10 CFR Part 63.1 13 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). A performance assessment is defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (66 FR 55732, p. 55794) as an analysis that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of those FEPs upon the performance of the potential geologic repository; and (3) estimates the expected dose incurred by a specified reasonably maximally exposed individual as a result of releases caused by significant FEPs. The performance assessment must also provide the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs in the performance assessment as stated in 10 CFR 63.114 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). An initial approach for FEP development, in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000e), was documented in Freeze et al. (2001). The development of a comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the post-closure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository is an ongoing, iterative process based on site-specific information, design, and regulations. Although comprehensiveness of the FEPs list cannot be proven with absolute certainty, confidence can be gained through a combination of formal and systematic reviews (both top-down and bottom-up), audits, and comparisons with other FEP lists and through the application of more than one classification scheme. To support TSPA-SR, DOE used a multi-step approach for demonstrating comprehensiveness of the initial list of FEPs. Input was obtained from other international radioactive waste disposal programs as compiled by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to establish a general list of FEPs. The list was subsequently refined to include YMP

  20. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-10-09

    The purpose of this report is to document the evaluation of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) that relate to the license application (LA) process as required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The evaluation determines whether specific biosphere-related FEPs should be included or excluded from consideration in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This analysis documents the technical basis for screening decisions as required at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. For FEPs that are included in the TSPA, this analysis provides a TSPA disposition, which summarizes how the FEP has been included and addressed in the TSPA model, and cites the analysis reports and model reports that provide the technical basis and description of its disposition. For FEPs that are excluded from the TSPA, this analysis report provides a screening argument, which identifies the basis for the screening decision (i.e., low probability, low consequence, or by regulation) and discusses the technical basis that supports that decision. In cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP analysis reports, this analysis may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for these shared FEPs is addressed collectively by all FEP analysis reports that cover technical disciplines sharing a FEP. FEPs must be included in the TSPA unless they can be excluded by low probability, low consequence, or regulation. A FEP can be excluded from the TSPA by low probability per 10 CFR 63.114(d) [DIRS 156605], by showing that it has less than one chance in 10,000 of occurring over 10,000 years (or an approximately equivalent annualized probability of 10{sup -8}). A FEP can be excluded from the TSPA by low consequence per 10 CFR 63.114 (e or f) [DIRS 156605], by showing that omitting the FEP would not significantly change the magnitude and

  1. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the evaluation of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) that relate to the license application (LA) process as required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The evaluation determines whether specific biosphere-related FEPs should be included or excluded from consideration in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This analysis documents the technical basis for screening decisions as required at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. For FEPs that are included in the TSPA, this analysis provides a TSPA disposition, which summarizes how the FEP has been included and addressed in the TSPA model, and cites the analysis reports and model reports that provide the technical basis and description of its disposition. For FEPs that are excluded from the TSPA, this analysis report provides a screening argument, which identifies the basis for the screening decision (i.e., low probability, low consequence, or by regulation) and discusses the technical basis that supports that decision. In cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP analysis reports, this analysis may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for these shared FEPs is addressed collectively by all FEP analysis reports that cover technical disciplines sharing a FEP. FEPs must be included in the TSPA unless they can be excluded by low probability, low consequence, or regulation. A FEP can be excluded from the TSPA by low probability per 10 CFR 63.114(d) [DIRS 156605], by showing that it has less than one chance in 10,000 of occurring over 10,000 years (or an approximately equivalent annualized probability of 10 -8 ). A FEP can be excluded from the TSPA by low consequence per 10 CFR 63.114 (e or f) [DIRS 156605], by showing that omitting the FEP would not significantly change the magnitude and

  2. Feature, Event, and Process Screening and Scenario Development for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.; Barr, G.; Burch, P.; Freeze, G.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Swift, P.

    1999-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of post-closure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited

  3. Feature, event, and process screening and scenario development for the yucca mountain total system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Barr, G.; Barnard, R.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Freeze, G.; Burck, P.

    2001-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of postclosure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). To ensure clear documentation of the treatment of potentially relevant future states of the system in the Yucca Mountain license application (LA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to adopt a scenario development process based on the methodology developed by Cranwell et al. (1990) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although the process, described below, has been modified somewhat as a result of experience gained in the last decade, the underlying methodology is consistent with that outlined by the DOE in the 1988 Site Characterization Plan for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) (U.S. DOE, 1988). The approach is fundamentally the same as that used in many performance assessments, including the most recent analysis of the Yucca Mountain repository by the NRC (Wescott et al., 1995). The approach has also been used by the DOE for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (U.S. DOE, 1996), by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and by other radioactive waste programs internationally. Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited. (authors)

  4. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  5. Natural and industrial analogues for release of CO2 from storagereservoirs: Identification of features, events, and processes and lessonslearned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-03-03

    The injection and storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in deep geologic formations is a potentially feasible strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and atmospheric concentrations. While the purpose of geologic carbon storage is to trap CO{sub 2} underground, CO{sub 2} could migrate away from the storage site into the shallow subsurface and atmosphere if permeable pathways such as well bores or faults are present. Large-magnitude releases of CO{sub 2} have occurred naturally from geologic reservoirs in numerous volcanic, geothermal, and sedimentary basin settings. Carbon dioxide and natural gas have also been released from geologic CO{sub 2} reservoirs and natural gas storage facilities, respectively, due to influences such as well defects and injection/withdrawal processes. These systems serve as natural and industrial analogues for the potential release of CO{sub 2} from geologic storage reservoirs and provide important information about the key features, events, and processes (FEPs) that are associated with releases, as well as the health, safety, and environmental consequences of releases and mitigation efforts that can be applied. We describe a range of natural releases of CO{sub 2} and industrial releases of CO{sub 2} and natural gas in the context of these characteristics. Based on this analysis, several key conclusions can be drawn, and lessons can be learned for geologic carbon storage. First, CO{sub 2} can both accumulate beneath, and be released from, primary and secondary reservoirs with capping units located at a wide range of depths. Both primary and secondary reservoir entrapments for CO{sub 2} should therefore be well characterized at storage sites. Second, many natural releases of CO{sub 2} have been correlated with a specific event that triggered the release, such as magmatic fluid intrusion or seismic activity. The potential for processes that could cause geomechanical damage to sealing cap rocks and trigger the release of CO{sub 2} from a storage

  6. Natural and industrial analogues for leakage of CO2 from storagereservoirs: identification of features, events, and processes and lessonslearned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-28

    The injection and storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deepgeologic formations is a potentially feasible strategy to reduce CO2emissions and atmospheric concentrations. While the purpose of geologiccarbon storage is to trap CO2 underground, CO2 could migrate away fromthe storage site into the shallow subsurface and atmosphere if permeablepathways such as well bores or faults are present. Large-magnitudereleases of CO2 have occurred naturally from geologic reservoirs innumerous volcanic, geothermal, and sedimentary basin settings. Carbondioxide and natural gas have also been released from geologic CO2reservoirs and natural gas storage facilities, respectively, due toinfluences such as well defects and injection/withdrawal processes. Thesesystems serve as natural and industrial analogues for the potentialrelease of CO2 from geologic storage reservoirs and provide importantinformation about the key features, events, and processes (FEPs) that areassociated with releases, as well as the health, safety, andenvironmental consequences of releases and mitigation efforts that can beapplied. We describe a range of natural releases of CO2 and industrialreleases of CO2 and natural gas in the context of these characteristics.Based on this analysis, several key conclusions can be drawn, and lessonscan be learned for geologic carbon storage. First, CO2 can bothaccumulate beneath, and be released from, primary and secondaryreservoirs with capping units located at a wide range of depths. Bothprimary and secondary reservoir entrapments for CO2 should therefore bewell characterized at storage sites. Second, many natural releases of CO2have been correlated with a specific event that triggered the release,such as magmatic fluid intrusion or seismic activity. The potential forprocesses that could cause geomechanical damage to sealing cap rocks andtrigger the release of CO2 from a storage reservoir should be evaluated.Third, unsealed fault and fracture zones may act as fast and directconduits

  7. Encyclopaedia of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) for the Swedish SFR and Spent Fuel Repositories. Preliminary Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Bill; Savage, Dave; McEwen, Tim; White, Matt

    2002-08-01

    This is an 'Encyclopaedia' providing descriptions of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) that are relevant to the Swedish repository for low and intermediate-level wastes (the SFR) and the proposed Swedish repository for spent fuel. Although the FEPs and their descriptions found in this encyclopaedia are specific to these two repository concepts, many of the descriptions will also be relevant to other repository designs and concepts, although they have not been written to be inclusive of the features of other repositories. As such, this encyclopaedia may be of interest to a wide range of individuals and organisations involved in repository safety assessment around the world. The purpose of this encyclopaedia is to describe, in qualitative terms, the various FEPs which have been identified as being relevant to the two Swedish repository designs. These descriptions may be used in a variety of ways. One important role will be to support quantitative performance assessments (PAs) by describing the conceptual understanding of the various components of the repository (e.g. the barriers, the rock and the groundwater) and their evolution: this conceptual understanding is crucial because it is the foundation upon which the mathematical analysis is based. The descriptions have been written at a level of detail appropriate for a scientifically literate reader without specialist knowledge of radioactive waste disposal technology or assessment procedures. As such, the descriptions avoid the use of specialist terms, acronyms and equations. Many of the FEP descriptions relate to issues which are the focus of ongoing research and, thus, they reflect the current state of knowledge and may require updating at regular intervals, either to include more recent technical information or procedures for treating the FEP in mathematical safety assessment. When attempting to predict the future behaviour of a repository for radioactive wastes, it is sensible to use a systematic approach to

  8. Encyclopaedia of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) for the Swedish SFR and Spent Fuel Repositories. Preliminary Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bill; Savage, Dave; McEwen, Tim; White, Matt [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    This is an 'Encyclopaedia' providing descriptions of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) that are relevant to the Swedish repository for low and intermediate-level wastes (the SFR) and the proposed Swedish repository for spent fuel. Although the FEPs and their descriptions found in this encyclopaedia are specific to these two repository concepts, many of the descriptions will also be relevant to other repository designs and concepts, although they have not been written to be inclusive of the features of other repositories. As such, this encyclopaedia may be of interest to a wide range of individuals and organisations involved in repository safety assessment around the world. The purpose of this encyclopaedia is to describe, in qualitative terms, the various FEPs which have been identified as being relevant to the two Swedish repository designs. These descriptions may be used in a variety of ways. One important role will be to support quantitative performance assessments (PAs) by describing the conceptual understanding of the various components of the repository (e.g. the barriers, the rock and the groundwater) and their evolution: this conceptual understanding is crucial because it is the foundation upon which the mathematical analysis is based. The descriptions have been written at a level of detail appropriate for a scientifically literate reader without specialist knowledge of radioactive waste disposal technology or assessment procedures. As such, the descriptions avoid the use of specialist terms, acronyms and equations. Many of the FEP descriptions relate to issues which are the focus of ongoing research and, thus, they reflect the current state of knowledge and may require updating at regular intervals, either to include more recent technical information or procedures for treating the FEP in mathematical safety assessment. When attempting to predict the future behaviour of a repository for radioactive wastes, it is sensible to use a systematic

  9. Different timing features in brain processing of core and moral disgust pictures: an event-related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Zhang

    Full Text Available Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust.

  10. Different timing features in brain processing of core and moral disgust pictures: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Youxue; Lou, Liandi; Ding, Daoqun

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust.

  11. Different underlying mechanisms for face emotion and gender processing during feature-selective attention: Evidence from event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailing; Ip, Chengteng; Fu, Shimin; Sun, Pei

    2017-05-01

    Face recognition theories suggest that our brains process invariant (e.g., gender) and changeable (e.g., emotion) facial dimensions separately. To investigate whether these two dimensions are processed in different time courses, we analyzed the selection negativity (SN, an event-related potential component reflecting attentional modulation) elicited by face gender and emotion during a feature selective attention task. Participants were instructed to attend to a combination of face emotion and gender attributes in Experiment 1 (bi-dimensional task) and to either face emotion or gender in Experiment 2 (uni-dimensional task). The results revealed that face emotion did not elicit a substantial SN, whereas face gender consistently generated a substantial SN in both experiments. These results suggest that face gender is more sensitive to feature-selective attention and that face emotion is encoded relatively automatically on SN, implying the existence of different underlying processing mechanisms for invariant and changeable facial dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatiotemporal Features for Asynchronous Event-based Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLagorce

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bio-inspired asynchronous event-based vision sensors are currently introducing a paradigm shift in visual information processing. These new sensors rely on a stimulus-driven principle of light acquisition similar to biological retinas. They are event-driven and fully asynchronous, thereby reducing redundancy and encoding exact times of input signal changes, leading to a very precise temporal resolution. Approaches for higher-level computer vision often rely on the realiable detection of features in visual frames, but similar definitions of features for the novel dynamic and event-based visual input representation of silicon retinas have so far been lacking. This article addresses the problem of learning and recognizing features for event-based vision sensors, which capture properties of truly spatiotemporal volumes of sparse visual event information. A novel computational architecture for learning and encoding spatiotemporal features is introduced based on a set of predictive recurrent reservoir networks, competing via winner-take-all selection. Features are learned in an unsupervised manner from real-world input recorded with event-based vision sensors. It is shown that the networks in the architecture learn distinct and task-specific dynamic visual features, and can predict their trajectories over time.

  13. Application of the RES methodology for identifying features, events and processes (FEPs) for near-field analysis of copper-steel canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Hautojaervi, A.; Raiko, H.; Ahonen, L.; Salo, J.P.

    1994-12-01

    Rock Engineering Systems (RES) is an approach to discover the important characteristics and interactions of a complex problem. Recently RES has been applied to identify features, events and processes (FEPs) for performance analysis of nuclear waste repositories. The RES methodology was applied to identify FEPs for the near-field analysis of the copper-steel canister for spent fuel disposal. The aims of the exercise were to learn and test the RES methodology and, secondly, to find out how much the results differ when RES is applied by two different groups on the same problem. A similar exercise was previously carried out by a SKB group. A total of 90 potentially significant FEPs were identified. The exercise showed that the RES methodology is a practicable tool to get a comprehensive and transparent picture of a complex problem. The approach is easy to learn and use. It reveals the important characteristics and interactions and organizes them in a format easy to understand. (9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.)

  14. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Lommerzheim, Andre [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Mrugalla, Sabine [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a

  15. EVENT-MARKETING – FEATURES OF APPLICATION IN MODERN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vlasenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article analyzed the modern features of the development and using of event- marketing. Showed the conditions of the essence and characteristics of event management, its principles and methods of application. Characterized the features and importance of tourism and the benefits of application of event marketing as a promising method of indirect marketing communications. Used examples of practical application of event marketing activity. Determined correlation of event management and marketing and its subordination to the event marketing purposes. Key words: tourism, event-tourism, event-management, event-marketing, socio-cultural sphere. JEL: M 31

  16. The ATLAS Event Service: A New Approach to Event Processing

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00070566; De, Kaushik; Guan, Wen; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre­staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabi...

  17. Attending to global versus local stimulus features modulates neural processing of low versus high spatial frequencies: An analysis with event-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Flevaris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial frequency (SF selection has long been recognized to play a role in global and local processing, though the nature of the relationship between SF processing and global/local perception is debated. Previous studies have shown that attention to relatively lower SFs facilitates global perception, and that attention to relatively higher SFs facilitates local perception. Here we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate whether processing of low versus high SFs is modulated automatically during global and local perception, and to examine the time course of any such effects. Participants compared bilaterally presented hierarchical letter stimuli and attended to either the global or local levels. Irrelevant SF grating probes flashed at the center of the display 200 ms after the onset of the hierarchical letter stimuli could either be low or high in SF. It was found that ERPs elicited by the SF grating probes differed as a function of attended level (global vs. local. ERPs elicited by low SF grating probes were more positive in the interval 196-236 ms during global than local attention, and this difference was greater over the right occipital scalp. In contrast, ERPs elicited by the high SF gratings were more positive in the interval 250-290 ms during local than global attention, and this difference was bilaterally distributed over the occipital scalp. These results indicate that directing attention to global versus local levels of a hierarchical display facilitates automatic perceptual processing of low versus high SFs, respectively, and this facilitation is not limited to the locations occupied by the hierarchical display. The relatively long latency of these attention-related ERP modulations suggests that initial (early SF processing is not affected by attention to hierarchical level, lending support to theories positing a higher level mechanism to underlie the relationship between SF processing and global versus local

  18. CRITICAL EVENTS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2009-01-01

    cause-effects of failures and defects in the construction industry by using an analytical approach (The bowtie model) which is developed in the accident research. Using this model clarifies the relationships within the chain of failures that causes critical events with undesirable consequences......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate....... In this way the causes of failures and the relationships between various failures are rendered visible. A large construction site was observed from start to finish as the empirical element in the research. The research focuses on all kinds of critical events identified throughout every phase during...

  19. ATLAS event featuring two charm jets and missing energy

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Proton collision event in the ATLAS detector featuring two tagged charm jets and missing transverse energy. The zoomed view in the bottom right panel shows a displaced vertex of one of the c-tagged jets (marked in blue).

  20. Construction and Updating of Event Models in Auditory Event Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Markus; Maurer, Annika E.; Brich, Irina; Pagenkopf, Anne; Wickelmaier, Florian; Papenmeier, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Humans segment the continuous stream of sensory information into distinct events at points of change. Between 2 events, humans perceive an event boundary. Present theories propose changes in the sensory information to trigger updating processes of the present event model. Increased encoding effort finally leads to a memory benefit at event…

  1. The ATLAS Event Service: A new approach to event processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafiura, P.; De, K.; Guan, W.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Tsulaia, V.; Van Gemmeren, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre-staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabilities, its architecture and the highly scalable tools and technologies employed in its implementation, and its applications in ATLAS processing on HPCs, commercial cloud resources, volunteer computing, and grid resources. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  2. Feature extraction and sensor selection for NPP initiating event identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Shun-Chi; Chen, Kuang-You; Chou, Hwai-Pwu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage feature extraction scheme for NPP initiating event identification. • With stBP, interrelations among the sensors can be retained for identification. • With dSFS, sensors that are crucial for identification can be efficiently selected. • Efficacy of the scheme is illustrated with data from the Maanshan NPP simulator. - Abstract: Initiating event identification is essential in managing nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accidents. In this paper, a novel two-stage feature extraction scheme that incorporates the proposed sensor type-wise block projection (stBP) and deflatable sequential forward selection (dSFS) is used to elicit the discriminant information in the data obtained from various NPP sensors to facilitate event identification. With the stBP, the primal features can be extracted without eliminating the interrelations among the sensors of the same type. The extracted features are then subjected to a further dimensionality reduction by selecting the sensors that are most relevant to the events under consideration. This selection is not easy, and a combinatorial optimization technique is normally required. With the dSFS, an optimal sensor set can be found with less computational load. Moreover, its sensor deflation stage allows sensors in the preselected set to be iteratively refined to avoid being trapped into a local optimum. Results from detailed experiments containing data of 12 event categories and a total of 112 events generated with a Taiwan’s Maanshan NPP simulator are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme.

  3. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and energy

  4. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and

  5. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  6. Construction and updating of event models in auditory event processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Markus; Maurer, Annika E; Brich, Irina; Pagenkopf, Anne; Wickelmaier, Florian; Papenmeier, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Humans segment the continuous stream of sensory information into distinct events at points of change. Between 2 events, humans perceive an event boundary. Present theories propose changes in the sensory information to trigger updating processes of the present event model. Increased encoding effort finally leads to a memory benefit at event boundaries. Evidence from reading time studies (increased reading times with increasing amount of change) suggest that updating of event models is incremental. We present results from 5 experiments that studied event processing (including memory formation processes and reading times) using an audio drama as well as a transcript thereof as stimulus material. Experiments 1a and 1b replicated the event boundary advantage effect for memory. In contrast to recent evidence from studies using visual stimulus material, Experiments 2a and 2b found no support for incremental updating with normally sighted and blind participants for recognition memory. In Experiment 3, we replicated Experiment 2a using a written transcript of the audio drama as stimulus material, allowing us to disentangle encoding and retrieval processes. Our results indicate incremental updating processes at encoding (as measured with reading times). At the same time, we again found recognition performance to be unaffected by the amount of change. We discuss these findings in light of current event cognition theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Including product features in process redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    do not take into account how the product features are applied throughout the process, which makes it difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the activities in the processes and to generate significant improvements. The suggested approach models the product family using the so......This article suggests a visual modelling method for integrating models of product features with business process models for redesigning the business processes involving specifications of customer-tailored products and services. The current methods for redesigning these types of business processes......-called product variant master and the business process modelling notation for modelling the process flow. The product model is combined with the process map by identifying features used in each step of the process flow. Additionally, based on the information absorbed from the integrated model, the value stream...

  8. Alternating event processes during lifetimes: population dynamics and statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Russell T; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Mei-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In the literature studying recurrent event data, a large amount of work has been focused on univariate recurrent event processes where the occurrence of each event is treated as a single point in time. There are many applications, however, in which univariate recurrent events are insufficient to characterize the feature of the process because patients experience nontrivial durations associated with each event. This results in an alternating event process where the disease status of a patient alternates between exacerbations and remissions. In this paper, we consider the dynamics of a chronic disease and its associated exacerbation-remission process over two time scales: calendar time and time-since-onset. In particular, over calendar time, we explore population dynamics and the relationship between incidence, prevalence and duration for such alternating event processes. We provide nonparametric estimation techniques for characteristic quantities of the process. In some settings, exacerbation processes are observed from an onset time until death; to account for the relationship between the survival and alternating event processes, nonparametric approaches are developed for estimating exacerbation process over lifetime. By understanding the population dynamics and within-process structure, the paper provide a new and general way to study alternating event processes.

  9. Methodology for featuring and assessing extreme climatic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malleron, N.; Bernardara, P.; Benoit, M.; Parey, S.; Perret, C.

    2013-01-01

    The setting up of a nuclear power plant on a particular site requires the assessment of risks linked to extreme natural events like flooding or earthquakes. As a consequence of the Fukushima accident EDF proposes to take into account even rarer events in order to improve the robustness of the facility all over its operating life. This article presents the methodology used by EDF to analyse a set of data in a statistical way in order to extract extreme values. This analysis is based on the theory of extreme values and is applied to the extreme values of the flow rate in the case of a river overflowing. This methodology is made of 6 steps: 1) selection of the event, of its featuring parameter and of its probability, for instance the question is what is the flow rate of a flooding that has a probability of 10 -3 to happen, 2) to collect data over a long period of time (or to recover data from past periods), 3) to extract extreme values from the data, 4) to find an adequate statistical law that fits the spreading of the extreme values, 5) the selected statistical law must be validated through visual or statistical tests, and 6) the computation of the flow rate of the event itself. (A.C.)

  10. Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen, 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  11. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  12. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-07-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  13. Service Processes as a Sequence of Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); G. Antonides (Gerrit); A.N. de Hoog

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the service process is considered as a sequence of events. Using theory from economics and psychology a model is formulated that explains how the utility of each event affects the overall evaluation of the service process. In this model we especially account for the

  14. Third Dutch Process Security Control Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    On June 4th, 2009, the third Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Amsterdam. The event, organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC), attracted both Dutch process control experts and members of the European SCADA and Control Systems Information Exchange

  15. Mining process performance from event logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriansyah, A.; Buijs, J.C.A.M.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    In systems where process executions are not strictly enforced by a predefined process model, obtaining reliable performance information is not trivial. In this paper, we analyzed an event log of a real-life process, taken from a Dutch financial institute, using process mining techniques. In

  16. Post-event processing in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannahy, Laura; Stopa, Lusia

    2007-06-01

    Clark and Wells' [1995. A cognitive model of social phobia. In: R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D.A. Hope, & F.R. Schneier (Eds.) Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69-93). New York: Guildford Press.] cognitive model of social phobia proposes that following a social event, individuals with social phobia will engage in post-event processing, during which they conduct a detailed review of the event. This study investigated the relationship between self-appraisals of performance and post-event processing in individuals high and low in social anxiety. Participants appraised their performance immediately after a conversation with an unknown individual and prior to an anticipated second conversation task 1 week later. The frequency and valence of post-event processing during the week following the conversation was also assessed. The study also explored differences in the metacognitive processes of high and low socially anxious participants. The high socially anxious group experienced more anxiety, predicted worse performance, underestimated their actual performance, and engaged in more post-event processing than low socially anxious participants. The degree of negative post-event processing was linked to the extent of social anxiety and negative appraisals of performance, both immediately after the conversation task and 1 week later. Differences were also observed in some metacognitive processes. The results are discussed in relation to current theory and previous research.

  17. Decadal features of heavy rainfall events in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huopo; Sun, Jianqi; Fan, Ke

    2012-06-01

    Based on daily precipitation data, the spatial-temporal features of heavy rainfall events (HREs) during 1960-2009 are investigated. The results indicate that the HREs experienced strong decadal variability in the past 50 years, and the decadal features varied across regions. More HRE days are observed in the 1960s, 1980s, and 1990s over Northeast China (NEC); in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s over North China (NC); in the early 1960s, 1980s, and 2000s over the Huaihe River basin (HR); in the 1970s-1990s over the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley (YR); and in the 1970s and 1990s over South China (SC). These decadal changes of HRE days in eastern China are closely associated with the decadal variations of water content and stratification stability of the local atmosphere. The intensity of HREs in each sub-region is also characterized by strong decadal variability. The HRE intensity and frequency co-vary on the long-term trend, and show consistent variability over NEC, NC, and YR, but inconsistent variability over SC and HR. Further analysis of the relationships between the annual rainfall and HRE frequency as well as intensity indicates that the HRE frequency is the major contributor to the total rainfall variability in eastern China, while the HRE intensity shows only relative weak contribution.

  18. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, C.; Brarda, L.; Frank, M.; Franek, B.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Köstner, S.; Moine, G.; Neufeld, N.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Suman, S.

    2008-07-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed.

  19. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, C; Brarda, L; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Koestner, S; Moine, G; Neufeld, N; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R; Suman, S; Franek, B; Galli, D

    2008-01-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed

  20. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.

    1965-11-12

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  1. First Dutch Process Control Security Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    On May 21st , 2008, the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cyber Crime (NICC) organised their first Process Control Security Event. Mrs. Annemarie Zielstra, the NICC programme manager, opened the event. She welcomed the over 100 representatives of key industry sectors. “Earlier studies in the

  2. Fourth Dutch Process Security Control Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Zielstra, A.

    2010-01-01

    On December 1st, 2009, the fourth Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Baarn, The Netherlands. The security event with the title ‘Manage IT!’ was organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC). Mid of November, a group of over thirty people participated in the

  3. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Brarda, L; Frank, M; Franek, B; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; Van Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Köstner, S; Moine, G; Neufeld, N; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R; Suman, S

    2008-01-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. ...

  4. Recurrent process mining with live event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syamsiyah, A.; van Dongen, B.F.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Teniente, E.; Weidlich, M.

    2018-01-01

    In organizations, process mining activities are typically performed in a recurrent fashion, e.g. once a week, an event log is extracted from the information systems and a process mining tool is used to analyze the process’ characteristics. Typically, process mining tools import the data from a

  5. Data driven analysis of rain events: feature extraction, clustering, microphysical /macro physical relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djallel Dilmi, Mohamed; Mallet, Cécile; Barthes, Laurent; Chazottes, Aymeric

    2017-04-01

    The study of rain time series records is mainly carried out using rainfall rate or rain accumulation parameters estimated on a fixed integration time (typically 1 min, 1 hour or 1 day). In this study we used the concept of rain event. In fact, the discrete and intermittent natures of rain processes make the definition of some features inadequate when defined on a fixed duration. Long integration times (hour, day) lead to mix rainy and clear air periods in the same sample. Small integration time (seconds, minutes) will lead to noisy data with a great sensibility to detector characteristics. The analysis on the whole rain event instead of individual short duration samples of a fixed duration allows to clarify relationships between features, in particular between macro physical and microphysical ones. This approach allows suppressing the intra-event variability partly due to measurement uncertainties and allows focusing on physical processes. An algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organising Maps (SOM) is developed to obtain a parsimonious characterisation of rain events using a minimal set of variables. The use of self-organizing map (SOM) is justified by the fact that it allows to map a high dimensional data space in a two-dimensional space while preserving as much as possible the initial space topology in an unsupervised way. The obtained SOM allows providing the dependencies between variables and consequently removing redundant variables leading to a minimal subset of only five features (the event duration, the rain rate peak, the rain event depth, the event rain rate standard deviation and the absolute rain rate variation of order 0.5). To confirm relevance of the five selected features the corresponding SOM is analyzed. This analysis shows clearly the existence of relationships between features. It also shows the independence of the inter-event time (IETp) feature or the weak dependence of the Dry percentage in event (Dd%e) feature. This confirms

  6. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  7. Shielding voices: The modulation of binding processes between voice features and response features by task representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogon, Johanna; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Landgraf, Steffen; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Vocal events offer not only semantic-linguistic content but also information about the identity and the emotional-motivational state of the speaker. Furthermore, most vocal events have implications for our actions and therefore include action-related features. But the relevance and irrelevance of vocal features varies from task to task. The present study investigates binding processes for perceptual and action-related features of spoken words and their modulation by the task representation of the listener. Participants reacted with two response keys to eight different words spoken by a male or a female voice (Experiment 1) or spoken by an angry or neutral male voice (Experiment 2). There were two instruction conditions: half of participants learned eight stimulus-response mappings by rote (SR), and half of participants applied a binary task rule (TR). In both experiments, SR instructed participants showed clear evidence for binding processes between voice and response features indicated by an interaction between the irrelevant voice feature and the response. By contrast, as indicated by a three-way interaction with instruction, no such binding was found in the TR instructed group. These results are suggestive of binding and shielding as two adaptive mechanisms that ensure successful communication and action in a dynamic social environment.

  8. Determining probabilities of geologic events and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J.; Cranwell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently published a probabilistic standard for releases of high-level radioactive waste from a mined geologic repository. The standard sets limits for contaminant releases with more than one chance in 100 of occurring within 10,000 years, and less strict limits for releases of lower probability. The standard offers no methods for determining probabilities of geologic events and processes, and no consensus exists in the waste-management community on how to do this. Sandia National Laboratories is developing a general method for determining probabilities of a given set of geologic events and processes. In addition, we will develop a repeatable method for dealing with events and processes whose probability cannot be determined. 22 refs., 4 figs

  9. The perceptual flow of phonetic feature processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Steven; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How does the brain process spoken language? It is our thesis that word intelligibility and consonant identification are insufficient by themselves to model how the speech signal is decoded - a finer-grained approach is required. In this study, listeners identified 11 different Danish consonants....... This asymmetric pattern of feature decoding may provide extra-segmental information of utility for speech processing, particularly in adverse listening conditions....... spoken in a Consonant + Vowel + [l] environment. Each syllable was processed so that only a portion of the original audio spectrum was present. Three-quarter-octave bands of speech, centered at 750, 1500, and 3000 Hz, were presented individually and in combination with each other. The conditional...

  10. Feature extraction & image processing for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt

  11. An algebra of discrete event processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.

  12. Enhancing Business Process Automation by Integrating RFID Data and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Chengfei; Lin, Tao

    Business process automation is one of the major benefits for utilising Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. Through readers to RFID middleware systems, the information and the movements of tagged objects can be used to trigger business transactions. These features change the way of business applications for dealing with the physical world from mostly quantity-based to object-based. Aiming to facilitate business process automation, this paper introduces a new method to model and incorporate business logics into RFID edge systems from an object-oriented perspective with emphasises on RFID's event-driven characteristics. A framework covering business rule modelling, event handling and system operation invocations is presented on the basis of the event calculus. In regard to the identified delayed effects in RFID-enabled applications, a two-block buffering mechanism is proposed to improve RFID query efficiency within the framework. The performance improvements are analysed with related experiments.

  13. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  14. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227

  15. Neural representations of emotion are organized around abstract event features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Amy E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-03

    Research on emotion attribution has tended to focus on the perception of overt expressions of at most five or six basic emotions. However, our ability to identify others' emotional states is not limited to perception of these canonical expressions. Instead, we make fine-grained inferences about what others feel based on the situations they encounter, relying on knowledge of the eliciting conditions for different emotions. In the present research, we provide convergent behavioral and neural evidence concerning the representations underlying these concepts. First, we find that patterns of activity in mentalizing regions contain information about subtle emotional distinctions conveyed through verbal descriptions of eliciting situations. Second, we identify a space of abstract situation features that well captures the emotion discriminations subjects make behaviorally and show that this feature space outperforms competing models in capturing the similarity space of neural patterns in these regions. Together, the data suggest that our knowledge of others' emotions is abstract and high dimensional, that brain regions selective for mental state reasoning support relatively subtle distinctions between emotion concepts, and that the neural representations in these regions are not reducible to more primitive affective dimensions such as valence and arousal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Event-Driven Process Chains (EPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs) and introduces a novel definition of EPC semantics. EPCs became popular in the 1990s as a conceptual business process modeling language in the context of reference modeling. Reference modeling refers to the documentation of generic business operations in a model such as service processes in the telecommunications sector, for example. It is claimed that reference models can be reused and adapted as best-practice recommendations in individual companies (see [230, 168, 229, 131, 400, 401, 446, 127, 362, 126]). The roots of reference modeling can be traced back to the Kölner Integrationsmodell (KIM) [146, 147] that was developed in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1990s, the Institute of Information Systems (IWi) in Saarbrücken worked on a project with SAP to define a suitable business process modeling language to document the processes of the SAP R/3 enterprise resource planning system. There were two results from this joint effort: the definition of EPCs [210] and the documentation of the SAP system in the SAP Reference Model (see [92, 211]). The extensive database of this reference model contains almost 10,000 sub-models: 604 of them non-trivial EPC business process models. The SAP Reference model had a huge impact with several researchers referring to it in their publications (see [473, 235, 127, 362, 281, 427, 415]) as well as motivating the creation of EPC reference models in further domains including computer integrated manufacturing [377, 379], logistics [229] or retail [52]. The wide-spread application of EPCs in business process modeling theory and practice is supported by their coverage in seminal text books for business process management and information systems in general (see [378, 380, 49, 384, 167, 240]). EPCs are frequently used in practice due to a high user acceptance [376] and extensive tool support. Some examples of tools that support EPCs are ARIS Toolset by IDS

  17. Rule-Based Event Processing and Reaction Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Adrian; Kozlenkov, Alexander

    Reaction rules and event processing technologies play a key role in making business and IT / Internet infrastructures more agile and active. While event processing is concerned with detecting events from large event clouds or streams in almost real-time, reaction rules are concerned with the invocation of actions in response to events and actionable situations. They state the conditions under which actions must be taken. In the last decades various reaction rule and event processing approaches have been developed, which for the most part have been advanced separately. In this paper we survey reaction rule approaches and rule-based event processing systems and languages.

  18. Comparing infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in an event monitoring design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    . The results obtained using this design reveal that infants are more successful using spatiotemporal object information than when using featural information. However, recent studies using the less cognitively demanding event monitoring design have revealed that even younger infants are capable of object...... in the present series of experiments in which infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural information is compared directly using the less demanding event monitoring design. The results are discussed in relation to existing empirical evidence......., to what extent infants rely on spatiotemporal or featural object information when individuating objects is currently under debate. Hitherto, infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural object information has only been compared directly using the rather cognitively demanding event mapping design...

  19. Python for signal processing featuring IPython notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Unpingco, José

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental concepts in signal processing illustrated with Python code and made available via IPython Notebooks, which are live, interactive, browser-based documents that allow one to change parameters, redraw plots, and tinker with the ideas presented in the text. Everything in the text is computable in this format and thereby invites readers to ""experiment and learn"" as they read. The book focuses on the core, fundamental principles of signal processing. The code corresponding to this book uses the core functionality of the scientific Python toolchain that should remai

  20. Event Modeling in UML. Unified Modeling Language and Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We show how events can be modeled in terms of UML. We view events as change agents that have consequences and as information objects that represent information. We show how to create object-oriented structures that represent events in terms of attributes, associations, operations, state charts......, and messages. We outline a run-time environment for the processing of events with multiple participants....

  1. Investigating source processes of isotropic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Andrea

    This dissertation demonstrates the utility of the complete waveform regional moment tensor inversion for nuclear event discrimination. I explore the source processes and associated uncertainties for explosions and earthquakes under the effects of limited station coverage, compound seismic sources, assumptions in velocity models and the corresponding Green's functions, and the effects of shallow source depth and free-surface conditions. The motivation to develop better techniques to obtain reliable source mechanism and assess uncertainties is not limited to nuclear monitoring, but they also provide quantitative information about the characteristics of seismic hazards, local and regional tectonics and in-situ stress fields of the region . This dissertation begins with the analysis of three sparsely recorded events: the 14 September 1988 US-Soviet Joint Verification Experiment (JVE) nuclear test at the Semipalatinsk test site in Eastern Kazakhstan, and two nuclear explosions at the Chinese Lop Nor test site. We utilize a regional distance seismic waveform method fitting long-period, complete, three-component waveforms jointly with first-motion observations from regional stations and teleseismic arrays. The combination of long period waveforms and first motion observations provides unique discrimination of these sparsely recorded events in the context of the Hudson et al. (1989) source-type diagram. We examine the effects of the free surface on the moment tensor via synthetic testing, and apply the moment tensor based discrimination method to well-recorded chemical explosions. These shallow chemical explosions represent rather severe source-station geometry in terms of the vanishing traction issues. We show that the combined waveform and first motion method enables the unique discrimination of these events, even though the data include unmodeled single force components resulting from the collapse and blowout of the quarry face immediately following the initial

  2. Anthropogenic features and hillslope processes interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). To this point, the present research investigates few case studies highlighting the influences of anthropogenic topographic signatures on hillslope processes, and it shows the effectiveness of High-Resolution Topography (HRT) derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, satellite, structure from motion photogrammetry), to better understand this interaction. The first example is related to agricultural terraces. In recent times, terraced areas acquired a new relevance to modern concerns about erosion and land instability, being the agricultural land mostly threatened by abandonment or intensification and specialization of agriculture, resulting in more landslide-prone bench terraces, or heavy land levelling with increased erosion. The second case study discusses about the role of agricultural and forest roads on surface erosion and landslides. The third case study investigates geomorphic processes in an open pit mine. In all case studies, HRT served as the basis for the development of new methodologies able to recognize and analyze changes on Earth surface processes along hillslopes. The results show how anthropogenic elements have crucial effects on sediment production and sediment delivery, also influencing the landscape connectivity. The availability of HRT can improve our ability to actually model anthropogenic morphologies, quantify them, and analyse the links between anthropogenic elements and geomorphic processes. The results presented here, and the creation and dissemination of

  3. Stream/Bounce Event Perception Reveals a Temporal Limit of Motion Correspondence Based on Surface Feature over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2 or luminance (Experiment 3 were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  4. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  5. Second-order analysis of semiparametric recurrent event processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongtao

    2011-09-01

    A typical recurrent event dataset consists of an often large number of recurrent event processes, each of which contains multiple event times observed from an individual during a follow-up period. Such data have become increasingly available in medical and epidemiological studies. In this article, we introduce novel procedures to conduct second-order analysis for a flexible class of semiparametric recurrent event processes. Such an analysis can provide useful information regarding the dependence structure within each recurrent event process. Specifically, we will use the proposed procedures to test whether the individual recurrent event processes are all Poisson processes and to suggest sensible alternative models for them if they are not. We apply these procedures to a well-known recurrent event dataset on chronic granulomatous disease and an epidemiological dataset on meningococcal disease cases in Merseyside, United Kingdom to illustrate their practical value. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Post-Event Processing in Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Julian; Kramer, Martina; Blechert, Jens; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of a distressing social event, adults with social phobia (SP) engage in a review of this event with a focus on its negative aspects. To date, little is known about this post-event processing (PEP) and its relationship with perceived performance in SP children. We measured PEP in SP children (n = 24) and healthy controls (HC; n =…

  7. Automatic processing of unattended object features by functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Martina Mayer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers can selectively attend to object features that are relevant for a task. However, unattended task-irrelevant features may still be processed and possibly integrated with the attended features. This study investigated the neural mechanisms for processing both task-relevant (attended and task-irrelevant (unattended object features. The Garner paradigm was adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test whether specific brain areas process the conjunction of features or whether multiple interacting areas are involved in this form of feature integration. Observers attended to shape, colour, or non-rigid motion of novel objects while unattended features changed from trial to trial (change blocks or remained constant (no-change blocks during a given block. This block manipulation allowed us to measure the extent to which unattended features affected neural responses which would reflect the extent to which multiple object features are automatically processed. We did not find Garner interference at the behavioural level. However, we designed the experiment to equate performance across block types so that any fMRI results could not be due solely to differences in task difficulty between change and no-change blocks. Attention to specific features localised several areas known to be involved in object processing. No area showed larger responses on change blocks compared to no-change blocks. However, psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that several functionally-localised areas showed significant positive interactions with areas in occipito-temporal and frontal areas that depended on block type. Overall, these findings suggest that both regional responses and functional connectivity are crucial for processing multi-featured objects.

  8. Feature extraction for classification in the data mining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechenizkiy, M.; Puuronen, S.; Tsymbal, A.

    2003-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is a very important step in the data mining process. In this paper, we consider feature extraction for classification tasks as a technique to overcome problems occurring because of "the curse of dimensionality". Three different eigenvector-based feature extraction approaches

  9. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-01-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events

  10. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyadi, Eko H., E-mail: e.riyadi@bapeten.go.id [Center for Regulatory Assessment of Nuclear Installation and Materials, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  11. Advanced social features in a recommendation system for process modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koschmider, A.; Song, M.S.; Reijers, H.A.; Abramowicz, W.

    2009-01-01

    Social software is known to stimulate the exchange and sharing of information among peers. This paper describes how an existing system that supports process builders in completing a business process can be enhanced with various social features. In that way, it is easier for process modeler to become

  12. Some features of radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobo, J.

    1985-01-01

    In the last few years, the production of free radicals by radiation became competitive with chemical initiators. Nevertheless radiation processing got only a firm footing, where distinct advantages could be demonstrated as compared with conventional processes, either in the technology or the product quality. This paper is intended to direct attention to some of the special features of radiation processing. (author)

  13. Some features of radiation processing in the plastics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D´, J.

    In the last few years, the production of free radicals by radiation became competitive with chemical initiators. Nevertheless, radiation processing got only a firm footing, where distinct advantages could be demonstrated as compared with conventional processes, either in the technology or the product quality. This paper is intended to direct attention to some of the special features of radiation processing.

  14. Key Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  15. Automated Feature and Event Detection with SDO AIA and HMI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Alisdair; Martens, P. C. H.; Attrill, G. D. R.; Engell, A.; Farid, S.; Grigis, P. C.; Kasper, J.; Korreck, K.; Saar, S. H.; Su, Y.; Testa, P.; Wills-Davey, M.; Savcheva, A.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Delouille, V. A.; Hochedez, J. F..; Cirtain, J. W.; Deforest, C. E.; Angryk, R. A.; de Moortel, I.; Wiegelmann, T.; Georgouli, M. K.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Hurlburt, N.; Timmons, R.

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) represents a new frontier in quantity and quality of solar data. At about 1.5 TB/day, the data will not be easily digestible by solar physicists using the same methods that have been employed for images from previous missions. In order for solar scientists to use the SDO data effectively they need meta-data that will allow them to identify and retrieve data sets that address their particular science questions. We are building a comprehensive computer vision pipeline for SDO, abstracting complete metadata on many of the features and events detectable on the Sun without human intervention. Our project unites more than a dozen individual, existing codes into a systematic tool that can be used by the entire solar community. The feature finding codes will run as part of the SDO Event Detection System (EDS) at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC; joint between Stanford and LMSAL). The metadata produced will be stored in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), which will be accessible on-line for the rest of the world directly or via the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) . Solar scientists will be able to use the HEK to select event and feature data to download for science studies.

  16. Out-of-order event processing in kinetic data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Agrawal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    ’s for the maintenance of several fundamental structures such as kinetic sorting and kinetic tournament trees, which overcome the difficulty by employing a refined event scheduling and processing technique. We prove that the new event scheduling mechanism leads to a KDS that is correct except for finitely many short......We study the problem of designing kinetic data structures (KDS’s for short) when event times cannot be computed exactly and events may be processed in a wrong order. In traditional KDS’s this can lead to major inconsistencies from which the KDS cannot recover. We present more robust KDS...

  17. Search asymmetry: a diagnostic for preattentive processing of separable features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, A; Souther, J

    1985-09-01

    The search rate for a target among distractors may vary dramatically depending on which stimulus plays the role of target and which that of distractors. For example, the time required to find a circle distinguished by an intersecting line is independent of the number of regular circles in the display, whereas the time to find a regular circle among circles with lines increases linearly with the number of distractors. The pattern of performance suggests parallel processing when the target has a unique distinguishing feature and serial self-terminating search when the target is distinguished only by the absence of a feature that is present in all the distractors. The results are consistent with feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980), which predicts that a single feature should be detected by the mere presence of activity in the relevant feature map, whereas tasks that require subjects to locate multiple instances of a feature demand focused attention. Search asymmetries may therefore offer a new diagnostic to identify the primitive features of early vision. Several candidate features are examined in this article: Colors, line ends or terminators, and closure (in the sense of a partly or wholly enclosed area) appear to be functional features; connectedness, intactness (absence of an intersecting line), and acute angles do not.

  18. A Process for Predicting Manhole Events in Manhattan

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, Delfina F.; Ierome, Steve; Dutta, Haimonti; Radeva, Axinia; Passonneau, Rebecca J.; Rudin, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    We present a knowledge discovery and data mining process developed as part of the Columbia/Con Edison project on manhole event prediction. This process can assist with real-world prioritization problems that involve raw data in the form of noisy documents requiring significant amounts of pre-processing. The documents are linked to a set of instances to be ranked according to prediction criteria. In the case of manhole event prediction, which is a new application for machine learning, the goal...

  19. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi [University of Southern California; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  20. Features of financial support of reproduction processes in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the financing of reproduction processes in agriculture, arising from the specific production in the industry. Considered and analyzed the main sources of financial resources for the implementation of the reproduction processes in the agricultural sector, including bank lending, leasing, public financial support.

  1. Software for Demonstration of Features of Chain Polymerization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Free software for the demonstration of the features of homo- and copolymerization processes (free radical, controlled radical, and living) is described. The software is based on the Monte Carlo algorithms and offers insight into the kinetics, molecular weight distribution, and microstructure of the macromolecules formed in those processes. It also…

  2. Process mining using BPMN: relating event logs and process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalenkova, A.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Lomazova, I.A.; Rubin, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    Process-aware information systems (PAIS) are systems relying on processes, which involve human and software resources to achieve concrete goals. There is a need to develop approaches for modeling, analysis, improvement and monitoring processes within PAIS. These approaches include process mining

  3. Process mining using BPMN : relating event logs and process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalenkova, A.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Lomazova, I.A.; Rubin, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Process-aware information systems (PAIS) are systems relying on processes, which involve human and software resources to achieve concrete goals. There is a need to develop approaches for modeling, analysis, improvement and monitoring processes within PAIS. These approaches include process mining

  4. Event processing for business organizing the real-time enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Luckham, David C

    2011-01-01

    Find out how Events Processing (EP) works and how it can workfor you Business Event Processing: An Introduction and StrategyGuide thoroughly describes what EP is, how to use it, and howit relates to other popular information technology architecturessuch as Service Oriented Architecture. Explains how sense and response architectures are being appliedwith tremendous results to businesses throughout the world andshows businesses how they can get started implementing EPShows how to choose business event processing technology tosuit your specific business needs and how to keep costs of adoptingit

  5. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  6. Foundations for Streaming Model Transformations by Complex Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, István; Ráth, István; Varró, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    Streaming model transformations represent a novel class of transformations to manipulate models whose elements are continuously produced or modified in high volume and with rapid rate of change. Executing streaming transformations requires efficient techniques to recognize activated transformation rules over a live model and a potentially infinite stream of events. In this paper, we propose foundations of streaming model transformations by innovatively integrating incremental model query, complex event processing (CEP) and reactive (event-driven) transformation techniques. Complex event processing allows to identify relevant patterns and sequences of events over an event stream. Our approach enables event streams to include model change events which are automatically and continuously populated by incremental model queries. Furthermore, a reactive rule engine carries out transformations on identified complex event patterns. We provide an integrated domain-specific language with precise semantics for capturing complex event patterns and streaming transformations together with an execution engine, all of which is now part of the Viatra reactive transformation framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with two case studies: one in an advanced model engineering workflow; and one in the context of on-the-fly gesture recognition.

  7. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  8. A large-scale dataset of solar event reports from automated feature recognition modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Michael A.; Angryk, Rafal A.; Martens, Petrus C.

    2016-05-01

    The massive repository of images of the Sun captured by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission has ushered in the era of Big Data for Solar Physics. In this work, we investigate the entire public collection of events reported to the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) from automated solar feature recognition modules operated by the SDO Feature Finding Team (FFT). With the SDO mission recently surpassing five years of operations, and over 280,000 event reports for seven types of solar phenomena, we present the broadest and most comprehensive large-scale dataset of the SDO FFT modules to date. We also present numerous statistics on these modules, providing valuable contextual information for better understanding and validating of the individual event reports and the entire dataset as a whole. After extensive data cleaning through exploratory data analysis, we highlight several opportunities for knowledge discovery from data (KDD). Through these important prerequisite analyses presented here, the results of KDD from Solar Big Data will be overall more reliable and better understood. As the SDO mission remains operational over the coming years, these datasets will continue to grow in size and value. Future versions of this dataset will be analyzed in the general framework established in this work and maintained publicly online for easy access by the community.

  9. Real-time monitoring of clinical processes using complex event processing and transition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinecke, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Dependencies between tasks in clinical processes are often complex and error-prone. Our aim is to describe a new approach for the automatic derivation of clinical events identified via the behaviour of IT systems using Complex Event Processing. Furthermore we map these events on transition systems to monitor crucial clinical processes in real-time for preventing and detecting erroneous situations.

  10. An image-processing methodology for extracting bloodstain pattern features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ravishka M; Humburg, Philomena J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Baiker, Martin; Taylor, Michael C; de Bruin, Karla G

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing trend in forensic science to develop methods to make forensic pattern comparison tasks more objective. This has generally involved the application of suitable image-processing methods to provide numerical data for identification or comparison. This paper outlines a unique image-processing methodology that can be utilised by analysts to generate reliable pattern data that will assist them in forming objective conclusions about a pattern. A range of features were defined and extracted from a laboratory-generated impact spatter pattern. These features were based in part on bloodstain properties commonly used in the analysis of spatter bloodstain patterns. The values of these features were consistent with properties reported qualitatively for such patterns. The image-processing method developed shows considerable promise as a way to establish measurable discriminating pattern criteria that are lacking in current bloodstain pattern taxonomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Verification and Planning for Stochastic Processes with Asynchronous Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Younes, Hakan L

    2005-01-01

    .... The most common assumption is that of history-independence: the Markov assumption. In this thesis, the author considers the problems of verification and planning for stochastic processes with asynchronous events, without relying on the Markov assumption...

  12. [INVITED] Evaluation of process observation features for laser metal welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenner, Felix; Klämpfl, Florian; Nagulin, Konstantin Yu.; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-06-01

    In the present study we show how fast the fluid dynamics change when changing the laser power for different feed rates during laser metal welding. By the use of two high-speed cameras and a data acquisition system we conclude how fast we have to image the process to measure the fluid dynamics with a very high certainty. Our experiments show that not all process features which can be measured during laser welding do represent the process behavior similarly well. Despite the good visibility of the vapor plume the monitoring of its movement is less suitable as an input signal for a closed-loop control. The features measured inside the keyhole show a good correlation with changes of process parameters. Due to its low noise, the area of the keyhole opening is well suited as an input signal for a closed-loop control of the process.

  13. Vaccine adverse event text mining system for extracting features from vaccine safety reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Buttolph, Thomas; Nguyen, Michael D; Winiecki, Scott; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a text mining system for extracting key clinical features from vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) narratives to aid in the automated review of adverse event reports. Based upon clinical significance to VAERS reviewing physicians, we defined the primary (diagnosis and cause of death) and secondary features (eg, symptoms) for extraction. We built a novel vaccine adverse event text mining (VaeTM) system based on a semantic text mining strategy. The performance of VaeTM was evaluated using a total of 300 VAERS reports in three sequential evaluations of 100 reports each. Moreover, we evaluated the VaeTM contribution to case classification; an information retrieval-based approach was used for the identification of anaphylaxis cases in a set of reports and was compared with two other methods: a dedicated text classifier and an online tool. The performance metrics of VaeTM were text mining metrics: recall, precision and F-measure. We also conducted a qualitative difference analysis and calculated sensitivity and specificity for classification of anaphylaxis cases based on the above three approaches. VaeTM performed best in extracting diagnosis, second level diagnosis, drug, vaccine, and lot number features (lenient F-measure in the third evaluation: 0.897, 0.817, 0.858, 0.874, and 0.914, respectively). In terms of case classification, high sensitivity was achieved (83.1%); this was equal and better compared to the text classifier (83.1%) and the online tool (40.7%), respectively. Our VaeTM implementation of a semantic text mining strategy shows promise in providing accurate and efficient extraction of key features from VAERS narratives.

  14. Feature-based tolerancing for intelligent inspection process definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a feature-based tolerancing capability that complements a geometric solid model with an explicit representation of conventional and geometric tolerances. This capability is focused on supporting an intelligent inspection process definition system. The feature-based tolerance model's benefits include advancing complete product definition initiatives (e.g., STEP -- Standard for Exchange of Product model dam), suppling computer-integrated manufacturing applications (e.g., generative process planning and automated part programming) with product definition information, and assisting in the solution of measurement performance issues. A feature-based tolerance information model was developed based upon the notion of a feature's toleranceable aspects and describes an object-oriented scheme for representing and relating tolerance features, tolerances, and datum reference frames. For easy incorporation, the tolerance feature entities are interconnected with STEP solid model entities. This schema will explicitly represent the tolerance specification for mechanical products, support advanced dimensional measurement applications, and assist in tolerance-related methods divergence issues

  15. Effects of Grammatical Categories on Children's Visual Language Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Hart, Laura J.; Spruill, John E., III

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how school-aged children process different grammatical categories. Event-related brain potentials elicited by words in visually presented sentences were analyzed according to seven grammatical categories with naturally varying characteristics of linguistic functions, semantic features, and quantitative attributes of length and…

  16. Temporal integration: intentional sound discrimination does not modulate stimulus-driven processes in auditory event synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse; Winkler, István; Kreuzer, Judith; Saher, Marieke; Näätänen, Risto; Ritter, Walter

    2002-12-01

    Our previous study showed that the auditory context could influence whether two successive acoustic changes occurring within the temporal integration window (approximately 200ms) were pre-attentively encoded as a single auditory event or as two discrete events (Cogn Brain Res 12 (2001) 431). The aim of the current study was to assess whether top-down processes could influence the stimulus-driven processes in determining what constitutes an auditory event. Electroencepholagram (EEG) was recorded from 11 scalp electrodes to frequently occurring standard and infrequently occurring deviant sounds. Within the stimulus blocks, deviants either occurred only in pairs (successive feature changes) or both singly and in pairs. Event-related potential indices of change and target detection, the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the N2b component, respectively, were compared with the simultaneously measured performance in discriminating the deviants. Even though subjects could voluntarily distinguish the two successive auditory feature changes from each other, which was also indicated by the elicitation of the N2b target-detection response, top-down processes did not modify the event organization reflected by the MMN response. Top-down processes can extract elemental auditory information from a single integrated acoustic event, but the extraction occurs at a later processing stage than the one whose outcome is indexed by MMN. Initial processes of auditory event-formation are fully governed by the context within which the sounds occur. Perception of the deviants as two separate sound events (the top-down effects) did not change the initial neural representation of the same deviants as one event (indexed by the MMN), without a corresponding change in the stimulus-driven sound organization.

  17. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the importance of the image processing of fingerprint images prior to image enrolment or comparison, the set of fingerprint images in databases (a) and (b) of the FVC (Fingerprint Verification Competition) 2000 database were analyzed using a features extraction algorithm. This paper presents the results of ...

  18. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  19. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  20. Software for event oriented processing on multiprocessor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, M.; Areti, H.; Biel, J.; Bracker, S.; Case, G.; Gaines, I.; Husby, D.; Nash, T.

    1984-08-01

    Computing intensive problems that require the processing of numerous essentially independent events are natural customers for large scale multi-microprocessor systems. This paper describes the software required to support users with such problems in a multiprocessor environment. It is based on experience with and development work aimed at processing very large amounts of high energy physics data

  1. Process cubes : slicing, dicing, rolling up and drilling down event data for process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in process mining research make it possible to discover, analyze, and improve business processes based on event data. The growth of event data provides many opportunities but also imposes new challenges. Process mining is typically done for an isolated well-defined process in

  2. New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper

  3. FEATURES OF USING AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept and technology of augmented reality, the rationale given the relevance and timeliness of its use to support educational processes. Paper is a survey and study of the possibility of using augmented reality technology in education. Architecture is proposed and constructed algorithms of the software system management QR-codes media objects. An overview of the features and uses of augmented reality technology to support educational processes is displayed, as an option of a new form of visual demonstration of complex objects, models and processes

  4. An Intelligent Complex Event Processing with D Numbers under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient matching of incoming mass events to persistent queries is fundamental to complex event processing systems. Event matching based on pattern rule is an important feature of complex event processing engine. However, the intrinsic uncertainty in pattern rules which are predecided by experts increases the difficulties of effective complex event processing. It inevitably involves various types of the intrinsic uncertainty, such as imprecision, fuzziness, and incompleteness, due to the inability of human beings subjective judgment. Nevertheless, D numbers is a new mathematic tool to model uncertainty, since it ignores the condition that elements on the frame must be mutually exclusive. To address the above issues, an intelligent complex event processing method with D numbers under fuzzy environment is proposed based on the Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. The novel method can fully support decision making in complex event processing systems. Finally, a numerical example is provided to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...

  6. Notification Event Architecture for Traveler Screening: Predictive Traveler Screening Using Event Driven Business Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Using an exploratory model of the 9/11 terrorists, this research investigates the linkages between Event Driven Business Process Management (edBPM) and decision making. Although the literature on the role of technology in efficient and effective decision making is extensive, research has yet to quantify the benefit of using edBPM to aid the…

  7. Impact of load-related neural processes on feature binding in visuospatial working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Kochan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The capacity of visual working memory (WM is substantially limited and only a fraction of what we see is maintained as a temporary trace. The process of binding visual features has been proposed as an adaptive means of minimising information demands on WM. However the neural mechanisms underlying this process, and its modulation by task and load effects, are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural correlates of feature binding and its modulation by WM load during the sequential phases of encoding, maintenance and retrieval. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 18 young healthy participants performed a visuospatial WM task with independent factors of load and feature conjunction (object identity and position in an event-related functional MRI study. During stimulus encoding, load-invariant conjunction-related activity was observed in left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus. During maintenance, greater activity for task demands of feature conjunction versus single features, and for increased load was observed in left-sided regions of the superior occipital cortex, precuneus and superior frontal cortex. Where these effects were expressed in overlapping cortical regions, their combined effect was additive. During retrieval, however, an interaction of load and feature conjunction was observed. This modulation of feature conjunction activity under increased load was expressed through greater deactivation in medial structures identified as part of the default mode network. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The relationship between memory load and feature binding qualitatively differed through each phase of the WM task. Of particular interest was the interaction of these factors observed within regions of the default mode network during retrieval which we interpret as suggesting that at low loads, binding processes may be 'automatic' but at higher loads it becomes a resource-intensive process leading to disengagement of activity in this

  8. Classification of passive auditory event-related potentials using discriminant analysis and self-organizing feature maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönweiler, R; Wübbelt, P; Tolloczko, R; Rose, C; Ptok, M

    2000-01-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) and self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) were used to classify passively evoked auditory event-related potentials (ERP) P(1), N(1), P(2) and N(2). Responses from 16 children with severe behavioral auditory perception deficits, 16 children with marked behavioral auditory perception deficits, and 14 controls were examined. Eighteen ERP amplitude parameters were selected for examination of statistical differences between the groups. Different DA methods and SOFM configurations were trained to the values. SOFM had better classification results than DA methods. Subsequently, measures on another 37 subjects that were unknown for the trained SOFM were used to test the reliability of the system. With 10-dimensional vectors, reliable classifications were obtained that matched behavioral auditory perception deficits in 96%, implying central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The results also support the assumption that CAPD includes a 'non-peripheral' auditory processing deficit. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  10. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongheng; Geng Shaofeng; Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT). Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is p...

  11. Theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Stepanovic, Michael; Young, Liane

    2016-08-01

    Theory of mind, or mental state reasoning, may be particularly useful for making sense of unexpected events. Here, we investigated unexpected behavior across both social and non-social contexts in order to characterize the precise role of theory of mind in processing unexpected events. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how people respond to unexpected outcomes when initial expectations were based on (i) an object's prior behavior, (ii) an agent's prior behavior and (iii) an agent's mental states. Consistent with prior work, brain regions for theory of mind were preferentially recruited when people first formed expectations about social agents vs non-social objects. Critically, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited greater activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which also discriminated in its spatial pattern of activity between unexpected and expected outcomes for social events. In contrast, social vs non-social events elicited greater activity in precuneus across both expected and unexpected outcomes. Finally, given prior information about an agent's behavior, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited an especially robust response in right temporoparietal junction, and the magnitude of this difference across participants correlated negatively with autistic-like traits. Together, these findings illuminate the distinct contributions of brain regions for theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Client-Side Event Processing for Personalized Web Advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stühmer, Roland; Anicic, Darko; Sen, Sinan; Ma, Jun; Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stojanovic, Nenad

    The market for Web advertisement is continuously growing and correspondingly, the number of approaches that can be used for realizing Web advertisement are increasing. However, current approaches fail to generate very personalized ads for a current Web user that is visiting a particular Web content. They mainly try to develop a profile based on the content of that Web page or on a long-term user's profile, by not taking into account current user's preferences. We argue that by discovering a user's interest from his current Web behavior we can support the process of ad generation, especially the relevance of an ad for the user. In this paper we present the conceptual architecture and implementation of such an approach. The approach is based on the extraction of simple events from the user interaction with a Web page and their combination in order to discover the user's interests. We use semantic technologies in order to build such an interpretation out of many simple events. We present results from preliminary evaluation studies. The main contribution of the paper is a very efficient, semantic-based client-side architecture for generating and combining Web events. The architecture ensures the agility of the whole advertisement system, by complexly processing events on the client. In general, this work contributes to the realization of new, event-driven applications for the (Semantic) Web.

  13. Static Analysis for Event-Based XML Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Event-based processing of XML data - as exemplified by the popular SAX framework - is a powerful alternative to using W3C's DOM or similar tree-based APIs. The event-based approach is a streaming fashion with minimal memory consumption. This paper discusses challenges for creating program analyses...... for SAX applications. In particular, we consider the problem of statically guaranteeing the a given SAX program always produces only well-formed and valid XML output. We propose an analysis technique based on ecisting anglyses of Servlets, string operations, and XML graphs....

  14. Temporal and Location Based RFID Event Data Management and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Liu, Peiya

    Advance of sensor and RFID technology provides significant new power for humans to sense, understand and manage the world. RFID provides fast data collection with precise identification of objects with unique IDs without line of sight, thus it can be used for identifying, locating, tracking and monitoring physical objects. Despite these benefits, RFID poses many challenges for data processing and management. RFID data are temporal and history oriented, multi-dimensional, and carrying implicit semantics. Moreover, RFID applications are heterogeneous. RFID data management or data warehouse systems need to support generic and expressive data modeling for tracking and monitoring physical objects, and provide automated data interpretation and processing. We develop a powerful temporal and location oriented data model for modeling and queryingRFID data, and a declarative event and rule based framework for automated complex RFID event processing. The approach is general and can be easily adapted for different RFID-enabled applications, thus significantly reduces the cost of RFID data integration.

  15. Event-related potential correlates of suspicious thoughts in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-bing; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-01-01

    Suspiciousness is a common feature of schizophrenia. However, suspicious thoughts are also commonly experienced by the general population. This study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of suspicious thoughts in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)-proneness, using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when the "feeling of being seen through" was evoked in the participants. The findings showed a prominent positive deflection of the difference wave within the time window 250-400 ms after stimuli presentation in both SPD-prone and non-SPD-prone groups. Furthermore, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in the SPD-prone group compared to the non-SPD-prone group. The current density analysis also indicated hypoactivity in both frontal and temporal regions in the SPD-prone group, suggesting that the frontotemporal cortical network may play a role in the onset of suspicious thoughts. The P3 of difference wave was inversely correlated with the cognitive-perception factor and the suspiciousness/paranoid ideation trait, which provided preliminary electrophysiological evidence for the association of suspiciousness with SPD features.

  16. Life events and borderline personality features: the influence of gene–environment interaction and gene–environment correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Trull, T.J.; Derom, C.A.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic life events are generally more common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) than in non-patients or patients with other personality disorders. This study investigates whether exposure to life events moderates the genetic architecture of BPD features. As the

  17. Detection of microsleep events in a car driving simulation study using electrocardiographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenis Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microsleep events (MSE are short intrusions of sleep under the demand of sustained attention. They can impose a major threat to safety while driving a car and are considered one of the most significant causes of traffic accidents. Driver’s fatigue and MSE account for up to 20% of all car crashes in Europe and at least 100,000 accidents in the US every year. Unfortunately, there is not a standardized test developed to quantify the degree of vigilance of a driver. To account for this problem, different approaches based on biosignal analysis have been studied in the past. In this paper, we investigate an electrocardiographic-based detection of MSE using morphological and rhythmical features. 14 records from a car driving simulation study with a high incidence of MSE were analyzed and the behavior of the ECG features before and after an MSE in relation to reference baseline values (without drowsiness were investigated. The results show that MSE cannot be detected (or predicted using only the ECG. However, in the presence of MSE, the rhythmical and morphological features were observed to be significantly different than the ones calculated for the reference signal without sleepiness. In particular, when MSE were present, the heart rate diminished while the heart rate variability increased. Time distances between P wave and R peak, and R peak and T wave and their dispersion increased also. This demonstrates a noticeable change of the autonomous regulation of the heart. In future, the ECG parameter could be used as a surrogate measure of fatigue.

  18. Information Processing Features Can Detect Behavioral Regimes of Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Quax

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamical systems, local interactions between dynamical units generate correlations which are stored and transmitted throughout the system, generating the macroscopic behavior. However a framework to quantify exactly how these correlations are stored, transmitted, and combined at the microscopic scale is missing. Here we propose to characterize the notion of “information processing” based on all possible Shannon mutual information quantities between a future state and all possible sets of initial states. We apply it to the 256 elementary cellular automata (ECA, which are the simplest possible dynamical systems exhibiting behaviors ranging from simple to complex. Our main finding is that only a few information features are needed for full predictability of the systemic behavior and that the “information synergy” feature is always most predictive. Finally we apply the idea to foreign exchange (FX and interest-rate swap (IRS time-series data. We find an effective “slowing down” leading indicator in all three markets for the 2008 financial crisis when applied to the information features, as opposed to using the data itself directly. Our work suggests that the proposed characterization of the local information processing of units may be a promising direction for predicting emergent systemic behaviors.

  19. Quality Control in Automated Manufacturing Processes – Combined Features for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkötter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In production processes the use of image processing systems is widespread. Hardware solutions and cameras respectively are available for nearly every application. One important challenge of image processing systems is the development and selection of appropriate algorithms and software solutions in order to realise ambitious quality control for production processes. This article characterises the development of innovative software by combining features for an automatic defect classification on product surfaces. The artificial intelligent method Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to execute the classification task according to the combined features. This software is one crucial element for the automation of a manually operated production process

  20. Processing ser and estar to locate objects and events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.; Contemori, Carla; Román, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Spanish locative constructions, a different form of the copula is selected in relation to the semantic properties of the grammatical subject: sentences that locate objects require estar while those that locate events require ser (both translated in English as ‘to be’). In an ERP study, we examined whether second language (L2) speakers of Spanish are sensitive to the selectional restrictions that the different types of subjects impose on the choice of the two copulas. Twenty-four native speakers of Spanish and two groups of L2 Spanish speakers (24 beginners and 18 advanced speakers) were recruited to investigate the processing of ‘object/event + estar/ser’ permutations. Participants provided grammaticality judgments on correct (object + estar; event + ser) and incorrect (object + ser; event + estar) sentences while their brain activity was recorded. In line with previous studies (Leone-Fernández, Molinaro, Carreiras, & Barber, 2012; Sera, Gathje, & Pintado, 1999), the results of the grammaticality judgment for the native speakers showed that participants correctly accepted object + estar and event + ser constructions. In addition, while ‘object + ser’ constructions were considered grossly ungrammatical, ‘event + estar’ combinations were perceived as unacceptable to a lesser degree. For these same participants, ERP recording time-locked to the onset of the critical word ‘en’ showed a larger P600 for the ser predicates when the subject was an object than when it was an event (*La silla es en la cocina vs. La fiesta es en la cocina). This P600 effect is consistent with syntactic repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. For estar predicates (La silla está en la cocina vs. *La fiesta está en la cocina), the findings showed a central-frontal negativity between 500–700 ms. Grammaticality judgment data for the L2 speakers of Spanish showed that beginners were significantly less

  1. Optimizing access to conditions data in ATLAS event data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The processing of ATLAS event data requires access to conditions data which is stored in database systems. This data includes, for example alignment, calibration, and configuration information that may be characterized by large volumes, diverse content, and/or information which evolves over time as refinements are made in those conditions. Additional layers of complexity are added by the need to provide this information across the world-wide ATLAS computing grid and the sheer number of simultaneously executing processes on the grid, each demanding a unique set of conditions to proceed. Distributing this data to all the processes that require it in an efficient manner has proven to be an increasing challenge with the growing needs and number of event-wise tasks. In this presentation, we briefly describe the systems in which we have collected information about the use of conditions in event data processing. We then proceed to explain how this information has been used to refine not only reconstruction software ...

  2. Neural correlates of attentional and mnemonic processing in event-based prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B Knight

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory, or memory for realizing delayed intentions, was examined with an event-based paradigm while simultaneously measuring neural activity with high-density EEG recordings. Specifically, the neural substrates of monitoring for an event-based cue were examined, as well as those perhaps associated with the cognitive processes supporting detection of cues and fulfillment of intentions. Participants engaged in a baseline lexical decision task (LDT, followed by a LDT with an embedded prospective memory (PM component. Event-based cues were constituted by color and lexicality (red words. Behavioral data provided evidence that monitoring, or preparatory attentional processes, were used to detect cues. Analysis of the event-related potentials (ERP revealed visual attentional modulations at 140 and 220 ms post-stimulus associated with preparatory attentional processes. In addition, ERP components at 220, 350, and 400 ms post-stimulus were enhanced for intention-related items. Our results suggest preparatory attention may operate by selectively modulating processing of features related to a previously formed event-based intention, as well as provide further evidence for the proposal that dissociable component processes support the fulfillment of delayed intentions.

  3. Neural correlates of attentional and mnemonic processing in event-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Justin B; Ethridge, Lauren E; Marsh, Richard L; Clementz, Brett A

    2010-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM), or memory for realizing delayed intentions, was examined with an event-based paradigm while simultaneously measuring neural activity with high-density EEG recordings. Specifically, the neural substrates of monitoring for an event-based cue were examined, as well as those perhaps associated with the cognitive processes supporting detection of cues and fulfillment of intentions. Participants engaged in a baseline lexical decision task (LDT), followed by a LDT with an embedded PM component. Event-based cues were constituted by color and lexicality (red words). Behavioral data provided evidence that monitoring, or preparatory attentional processes, were used to detect cues. Analysis of the event-related potentials (ERP) revealed visual attentional modulations at 140 and 220 ms post-stimulus associated with preparatory attentional processes. In addition, ERP components at 220, 350, and 400 ms post-stimulus were enhanced for intention-related items. Our results suggest preparatory attention may operate by selectively modulating processing of features related to a previously formed event-based intention, as well as provide further evidence for the proposal that dissociable component processes support the fulfillment of delayed intentions.

  4. Self-Exciting Point Process Modeling of Conversation Event Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo

    Self-exciting processes of Hawkes type have been used to model various phenomena including earthquakes, neural activities, and views of online videos. Studies of temporal networks have revealed that sequences of social interevent times for individuals are highly bursty. We examine some basic properties of event sequences generated by the Hawkes self-exciting process to show that it generates bursty interevent times for a wide parameter range. Then, we fit the model to the data of conversation sequences recorded in company offices in Japan. In this way, we can estimate relative magnitudes of the self excitement, its temporal decay, and the base event rate independent of the self excitation. These variables highly depend on individuals. We also point out that the Hawkes model has an important limitation that the correlation in the interevent times and the burstiness cannot be independently modulated.

  5. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  6. Thermomechanical Stresses Analysis of a Single Event Burnout Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tais, Carlos E.; Romero, Eduardo; Demarco, Gustavo L.

    2009-06-01

    This work analyzes the thermal and mechanical effects arising in a power Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor (DMOS) during a Single Event Burnout (SEB) process. For studying these effects we propose a more detailed simulation structure than the previously used by other authors, solving the mathematical models by means of the Finite Element Method. We use a cylindrical heat generation region, with 5 W, 10 W, 50 W and 100 W for emulating the thermal phenomena occurring during SEB processes, avoiding the complexity of the mathematical treatment of the ion-semiconductor interaction.

  7. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  8. THE FEATURES OF PROCESSES OF SKILLS (SPECIAL COMPETENCIES FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pechnikov

    2018-01-01

    problem of the students’ skills formation process. The conclusion is drawn that these particular options have to make an initial set of alternatives for the educational process organization.Practical significance. This work has revealed basic features of variable processes for formation of skills (special competencies of students to create correct, exact and reliable tools for measurement of learning outcomes.

  9. Analysis of syntactic and semantic features for fine-grained event-spatial understanding in outbreak news reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanlekha Hutchatai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that epidemiological reasoning needs a fine-grained modelling of events, especially their spatial and temporal attributes. While the temporal analysis of events has been intensively studied, far less attention has been paid to their spatial analysis. This article aims at filling the gap concerning automatic event-spatial attribute analysis in order to support health surveillance and epidemiological reasoning. Results In this work, we propose a methodology that provides a detailed analysis on each event reported in news articles to recover the most specific locations where it occurs. Various features for recognizing spatial attributes of the events were studied and incorporated into the models which were trained by several machine learning techniques. The best performance for spatial attribute recognition is very promising; 85.9% F-score (86.75% precision/85.1% recall. Conclusions We extended our work on event-spatial attribute recognition by focusing on machine learning techniques, which are CRF, SVM, and Decision tree. Our approach avoided the costly development of an external knowledge base by employing the feature sources that can be acquired locally from the analyzed document. The results showed that the CRF model performed the best. Our study indicated that the nearest location and previous event location are the most important features for the CRF and SVM model, while the location extracted from the verb's subject is the most important to the Decision tree model.

  10. Event processing in X-IFU detector onboard Athena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Cobos, B.; van der Kuurs, J.; Fraga-Encinas, R.

    2015-05-01

    The X-ray Observatory ATHENA was proposed in April 2014 as the mission to implement the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe" selected by ESA for L2 (the second Large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision science programme). One of the two X-ray detectors designed to be onboard ATHENA is X-IFU, a cryogenic microcalorimeter based on Transition Edge Sensor (TES) technology that will provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy. X-IFU will be developed by a consortium of European research institutions currently from France (leadership), Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, UK, Germany and Spain. From Spain, IFCA (CSIC-UC) is involved in the Digital Readout Electronics (DRE) unit of the X-IFU detector, in particular in the Event Processor Subsytem. We at IFCA are in charge of the development and implementation in the DRE unit of the Event Processing algorithms, designed to recognize, from a noisy signal, the intensity pulses generated by the absorption of the X-ray photons, and lately extract their main parameters (coordinates, energy, arrival time, grade, etc.) Here we will present the design and performance of the algorithms developed for the event recognition (adjusted derivative), and pulse grading/qualification as well as the progress in the algorithms designed to extract the energy content of the pulses (pulse optimal filtering). IFCA will finally have the responsibility of the implementation on board in the (TBD) FPGAs or micro-processors of the DRE unit, where this Event Processing part will take place, to fit into the limited telemetry of the instrument.

  11. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  12. Spatial and Semantic Processing between Audition and Vision: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli was enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic- congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.

  13. ALADDIN: a neural model for event classification in dynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roverso, Davide

    1998-02-01

    ALADDIN is a prototype system which combines fuzzy clustering techniques and artificial neural network (ANN) models in a novel approach to the problem of classifying events in dynamic processes. The main motivation for the development of such a system derived originally from the problem of finding new principled methods to perform alarm structuring/suppression in a nuclear power plant (NPP) alarm system. One such method consists in basing the alarm structuring/suppression on a fast recognition of the event generating the alarms, so that a subset of alarms sufficient to efficiently handle the current fault can be selected to be presented to the operator, minimizing in this way the operator's workload in a potentially stressful situation. The scope of application of a system like ALADDIN goes however beyond alarm handling, to include diagnostic tasks in general. The eventual application of the system to domains other than NPPs was also taken into special consideration during the design phase. In this document we report on the first phase of the ALADDIN project which consisted mainly in a comparative study of a series of ANN-based approaches to event classification, and on the proposal of a first system prototype which is to undergo further tests and, eventually, be integrated in existing alarm, diagnosis, and accident management systems such as CASH, IDS, and CAMS. (author)

  14. Feature Extraction of Event-Related Potentials Using Wavelets: An Application to Human Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Shensa, Mark J.; Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many f ree parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation,-, algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance.

  15. Responses of diatom communities to hydrological processes during rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The importance of diatoms as a tracer of hydrological processes has been recently recognized (Pfister et al. 2009, Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013). However, diatom variations in a short-term scale (e.g., sub-daily) during rainfall events have not been well documented yet. In this study, rainfall event-based diatom samples were taken at the outlet of the Kielstau catchment (50 km2), a lowland catchment in northern Germany. A total of nine rainfall events were caught from May 2013 to April 2014. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed that diatom communities of different events were well separated along NMDS axis I and II, indicating a remarkable temporal variation. By correlating water level (a proxy of discharge) and different diatom indices, close relationships were found. For example, species richness, biovolume (μm3), Shannon diversity and moisture index01 (%, classified according to van Dam et al. 1994) were positively related with water level at the beginning phase of the rainfall (i.e. increasing limb of discharge peak). However, in contrast, during the recession limb of the discharge peak, diatom indices showed distinct responses to water level declines in different rainfall events. These preliminary results indicate that diatom indices are highly related to hydrological processes. The next steps will include finding out the possible mechanisms of the above phenomena, and exploring the contributions of abiotic variables (e.g., hydrologic indices, nutrients) to diatom community patterns. Based on this and ongoing studies (Wu et al. unpublished data), we will incorporate diatom data into End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) and select the tracer set that is best suited for separation of different runoff components in our study catchment. Keywords: Diatoms, Rainfall event, Non-metric multidimensional scaling, Hydrological process, Indices References: Pfister L, McDonnell JJ, Wrede S, Hlúbiková D, Matgen P, Fenicia F, Ector L, Hoffmann L

  16. Multiple discrete-energy ion features in the inner magnetosphere: 9 February 1998, event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ebihara

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple discrete-energy ion bands observed by the Polar satellite in the inner magnetosphere on 9 February 1998 were investigated by means of particle simulation with a realistic model of the convection electric field. The multiple bands appeared in the energy vs. L spectrum in the 1–100 keV range when Polar traveled in the heart of the ring current along the outbound and inbound paths. We performed particle tracing, and simulated the energy vs. L spectra of proton fluxes under the dipole magnetic field, the corotation electric field, and the realistic convection electric field model with its parameters depending on the solar wind data. Simulated spectra are shown to agree well with the observed ones. A better agreement is achieved when we rotate the convection electric potential eastward by 2h inMLT and we change the distribution function in time in the near-Earth magnetotail. It is concluded that the multiple bands are likely produced by two processes for this particular event, that is, changes in the convection electric field (for >3keV protons and changes in the distribution function in the near-Earth magnetotail (for <3keV protons. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; electric field – Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies

  17. Acoustic Event Detection in Multichannel Audio Using Gated Recurrent Neural Networks with High‐Resolution Spectral Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung‐Gook Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, deep recurrent neural networks have achieved great success in various machine learning tasks, and have also been applied for sound event detection. The detection of temporally overlapping sound events in realistic environments is much more challenging than in monophonic detection problems. In this paper, we present an approach to improve the accuracy of polyphonic sound event detection in multichannel audio based on gated recurrent neural networks in combination with auditory spectral features. In the proposed method, human hearing perception‐based spatial and spectral‐domain noise‐reduced harmonic features are extracted from multichannel audio and used as high‐resolution spectral inputs to train gated recurrent neural networks. This provides a fast and stable convergence rate compared to long short‐term memory recurrent neural networks. Our evaluation reveals that the proposed method outperforms the conventional approaches.

  18. Strategies to Automatically Derive a Process Model from a Configurable Process Model Based on Event Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Arriagada-Benítez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Configurable process models are frequently used to represent business workflows and other discrete event systems among different branches of large organizations: they unify commonalities shared by all branches and describe their differences, at the same time. The configuration of such models is usually done manually, which is challenging. On the one hand, when the number of configurable nodes in the configurable process model grows, the size of the search space increases exponentially. On the other hand, the person performing the configuration may lack the holistic perspective to make the right choice for all configurable nodes at the same time, since choices influence each other. Nowadays, information systems that support the execution of business processes create event data reflecting how processes are performed. In this article, we propose three strategies (based on exhaustive search, genetic algorithms and a greedy heuristic that use event data to automatically derive a process model from a configurable process model that better represents the characteristics of the process in a specific branch. These strategies have been implemented in our proposed framework and tested in both business-like event logs as recorded in a higher educational enterprise resource planning system and a real case scenario involving a set of Dutch municipalities.

  19. A Probabilistic Approach to Network Event Formation from Pre-Processed Waveform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, B. C.; Given, J.

    2017-12-01

    The current state of the art for seismic event detection still largely depends on signal detection at individual sensor stations, including picking accurate arrivals times and correctly identifying phases, and relying on fusion algorithms to associate individual signal detections to form event hypotheses. But increasing computational capability has enabled progress toward the objective of fully utilizing body-wave recordings in an integrated manner to detect events without the necessity of previously recorded ground truth events. In 2011-2012 Leidos (then SAIC) operated a seismic network to monitor activity associated with geothermal field operations in western Nevada. We developed a new association approach for detecting and quantifying events by probabilistically combining pre-processed waveform data to deal with noisy data and clutter at local distance ranges. The ProbDet algorithm maps continuous waveform data into continuous conditional probability traces using a source model (e.g. Brune earthquake or Mueller-Murphy explosion) to map frequency content and an attenuation model to map amplitudes. Event detection and classification is accomplished by combining the conditional probabilities from the entire network using a Bayesian formulation. This approach was successful in producing a high-Pd, low-Pfa automated bulletin for a local network and preliminary tests with regional and teleseismic data show that it has promise for global seismic and nuclear monitoring applications. The approach highlights several features that we believe are essential to achieving low-threshold automated event detection: Minimizes the utilization of individual seismic phase detections - in traditional techniques, errors in signal detection, timing, feature measurement and initial phase ID compound and propagate into errors in event formation, Has a formalized framework that utilizes information from non-detecting stations, Has a formalized framework that utilizes source information, in

  20. Cosmic ray exposure ages of features and events at the Apollo landing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, R.; Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R.J.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Morgan, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Cosmic ray exposure ages of lunar samples have been used to date surface features related to impact cratering and downslope movement of material. Only when multiple samples related to a feature have the same rare gas exposure age, or when a single sample has the same 81 Kr-Kr and track exposure age can a feature be considered reliably dated. Because any single lunar sample is likely to have had a complex history, assignment of ages to features based upon only one determination by any method should be avoided. Based on the above criteria, there are only five well-dated lunar features: Cone Crater (Apollo 14) 26 m.y., North Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 50 m.y., South Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 2 m.y., the emplacement of the Station 6 boulders (Apollo 17) 22 m.y., and the emplacement of the Station 7 boulder (Apollo 17) 28 m.y. Other features are tentatively dated or have limits set on their ages: Bench Crater (Apollo 12) =50 m.y. (Auth.)

  1. Process of technical performance: essential features and their economic view

    OpenAIRE

    Zhylinska, O.

    2010-01-01

    Essential features of technical performance have been defined in the context of similarity of its components such as research and development, training of technical/engineering personnel and providing technical services. Also peculiarities of economic view have been examined in terms of information model of managing.

  2. Towards Hybrid Online On-Demand Querying of Realtime Data with Stateful Complex Event Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2013-10-09

    Emerging Big Data applications in areas like e-commerce and energy industry require both online and on-demand queries to be performed over vast and fast data arriving as streams. These present novel challenges to Big Data management systems. Complex Event Processing (CEP) is recognized as a high performance online query scheme which in particular deals with the velocity aspect of the 3-V’s of Big Data. However, traditional CEP systems do not consider data variety and lack the capability to embed ad hoc queries over the volume of data streams. In this paper, we propose H2O, a stateful complex event processing framework, to support hybrid online and on-demand queries over realtime data. We propose a semantically enriched event and query model to address data variety. A formal query algebra is developed to precisely capture the stateful and containment semantics of online and on-demand queries. We describe techniques to achieve the interactive query processing over realtime data featured by efficient online querying, dynamic stream data persistence and on-demand access. The system architecture is presented and the current implementation status reported.

  3. Real-time complex event processing for cloud resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, M.; Cordeiro, C.; Field, L.; Giordano, D.; Magnoni, L.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing integration of clouds into the WLCG raises the need for detailed health and performance monitoring of the virtual resources in order to prevent problems of degraded service and interruptions due to undetected failures. When working in scale, the existing monitoring diversity can lead to a metric overflow whereby the operators need to manually collect and correlate data from several monitoring tools and frameworks, resulting in tens of different metrics to be constantly interpreted and analyzed per virtual machine. In this paper we present an ESPER based standalone application which is able to process complex monitoring events coming from various sources and automatically interpret data in order to issue alarms upon the resources’ statuses, without interfering with the actual resources and data sources. We will describe how this application has been used with both commercial and non-commercial cloud activities, allowing the operators to quickly be alarmed and react to misbehaving VMs and LHC experiments’ workflows. We will present the pattern analysis mechanisms being used, as well as the surrounding Elastic and REST API interfaces where the alarms are collected and served to users.

  4. Neural Correlates of Contrast and Humor: Processing Common Features of Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Flucher, Aurélie; Portefaix, Christophe; Pierot, Laurent; Kaladjian, Arthur; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Irony is a kind of figurative language used by a speaker to say something that contrasts with the context and, to some extent, lends humor to a situation. However, little is known about the brain regions that specifically support the processing of these two common features of irony. The present study had two main aims: (i) investigate the neural basis of irony processing, by delivering short ironic spoken sentences (and their literal counterparts) to participants undergoing fMRI; and (ii) assess the neural effect of two irony parameters, obtained from normative studies: degree of contrast and humor appreciation. Results revealed activation of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and left caudate during irony processing, suggesting the involvement of both semantic and theory-of-mind networks. Parametric models showed that contrast was specifically associated with the activation of bilateral frontal and subcortical areas, and that these regions were also sensitive to humor, as shown by a conjunction analysis. Activation of the bilateral IFG is consistent with the literature on humor processing, and reflects incongruity detection/resolution processes. Moreover, the activation of subcortical structures can be related to the reward processing of social events. PMID:27851821

  5. Analysis of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Inter-relations and association to simple nocturnal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandeharioun, H; Rezaeitalab, F; Lotfi, R

    2016-01-01

    This study carefully evaluates the association of different respiration-related events to each other and to simple nocturnal features in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS). The events include apneas, hypopneas, respiratory event-related arousals and snores. We conducted a statistical study on 158 adults who underwent polysomnography between July 2012 and May 2014. To monitor relevance, along with linear statistical strategies like analysis of variance and bootstrapping a correlation coefficient standard error, the non-linear method of mutual information is also applied to illuminate vague results of linear techniques. Based on normalized mutual information weights (NMIW), indices of apnea are 1.3 times more relevant to AHI values than those of hypopnea. NMIW for the number of blood oxygen desaturation below 95% is considerable (0.531). The next relevant feature is "respiratory arousals index" with NMIW of 0.501. Snore indices (0.314), and BMI (0.203) take the next place. Based on NMIW values, snoring events are nearly one-third (29.9%) more dependent to hypopneas than RERAs. 1. The more sever the OSAS is, the more frequently the apneic events happen. 2. The association of snore with hypopnea/RERA revealed which is routinely ignored in regression-based OSAS modeling. 3. The statistical dependencies of oximetry features potentially can lead to home-based screening of OSAS. 4. Poor ESS-AHI relevance in the database under study indicates its disability for the OSA diagnosis compared to oximetry. 5. Based on poor RERA-snore/ESS relevance, detailed history of the symptoms plus polysomnography is suggested for accurate diagnosis of RERAs. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Software features and applications in process design, integration and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhole, V. [Aspen Tech Limited, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Process engineering technologies and tools have evolved rapidly over the last twenty years. Process simulation/modeling, advanced process control, on-line optimisation, production planning and supply chain management are some of the examples of technologies that have rapidly matured from early commercial prototypes and concepts to established tools with significant impact on profitability of process industry today. Process Synthesis or Process Integration (PI) in comparison is yet to create its impact and still remains largely in the domain of few expert users. One of the key reasons as to why PI has not taken off is because the PI tools have not become integral components of the standard process engineering environments. On the last 15 years AspenTech has grown from a small process simulation tool provider to a large multinational company providing a complete suite of process engineering technologies and services covering process design, operation, planning and supply chain management. Throughout this period, AspenTech has acquired experience in rapidly evolving technologies from their early prototype stage to mature products and services. The paper outlines AspenTech`s strategy of integrating PI with other more established process design and operational improvement technologies. The paper illustrates the key elements of AspenTech`s strategy via examples of software development initiatives and services projects. The paper also outlines AspenTech`s future vision of the role of PI in process engineering. (au)

  7. Semi-automated camera trap image processing for the detection of ungulate fence crossing events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Michael; Visser, Kaitlyn; Visscher, Darcy; MacLeod, Ian; Vujnovic, Dragomir; Vujnovic, Ksenija

    2017-09-27

    Remote cameras are an increasingly important tool for ecological research. While remote camera traps collect field data with minimal human attention, the images they collect require post-processing and characterization before it can be ecologically and statistically analyzed, requiring the input of substantial time and money from researchers. The need for post-processing is due, in part, to a high incidence of non-target images. We developed a stand-alone semi-automated computer program to aid in image processing, categorization, and data reduction by employing background subtraction and histogram rules. Unlike previous work that uses video as input, our program uses still camera trap images. The program was developed for an ungulate fence crossing project and tested against an image dataset which had been previously processed by a human operator. Our program placed images into categories representing the confidence of a particular sequence of images containing a fence crossing event. This resulted in a reduction of 54.8% of images that required further human operator characterization while retaining 72.6% of the known fence crossing events. This program can provide researchers using remote camera data the ability to reduce the time and cost required for image post-processing and characterization. Further, we discuss how this procedure might be generalized to situations not specifically related to animal use of linear features.

  8. Discovery of a bright microlensing event with planetary features towards the Taurus region: a super-Earth planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Licchelli, D.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Strafella, F.; Katysheva, N.; Shugarov, S.

    2018-05-01

    The transient event labelled as TCP J05074264+2447555 recently discovered towards the Taurus region was quickly recognized to be an ongoing microlensing event on a source located at distance of only 700-800 pc from Earth. Here, we show that observations with high sampling rate close to the time of maximum magnification revealed features that imply the presence of a binary lens system with very low-mass ratio components. We present a complete description of the binary lens system, which host an Earth-like planet with most likely mass of 9.2 ± 6.6 M⊕. Furthermore, the source estimated location and detailed Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to classify the event as due to the closest lens system, being at a distance of ≃380 pc and mass ≃0.25 M⊙.

  9. A process-oriented event-based programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Zanitti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Vi præsenterer den første version af PEPL, et deklarativt Proces-orienteret, Event-baseret Programmeringssprog baseret på den fornyligt introducerede Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs model. DCR Graphs tillader specifikation, distribuerede udførsel og verifikation af pervasive event...

  10. Features oxidative processes in sturgeons fish (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Symon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To anayze scientific sources on physiological-biochemical pecularities of reducing-oxidizing processes, including peroxide oxidation of lipids and work of the system of antioxidant protection system in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. The initiation and process of the oxidative stress have been described. The main products of peroxide oxidation of lipids, antioxidants of natural and artificial origin, organs and tissues for the studies of reducing-oxidizing processes have been examined. Findings. The work generalizes the processes of lipid peroxidation. Briefly outlined the main mechanism of action of antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidant defense system plays one of key role in the life of organism due regulating its series of metabolic processes, use of assessing of its state gives an opportunity obtain quantitative information on the progress of these processes. The products of free radical peroxidation (dien conjugates and malonic dialdehyde can also act as a sort of biomarkers of tissue damage, because their content can judge about the intensity of the flow of free radical processes in the various systems in organism. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. It is shown the most common antioxidants used in the feeding of sturgeon. Organs and tissues, which should be used for studying the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in sturgeon species, have been examined. Practical value. The systematized data regarding peroxide oxidation of lipids, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection system allow finding a balance between these processes. The data on antioxidants, which are used in feeds for sturgeon species, will be useful for sturgeon culturists. The array of the generalized information will be important for scientists who study the pecularities of the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids and antioxidant protection system in

  11. Process Features in Writing: Internal Structure and Incremental Value over Product Features. Research Report. ETS RR-15-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In educational measurement contexts, essays have been evaluated and formative feedback has been given based on the end product. In this study, we used a large sample collected from middle school students in the United States to investigate the factor structure of the writing process features gathered from keystroke logs and the association of that…

  12. Real-time hypothesis driven feature extraction on parallel processing architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granmo, O.-C.; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2002-01-01

    the problem of higher-order feature-content/feature-feature correlation, causally complexly interacting features are identified through Bayesian network d-separation analysis and combined into joint features. When used on a moderately complex object-tracking case, the technique is able to select...... extraction, which selectively extract relevant features one-by-one, have in some cases achieved real-time performance on single processing element architectures. In this paperwe propose a novel technique which combines the above two approaches. Features are selectively extracted in parallelizable sets...

  13. Balboa: A Framework for Event-Based Process Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Jonathan E; Wolf, Alexander L

    1998-01-01

    .... We have built Balboa as a bridge between the data collection and the analysis tools, facilitating the gathering and management of event data, and simplifying the construction of tools to analyze the data...

  14. Event Detection Intelligent Camera: Demonstration of flexible, real-time data taking and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabolics, Tamás, E-mail: szabolics.tamas@wigner.mta.hu; Cseh, Gábor; Kocsis, Gábor; Szepesi, Tamás; Zoletnik, Sándor

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We present EDICAM's operation principles description. • Firmware tests results. • Software test results. • Further developments. - Abstract: An innovative fast camera (EDICAM – Event Detection Intelligent CAMera) was developed by MTA Wigner RCP in the last few years. This new concept was designed for intelligent event driven processing to be able to detect predefined events and track objects in the plasma. The camera provides a moderate frame rate of 400 Hz at full frame resolution (1280 × 1024), and readout of smaller region of interests can be done in the 1–140 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. One of the most important advantages of this hardware is a 10 Gbit/s optical link which ensures very fast communication and data transfer between the PC and the camera, enabling two level of processing: primitive algorithms in the camera hardware and high-level processing in the PC. This camera hardware has successfully proven to be able to monitoring the plasma in several fusion devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade, KSTAR and COMPASS with the first version of firmware. A new firmware and software package is under development. It allows to detect predefined events in real time and therefore the camera is capable to change its own operation or to give warnings e.g. to the safety system of the experiment. The EDICAM system can handle a huge amount of data (up to TBs) with high data rate (950 MB/s) and will be used as the central element of the 10 camera overview video diagnostic system of Wendenstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. This paper presents key elements of the newly developed built-in intelligence stressing the revolutionary new features and the results of the test of the different software elements.

  15. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.

    2013-12-01

    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  16. Event-driven processing for hardware-efficient neural spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pereira, João L.; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. The prospect of real-time and on-node spike sorting provides a genuine opportunity to push the envelope of large-scale integrated neural recording systems. In such systems the hardware resources, power requirements and data bandwidth increase linearly with channel count. Event-based (or data-driven) processing can provide here a new efficient means for hardware implementation that is completely activity dependant. In this work, we investigate using continuous-time level-crossing sampling for efficient data representation and subsequent spike processing. Approach. (1) We first compare signals (synthetic neural datasets) encoded with this technique against conventional sampling. (2) We then show how such a representation can be directly exploited by extracting simple time domain features from the bitstream to perform neural spike sorting. (3) The proposed method is implemented in a low power FPGA platform to demonstrate its hardware viability. Main results. It is observed that considerably lower data rates are achievable when using 7 bits or less to represent the signals, whilst maintaining the signal fidelity. Results obtained using both MATLAB and reconfigurable logic hardware (FPGA) indicate that feature extraction and spike sorting accuracies can be achieved with comparable or better accuracy than reference methods whilst also requiring relatively low hardware resources. Significance. By effectively exploiting continuous-time data representation, neural signal processing can be achieved in a completely event-driven manner, reducing both the required resources (memory, complexity) and computations (operations). This will see future large-scale neural systems integrating on-node processing in real-time hardware.

  17. Implacable images: why epileptiform events continue to be featured in film and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerson, Toba Schwaber; Kerson, Lawrence A

    2006-06-01

    Epileptiform events have been portrayed in film since 1900 and on television since the 1950's. Over time, portrayals have not reflected medicine's understanding of epilepsy. At present, it is unlikely that individuals who do not have a close relationship with someone with a seizure-disorder will witness a seizure. Because fictive and often incorrect images appear increasingly, many think of them as accurate depictions. The research addresses three questions in relation to these images: How do directors use the images? Why do uses of seizures in visual media not reflect contemporary scientific knowledge? Why have they persisted and increased in use? Data consist of material from 192 films and television episodes. The general category of seizures includes seizures in characters said to have epilepsy or some other condition, seizures related to drug or alcohol use, pseudoseizures and feigned seizures, and, a category in which, for example, someone is described as "having a fit." The research demonstrates how epileptiform events drive the narrative, support the genre, evoke specific emotional reactions, accentuate traits of characters with seizures, highlight qualities of other characters through their responses to the seizures, act as catalysts for actions, and enhance the voyeuristic experience of the audience. Twenty video sequences are included in the manuscript. The authors conclude that the visual experience of seizures remains so enthralling that its use is most likely to increase particularly on television, and that as the public has less experience with real seizures, depictions in film will continue to be more concerned with what the image can do for the show and less interested in accurate portrayals. Ways to influence depictions are suggested.

  18. Evaluating and predicting overall process risk using event logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pika, A.; Van Der Aalst, W.M.P.; Wynn, M.T.; Fidge, C.J.; Ter Hofstede, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Companies standardise and automate their business processes in order to improve process efficiency and minimise operational risks. However, it is difficult to eliminate all process risks during the process design stage due to the fact that processes often run in complex and changeable environments

  19. Why Rules Matter in Complex Event Processing...and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Paul

    Many commercial and research CEP solutions are moving beyond simple stream query languages to more complete definitions of "process" and thence to "decisions" and "actions". And as capabilities increase in event processing capabilities, there is an increasing realization that the humble "rule" is as relevant to the event cloud as it is to specific services. Less obvious is how much event processing has to offer the process and rule execution and management technologies. Does event processing change the way we should manage businesses, processes and services, together with their embedded (and hopefully managed) rulesets?

  20. Statistical features of pre-compound processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Rego, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    Several statistical aspects of multistep compound processes are discussed. The connection between the cross-section auto-correlation function and the average number of maxima is emphasized. The restrictions imposed by the non-zero value of the energy step used in measuring the excitation fuction and the experimental error are discussed. Applications are made to the system 25 Mg( 3 He,p) 27 Al. (Author) [pt

  1. Eta Carinae’s 2014.6 Spectroscopic Event: The Extraordinary He II and N II Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kris; Mehner, Andrea; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Martin, John C.; Ishibashi, Kazunori

    2015-03-01

    Eta Carinae’s spectroscopic events (periastron passages) in 2003, 2009, and 2014 differed progressively. He ii λ4687 and nearby N ii multiplet 5 have special significance because they respond to very soft X-rays and the ionizing UV radiation field (EUV). Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/STIS observations in 2014 show dramatic increases in both features compared to the previous 2009.1 event. These results appear very consistent with a progressive decline in the primary wind density, proposed years ago on other grounds. If material falls onto the companion star near periastron, the accretion rate may now have become too low to suppress the EUV. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is opera ted by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. The effect of feature-based attention on flanker interference processing: An fMRI-constrained source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Julia; Herrmann, Manfred; Galashan, Daniela

    2018-01-25

    The present study examined whether feature-based cueing affects early or late stages of flanker conflict processing using EEG and fMRI. Feature cues either directed participants' attention to the upcoming colour of the target or were neutral. Validity-specific modulations during interference processing were investigated using the N200 event-related potential (ERP) component and BOLD signal differences. Additionally, both data sets were integrated using an fMRI-constrained source analysis. Finally, the results were compared with a previous study in which spatial instead of feature-based cueing was applied to an otherwise identical flanker task. Feature-based and spatial attention recruited a common fronto-parietal network during conflict processing. Irrespective of attention type (feature-based; spatial), this network responded to focussed attention (valid cueing) as well as context updating (invalid cueing), hinting at domain-general mechanisms. However, spatially and non-spatially directed attention also demonstrated domain-specific activation patterns for conflict processing that were observable in distinct EEG and fMRI data patterns as well as in the respective source analyses. Conflict-specific activity in visual brain regions was comparable between both attention types. We assume that the distinction between spatially and non-spatially directed attention types primarily applies to temporal differences (domain-specific dynamics) between signals originating in the same brain regions (domain-general localization).

  3. Radiation detectors for use in major public events: classification, requirements, main features, tests and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de

    2017-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, we have entered a new terrorism era. The possibility of the use of lost/stolen radioactive materials increases the probability of a radiological threat. The real goal intended with the use of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RRD or dirty bomb) or a Radiation Exposure Device (RDE) could be psychological in nature. Panic in the venues and surrounding area would cause more deaths than the RDD itself, therefore these attempts could cause chaos, injury, fear and terror, the main target of terrorists. The response of the national authorities with the support and aid of the IAEA served as an increase of the capability of detection and identification of nuclear and radiological materials. But this response could not be limited only to the MPE, because if the country has radioactive or nuclear facilities they also should be considered in terms of theft, sabotage, illegal transfer, unauthorized access, and any other malicious acts. In 2007, Rio de Janeiro, received the first Brazilian Major Public Event in this new era. This was the first Brazilian operation which largely utilized detectors (personal radiations detectors -PRD- radiological identification detectors, -RID or RIID- and spectral radiations scanners, -backpacks-, HPGe detectors, car-borne and air-borne systems) to protect the venues, the athletes, the population and the environment. (author)

  4. Radiation detectors for use in major public events: classification, requirements, main features, tests and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de, E-mail: elder@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (DIRAD/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiometria

    2017-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, we have entered a new terrorism era. The possibility of the use of lost/stolen radioactive materials increases the probability of a radiological threat. The real goal intended with the use of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RRD or dirty bomb) or a Radiation Exposure Device (RDE) could be psychological in nature. Panic in the venues and surrounding area would cause more deaths than the RDD itself, therefore these attempts could cause chaos, injury, fear and terror, the main target of terrorists. The response of the national authorities with the support and aid of the IAEA served as an increase of the capability of detection and identification of nuclear and radiological materials. But this response could not be limited only to the MPE, because if the country has radioactive or nuclear facilities they also should be considered in terms of theft, sabotage, illegal transfer, unauthorized access, and any other malicious acts. In 2007, Rio de Janeiro, received the first Brazilian Major Public Event in this new era. This was the first Brazilian operation which largely utilized detectors (personal radiations detectors -PRD- radiological identification detectors, -RID or RIID- and spectral radiations scanners, -backpacks-, HPGe detectors, car-borne and air-borne systems) to protect the venues, the athletes, the population and the environment. (author)

  5. Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Hung-Yi [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Wu, Kinwah [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Younsi, Ziri; Mizuno, Yosuke [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: hpu@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: kinwah.wu@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: younsi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-08-20

    The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.

  6. FEATURES OF THE REGENERATION PROCESS OF THE FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Panov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration system exercises significant influence on the efficiency and reliability of the filters. During operation of the filter it continuously increases the hydraulic resistance and the gas permeability of the filter material decreases as the deposition of the disperse phase capturable on the filter element, and to maintain the bandwidth of the filter in the filter element within the set must be periodically changed or regenerated. Thus, regeneration of a process of removing part of the dust layer with the purpose of full or partial reduction of the initial filter partitioning properties. On the basis of theoretical synthesis, physico-chemical effects of dust in layers, analysis of energy effects, developed methods of intensification of the process of regeneration of particulate filters. Pneumopulse regeneration of bag filter has been investigated, and based on it a regression equation for regeneration efficiency has been derived. It has been shown that pulse pressure exerts the dominant influence on the regeneration efficiency. The obtained model was used for assessment and prediction of the efficiency of the pneumopulse system of regeneration of bag filters at a number of structural materials producing enterprises in the Voronezh region.

  7. Focused process improvement events: sustainability of impact on process and performance in an academic radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lawson, Kirk; Ally, Rosina; Chen, David; Donno, Frank; Rittberg, Steven; Rodriguez, Joan; Recht, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sustainability of impact of rapid, focused process improvement (PI) events on process and performance within an academic radiology department. Our department conducted PI during 2011 and 2012 in CT, MRI, ultrasound, breast imaging, and research billing. PI entailed participation by all stakeholders, facilitation by the department chair, collection of baseline data, meetings during several weeks, definition of performance metrics, creation of an improvement plan, and prompt implementation. We explore common themes among PI events regarding initial impact and durability of changes. We also assess performance in each area pre-PI, immediately post-PI, and at the time of the current study. All PI events achieved an immediate improvement in performance metrics, often entailing both examination volumes and on-time performance. IT-based solutions, process standardization, and redefinition of staff responsibilities were often central in these changes, and participants consistently expressed improved internal leadership and problem-solving ability. Major environmental changes commonly occurred after PI, including a natural disaster with equipment loss, a change in location or services offered, and new enterprise-wide electronic medical record system incorporating new billing and radiology informatics systems, requiring flexibility in the PI implementation plan. Only one PI team conducted regular post-PI follow-up meetings. Sustained improvement was frequently, but not universally, observed: in the long-term following initial PI, measures of examination volume showed continued progressive improvements, whereas measures of operational efficiency remained stable or occasionally declined. Focused PI is generally effective in achieving performance improvement, although a changing environment influences the sustainability of impact. Thus, continued process evaluation and ongoing workflow modifications are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology

  8. Specific features of elite bodybuilders’ training process in competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Tihorsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To substantiate methodic of training process construction for elite bodybuilders in competition period with usage of different training methods. Material: elite bodybuilders - members of combined team of Ukraine (n=16 participated in the research. Results: we presented comparative characteristic of the most often used bodybuilding training methodic. Besides, optimal training methodic in competition period was worked out and substantiated. Such methodic permits to improve body proportions at the account of fat layer reduction. By the data of Harvard step-test the sportsmen improved organism’s functional potentials by 6%. Conclusions: the offered methodic noticeably reduces probability of functional unfavorable states (over-training, overloading, traumas. The methodic permits to achieve the required sport form without over-tension adaptation-compensatory mechanisms and acquire maximal muscular relief; improve proportions with minimal losses of muscles’ volume.

  9. Integrating natural language processing expertise with patient safety event review committees to improve the analysis of medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Harriott, Nicole; Walters, Donna M; Foley, Hanan; Morrissey, Richard; Ratwani, Raj R

    2017-08-01

    Many healthcare providers have implemented patient safety event reporting systems to better understand and improve patient safety. Reviewing and analyzing these reports is often time consuming and resource intensive because of both the quantity of reports and length of free-text descriptions in the reports. Natural language processing (NLP) experts collaborated with clinical experts on a patient safety committee to assist in the identification and analysis of medication related patient safety events. Different NLP algorithmic approaches were developed to identify four types of medication related patient safety events and the models were compared. Well performing NLP models were generated to categorize medication related events into pharmacy delivery delays, dispensing errors, Pyxis discrepancies, and prescriber errors with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve of 0.96, 0.87, 0.96, and 0.81 respectively. We also found that modeling the brief without the resolution text generally improved model performance. These models were integrated into a dashboard visualization to support the patient safety committee review process. We demonstrate the capabilities of various NLP models and the use of two text inclusion strategies at categorizing medication related patient safety events. The NLP models and visualization could be used to improve the efficiency of patient safety event data review and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. From IHE Audit Trails to XES Event Logs Facilitating Process Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paster, Ferdinand; Helm, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently Business Intelligence approaches like process mining are applied to the healthcare domain. The goal of process mining is to gain process knowledge, compliance and room for improvement by investigating recorded event data. Previous approaches focused on process discovery by event data from various specific systems. IHE, as a globally recognized basis for healthcare information systems, defines in its ATNA profile how real-world events must be recorded in centralized event logs. The following approach presents how audit trails collected by the means of ATNA can be transformed to enable process mining. Using the standardized audit trails provides the ability to apply these methods to all IHE based information systems.

  11. The ear, the eye, earthquakes and feature selection: listening to automatically generated seismic bulletins for clues as to the differences between true and false events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arehart, E.; Louie, J. N.; Witzleben, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Listening to the waveforms generated by earthquakes is not new. The recordings of seismometers have been sped up and played to generations of introductory seismology students, published on educational websites and even included in the occasional symphony. The modern twist on earthquakes as music is an interest in using state-of-the-art computer algorithms for seismic data processing and evaluation. Algorithms such as such as Hidden Markov Models, Bayesian Network models and Support Vector Machines have been highly developed for applications in speech recognition, and might also be adapted for automatic seismic data analysis. Over the last three years, the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has supported an effort to apply computer learning and data mining algorithms to IDC data processing, particularly to the problem of weeding through automatically generated event bulletins to find events which are non-physical and would otherwise have to be eliminated by the hand of highly trained human analysts. Analysts are able to evaluate events, distinguish between phases, pick new phases and build new events by looking at waveforms displayed on a computer screen. Human ears, however, are much better suited to waveform processing than are the eyes. Our hypothesis is that combining an auditory representation of seismic events with visual waveforms would reduce the time it takes to train an analyst and the time they need to evaluate an event. Since it takes almost two years for a person of extraordinary diligence to become a professional analyst and IDC contracts are limited to seven years by Treaty, faster training would significantly improve IDC operations. Furthermore, once a person learns to distinguish between true and false events by ear, various forms of audio compression can be applied to the data. The compression scheme which yields the smallest data set in which relevant signals can still be heard is likely an

  12. Estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massinaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features is the ultimate goal of a machine vision based control system. In this study, a batch flotation system was operated under different process conditions and metallurgical parameters and froth image data were determined simultaneously. Algorithms have been developed for measuring textural and physical froth features from the captured images. The correlation between the froth features and metallurgical parameters was successfully modeled, using artificial neural networks. It has been shown that the performance parameters of flotation process can be accurately estimated from the extracted image features, which is of great importance for developing automatic control systems.

  13. Features of radiation chemical processes in ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchenko, S.S.; Mal'tseva, A.P.; Iskakov, L.I.; Karpov, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of statistical copolymers of ethylene with styrene to determine their structure and properties and radio-chemical transformations. The styrene content of the copolymers ranged from 1 to 85 mole%. The investigation covered non-irradiated copolymers and those irradiated with doses of 1-1000Mrad at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. It is shown that styrene units present in the CES inhibited all radio-chemical processes compared with PE irradiated under similar conditions. It is suggested that the radiation resistance of CES with styrene contents up to 10 mole % increases in the course of irradiation as a result of the formation of structures with a high degree of conjugation which are more capable of scattering absorbed energy than in the case of phenyl rings by themselves. The most promising of the CES examined is the one with a styrene content of 5 mole %. The mechanical properties of this copolymer are similar to those of PE, and its radiation resistance rises under service conditions in the presence of ionizing radiation

  14. Knowing what, where, and when: event comprehension in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukona, Anuenue; Altmann, Gerry T M; Kamide, Yuki

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the retrieval of location information, and the deployment of attention to these locations, following (described) event-related location changes. In two visual world experiments, listeners viewed arrays with containers like a bowl, jar, pan, and jug, while hearing sentences like "The boy will pour the sweetcorn from the bowl into the jar, and he will pour the gravy from the pan into the jug. And then, he will taste the sweetcorn". At the discourse-final "sweetcorn", listeners fixated context-relevant "Target" containers most (jar). Crucially, we also observed two forms of competition: listeners fixated containers that were not directly referred to but associated with "sweetcorn" (bowl), and containers that played the same role as Targets (goals of moving events; jug), more than distractors (pan). These results suggest that event-related location changes are encoded across representations that compete for comprehenders' attention, such that listeners retrieve, and fixate, locations that are not referred to in the unfolding language, but related to them via object or role information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological features produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Mendez Ribo, Macarena; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    of micro biological features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes. The study characterizes the additive manufacturing processes for polymeric micro part productions using the vat photopolymerization method. A specifically designed vat photopolymerization AM machine suitable for precision printing...

  16. Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes - Highlights from the Baltic Sea Science Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea Science Congress was held at Rostock University, Germany, from 19 to 22 March 2007. In the session entitled"Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes" 20 presentations were given,including 7 talks and 13 posters related to the theme of the session.This paper summarises new findings of the upwelling-related studies reported in the session. It deals with investigationsbased on the use of in situ and remote sensing measurements as well as numerical modelling tools. The biogeochemicalimplications of upwelling are also discussed.Our knowledge of the fine structure and dynamic considerations of upwelling has increased in recent decades with the advent ofhigh-resolution modern measurement techniques and modelling studies. The forcing and the overall structure, duration and intensity ofupwelling events are understood quite well. However, the quantification of related transports and the contribution to the overall mixingof upwelling requires further research. Furthermore, our knowledge of the links between upwelling and biogeochemical processes is stillincomplete. Numerical modelling has advanced to the extent that horizontal resolutions of c. 0.5 nautical miles can now be applied,which allows the complete spectrum of meso-scale features to be described. Even the development of filaments can be describedrealistically in comparison with high-resolution satellite data.But the effect of upwelling at a basin scale and possible changes under changing climatic conditions remain open questions.

  17. Efficient rare-event simulation for multiple jump events in regularly varying random walks and compound Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Chen (Bohan); J. Blanchet; C.H. Rhee (Chang-Han); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a class of strongly efficient rare event simulation estimators for random walks and compound Poisson processes with a regularly varying increment/jump-size distribution in a general large deviations regime. Our estimator is based on an importance sampling strategy that hinges

  18. Attention - Control in the Frequentistic Processing of Multidimensional Event Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Human memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 1979, 30, 63-702. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research...1979; Jacoby & Craik , 1979). Thus, the notions of memora- bility (or retrievability) and levels of processing are tied closely in the sense that the...differing levels and degrees of elaborateness (Jacoby & Craik , 1979). Decisions as to which attributes receive elaborated processing and how they are

  19. A single theoretical framework for circular features processing in humans: orientation and direction of motion compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetomir eTzvetanov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common computational principles underly processing of various visual features in the cortex. They are considered to create similar patterns of contextual modulations in behavioral studies for different features as orientation and direction of motion. Here, I studied the possibility that a single theoretical framework, implemented in different visual areas, of circular feature coding and processing could explain these similarities in observations. Stimuli were created that allowed direct comparison of the contextual effects on orientation and motion direction with two different psychophysical probes: changes in weak and strong signal perception. One unique simplified theoretical model of circular feature coding including only inhibitory interactions, and decoding through standard vector average, successfully predicted the similarities in the two domains, while different feature population characteristics explained well the differences in modulation on both experimental probes. These results demonstrate how a single computational principle underlies processing of various features across the cortices.

  20. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  1. Features of the triggering mehanism for single event burnout of power MOSFES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, J.H.; Johnson, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The feedback mechanism leading to second breakdown and burnout in a power MOSFET is reviewed briefly, and critical device design parameters are identified and chosen with regard to electrical specifications. Based on typical parameters, the avalanching conditions in the space charge region of the collector junction are investigated over a wide range of collector current densities. It is shown that the space charge associated with the collector current density modifies the electric field profile such that, with increasing collector current, the avalanche multiplication factor rises to a peak, then declines to a valley, and eventually rises monotonically. This behavior can be explained in simple terms. It may lead to a stable avalanching condition with a current density too low to damage the structure. This condition can be initiated by heavy ions with energies below a certain threshold. Ion energies beyond the threshold drive the avalanching process into the region of monotonic increase of the avalanche multiplication factor and lead to run-away and burnout. The threshold for runaway varies widely with changing configurations of the p + -plug and of the p-body region and promises configurations that are immune to burnout. Assessments of threshold currents in a typical hex cell are given

  2. Disambiguating past events: Accurate source memory for time and context depends on different retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bjorn M; Ainge, James A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2016-07-01

    Current animal models of episodic memory are usually based on demonstrating integrated memory for what happened, where it happened, and when an event took place. These models aim to capture the testable features of the definition of human episodic memory which stresses the temporal component of the memory as a unique piece of source information that allows us to disambiguate one memory from another. Recently though, it has been suggested that a more accurate model of human episodic memory would include contextual rather than temporal source information, as humans' memory for time is relatively poor. Here, two experiments were carried out investigating human memory for temporal and contextual source information, along with the underlying dual process retrieval processes, using an immersive virtual environment paired with a 'Remember-Know' memory task. Experiment 1 (n=28) showed that contextual information could only be retrieved accurately using recollection, while temporal information could be retrieved using either recollection or familiarity. Experiment 2 (n=24), which used a more difficult task, resulting in reduced item recognition rates and therefore less potential for contamination by ceiling effects, replicated the pattern of results from Experiment 1. Dual process theory predicts that it should only be possible to retrieve source context from an event using recollection, and our results are consistent with this prediction. That temporal information can be retrieved using familiarity alone suggests that it may be incorrect to view temporal context as analogous to other typically used source contexts. This latter finding supports the alternative proposal that time since presentation may simply be reflected in the strength of memory trace at retrieval - a measure ideally suited to trace strength interrogation using familiarity, as is typically conceptualised within the dual process framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  4. Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N P; Janelle, C M

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.

  5. An analysis of post-event processing in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovich, Faith; Heimberg, Richard G

    2008-07-01

    Research has demonstrated that self-focused thoughts and negative affect have a reciprocal relationship [Mor, N., Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 638-662]. In the anxiety disorder literature, post-event processing has emerged as a specific construction of repetitive self-focused thoughts that pertain to social anxiety disorder. Post-event processing can be defined as an individual's repeated consideration and potential reconstruction of his performance following a social situation. Post-event processing can also occur when an individual anticipates a social or performance event and begins to brood about other, past social experiences. The present review examined the post-event processing literature in an attempt to organize and highlight the significant results. The methodologies employed to study post-event processing have included self-report measures, daily diaries, social or performance situations created in the laboratory, and experimental manipulations of post-event processing or anticipation of an upcoming event. Directions for future research on post-event processing are discussed.

  6. Event Processing and Variable Part of Sample Period Determining in Combined Systems Using GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strémy, Maximilián; Závacký, Pavol; Jedlička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with combined dynamic systems and usage of modern techniques in dealing with these systems, focusing particularly on sampling period design, cyclic processing tasks and related processing algorithms in the combined event management systems using genetic algorithms.

  7. Profiling event logs to configure risk indicators for process delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pika, A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fidge, C.J.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Wynn, M.T.; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O.

    2013-01-01

    Risk identification is one of the most challenging stages in the risk management process. Conventional risk management approaches provide little guidance and companies often rely on the knowledge of experts for risk identification. In this paper we demonstrate how risk indicators can be used to

  8. Attention in the processing of complex visual displays: detecting features and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, B

    1984-02-01

    The distinction between operations in visual processing that are parallel and preattentive and those that are serial and attentional receives both theoretical and empirical support. According to Treisman's feature-integration theory, independent features are available preattentively, but attention is required to veridically combine features into objects. Certain evidence supporting this theory is consistent with a different interpretation, which was tested in four experiments. The first experiment compared the detection of features and feature combinations while eliminating a factor that confounded earlier comparisons. The resulting priority of access to combinatorial information suggests that features and nonlocal combinations of features are not connected solely by a bottom-up hierarchical convergence. Causes of the disparity between the results of Experiment 1 and the results of previous research were investigated in three subsequent experiments. The results showed that of the two confounded factors, it was the difference in the mapping of alternatives onto responses, not the differing attentional demands of features and objects, that underlaid the results of the previous research. The present results are thus counterexamples to the feature-integration theory. Aspects of this theory are shown to be subsumed by more general principles, which are discussed in terms of attentional processes in the detection of features, objects, and stimulus alternatives.

  9. Fine grained event processing on HPCs with the ATLAS Yoda system

    CERN Document Server

    Calafiura, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration; Guan, Wen; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    High performance computing facilities present unique challenges and opportunities for HENP event processing. The massive scale of many HPC systems means that fractionally small utilizations can yield large returns in processing throughput. Parallel applications which can dynamically and efficiently fill any scheduling opportunities the resource presents benefit both the facility (maximal utilization) and the (compute-limited) science. The ATLAS Yoda system provides this capability to HENP-like event processing applications by implementing event-level processing in an MPI-based master-client model that integrates seamlessly with the more broadly scoped ATLAS Event Service. Fine grained, event level work assignments are intelligently dispatched to parallel workers to sustain full utilization on all cores, with outputs streamed off to destination object stores in near real time with similarly fine granularity, such that processing can proceed until termination with full utilization. The system offers the efficie...

  10. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Herrera; Laura González; Daniel Calegari; Bruno Rienzi

    2017-01-01

    In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with ...

  11. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  12. The Memory Is in the Details: Relations between Memory for the Specific Features of Events and Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Lukowski, Angela F.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life is marked by pronounced changes in the length of time over which events are remembered. We tested whether the age-related differences are related to differences in memory for the specific features of events. In our study, 16- and 20-month-olds were tested for immediate and long-term recall of individual actions and temporal…

  13. How to Take HRMS Process Management to the Next Level with Workflow Business Event System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshuni, Sarala; Yagubian, Aram; Kunamaneni, Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Oracle Workflow with the Business Event System offers a complete process management solution for enterprises to manage business processes cost-effectively. Using Workflow event messaging, event subscriptions, AQ Servlet and advanced queuing technologies, this presentation will demonstrate the step-by-step design and implementation of system solutions in order to integrate two dissimilar systems and establish communication remotely. As a case study, the presentation walks you through the process of propagating organization name changes in other applications that originated from the HRMS module without changing applications code. The solution can be applied to your particular business cases for streamlining or modifying business processes across Oracle and non-Oracle applications.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Features of Superordinate Semantic Processing Studied with fMRI and EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Costanzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the anatomical representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain and the timing of neurophysiological mechanisms involved in manipulating such information remain unclear. This is the case for superordinate semantic categorization – the extraction of general features shared by broad classes of exemplars (e.g. living vs. non-living semantic categories. We proposed that, because of the abstract nature, of this information, input from diverse input modalities (visual or auditory, lexical or non-lexical should converge and be processed in the same regions of the brain, at similar time scales during superordinate categorization - specifically in a network of heteromodal regions, and late in the course of the categorization process. In order to test this hypothesis, we utilized electroencephalography and event related potentials (EEG/ERP with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to characterize subjects’ responses as they made superordinate categorical decisions (living vs. nonliving about objects presented as visual pictures or auditory words. Our results reveal that, consistent with our hypothesis, during the course of superordinate categorization, information provided by these diverse inputs appears to converge in both time and space: fMRI showed that heteromodal areas of the parietal and temporal cortices are active during categorization of both classes of stimuli. The ERP results suggest that superordinate categorization is reflected as a late positive component (LPC with a parietal distribution and long latencies for both stimulus types. Within the areas and times in which modality independent responses were identified, some differences between living and non-living categories were observed, with a more widespread spatial extent and longer latency responses for categorization of non-living items.  

  15. Spatial and temporal features of superordinate semantic processing studied with fMRI and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Michelle E; McArdle, Joseph J; Swett, Bruce; Nechaev, Vladimir; Kemeny, Stefan; Xu, Jiang; Braun, Allen R

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between the anatomical representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain and the timing of neurophysiological mechanisms involved in manipulating such information remain unclear. This is the case for superordinate semantic categorization-the extraction of general features shared by broad classes of exemplars (e.g., living vs. non-living semantic categories). We proposed that, because of the abstract nature of this information, input from diverse input modalities (visual or auditory, lexical or non-lexical) should converge and be processed in the same regions of the brain, at similar time scales during superordinate categorization-specifically in a network of heteromodal regions, and late in the course of the categorization process. In order to test this hypothesis, we utilized electroencephalography and event related potentials (EEG/ERP) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize subjects' responses as they made superordinate categorical decisions (living vs. non-living) about objects presented as visual pictures or auditory words. Our results reveal that, consistent with our hypothesis, during the course of superordinate categorization, information provided by these diverse inputs appears to converge in both time and space: fMRI showed that heteromodal areas of the parietal and temporal cortices are active during categorization of both classes of stimuli. The ERP results suggest that superordinate categorization is reflected as a late positive component (LPC) with a parietal distribution and long latencies for both stimulus types. Within the areas and times in which modality independent responses were identified, some differences between living and non-living categories were observed, with a more widespread spatial extent and longer latency responses for categorization of non-living items.

  16. The Temporal Dynamics of Visual Search: Evidence for Parallel Processing in Feature and Conjunction Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElree, Brian; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Feature and conjunction searches have been argued to delineate parallel and serial operations in visual processing. The authors evaluated this claim by examining the temporal dynamics of the detection of features and conjunctions. The 1st experiment used a reaction time (RT) task to replicate standard mean RT patterns and to examine the shapes of the RT distributions. The 2nd experiment used the response-signal speed–accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure to measure discrimination (asymptotic detection accuracy) and detection speed (processing dynamics). Set size affected discrimination in both feature and conjunction searches but affected detection speed only in the latter. Fits of models to the SAT data that included a serial component overpredicted the magnitude of the observed dynamics differences. The authors concluded that both features and conjunctions are detected in parallel. Implications for the role of attention in visual processing are discussed. PMID:10641310

  17. An approach to eliminate stepped features in multistage incremental sheet forming process: Experimental and FEA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirala, Harish Kumar; Jain, Prashant K.; Tandon, Puneet [PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur Jabalpur-482005, Madhya Pradesh (India); Roy, J. J.; Samal, M. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-15

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a recently developed manufacturing technique. In ISF, forming is done by applying deformation force through the motion of Numerically controlled (NC) single point forming tool on the clamped sheet metal blank. Single Point Incremental sheet forming (SPISF) is also known as a die-less forming process because no die is required to fabricate any component by using this process. Now a day it is widely accepted for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal components. The formability of SPISF process improves by adding some intermediate stages into it, which is known as Multi-stage SPISF (MSPISF) process. However during forming in MSPISF process because of intermediate stages stepped features are generated. This paper investigates the generation of stepped features with simulation and experimental results. An effective MSPISF strategy is proposed to remove or eliminate this generated undesirable stepped features.

  18. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  19. Integrating Continuous-Time and Discrete-Event Concepts in Process Modelling, Simulation and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.; Gordijn, S.H.F.; Rooda, J.E.; Ertas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, modelling of systems in the process industry requires the use of different specification languages for the specification of the discrete-event and continuous-time subsystems. In this way, models are restricted to individual subsystems of either a continuous-time or discrete-event nature.

  20. Evaluation of extreme temperature events in northern Spain based on process control charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Valencia, J. L.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Extreme climate events have recently attracted the attention of a growing number of researchers because these events impose a large cost on agriculture and associated insurance planning. This study focuses on extreme temperature events and proposes a new method for their evaluation based on statistical process control tools, which are unusual in climate studies. A series of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for 12 geographical areas of a Spanish region between 1931 and 2009 were evaluated by applying statistical process control charts to statistically test whether evidence existed for an increase or a decrease of extreme temperature events. Specification limits were determined for each geographical area and used to define four types of extreme anomalies: lower and upper extremes for the minimum and maximum anomalies. A new binomial Markov extended process that considers the autocorrelation between extreme temperature events was generated for each geographical area and extreme anomaly type to establish the attribute control charts for the annual fraction of extreme days and to monitor the occurrence of annual extreme days. This method was used to assess the significance of changes and trends of extreme temperature events in the analysed region. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an attribute control chart for evaluating extreme temperature events. For example, the evaluation of extreme maximum temperature events using the proposed statistical process control charts was consistent with the evidence of an increase in maximum temperatures during the last decades of the last century.

  1. Spatial Attention Effects during Conscious and Nonconscious Processing of Visual Features and Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Evelina; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Jacob, Jane; Broyles, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Flanker congruency effects were measured in a masked flanker task to assess the properties of spatial attention during conscious and nonconscious processing of form, color, and conjunctions of these features. We found that (1) consciously and nonconsciously processed colored shape distractors (i.e., flankers) produce flanker congruency effects;…

  2. Optimization of an individual re-identification modeling process using biometric features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzner, Shari; Jarman, Kristin H.

    2014-09-24

    We present results from the optimization of a re-identification process using two sets of biometric data obtained from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource Project (CAESAR) database. The datasets contain real measurements of features for 2378 individuals in a standing (43 features) and seated (16 features) position. A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to search a large combinatorial space where different features are available between the probe (seated) and gallery (standing) datasets. Results show that optimized model predictions obtained using less than half of the 43 gallery features and data from roughly 16% of the individuals available produce better re-identification rates than two other approaches that use all the information available.

  3. A dataflow meta-computing framework for event processing in the H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.; Gerhards, R.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Levonian, S.; Grab, C.; Martyniak, J.; Nowak, J.

    2001-01-01

    Linux based networked PCs clusters are replacing both the VME non uniform direct memory access systems and SMP shared memory systems used previously for the online event filtering and reconstruction. To allow an optimal use of the distributed resources of PC clusters an open software framework is presently being developed based on a dataflow paradigm for event processing. This framework allows for the distribution of the data of physics events and associated calibration data to multiple computers from multiple input sources for processing and the subsequent collection of the processed events at multiple outputs. The basis of the system is the event repository, basically a first-in first-out event store which may be read and written in a manner similar to sequential file access. Events are stored in and transferred between repositories as suitably large sequences to enable high throughput. Multiple readers can read simultaneously from a single repository to receive event sequences and multiple writers can insert event sequences to a repository. Hence repositories are used for event distribution and collection. To support synchronisation of the event flow the repository implements barriers. A barrier must be written by all the writers of a repository before any reader can read the barrier. A reader must read a barrier before it may receive data from behind it. Only after all readers have read the barrier is the barrier removed from the repository. A barrier may also have attached data. In this way calibration data can be distributed to all processing units. The repositories are implemented as multi-threaded CORBA objects in C++ and CORBA is used for all data transfers. Job setup scripts are written in python and interactive status and histogram display is provided by a Java program. Jobs run under the PBS batch system providing shared use of resources for online triggering, offline mass reprocessing and user analysis jobs

  4. Accident and Off-Normal Response and Recovery from Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Processing Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALDERMAN, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the process of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the K Basins through its subsequent packaging, drymg, transportation and storage steps, the SNF Project must be able to respond to all anticipated or foreseeable off-normal and accident events that may occur. Response procedures and recovery plans need to be in place, personnel training established and implemented to ensure the project will be capable of appropriate actions. To establish suitable project planning, these events must first be identified and analyzed for their expected impact to the project. This document assesses all off-normal and accident events for their potential cross-facility or Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) process reversal impact. Table 1 provides the methodology for establishing the event planning level and these events are provided in Table 2 along with the general response and recovery planning. Accidents and off-normal events of the SNF Project have been evaluated and are identified in the appropriate facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) or in the transportation Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). Hazards and accidents are summarized from these safety analyses and listed in separate tables for each facility and the transportation system in Appendix A, along with identified off-normal events. The tables identify the general response time required to ensure a stable state after the event, governing response documents, and the events with potential cross-facility or SNF process reversal impacts. The event closure is predicated on stable state response time, impact to operations and the mitigated annual occurrence frequency of the event as developed in the hazard analysis process

  5. An integrated condition-monitoring method for a milling process using reduced decomposition features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Wu, Bo; Hu, Youmin; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Complex and non-stationary cutting chatter affects productivity and quality in the milling process. Developing an effective condition-monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify cutting chatter. In this paper, an integrated condition-monitoring method is proposed, where reduced features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the milling process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition, and Shannon power spectral entropy is calculated to extract features from the decomposed signals. Principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted feature information, the probabilistic neural network model is used to recognize and classify the machine states, including stable, transition, and chatter states. Experimental studies are conducted, and results show that the proposed method can effectively detect cutting chatter during different milling operation conditions. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to satisfy fast machine state recognition and classification. (paper)

  6. GET controller and UNICORN: event-driven process execution and monitoring in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgrass, A.; Di Ciccio, C.; Dijkman, R.M.; Hewelt, M; Mendling, J.; Meyer, Andreas; Pourmirza, S.; Weske, M.H.; Wong, T.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Especially in logistics, process instances often interact with their real-world environment during execution. This is challenging due to the fact that events from this environment are often heterogeneous, lack process instance information, and their import and visualisation in traditional process

  7. Discovering block-structured process models from event logs containing infrequent behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, S.J.J.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Lohmann, N.; Song, M.; Wohed, P.

    2014-01-01

    Given an event log describing observed behaviour, process discovery aims to find a process model that ‘best’ describes this behaviour. A large variety of process discovery algorithms has been proposed. However, no existing algorithm returns a sound model in all cases (free of deadlocks and other

  8. Neural differentiation of lexico-syntactic categories or semantic features? event-related potential evidence for both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellenbach, Marion L; Wijers, Albertus A; Hovius, Marjolijn; Mulder, Juul; Mulder, Gijsbertus

    2002-05-15

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate whether processing differences between nouns and verbs can be accounted for by the differential salience of visual-perceptual and motor attributes in their semantic specifications. Three subclasses of nouns and verbs were selected, which differed in their semantic attribute composition (abstract, high visual, high visual and motor). Single visual word presentation with a recognition memory task was used. While multiple robust and parallel ERP effects were observed for both grammatical class and attribute type, there were no interactions between these. This pattern of effects provides support for lexical-semantic knowledge being organized in a manner that takes account both of category-based (grammatical class) and attribute-based distinctions.

  9. Effects of Age and Working Memory Load on Syntactic Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela C. Alatorre-Cruz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive changes in aging include working memory (WM decline, which may hamper language comprehension. An increase in WM demands in older adults would probably provoke a poorer sentence processing performance in this age group. A way to increase the WM load is to separate two lexical units in an agreement relation (i.e., adjective and noun, in a given sentence. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs were collected from Spanish speakers (30 older adults, mean age = 66.06 years old; and 30 young adults, mean age = 25.7 years old who read sentences to detect grammatical errors. The sentences varied with regard to (1 the gender agreement of the noun and adjective, where the gender of the adjective either agreed or disagreed with the noun, and (2 the WM load (i.e., the number of words between the noun and adjective in the sentence. No significant behavioral differences between groups were observed in the accuracy of the response, but older adults showed longer reaction times regardless of WM load condition. Compared with young participants, older adults showed a different pattern of ERP components characterized by smaller amplitudes of LAN, P600a, and P600b effects when the WM load was increased. A smaller LAN effect probably reflects greater difficulties in processing the morpho-syntactic features of the sentence, while smaller P600a and P600b effects could be related to difficulties in recovering and mapping all sentence constituents. We concluded that the ERP pattern in older adults showed subtle problems in syntactic processing when the WM load was increased, which was not sufficient to affect response accuracy but was only observed to result in a longer reaction time.

  10. Processing data communications events by awakening threads in parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2016-03-15

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  11. Processing communications events in parallel active messaging interface by awakening thread from wait state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-10-22

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  12. Episodic events in long-term geological processes: A new classification and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term geological processes are usually described with curves reflecting continuous changes in the characteristic parameters through the geological history, and such curves can be employed directly for recognition of episodic (relatively long-term events linked to these changes. The episodic events can be classified into several categories according to their scale (ordinary and anomalous events, “shape” (positive, negative, and neutral events, and relation to long-term trend change (successive, interruptive, facilitative, stabilizing, transformative, increasing, and decreasing. Many types of these events can be defined depending on the combination of the above-mentioned patterns. Of course, spatial rank, duration, and origin can be also considered in description of these events. The proposed classification can be applied to events in some real long-term geological processes, which include global sea-level changes, biodiversity dynamics, lithospheric plate number changes, and palaeoclimate changes. Several case examples prove the usefulness of the classification. It is established that the Early Valanginian (Early Cretaceous eustatic lowstand (the lowest position of the sea level in the entire Cretaceous was negative, but ordinary and only interruptive event. In the other case, it becomes clear that the only end-Ordovician and the Permian/Triassic mass extinctions transformed the trends of the biodiversity dynamics (from increase to decrease and from decrease to increase respectively, and the only Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction was really anomalous event on the Phanerozoic biodiversity curve. The new palaeontological data are employed to reconstruct the diversity dynamics of brachiopods in Germany (without the Alps and the Swiss Jura Mountains. The further interpretation of the both diversity curves implies that the Early Toarcian mass extinction affected the regional brachiopod faunas strongly, but this event was only decreasing

  13. Process Flow Features as a Host-Based Event Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    sequences of packets. The time window concept of observing past packets was used to model history or mem- ory. Having memory of past packets can increase the...network statistics ( IPv4 statistics and IPv6 statistics), and IP routing table information. 3.3.2 Data Preparation. The following subsections outlines...vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3–35, 1999. 13. R. Kemmerer and G. Vigna, “Intrusion detection: a brief history and overview,” Computer, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 27–30

  14. Dyadic Event Attribution in Social Networks with Mixtures of Hawkes Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangda; Zha, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    In many applications in social network analysis, it is important to model the interactions and infer the influence between pairs of actors, leading to the problem of dyadic event modeling which has attracted increasing interests recently. In this paper we focus on the problem of dyadic event attribution, an important missing data problem in dyadic event modeling where one needs to infer the missing actor-pairs of a subset of dyadic events based on their observed timestamps. Existing works either use fixed model parameters and heuristic rules for event attribution, or assume the dyadic events across actor-pairs are independent. To address those shortcomings we propose a probabilistic model based on mixtures of Hawkes processes that simultaneously tackles event attribution and network parameter inference, taking into consideration the dependency among dyadic events that share at least one actor. We also investigate using additive models to incorporate regularization to avoid overfitting. Our experiments on both synthetic and real-world data sets on international armed conflicts suggest that the proposed new method is capable of significantly improve accuracy when compared with the state-of-the-art for dyadic event attribution.

  15. Processing of word stress related acoustic information: A multi-feature MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honbolygó, Ferenc; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Csépe, Valéria

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the processing of word stress related acoustic features in a word context. In a passive oddball multi-feature MMN experiment, we presented a disyllabic pseudo-word with two acoustically similar syllables as standard stimulus, and five contrasting deviants that differed from the standard in that they were either stressed on the first syllable or contained a vowel change. Stress was realized by an increase of f0, intensity, vowel duration or consonant duration. The vowel change was used to investigate if phonemic and prosodic changes elicit different MMN components. As a control condition, we presented non-speech counterparts of the speech stimuli. Results showed all but one feature (non-speech intensity deviant) eliciting the MMN component, which was larger for speech compared to non-speech stimuli. Two other components showed stimulus related effects: the N350 and the LDN (Late Discriminative Negativity). The N350 appeared to the vowel duration and consonant duration deviants, specifically to features related to the temporal characteristics of stimuli, while the LDN was present for all features, and it was larger for speech than for non-speech stimuli. We also found that the f0 and consonant duration features elicited a larger MMN than other features. These results suggest that stress as a phonological feature is processed based on long-term representations, and listeners show a specific sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental cues signaling the prosodic boundaries of words. These findings support a two-stage model in the perception of stress and phoneme related acoustical information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Disambiguating past events: accurate source memory for time and context depends on different retrieval processes

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Bjorn Martin; Ainge, James Alexander; O'Connor, Akira Robert

    2016-01-01

    Participant payment was provided by the School of Psychology and Neuroscience ResPay scheme. Current animal models of episodic memory are usually based on demonstrating integrated memory for what happened, where it happened, and when an event took place. These models aim to capture the testable features of the definition of human episodic memory which stresses the temporal component of the memory as a unique piece of source information that allows us to disambiguate one memory from another...

  17. Residual Neural Processing of Musical Sound Features in Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Agrawal, Deepashri; Debener, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing in general and music perception in particular are hampered in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. To examine the residual music perception skills and their underlying neural correlates in CI users implanted in adolescence or adulthood, we conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral study comparing adult CI users with normal-hearing age-matched controls (NH controls). We used a newly developed musical multi-feature paradigm, which makes it possible to test automatic auditory discrimination of six different types of sound feature changes inserted within a musical enriched setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants’ attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes but not to changes of rhythm, whereas we obtained MMNs for all the feature changes in the NH controls. Furthermore, the MMNs to deviants of pitch of CI users were reduced in amplitude and later than those of NH controls for changes of pitch and guitar timber. No other group differences in MMN parameters were found to changes in intensity and saxophone timber. Furthermore, the MMNs in CI users reflected the behavioral scores from a respective discrimination task and were correlated with patients’ age and speech intelligibility. Our results suggest that even though CI users are not performing at the same level as NH controls in neural discrimination of pitch-based features, they do possess potential neural abilities for music processing. However, CI users showed a disrupted ability to automatically discriminate rhythmic changes compared with controls. The current behavioral and MMN findings highlight the residual neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. Highlights: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes

  18. The preparation of reports of a significant event at a uranium processing or uranium handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Licenses to operate uranium processing or uranium handling facilities require that certain events be reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and to other regulatory authorities. Reports of a significant event describe unusual events which had or could have had a significant impact on the safety of facility operations, the worker, the public or on the environment. The purpose of this guide is to suggest an acceptable method of reporting a significant event to the AECB and to describe the information that should be included. The reports of a significant event are made available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Access to Information Act and the AECB's policy on public access to licensing information

  19. A Proactive Complex Event Processing Method for Large-Scale Transportation Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongheng; Cao, Kening

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a new way to improve the transportation system. The key issue is how to process the numerous events generated by IoT. In this paper, a proactive complex event processing method is proposed for large-scale transportation IoT. Based on a multilayered adaptive dynamic Bayesian model, a Bayesian network structure learning algorithm using search-and-score is proposed to support accurate predictive analytics. A parallel Markov decision processes model is design...

  20. Towards a methodology for the engineering of event-driven process applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgrass, A.; Botezatu, M.; Di Ciccio, C.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Hewelt, M.; Mendling, J.; Meyer, A.; Pourmirza, S.; Völzer, H.; Reijers, H.; Reichert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful applications of the Internet of Things such as smart cities, smart logistics, and predictive maintenance, build on observing and analyzing business-related objects in the real world for business process execution and monitoring. In this context, complex event processing is increasingly

  1. Process variant comparison: using event logs to detect differences in behavior and business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, A.; de Leoni, M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of comparing different variants of the same process. We aim to detect relevant differences between processes based on what was recorded in event logs. We use transition systems to model behavior and to highlight differences. Transition systems are annotated with

  2. Different processing phases for features, figures, and selective attention in the primary visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, P.R.; Tolboom, M.; Khayat, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Our visual system imposes structure onto images that usually contain a diversity of surfaces, contours, and colors. Psychological theories propose that there are multiple steps in this process that occur in hierarchically organized regions of the cortex: early visual areas register basic features,

  3. Event (error and near-miss) reporting and learning system for process improvement in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Sasa; Brame, R Scott; Oddiraju, Swetha; Parikh, Parag; Westfall, Melisa A; Hopkins, Merilee L; Medina, Angel D; Danieley, Jonathan C; Michalski, Jeff M; El Naqa, Issam M; Low, Daniel A; Wu, Bin

    2010-09-01

    The value of near-miss and error reporting processes in many industries is well appreciated and typically can be supported with data that have been collected over time. While it is generally accepted that such processes are important in the radiation therapy (RT) setting, studies analyzing the effects of organized reporting and process improvement systems on operation and patient safety in individual clinics remain scarce. The purpose of this work is to report on the design and long-term use of an electronic reporting system in a RT department and compare it to the paper-based reporting system it replaced. A specifically designed web-based system was designed for reporting of individual events in RT and clinically implemented in 2007. An event was defined as any occurrence that could have, or had, resulted in a deviation in the delivery of patient care. The aim of the system was to support process improvement in patient care and safety. The reporting tool was designed so individual events could be quickly and easily reported without disrupting clinical work. This was very important because the system use was voluntary. The spectrum of reported deviations extended from minor workflow issues (e.g., scheduling) to errors in treatment delivery. Reports were categorized based on functional area, type, and severity of an event. The events were processed and analyzed by a formal process improvement group that used the data and the statistics collected through the web-based tool for guidance in reengineering clinical processes. The reporting trends for the first 24 months with the electronic system were compared to the events that were reported in the same clinic with a paper-based system over a seven-year period. The reporting system and the process improvement structure resulted in increased event reporting, improved event communication, and improved identification of clinical areas which needed process and safety improvements. The reported data were also useful for the

  4. A computer interface for processing multi-parameter data of multiple event types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Ogata, H.

    1980-01-01

    A logic circuit called a 'Raw Data Processor (RDP)' which functions as an interface between ADCs and the PDP-11 computer has been developed at RCNP, Osaka University for general use. It enables data processing simultaneously for numbers of events of various types up to 16, and an arbitrary combination of ADCs of any number up to 14 can be assigned to each event type by means of a pinboard matrix. The details of the RDP and its application are described. (orig.)

  5. Survey of Applications of Complex Event Processing (CEP in Health Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always difficult to manipulate the production of huge amount of data which comes from multiple sources and to extract meaningful information to make appropriate decisions. When data comes from various input resources, to get required streams of events form this complex input network, the one of the strong functionality of Business Intelligence (BI the Complex Event Processing (CEP is the appropriate solution for the above mention problems. Real time processing, pattern matching, stream processing, big data management, sensor data processing and many more are the application areas of CEP. Health domain itself is a multi-dimension domain such as hospital supply chain, OPD management, disease diagnostic, In-patient, out-patient management, and emergency care etc. In this paper, the main focus is to discuss the application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP in health domain by using sensor device, such that how CEP manipulate health data set events coming from sensor devices such as blood pressure, heart rate, fall detection, sugar level, temperature or any other vital signs and how this systems respond to these events as quickly as possible. Different existing models and application using CEP are discussed and summarized according to different characteristics.

  6. Stochastic modeling for neural spiking events based on fractional superstatistical Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Konno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In neural spike counting experiments, it is known that there are two main features: (i the counting number has a fractional power-law growth with time and (ii the waiting time (i.e., the inter-spike-interval distribution has a heavy tail. The method of superstatistical Poisson processes (SSPPs is examined whether these main features are properly modeled. Although various mixed/compound Poisson processes are generated with selecting a suitable distribution of the birth-rate of spiking neurons, only the second feature (ii can be modeled by the method of SSPPs. Namely, the first one (i associated with the effect of long-memory cannot be modeled properly. Then, it is shown that the two main features can be modeled successfully by a class of fractional SSPP (FSSPP.

  7. Stochastic modeling for neural spiking events based on fractional superstatistical Poisson process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hidetoshi; Tamura, Yoshiyasu

    2018-01-01

    In neural spike counting experiments, it is known that there are two main features: (i) the counting number has a fractional power-law growth with time and (ii) the waiting time (i.e., the inter-spike-interval) distribution has a heavy tail. The method of superstatistical Poisson processes (SSPPs) is examined whether these main features are properly modeled. Although various mixed/compound Poisson processes are generated with selecting a suitable distribution of the birth-rate of spiking neurons, only the second feature (ii) can be modeled by the method of SSPPs. Namely, the first one (i) associated with the effect of long-memory cannot be modeled properly. Then, it is shown that the two main features can be modeled successfully by a class of fractional SSPP (FSSPP).

  8. Bubble feature extracting based on image processing of coal flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Lu, M.; Liu, W. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Chemical Engineering and Environment

    2001-11-01

    Using image processing the contrast ratio between the bubble on the surface of flotation froth and the image background was enhanced, and the edges of bubble were extracted. Thus a model about the relation between the statistic feature of the bubbles in the image and the cleaned coal can be established. It is feasible to extract the bubble by processing the froth image of coal flotation on the basis of analysing the shape of the bubble. By means of processing the 51 group images sampled from laboratory column, it is thought that the use of the histogram equalization of image gradation and the medium filtering can obviously improve the dynamic contrast range and the brightness of bubbles. Finally, the method of threshold value cut and the bubble edge detecting for extracting the bubble were also discussed to describe the bubble feature, such as size and shape, in the froth image and to distinguish the froth image of coal flotation. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Soft sensor design by multivariate fusion of image features and process measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a multivariate data fusion procedure for design of dynamic soft sensors where suitably selected image features are combined with traditional process measurements to enhance the performance of data-driven soft sensors. A key issue of fusing multiple sensor data, i.e. to determine...... with a multivariate analysis technique from RGB pictures. The color information is also transformed to hue, saturation and intensity components. Both sets of image features are combined with traditional process measurements to obtain an inferential model by partial least squares (PLS) regression. A dynamic PLS model...... oxides (NOx) emission of cement kilns. On-site tests demonstrate improved performance over soft sensors based on conventional process measurements only....

  10. Leveraging the BPEL Event Model to Support QoS-aware Process Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Farid; Berbner, Rainer; Steinmetz, Ralf

    Business processes executed using compositions of distributed Web Services are susceptible to different fault types. The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) is widely used to execute such processes. While BPEL provides fault handling mechanisms to handle functional faults like invalid message types, it still lacks a flexible native mechanism to handle non-functional exceptions associated with violations of QoS levels that are typically specified in a governing Service Level Agreement (SLA), In this paper, we present an approach to complement BPEL's fault handling, where expected QoS levels and necessary recovery actions are specified declaratively in form of Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules. Our main contribution is leveraging BPEL's standard event model which we use as an event space for the created ECA rules. We validate our approach by an extension to an open source BPEL engine.

  11. R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D

    2016-03-31

    Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this 'r-process galaxy' is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers.

  12. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalography by a series of signal processing steps. The present tutorial will highlight several of the analysis techniques required to obtain event-related potentials. Some methodological issues that may be encountered will also be discussed.

  13. Fault detection of Tennessee Eastman process based on topological features and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yanzhu; Ai, Xinbo; Hu, Yu; Meng, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Fault detection in industrial process is a popular research topic. Although the distributed control system(DCS) has been introduced to monitor the state of industrial process, it still cannot satisfy all the requirements for fault detection of all the industrial systems. In this paper, we proposed a novel method based on topological features and support vector machine(SVM), for fault detection of industrial process. The proposed method takes global information of measured variables into account by complex network model and predicts whether a system has generated some faults or not by SVM. The proposed method can be divided into four steps, i.e. network construction, network analysis, model training and model testing respectively. Finally, we apply the model to Tennessee Eastman process(TEP). The results show that this method works well and can be a useful supplement for fault detection of industrial process.

  14. Initiating events identification of the IS process using the master logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Chul; Jae, Moo Sung; Yang, Joon Eon

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is very attractive as a future secondary energy carrier considering environmental problems. It is important to produce hydrogen from water by use of carbon free primary energy source. The thermochemical water decomposition cycle is one of the methods for the hydrogen production process from water. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out an R and D on the IS (iodine.sulfur) process that was first proposed by GA (General Atomic Co.) focusing on demonstration the 'closed-cycle' continuous hydrogen production on developing a feasible and efficient scheme for the HI processing, and on screening and/or developing materials of construction to be used in the corrosive process environment. The successful continuous operation of the IS-process was demonstrated and this process is one of the thermochemical processes, which is the closest to being industrialized. Currently, Korea has also started a research about the IS process and the construction of the IS process system is planned. In this study, for risk analysis of the IS process, initiating events of the IS process are identified by using the Master Logic Diagram (MLD) that is method for initiating event identification

  15. Journaling about stressful events: effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    The effects of two journaling interventions, one focusing on emotional expression and the other on both cognitive processing and emotional expression, were compared during 1 month of journaling about a stressful or traumatic event. One hundred twenty-two students were randomly assigned to one of three writing conditions: (a) focusing on emotions related to a trauma or stressor, (b) focusing on cognitions and emotions related to a trauma or stressor, or (c) writing factually about media events. Writers focusing on cognitions and emotions developed greater awareness of the positive benefits of the stressful event than the other two groups. This effect was apparently mediated by greater cognitive processing during writing. Writers focusing on emotions alone reported more severe illness symptoms during the study than those in other conditions. This effect appeared to be mediated by a greater focus on negative emotional expression during writing.

  16. The Application of Special Computing Techniques to Speed-Up Image Feature Extraction and Processing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    noise supression and data clustering . Another significant step or stage in image processing and exploitation is feature extraction. The objectives and...PAMI-3, no. 3, May, 1981. 16. L.G. Shapiro, "A Structural Model of Shape," IEEE Trans. on Pattern AnalIsis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-2, no...Theoretic Clustering ," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-1, no. 1, Jan., 1979. 34. P.M. Narendra, "A Separable Median

  17. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    . In the reported work, process simulations using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2015® are applied to a micro mechanical part to be fabricated by micro injection molding and with over-all dimensions of 12.0 × 3.0 × 0.8 mm³ and micro features (micro hole, diameter of 580 μm, and sharp radii down to 100 μm). Three...

  18. MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Frank

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent, complex disorder which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Convergent evidence from neurobiological studies of ADHD identifies dysfunction in fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuitry as the source of behavioural deficits. Recent studies have shown that regions governing basic sensory processing, such as the somatosensory cortex, show abnormalities in those with ADHD suggesting that these processes may also be compromised. Methods We used event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine patterns of cortical rhythms in the primary (SI and secondary (SII somatosensory cortices in response to median nerve stimulation, in 9 adults with ADHD and 10 healthy controls. Stimuli were brief (0.2 ms non-painful electrical pulses presented to the median nerve in two counterbalanced conditions: unpredictable and predictable stimulus presentation. We measured changes in strength, synchronicity, and frequency of cortical rhythms. Results Healthy comparison group showed strong event-related desynchrony and synchrony in SI and SII. By contrast, those with ADHD showed significantly weaker event-related desynchrony and event-related synchrony in the alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz bands, respectively. This was most striking during random presentation of median nerve stimulation. Adults with ADHD showed significantly shorter duration of beta rebound in both SI and SII except for when the onset of the stimulus event could be predicted. In this case, the rhythmicity of SI (but not SII in the ADHD group did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion Our findings suggest that somatosensory processing is altered in individuals with ADHD. MEG constitutes a promising approach to profiling patterns of neural activity during the processing of sensory input (e.g., detection of a tactile stimulus, stimulus predictability and facilitating our

  19. Corrective interpersonal experience in psychodrama group therapy: a comprehensive process analysis of significant therapeutic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVea, Charmaine S; Gow, Kathryn; Lowe, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the process of resolving painful emotional experience during psychodrama group therapy, by examining significant therapeutic events within seven psychodrama enactments. A comprehensive process analysis of four resolved and three not-resolved cases identified five meta-processes which were linked to in-session resolution. One was a readiness to engage in the therapeutic process, which was influenced by client characteristics and the client's experience of the group; and four were therapeutic events: (1) re-experiencing with insight; (2) activating resourcefulness; (3) social atom repair with emotional release; and (4) integration. A corrective interpersonal experience (social atom repair) healed the sense of fragmentation and interpersonal disconnection associated with unresolved emotional pain, and emotional release was therapeutically helpful when located within the enactment of this new role relationship. Protagonists who experienced resolution reported important improvements in interpersonal functioning and sense of self which they attributed to this experience.

  20. Analysis of Data from a Series of Events by a Geometric Process Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeh Lam; Li-xing Zhu; Jennifer S. K. Chan; Qun Liu

    2004-01-01

    Geometric process was first introduced by Lam[10,11]. A stochastic process {Xi, i = 1, 2,…} is called a geometric process (GP) if, for some a > 0, {ai-1Xi, i = 1, 2,…} forms a renewal process. In thispaper, the GP is used to analyze the data from a series of events. A nonparametric method is introduced forthe estimation of the three parameters in the GP. The limiting distributions of the three estimators are studied.Through the analysis of some real data sets, the GP model is compared with other three homogeneous andnonhomogeneous Poisson models. It seems that on average the GP model is the best model among these fourmodels in analyzing the data from a series of events.

  1. Event-related Potentials Reflecting the Processing of Phonological Constraint Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiese, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Flow are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of ail event-related potentials (ERP) Study oil a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within it syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three

  2. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, U.; Kehrein, W.; Knaus, J.; Wiese, R.; Schlesewsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC iVCi). We examined three types of

  3. Early referential context effects in sentence processing: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, J.J.A. van; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    1999-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials experiment was carried out to examine the interplay of referential and structural factors during sentence processing in discourse. Subjects read (Dutch) sentences beginning like “David told the girl that … ” in short story contexts that had introduced either one or

  4. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Liberman, N.; Shapiro, O.

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e.,

  5. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  6. A tool for aligning event logs and prescriptive process models through automated planning

    OpenAIRE

    De Leoni, M.; Lanciano, G.; Marrella, A.

    2017-01-01

    In Conformance Checking, alignment is the problem of detecting and repairing nonconformity between the actual execution of a business process, as recorded in an event log, and the model of the same process. Literature proposes solutions for the alignment problem that are implementations of planning algorithms built ad-hoc for the specific problem. Unfortunately, in the era of big data, these ad-hoc implementations do not scale sufficiently compared with wellestablished planning systems. In th...

  7. Specific features of NDT data and processing algorithms: new remedies to old ills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    Non destructive testing data from in-service inspections have specific features that require the most sophisticated techniques of signal and image processing. Each step in the overall information extraction process must be optimized by using recent approaches such like data decomposition and modelization, compression, sensor fusion and knowledge based systems. This can be achieved by means of wavelet transform, inverse problems formulation, standard compression algorithms, combined detection and estimation, neural networks and expert systems. These techniques are briefly presented through a number of Electricite de France applications or through recent literature results. (author). 1 fig., 20 refs

  8. FEATURES OF THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Evgenevna Beydina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the study of political and social developments of the USA at the present stage. There are four stages of the American tradition of studying political processes. The first stage is connected with substantiation of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of political system (works of F. Pollack and R. Sili. The second one includes behavioral studies of politics. Besides studying political processes Charles Merriam has studied their similarities and differences. The third stage is characterized by political system studies – the works of T. Parsons, D. Easton, R. Aron, G. Almond and K. Deutsch. The fourth stage is characterized by superpower and the systems democratization problem (S. Huntington, Zb. Bzhezinsky. American social processes were qualified by R. Park, P. Sorokin, E. Giddens. The work is concentrated on the divided explanation of social and political processes of the us and the reflection of unity of American social-political reality. Academic novelty is composed of substantiation of the US social-political process concept and characterization of its features. The US social-political process is characterized by two channels: soft power and aggression. Soft power appears in the US economy dominancy. The main results of the research are features of the socio-political process in the United States. Purpose: the main goal of the research is to systematize the definition of social-political process of the USA and estimate the line of its study within American political tradition. Methodology: in this article have used methods: such as system, comparison and historical analysis, structural-functional analysis. Results: during the research the analysis of the dynamics of social and political processes of the United States had been made. Practical implications it is expedient to apply the received results in the international relation theory and practice.

  9. WAITING TIME DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS MODELED WITH A NON-STATIONARY POISSON PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Su, W.; Fang, C.; Zhong, S. J.; Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the waiting time distributions (WTDs) of solar energetic particle (SEP) events observed with the spacecraft WIND and GOES. The WTDs of both solar electron events (SEEs) and solar proton events (SPEs) display a power-law tail of ∼Δt –γ . The SEEs display a broken power-law WTD. The power-law index is γ 1 = 0.99 for the short waiting times (<70 hr) and γ 2 = 1.92 for large waiting times (>100 hr). The break of the WTD of SEEs is probably due to the modulation of the corotating interaction regions. The power-law index, γ ∼ 1.82, is derived for the WTD of the SPEs which is consistent with the WTD of type II radio bursts, indicating a close relationship between the shock wave and the production of energetic protons. The WTDs of SEP events can be modeled with a non-stationary Poisson process, which was proposed to understand the waiting time statistics of solar flares. We generalize the method and find that, if the SEP event rate λ = 1/Δt varies as the time distribution of event rate f(λ) = Aλ –α exp (– βλ), the time-dependent Poisson distribution can produce a power-law tail WTD of ∼Δt α –3 , where 0 ≤ α < 2

  10. The impact of different emotional states on the memory for what, where and when features of specific events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Totzeck, Christina; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Emotions can modulate the encoding and recollection of personal events. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different emotional states (pleasant, neutral or anxious) on episodic memory formation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. Emotional states were induced by pleasant, neutral or anxiety-inducing movie clips prior to the presentation of specific events in a VR scenario. Episodic memory performance of healthy participants in whom an anxious emotional state had been induced was inferior to those of the neutral and pleasant conditions. In the anxious condition, participants were particularly impaired regarding their memory for the location of events. A correlational analysis indicated that high levels of negative arousal were associated with poor memory for the temporal and spatial context of events. In contrast, high levels of happiness were associated with better memory for the spatial context of events. Our data provide evidence that emotional arousal can modulate memory for what happened, where and when. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A digital pixel cell for address event representation image convolution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camunas-Mesa, Luis; Acosta-Jimenez, Antonio; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number of neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate events according to their information levels. Neurons with more information (activity, derivative of activities, contrast, motion, edges,...) generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. AER technology has been used and reported for the implementation of various type of image sensors or retinae: luminance with local agc, contrast retinae, motion retinae,... Also, there has been a proposal for realizing programmable kernel image convolution chips. Such convolution chips would contain an array of pixels that perform weighted addition of events. Once a pixel has added sufficient event contributions to reach a fixed threshold, the pixel fires an event, which is then routed out of the chip for further processing. Such convolution chips have been proposed to be implemented using pulsed current mode mixed analog and digital circuit techniques. In this paper we present a fully digital pixel implementation to perform the weighted additions and fire the events. This way, for a given technology, there is a fully digital implementation reference against which compare the mixed signal implementations. We have designed, implemented and tested a fully digital AER convolution pixel. This pixel will be used to implement a full AER convolution chip for programmable kernel image convolution processing.

  12. The application of feature selection to the development of Gaussian process models for percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lun Tak; Sun, Yi; Davey, Neil; Adams, Rod; Prapopoulou, Maria; Brown, Marc B; Moss, Gary P

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to employ Gaussian processes to assess mathematically the nature of a skin permeability dataset and to employ these methods, particularly feature selection, to determine the key physicochemical descriptors which exert the most significant influence on percutaneous absorption, and to compare such models with established existing models. Gaussian processes, including automatic relevance detection (GPRARD) methods, were employed to develop models of percutaneous absorption that identified key physicochemical descriptors of percutaneous absorption. Using MatLab software, the statistical performance of these models was compared with single linear networks (SLN) and quantitative structure-permeability relationships (QSPRs). Feature selection methods were used to examine in more detail the physicochemical parameters used in this study. A range of statistical measures to determine model quality were used. The inherently nonlinear nature of the skin data set was confirmed. The Gaussian process regression (GPR) methods yielded predictive models that offered statistically significant improvements over SLN and QSPR models with regard to predictivity (where the rank order was: GPR > SLN > QSPR). Feature selection analysis determined that the best GPR models were those that contained log P, melting point and the number of hydrogen bond donor groups as significant descriptors. Further statistical analysis also found that great synergy existed between certain parameters. It suggested that a number of the descriptors employed were effectively interchangeable, thus questioning the use of models where discrete variables are output, usually in the form of an equation. The use of a nonlinear GPR method produced models with significantly improved predictivity, compared with SLN or QSPR models. Feature selection methods were able to provide important mechanistic information. However, it was also shown that significant synergy existed between certain parameters, and as such it

  13. Stress reaction process-based hierarchical recognition algorithm for continuous intrusion events in optical fiber prewarning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongquan; Yuan, Shijiao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Dan

    2018-04-01

    To improve the recognition performance of optical fiber prewarning system (OFPS), this study proposed a hierarchical recognition algorithm (HRA). Compared with traditional methods, which employ only a complex algorithm that includes multiple extracted features and complex classifiers to increase the recognition rate with a considerable decrease in recognition speed, HRA takes advantage of the continuity of intrusion events, thereby creating a staged recognition flow inspired by stress reaction. HRA is expected to achieve high-level recognition accuracy with less time consumption. First, this work analyzed the continuity of intrusion events and then presented the algorithm based on the mechanism of stress reaction. Finally, it verified the time consumption through theoretical analysis and experiments, and the recognition accuracy was obtained through experiments. Experiment results show that the processing speed of HRA is 3.3 times faster than that of a traditional complicated algorithm and has a similar recognition rate of 98%. The study is of great significance to fast intrusion event recognition in OFPS.

  14. External and internal facial features modulate processing of vertical but not horizontal spatial relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Günter; Kurbel, David; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte

    2018-03-22

    Some years ago an asymmetry was reported for the inversion effect for horizontal (H) and vertical (V) relational face manipulations (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Subsequent research examined whether a specific disruption of long-range relations underlies the H/V inversion asymmetry (Sekunova & Barton, 2008). Here, we tested how detection of changes in interocular distance (H) and eye height (V) depends on cardinal internal features and external feature surround. Results replicated the H/V inversion asymmetry. Moreover, we found very different face cue dependencies for both change types. Performance and inversion effects did not depend on the presence of other face cues for detecting H changes. In contrast, accuracy for detecting V changes strongly depended on internal and external features, showing cumulative improvement when more cues were added. Inversion effects were generally large, and larger with external feature surround. The cue independence in detecting H relational changes indicates specialized local processing tightly tuned to the eyes region, while the strong cue dependency in detecting V relational changes indicates a global mechanism of cue integration across different face regions. These findings suggest that the H/V asymmetry of the inversion effect rests on an H/V anisotropy of face cue dependency, since only the global V mechanism suffers from disruption of cue integration as the major effect of face inversion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  16. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Harald T. Schupp; Ursula Kirmse; Ralf Schmälzle; Tobias Flaisch; Britta Renner

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depi...

  17. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  18. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  19. Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (Inventor); Harris, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

  20. Use cases and DEMO: aligning functional features of ICT-infrastructure to business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maij, E; Toussaint, P J; Kalshoven, M; Poerschke, M; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J H M

    2002-11-12

    The proper alignment of functional features of the ICT-infrastructure to business processes is a major challenge in health care organisations. This alignment takes into account that the organisational structure not only shapes the ICT-infrastructure, but that the inverse also holds. To solve the alignment problem, relevant features of the ICT-infrastructure should be derived from the organisational structure and the influence of this envisaged ICT to the work practices should be pointed out. The objective of our study was to develop a method to solve this alignment problem. In a previous study we demonstrated the appropriateness of the business process modelling methodology Dynamic Essential Modelling of Organizations (DEMO). A proven and widely used modelling language for expressing functional features is Unified Modelling Language (UML). In the context of a specific case study at the University Medical Centre Utrecht in the Netherlands we investigated if the combined use of DEMO and UML could solve the alignment problem. The study demonstrated that the DEMO models were suited as a starting point in deriving system functionality by using the use case concept of UML. Further, the case study demonstrated that in using this approach for the alignment problem, insight is gained into the mutual influence of ICT-infrastructure and organisation structure: (a) specification of independent, re-usable components-as a set of related functionalities-is realised, and (b) a helpful representation of the current and future work practice is provided for in relation to the envisaged ICT support.

  1. The influence of visual and phonological features on the hemispheric processing of hierarchical Navon letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Merola, Sheila; Lasaponara, Stefano; Pinto, Mario; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2018-01-31

    The possibility of allocating attentional resources to the "global" shape or to the "local" details of pictorial stimuli helps visual processing. Investigations with hierarchical Navon letters, that are large "global" letters made up of small "local" ones, consistently demonstrate a right hemisphere advantage for global processing and a left hemisphere advantage for local processing. Here we investigated how the visual and phonological features of the global and local components of Navon letters influence these hemispheric advantages. In a first study in healthy participants, we contrasted the hemispheric processing of hierarchical letters with global and local items competing for response selection, to the processing of hierarchical letters in which a letter, a false-letter conveying no phonological information or a geometrical shape presented at the unattended level did not compete for response selection. In a second study, we investigated the hemispheric processing of hierarchical stimuli in which global and local letters were both visually and phonologically congruent (e.g. large uppercase G made of smaller uppercase G), visually incongruent and phonologically congruent (e.g. large uppercase G made of small lowercase g) or visually incongruent and phonologically incongruent (e.g. large uppercase G made of small lowercase or uppercase M). In a third study, we administered the same tasks to a right brain damaged patient with a lesion involving pre-striate areas engaged by global processing. The results of the first two experiments showed that the global abilities of the left hemisphere are limited because of its strong susceptibility to interference from local letters even when these are irrelevant to the task. Phonological features played a crucial role in this interference because the interference was entirely maintained also when letters at the global and local level were presented in different uppercase vs. lowercase formats. In contrast, when local features

  2. Food processing as an agricultural countermeasure after an accidental contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igreja, Eduardo; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Prado, Nadya M.P.D.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Food processing allows significant reduction in the radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs. The effects of processing on contaminated food depend on the radionuclide, the type of foodstuff and the method of processing. The effectiveness of radionuclide removal from raw material during processing can vary widely; however, processing of raw materials of vegetable and animal origin is often considered one of the most effective countermeasures for reducing the radioactive contamination of the foodstuff to or below permissible levels, and can be applied both domestically and in industrial processing of food. The food processing retention factor, Fr, is the fraction of radionuclide activity that is retained in the food after processing; it is obtained by the product of two quantities, the processing efficiency, Pe, that is the ratio of the fresh weight of the processed food to the weight of the original raw material, and the processing factor, Pf, that is the ratio of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the processed and in the raw material. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the reduction in dose due to food processing after a nuclear or radiological accident. Radionuclides considered were Cs-137, Sr-90 and I-131. The effect on total diet of individuals was investigating for a typical diet of the Southeast region, where the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants are located. The effect was analyzed considering the use of the processing technologies after contamination events occurring in different seasons of the year. (author)

  3. The power of event-driven analytics in Large Scale Data Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Marques, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    FeedZai is a software company specialized in creating high-­‐throughput low-­‐latency data processing solutions. FeedZai develops a product called "FeedZai Pulse" for continuous event-­‐driven analytics that makes application development easier for end users. It automatically calculates key performance indicators and baselines, showing how current performance differ from previous history, creating timely business intelligence updated to the second. The tool does predictive analytics and trend analysis, displaying data on real-­‐time web-­‐based graphics. In 2010 FeedZai won the European EBN Smart Entrepreneurship Competition, in the Digital Models category, being considered one of the "top-­‐20 smart companies in Europe". The main objective of this seminar/workshop is to explore the topic for large-­‐scale data processing using Complex Event Processing and, in particular, the possible uses of Pulse in...

  4. Individual differences in event-based prospective memory: Evidence for multiple processes supporting cue detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Knight, Justin B; Marsh, Richard L; Unsworth, Nash

    2010-04-01

    The multiprocess view proposes that different processes can be used to detect event-based prospective memory cues, depending in part on the specificity of the cue. According to this theory, attentional processes are not necessary to detect focal cues, whereas detection of nonfocal cues requires some form of controlled attention. This notion was tested using a design in which we compared performance on a focal and on a nonfocal prospective memory task by participants with high or low working memory capacity. An interaction was found, such that participants with high and low working memory performed equally well on the focal task, whereas the participants with high working memory performed significantly better on the nonfocal task than did their counterparts with low working memory. Thus, controlled attention was only necessary for detecting event-based prospective memory cues in the nonfocal task. These results have implications for theories of prospective memory, the processes necessary for cue detection, and the successful fulfillment of intentions.

  5. Characterisation of diffuse pollutions from forested watersheds in Japan during storm events - its association with rainfall and watershed features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Fukushima, Takehiko; Onda, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Shigeru; Gomi, Takashi; Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Hiramatsu, Shinya; Kitahara, Hikaru; Kuraji, Koichiro; Terajima, Tomomi; Matsushige, Kazuo; Tao, Fulu

    2008-02-01

    Forest areas have been identified as important sources of nonpoint pollution in Japan. The managers must estimate stormwater quality and quantities from forested watersheds to develop effective management strategies. Therefore, stormwater runoff loads and concentrations of 10 constituents (total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, PO(4)-P, dissolved total phosphorus, total phosphorus, NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, dissolved total nitrogen, and total nitrogen) for 72 events across five regions (Aichi, Kochi, Mie, Nagano, and Tokyo) were characterised. Most loads were significantly and positively correlated with stormwater variables (total event rainfall, event duration, and rainfall intensity), but most discharge-weighted event concentrations (DWECs) showed negative correlations with rainfall intensity. Mean water quality concentration during baseflow was correlated significantly with storm concentrations (r=0.41-0.77). Although all pollutant load equations showed high coefficients of determination (R(2)=0.55-0.80), no models predicted well pollutant concentrations, except those for the three N constituents (R(2)=0.59-0.67). Linear regressions to estimate stormwater concentrations and loads were greatly improved by regional grouping. The lower prediction capability of the concentration models for Mie, compared with the other four regions, indicated that other watershed or storm characteristics should be included in the prediction models. Significant differences among regions were found more frequently in concentrations than in loads for all constituents. Since baseflow conditions implied available pollutant sources for stormwater, the similar spatial characteristics of pollutant concentrations between baseflow and stormflow conditions were an important control for stormwater quality.

  6. The perceptual processing capacity of summary statistics between and within feature dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarha, Mouna; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous–sequential method was used to test the processing capacity of statistical summary representations both within and between feature dimensions. Sixteen gratings varied with respect to their size and orientation. In Experiment 1, the gratings were equally divided into four separate smaller sets, one of which with a mean size that was larger or smaller than the other three sets, and one of which with a mean orientation that was tilted more leftward or rightward. The task was to report the mean size and orientation of the oddball sets. This therefore required four summary representations for size and another four for orientation. The sets were presented at the same time in the simultaneous condition or across two temporal frames in the sequential condition. Experiment 1 showed evidence of a sequential advantage, suggesting that the system may be limited with respect to establishing multiple within-feature summaries. Experiment 2 eliminates the possibility that some aspect of the task, other than averaging, was contributing to this observed limitation. In Experiment 3, the same 16 gratings appeared as one large superset, and therefore the task only required one summary representation for size and another one for orientation. Equal simultaneous–sequential performance indicated that between-feature summaries are capacity free. These findings challenge the view that within-feature summaries drive a global sense of visual continuity across areas of the peripheral visual field, and suggest a shift in focus to seeking an understanding of how between-feature summaries in one area of the environment control behavior. PMID:26360153

  7. An integrative process model of leadership: examining loci, mechanisms, and event cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Marion B; Johnson, Michael D; Hernandez, Morela; Avolio, Bruce J

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing the locus (source) and mechanism (transmission) of leadership framework (Hernandez, Eberly, Avolio, & Johnson, 2011), we propose and examine the application of an integrative process model of leadership to help determine the psychological interactive processes that constitute leadership. In particular, we identify the various dynamics involved in generating leadership processes by modeling how the loci and mechanisms interact through a series of leadership event cycles. We discuss the major implications of this model for advancing an integrative understanding of what constitutes leadership and its current and future impact on the field of psychological theory, research, and practice. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between single-event upset immunity and fabrication processes of recent memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, N.; Shindou, H.; Kuboyama, S.; Matsuda, S.; Itoh, H.; Okada, S.; Nashiyama, I.

    1999-01-01

    Single-Event upset (SEU) immunity for commercial devices were evaluated by irradiation tests using high-energy heavy ions. We show test results and describe the relationship between observed SEU and structures/fabrication processes. We have evaluated single-even upset (SEU) tolerance of recent commercial memory devices using high energy heavy ions in order to find relationship between SEU rate and their fabrication process. It was revealed that the change of the process parameter gives much effect for the SEU rate of the devices. (authors)

  9. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  10. Massively parallel signal processing using the graphics processing unit for real-time brain-computer interface feature extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past five years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card (GPU was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI. The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter, followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally-intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a CPU-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  11. Modeling associations between latent event processes governing time series of pulsing hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huayu; Carlson, Nichole E; Grunwald, Gary K; Polotsky, Alex J

    2017-10-31

    This work is motivated by a desire to quantify relationships between two time series of pulsing hormone concentrations. The locations of pulses are not directly observed and may be considered latent event processes. The latent event processes of pulsing hormones are often associated. It is this joint relationship we model. Current approaches to jointly modeling pulsing hormone data generally assume that a pulse in one hormone is coupled with a pulse in another hormone (one-to-one association). However, pulse coupling is often imperfect. Existing joint models are not flexible enough for imperfect systems. In this article, we develop a more flexible class of pulse association models that incorporate parameters quantifying imperfect pulse associations. We propose a novel use of the Cox process model as a model of how pulse events co-occur in time. We embed the Cox process model into a hormone concentration model. Hormone concentration is the observed data. Spatial birth and death Markov chain Monte Carlo is used for estimation. Simulations show the joint model works well for quantifying both perfect and imperfect associations and offers estimation improvements over single hormone analyses. We apply this model to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), two reproductive hormones. Use of our joint model results in an ability to investigate novel hypotheses regarding associations between LH and FSH secretion in obese and non-obese women. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Modeling the Process of Event Sequence Data Generated for Working Condition Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems are widely used to monitor the working condition of equipment, generating a vast amount and variety of telemetry data in the process. The main task of surveillance focuses on analyzing these routinely collected telemetry data to help analyze the working condition in the equipment. However, with the rapid increase in the volume of telemetry data, it is a nontrivial task to analyze all the telemetry data to understand the working condition of the equipment without any a priori knowledge. In this paper, we proposed a probabilistic generative model called working condition model (WCM, which is capable of simulating the process of event sequence data generated and depicting the working condition of equipment at runtime. With the help of WCM, we are able to analyze how the event sequence data behave in different working modes and meanwhile to detect the working mode of an event sequence (working condition diagnosis. Furthermore, we have applied WCM to illustrative applications like automated detection of an anomalous event sequence for the runtime of equipment. Our experimental results on the real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  13. DEVELOPING AN IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATION THAT SUPPORTS NEW FEATURES OF JPEG2000 STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgin GÖÇERİ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developing technologies in multimedia brought the importance of image processing and compression. Images that are reduced in size using lossless and lossy compression techniques without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level take up much less space in memory. This enables them to be sent and received over the Internet or mobile devices in much shorter time. The wavelet-based image compression standard JPEG2000 has been created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG committee to superseding the former JPEG standard. Works on various additions to this standard are still under development. In this study, an Application has been developed in Visual C# 2005 which implies important image processing techniques such as edge detection and noise reduction. The important feature of this Application is to support JPEG2000 standard as well as supporting other image types, and the implementation does not only apply to two-dimensional images, but also to multi-dimensional images. Modern software development platforms that support image processing have also been compared and several features of the developed software have been identified.

  14. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space.

  15. Features of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, R.M.; Bedilov, M.R.; Sabitov, M.M.; Matnazarov, A.; Niyozov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is known, under interaction of laser radiation with solid surface a power density q > 0.01 W/cm 2 are observed destruction of a solid and issue of electrons, ions, neutrals, neutrons, plasmas, and also radiation in a wide ranges of a spectra. Despite of a plenty of works, devoted to study of processes of interaction, the studies of feature of destruction of solids by laser beam in process of formation multiply charged ions are insufficiently investigated. The results of study feature of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation multiply charged ions are given in this work. In our experiments, we used the mass spectrometer with single-channel laser radiation. The laser installation had the following parameters: a power density of laser radiation q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 ; the angle of incidence a=18 deg. to the target surface Al, (W). It was obtained experimentally dynamics of morphology of destruction and also mass - charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions formed under interaction of laser radiation with Al (W) in the intensity range q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 . These studies showed features of destruction Al(W) by laser radiation, i.e. invariable of value evaporation mass from a surface of a solid increase as the laser intensity q. But thus temperature a pair increases in accordance with increase of flow density of a laser radiation. Increase of temperature the pair gives in formation of multiply charged plasma. It is typical that, as q of the laser increases the maximum charge number of ions in laser plasma considerably increase and their energy spectra extend toward higher energies. For example, under q=0.1 GW/cm 2 and 50 GW/cm 2 the maximum charge number of ions Al (W) are equal to Z max = 1 and 7, respectively. From the experimental data obtained, we can conclude that, the formed multiply charged plasma practically completely absorption laser radiation and 'shielding' a target surface for various metals at power densities

  16. Fostering Organizational Innovation based on modeling the Marketing Research Process through Event-driven Process Chain (EPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fleacă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises competing in an actual business framework are required to win and maintain their competitiveness by flexibility, fast reaction and conformation to the changing customers' needs based on innovation of work related to products, services, and internal processes. The paper addresses these challenges which gain more complex bonds in a case of high pressure for innovation. The methodology commences with a literature review of the current knowledge on innovation through business processes management. Secondly, it has been applied the Event-driven Process Chain tool from the scientific literature to model the variables of marketing research process. The findings highlight benefits of marketing research workflow that enhances the value of market information while reducing costs of obtaining it, in a coherent way.

  17. Advances in feature selection methods for hyperspectral image processing in food industry applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiong; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the applications of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for assessing food quality, safety, and authenticity. HSI provides abundance of spatial and spectral information from foods by combining both spectroscopy and imaging, resulting in hundreds of contiguous wavebands for each spatial position of food samples, also known as the curse of dimensionality. It is desirable to employ feature selection algorithms for decreasing computation burden and increasing predicting accuracy, which are especially relevant in the development of online applications. Recently, a variety of feature selection algorithms have been proposed that can be categorized into three groups based on the searching strategy namely complete search, heuristic search and random search. This review mainly introduced the fundamental of each algorithm, illustrated its applications in hyperspectral data analysis in the food field, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. It is hoped that this review should provide a guideline for feature selections and data processing in the future development of hyperspectral imaging technique in foods.

  18. ANATOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF DISTAL LOWER LEG AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE PROCESS OF OSTEOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desimir Mladenović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis is the process of bone tissue forming, i.e. bone or callus regeneration. This process is influenced by many factors, and the degree of bone fragments’ stability and vascularization in the fracture area are the basic local factors which determine the nature of reparative process. Regenerative process of all bone structures increases with increasing of blood supply.The distal lower leg has its specific biomechanical features, and plays an important role in the transfer of body weight to foot. The distal part of tibia has a small diameter, which as a consequence has reduced diameter in medullar cave. Through this anatomic feature, the medullar network in the lower tibia part is also reduced.As for anatomic aspect, vascularization in the lower end of tibia is poor. It primarily depends on periosteal vascularization, because medullar vascularization is reduced. Fasciae, tendons and skin cover the lower part of the leg, and there is no muscle mass. These tissues have poor vascular network and that is why the extraosseous blood circulation in tibia is poor, and does not participate in the osteogenesis process. For these reasons, distal lower leg represents a predelection site for delayed osteogenesis and pseudoarthrosys development.Osteosynthesis causes secondary damage to bone and soft tissue circulation. The screw plate damages the periosteal circulation – in the lower part of tibia it is the main source of vascularization, and for this reason, this method of osteosynthesis should not be applied. The external fixator has a sparing role regarding vascularization, and that is the reason why this method is recommended for fracture stabilization at the level of distal lower leg.

  19. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  20. Attenuation of deep semantic processing during mind wandering: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Judy; Friedman, David; Metcalfe, Janet

    2018-03-21

    Although much research shows that early sensory and attentional processing is affected by mind wandering, the effect of mind wandering on deep (i.e. semantic) processing is relatively unexplored. To investigate this relation, we recorded event-related potentials as participants studied English-Spanish word pairs, one at a time, while being intermittently probed for whether they were 'on task' or 'mind wandering'. Both perceptual processing, indexed by the P2 component, and deep processing, indexed by a late, sustained slow wave maximal at parietal electrodes, was attenuated during periods preceding participants' mind wandering reports. The pattern when participants were on task, rather than mind wandering, is similar to the subsequent memory or difference in memory effect. These results support previous findings of sensory attenuation during mind wandering, and extend them to a long-duration slow wave by suggesting that the deeper and more sustained levels of processing are also disrupted.

  1. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A. Dorothea; Otten, Leun J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual ...

  2. An Event-related Brain Potential Study of English Morphosyntactic Processing in Japanese Learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuta, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...

  3. FLCNDEMF: An Event Metamodel for Flood Process Information Management under the Sensor Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant economic losses, large affected populations, and serious environmental damage caused by recurrent natural disaster events (NDE worldwide indicate insufficiency in emergency preparedness and response. The barrier of full life cycle data preparation and information support is one of the main reasons. This paper adopts the method of integrated environmental modeling, incorporates information from existing event protocols, languages, and models, analyzes observation demands from different event stages, and forms the abstract full life cycle natural disaster event metamodel (FLCNDEM based on meta-object facility. Then task library and knowledge base for floods are built to instantiate FLCNDEM, forming the FLCNDEM for floods (FLCNDEMF. FLCNDEMF is formalized according to Event Pattern Markup Language, and a prototype system, Natural Disaster Event Manager, is developed to assist in the template-based modeling and management. The flood in Liangzi (LZ Lake of Hubei, China on 16 July 2010 is adopted to illustrate how to apply FLCNDEM in real scenarios. FLCNDEM-based modeling is realized, and the candidate remote sensing (RS dataset for different observing missions are provided for LZ Lake flood. Taking the mission of flood area extraction as an example, the appropriate RS data are selected via the model of simplified general perturbation version 4, and the flood area in different phases are calculated and displayed on the map. The phase-based modeling and visualization intuitively display the spatial-temporal distribution and the evolution process of the LZ Lake flood, and it is of great significance for flood responding. In addition, through the extension mechanism, FLCNDEM can also be applied in other environmental applications, providing important support for full life cycle information sharing and rapid responding.

  4. Universitality features in (pp), (e+e-), and deep inelastic scattering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichichi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the correct variables in (pp), (e + e - ), and deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) processes which allow universality features to be established different ways of producing mulihadronic states. The experimental data where (pp) interactions are compared with (e + e - ) are shown. Extrapolations of collider physics are discussed and it is found that the leading effects must be subtracted and the correct variables have to be used if one wants to compare purely hadronic interactions with (e + e - ) and DIS. The new method of studying (pp) and (pp) collisions allows one to put on equal footing the multiparticle systems that are produced in purely hadronic interactions, in (e + e - ) annihilation, and in DIS processes

  5. Discrete event simulation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1992-02-01

    A discrete event simulation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory has been constructed in the GPSS language. It was used to estimate laboratory analysis times at process analytical hold points and to study the effect of sample number on those times. Typical results are presented for three different simultaneous representing increasing levels of complexity, and for different sampling schemes. Example equipment utilization time plots are also included. SRS DWPF laboratory management and chemists found the simulations very useful for resource and schedule planning

  6. Fixation to features and neural processing of facial expressions in a gender discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Karly N; Itier, Roxane J

    2015-10-01

    Early face encoding, as reflected by the N170 ERP component, is sensitive to fixation to the eyes. Whether this sensitivity varies with facial expressions of emotion and can also be seen on other ERP components such as P1 and EPN, was investigated. Using eye-tracking to manipulate fixation on facial features, we found the N170 to be the only eye-sensitive component and this was true for fearful, happy and neutral faces. A different effect of fixation to features was seen for the earlier P1 that likely reflected general sensitivity to face position. An early effect of emotion (∼120 ms) for happy faces was seen at occipital sites and was sustained until ∼350 ms post-stimulus. For fearful faces, an early effect was seen around 80 ms followed by a later effect appearing at ∼150 ms until ∼300 ms at lateral posterior sites. Results suggests that in this emotion-irrelevant gender discrimination task, processing of fearful and happy expressions occurred early and largely independently of the eye-sensitivity indexed by the N170. Processing of the two emotions involved different underlying brain networks active at different times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for unlimited capacity processing of simple features in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alex L; Runeson, Erik; Palmer, John; Ernst, Zachary R; Boynton, Geoffrey M

    2017-06-01

    Performance in many visual tasks is impaired when observers attempt to divide spatial attention across multiple visual field locations. Correspondingly, neuronal response magnitudes in visual cortex are often reduced during divided compared with focused spatial attention. This suggests that early visual cortex is the site of capacity limits, where finite processing resources must be divided among attended stimuli. However, behavioral research demonstrates that not all visual tasks suffer such capacity limits: The costs of divided attention are minimal when the task and stimulus are simple, such as when searching for a target defined by orientation or contrast. To date, however, every neuroimaging study of divided attention has used more complex tasks and found large reductions in response magnitude. We bridged that gap by using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure responses in the human visual cortex during simple feature detection. The first experiment used a visual search task: Observers detected a low-contrast Gabor patch within one or four potentially relevant locations. The second experiment used a dual-task design, in which observers made independent judgments of Gabor presence in patches of dynamic noise at two locations. In both experiments, blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the retinotopic cortex were significantly lower for ignored than attended stimuli. However, when observers divided attention between multiple stimuli, BOLD signals were not reliably reduced and behavioral performance was unimpaired. These results suggest that processing of simple features in early visual cortex has unlimited capacity.

  8. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.

    2010-12-01

    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at

  9. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    In the field of nuclear explosion monitoring, it has become a priority to detect, locate, and identify seismic events down to increasingly small magnitudes. The consideration of smaller seismic events has implications for a reliable monitoring regime. Firstly, the number of events to be considered increases greatly; an exponential increase in naturally occurring seismicity is compounded by large numbers of seismic signals generated by human activity. Secondly, the signals from smaller events become more difficult to detect above the background noise and estimates of parameters required for locating the events may be subject to greater errors. Thirdly, events are likely to be observed by a far smaller number of seismic stations, and the reliability of event detection and location using a very limited set of observations needs to be quantified. For many key seismic stations, detection lists may be dominated by signals from routine industrial explosions which should be ascribed, automatically and with a high level of confidence, to known sources. This means that expensive analyst time is not spent locating routine events from repeating seismic sources and that events from unknown sources, which could be of concern in an explosion monitoring context, are more easily identified and can be examined with due care. We have obtained extensive lists of confirmed seismic events from mining and other artificial sources which have provided an excellent opportunity to assess the quality of existing fully-automatic event bulletins and to guide the development of new techniques for online seismic processing. Comparing the times and locations of confirmed events from sources in Fennoscandia and NW Russia with the corresponding time and location estimates reported in existing automatic bulletins has revealed substantial mislocation errors which preclude a confident association of detected signals with known industrial sources. The causes of the errors are well understood and are

  10. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    In the field of nuclear explosion monitoring, it has become a priority to detect, locate, and identify seismic events down to increasingly small magnitudes. The consideration of smaller seismic events has implications for a reliable monitoring regime. Firstly, the number of events to be considered increases greatly; an exponential increase in naturally occurring seismicity is compounded by large numbers of seismic signals generated by human activity. Secondly, the signals from smaller events become more difficult to detect above the background noise and estimates of parameters required for locating the events may be subject to greater errors. Thirdly, events are likely to be observed by a far smaller number of seismic stations, and the reliability of event detection and location using a very limited set of observations needs to be quantified. For many key seismic stations, detection lists may be dominated by signals from routine industrial explosions which should be ascribed, automatically and with a high level of confidence, to known sources. This means that expensive analyst time is not spent locating routine events from repeating seismic sources and that events from unknown sources, which could be of concern in an explosion monitoring context, are more easily identified and can be examined with due care. We have obtained extensive lists of confirmed seismic events from mining and other artificial sources which have provided an excellent opportunity to assess the quality of existing fully-automatic event bulletins and to guide the development of new techniques for online seismic processing. Comparing the times and locations of confirmed events from sources in Fennoscandia and NW Russia with the corresponding time and location estimates reported in existing automatic bulletins has revealed substantial mislocation errors which preclude a confident association of detected signals with known industrial sources. The causes of the errors are well understood and are

  11. From products to processes: Academic events to foster interdisciplinary and iterative dialogue in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Nans; Ewen, Tracy; Johnson, Leigh; Ćöltekin, Arzu; Derungs, Curdin; Muccione, Veruska

    2015-08-01

    In the context of climate change, both climate researchers and decision makers deal with uncertainties, but these uncertainties differ in fundamental ways. They stem from different sources, cover different temporal and spatial scales, might or might not be reducible or quantifiable, and are generally difficult to characterize and communicate. Hence, a mutual understanding between current and future climate researchers and decision makers must evolve for adaptation strategies and planning to progress. Iterative two-way dialogue can help to improve the decision making process by bridging current top-down and bottom-up approaches. One way to cultivate such interactions is by providing venues for these actors to interact and exchange on the uncertainties they face. We use a workshop-seminar series involving academic researchers, students, and decision makers as an opportunity to put this idea into practice and evaluate it. Seminars, case studies, and a round table allowed participants to reflect upon and experiment with uncertainties. An opinion survey conducted before and after the workshop-seminar series allowed us to qualitatively evaluate its influence on the participants. We find that the event stimulated new perspectives on research products and communication processes, and we suggest that similar events may ultimately contribute to the midterm goal of improving support for decision making in a changing climate. Therefore, we recommend integrating bridging events into university curriculum to foster interdisciplinary and iterative dialogue among researchers, decision makers, and students.

  12. APNEA list mode data acquisition and real-time event processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogle, R.A.; Miller, P. [GE Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States); Bramblett, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The LMSC Active Passive Neutron Examinations and Assay (APNEA) Data Logger is a VME-based data acquisition system using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware with the application-specific software. It receives TTL inputs from eighty-eight {sup 3}He detector tubes and eight timing signals. Two data sets are generated concurrently for each acquisition session: (1) List Mode recording of all detector and timing signals, timestamped to 3 microsecond resolution; (2) Event Accumulations generated in real-time by counting events into short (tens of microseconds) and long (seconds) time bins following repetitive triggers. List Mode data sets can be post-processed to: (1) determine the optimum time bins for TRU assay of waste drums, (2) analyze a given data set in several ways to match different assay requirements and conditions and (3) confirm assay results by examining details of the raw data. Data Logger events are processed and timestamped by an array of 15 TMS320C40 DSPs and delivered to an embedded controller (PowerPC604) for interim disk storage. Three acquisition modes, corresponding to different trigger sources are provided. A standard network interface to a remote host system (Windows NT or SunOS) provides for system control, status, and transfer of previously acquired data. 6 figs.

  13. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity , the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  14. The large-scale ENSO event, the El Niño and other important regional features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    anomalously heavy subtropical Chilean rainfall. The high index (anti-ENSO phase of the SO relates on the west side of the «see-saw» to anomalously heavy rainfall over eastern and northern Australia, anomalously heavy east monsoon rainfall over Indonesia, above normal summer monsoon rainfall over India, and an abnormally large supply of water entering the Nile River system as a result of abnormally heavy summer monsoon rainfall over the highlands of Ethiopia. In contrast, on the east side of the «see-saw» it relates to cool anti-El Niño conditions over the northwestern South American coastal region with its cool upwelling waters, an equatorial Pacific dry zone extending far to the west as a result of the underlying cool upwelling sea water caused by strong easterly winds, and anomalously low subtropical Chilean rainfall. Although each individual large-scale ENSO and anti-ENSO phase pattern will display its own unique characteristics, the above-stated generalities will frequently occur, particularly when the events are in the strong and very strong intensity categories. At times the initial onset of these large-scale developments can be noted earlier on the western side of the «see-saw» than they can on the eastern side. There is no better example of this than the very strong 1982-1983 ENSO development. An ultimate goal of all research on the large-scale ENSO, the El Niño, and other associated regional climatic features is to eventually develop the capability to provide reasonably reliable long-range outlooks as to the time of onset, areal extent, duration, and intensity of these recurring SO-related ocean-atmosphere climatic fluctuations. Here some of the background information, data, and records obtained over the historical past are presented and discussed.

  15. SYSTEM OF COMPUTER MODELING OBJECTS AND PROCESSES AND FEATURES OF ITS USE IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF GENERAL SECONDARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the historical aspect of the formation of computer modeling as one of the perspective directions of educational process development. The notion of “system of computer modeling”, conceptual model of system of computer modeling (SCMod, its components (mathematical, animation, graphic, strategic, functions, principles and purposes of use are grounded. The features of the organization of students work using SCMod, individual and group work, the formation of subject competencies are described; the aspect of students’ motivation to learning is considered. It is established that educational institutions can use SCMod at different levels and stages of training and in different contexts, which consist of interrelated physical, social, cultural and technological aspects. It is determined that the use of SCMod in general secondary school would increase the capacity of teachers to improve the training of students in natural and mathematical subjects and contribute to the individualization of the learning process, in order to meet the pace, educational interests and capabilities of each particular student. It is substantiated that the use of SCMod in the study of natural-mathematical subjects contributes to the formation of subject competencies, develops the skills of analysis and decision-making, increases the level of digital communication, develops vigilance, raises the level of knowledge, increases the duration of attention of students. Further research requires the justification of the process of forming students’ competencies in natural-mathematical subjects and designing cognitive tasks using SCMod.

  16. Web processing service for climate impact and extreme weather event analyses. Flyingpigeon (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Brockmann, Patrick; Falk, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Jörg; Kindermann, Stephan; Koziol, Ben; Nangini, Cathy; Radanovics, Sabine; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of extreme weather events and their impacts often requires big data processing of ensembles of climate model simulations. Researchers generally proceed by downloading the data from the providers and processing the data files ;at home; with their own analysis processes. However, the growing amount of available climate model and observation data makes this procedure quite awkward. In addition, data processing knowledge is kept local, instead of being consolidated into a common resource of reusable code. These drawbacks can be mitigated by using a web processing service (WPS). A WPS hosts services such as data analysis processes that are accessible over the web, and can be installed close to the data archives. We developed a WPS named 'flyingpigeon' that communicates over an HTTP network protocol based on standards defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), to be used by climatologists and impact modelers as a tool for analyzing large datasets remotely. Here, we present the current processes we developed in flyingpigeon relating to commonly-used processes (preprocessing steps, spatial subsets at continent, country or region level, and climate indices) as well as methods for specific climate data analysis (weather regimes, analogues of circulation, segetal flora distribution, and species distribution models). We also developed a novel, browser-based interactive data visualization for circulation analogues, illustrating the flexibility of WPS in designing custom outputs. Bringing the software to the data instead of transferring the data to the code is becoming increasingly necessary, especially with the upcoming massive climate datasets.

  17. Rett syndrome: basic features of visual processing-a pilot study of eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Aleksandra; Valicenti McDermott, Maria; Mavrommatis, Kathleen; Martins, Cristina L

    2012-07-01

    Consistently observed "strong eye gaze" has not been validated as a means of communication in girls with Rett syndrome, ubiquitously affected by apraxia, unable to reply either verbally or manually to questions during formal psychologic assessment. We examined nonverbal cognitive abilities and basic features of visual processing (visual discrimination attention/memory) by analyzing patterns of visual fixation in 44 girls with Rett syndrome, compared with typical control subjects. To determine features of visual fixation patterns, multiple pictures (with the location of the salient and presence/absence of novel stimuli as variables) were presented on the screen of a TS120 eye-tracker. Of the 44, 35 (80%) calibrated and exhibited meaningful patterns of visual fixation. They looked longer at salient stimuli (cartoon, 2.8 ± 2 seconds S.D., vs shape, 0.9 ± 1.2 seconds S.D.; P = 0.02), regardless of their position on the screen. They recognized novel stimuli, decreasing the fixation time on the central image when another image appeared on the periphery of the slide (2.7 ± 1 seconds S.D. vs 1.8 ± 1 seconds S.D., P = 0.002). Eye-tracking provides a feasible method for cognitive assessment and new insights into the "hidden" abilities of individuals with Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K N

    2000-06-01

    The author used the remember/know paradigm and the dual process recognition model of A. P. Yonelinas, N. E. A. Kroll, I. Dobbins, M. Lazzara, and R. T. Knight (1998) to study the states of awareness accompanying recognition of affective images and the processes of recollection and familiarity that may underlie them. Results from all experiments showed that (a) negative stimuli tended to be remembered, whereas positive stimuli tended to be known; (b) recollection, but not familiarity, was boosted for negative or highly arousing and, to a lesser extent, positive stimuli; and (c) across experiments, variations in depth of encoding did not influence these patterns. These data suggest that greater recollection for affective events leads them to be more richly experienced in memory, and they are consistent with the idea that the states of remembering and knowing are experientially exclusive, whereas the processes underlying them are functionally independent.

  19. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  20. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhishuai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  1. Prediction of Increasing Production Activities using Combination of Query Aggregation on Complex Events Processing and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Arwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProduksi, order, penjualan, dan pengiriman adalah serangkaian event yang saling terkait dalam industri manufaktur. Selanjutnya hasil dari event tersebut dicatat dalam event log. Complex Event Processing adalah metode yang digunakan untuk menganalisis apakah terdapat pola kombinasi peristiwa tertentu (peluang/ancaman yang terjadi pada sebuah sistem, sehingga dapat ditangani secara cepat dan tepat. Jaringan saraf tiruan adalah metode yang digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi data peningkatan proses produksi. Hasil pencatatan rangkaian proses yang menyebabkan peningkatan produksi digunakan sebagai data latih untuk mendapatkan fungsi aktivasi dari jaringan saraf tiruan. Penjumlahan hasil catatan event log dimasukkan ke input jaringan saraf tiruan untuk perhitungan nilai aktivasi. Ketika nilai aktivasi lebih dari batas yang ditentukan, maka sistem mengeluarkan sinyal untuk meningkatkan produksi, jika tidak, sistem tetap memantau kejadian. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa akurasi dari metode ini adalah 77% dari 39 rangkaian aliran event.Kata kunci: complex event processing, event, jaringan saraf tiruan, prediksi peningkatan produksi, proses. AbstractProductions, orders, sales, and shipments are series of interrelated events within manufacturing industry. Further these events were recorded in the event log. Complex event processing is a method that used to analyze whether there are patterns of combinations of certain events (opportunities / threats that occur in a system, so it can be addressed quickly and appropriately. Artificial neural network is a method that we used to classify production increase activities. The series of events that cause the increase of the production used as a dataset to train the weight of neural network which result activation value. An aggregate stream of events inserted into the neural network input to compute the value of activation. When the value is over a certain threshold (the activation value results

  2. The influence of negative stimulus features on conflict adaption:Evidence from fluency of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFritz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control enables adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment. In this context, one prominent adaptation effect is the sequential conflict adjustment, i.e. the observation of reduced response interference on trials following conflict trials. Increasing evidence suggests that such response conflicts are registered as aversive signals. So far, however, the functional role of this aversive signal for conflict adaptation to occur has not been put to test directly. In two experiments, the affective valence of conflict stimuli was manipulated by fluency of processing (stimulus contrast. Experiment 1 used a flanker interference task, Experiment 2 a color-word Stroop task. In both experiments, conflict adaptation effects were only present in fluent, but absent in disfluent trials. Results thus speak against the simple idea that any aversive stimulus feature is suited to promote specific conflict adjustments. Two alternative but not mutually exclusive accounts, namely resource competition and adaptation-by-motivation, will be discussed.

  3. Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley eDarke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that individuals with schizophrenia exhibit signs of impaired face processing, however, the exact perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these deficits are yet to be elucidated. One possible source of confusion in the current literature is the methodological and conceptual inconsistencies that can arise from the varied treatment of different aspects of face processing relating to emotional and non-emotional aspects of face perception. This review aims to disentangle the literature by focusing on the performance of patients with schizophrenia in a range of tasks that required processing of non-emotional features of face stimuli (e.g. identity or gender. We also consider the performance of patients on non-face stimuli that share common elements such as familiarity (e.g. cars and social relevance (e.g. gait. We conclude by exploring whether observed deficits are best considered as face-specific and note that further investigation is required to properly assess the potential contribution of more generalised attentional or perceptual impairments.

  4. Face processing in chronic alcoholism: a specific deficit for emotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, P; Campanella, S; Philippot, P; Martin, S; de Timary, P

    2008-04-01

    It is well established that chronic alcoholism is associated with a deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression (EFE). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether this deficit is specifically for emotions or due to a more general impairment in visual or facial processing. This study was designed to clarify this issue using multiple control tasks and the subtraction method. Eighteen patients suffering from chronic alcoholism and 18 matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform several tasks evaluating (1) Basic visuo-spatial and facial identity processing; (2) Simple reaction times; (3) Complex facial features identification (namely age, emotion, gender, and race). Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Alcoholic patients had a preserved performance for visuo-spatial and facial identity processing, but their performance was impaired for visuo-motor abilities and for the detection of complex facial aspects. More importantly, the subtraction method showed that alcoholism is associated with a specific EFE decoding deficit, still present when visuo-motor slowing down is controlled for. These results offer a post hoc confirmation of earlier data showing an EFE decoding deficit in alcoholism by strongly suggesting a specificity of this deficit for emotions. This may have implications for clinical situations, where emotional impairments are frequently observed among alcoholic subjects.

  5. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  6. A hierarchy of event-related potential markers of auditory processing in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Beukema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging of covert perceptual and cognitive processes can inform the diagnoses and prognoses of patients with disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS;MCS. Here we report an event-related potential (ERP paradigm for detecting a hierarchy of auditory processes in a group of healthy individuals and patients with disorders of consciousness. Simple cortical responses to sounds were observed in all 16 patients; 7/16 (44% patients exhibited markers of the differential processing of speech and noise; and 1 patient produced evidence of the semantic processing of speech (i.e. the N400 effect. In several patients, the level of auditory processing that was evident from ERPs was higher than the abilities that were evident from behavioural assessment, indicating a greater sensitivity of ERPs in some cases. However, there were no differences in auditory processing between VS and MCS patient groups, indicating a lack of diagnostic specificity for this paradigm. Reliably detecting semantic processing by means of the N400 effect in passively listening single-subjects is a challenge. Multiple assessment methods are needed in order to fully characterise the abilities of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  7. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  8. Event processing time prediction at the CMS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cury, Samir; Gutsche, Oliver; Kcira, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    The physics event reconstruction is one of the biggest challenges for the computing of the LHC experiments. Among the different tasks that computing systems of the CMS experiment performs, the reconstruction takes most of the available CPU resources. The reconstruction time of single collisions varies according to event complexity. Measurements were done in order to determine this correlation quantitatively, creating means to predict it based on the data-taking conditions of the input samples. Currently the data processing system splits tasks in groups with the same number of collisions and does not account for variations in the processing time. These variations can be large and can lead to a considerable increase in the time it takes for CMS workflows to finish. The goal of this study was to use estimates on processing time to more efficiently split the workflow into jobs. By considering the CPU time needed for each job the spread of the job-length distribution in a workflow is reduced.

  9. Does ego development increase during midlife? The effects of openness and accommodative processing of difficult events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilgendahl, Jennifer Pals; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2013-08-01

    Although Loevinger's model of ego development is a theory of personality growth, there are few studies that have examined age-related change in ego level over developmentally significant periods of adulthood. To address this gap in the literature, we examined mean-level change and individual differences in change in ego level over 18 years of midlife. In this longitudinal study, participants were 79 predominantly White, college-educated women who completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test in early (age 43) and late (age 61) midlife as well as measures of the trait of Openness (ages 21, 43, 52, and 61) and accommodative processing (assessed from narratives of difficult life events at age 52). As hypothesized, the sample overall showed a mean-level increase in ego level from age 43 to age 61. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that both the trait of Openness at age 21 and accommodative processing of difficult events that occurred during (as opposed to prior to) midlife were each predictive of increasing ego level from age 43 to age 61. These findings counter prior claims that ego level remains stable during adulthood and contribute to our understanding of the underlying processes involved in personality growth in midlife. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Online prediction of respiratory motion: multidimensional processing with low-dimensional feature learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Accurate real-time prediction of respiratory motion is desirable for effective motion management in radiotherapy for lung tumor targets. Recently, nonparametric methods have been developed and their efficacy in predicting one-dimensional respiratory-type motion has been demonstrated. To exploit the correlation among various coordinates of the moving target, it is natural to extend the 1D method to multidimensional processing. However, the amount of learning data required for such extension grows exponentially with the dimensionality of the problem, a phenomenon known as the 'curse of dimensionality'. In this study, we investigate a multidimensional prediction scheme based on kernel density estimation (KDE) in an augmented covariate-response space. To alleviate the 'curse of dimensionality', we explore the intrinsic lower dimensional manifold structure and utilize principal component analysis (PCA) to construct a proper low-dimensional feature space, where kernel density estimation is feasible with the limited training data. Interestingly, the construction of this lower dimensional representation reveals a useful decomposition of the variations in respiratory motion into the contribution from semiperiodic dynamics and that from the random noise, as it is only sensible to perform prediction with respect to the former. The dimension reduction idea proposed in this work is closely related to feature extraction used in machine learning, particularly support vector machines. This work points out a pathway in processing high-dimensional data with limited training instances, and this principle applies well beyond the problem of target-coordinate-based respiratory-based prediction. A natural extension is prediction based on image intensity directly, which we will investigate in the continuation of this work. We used 159 lung target motion traces obtained with a Synchrony respiratory tracking system. Prediction performance of the low-dimensional feature learning

  11. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succ...

  12. Feature scale modeling for etching and deposition processes in semiconductor manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyka, W.

    2000-04-01

    modeling of ballistic transport determined low-pressure processes, the equations for the calculation of local etching and deposition rates have been revised. New extensions like the full relation between angular and radial target emission characteristics and particle distributions resulting at different positions on the wafer have been added, and results from reactor scale simulations have been linked to the feature scale profile evolution. Moreover, a fitting model has been implemented, which reduces the number of parameters for particle distributions, scattering mechanisms, and angular dependent surface interactions. Concerning diffusion determined high-pressure CVD processes, a continuum transport and reaction model for the first time has been implemented in three dimensions. It comprises a flexible interface for the formulation of the involved process chemistry and derives the local deposition rate from a finite element diffusion calculation carried out on the three-dimensional mesh of the gas domain above the feature. For each time-step of the deposition simulation the mesh is automatically generated as counterpart to the surface of the three-dimensional structure evolving with time. The CVD model has also been coupled with equipment simulations. (author)

  13. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  14. The use of discrete-event simulation modelling to improve radiation therapy planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werker, Greg; Sauré, Antoine; French, John; Shechter, Steven

    2009-07-01

    The planning portion of the radiation therapy treatment process at the British Columbia Cancer Agency is efficient but nevertheless contains room for improvement. The purpose of this study is to show how a discrete-event simulation (DES) model can be used to represent this complex process and to suggest improvements that may reduce the planning time and ultimately reduce overall waiting times. A simulation model of the radiation therapy (RT) planning process was constructed using the Arena simulation software, representing the complexities of the system. Several types of inputs feed into the model; these inputs come from historical data, a staff survey, and interviews with planners. The simulation model was validated against historical data and then used to test various scenarios to identify and quantify potential improvements to the RT planning process. Simulation modelling is an attractive tool for describing complex systems, and can be used to identify improvements to the processes involved. It is possible to use this technique in the area of radiation therapy planning with the intent of reducing process times and subsequent delays for patient treatment. In this particular system, reducing the variability and length of oncologist-related delays contributes most to improving the planning time.

  15. Initiating events study of the first extraction cycle process in a model reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renze; Zhang, Jian Gang; Zhuang, Dajie; Feng, Zong Yang [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Definition and grouping of initiating events (IEs) are important basics for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). An IE in a spent fuel reprocessing plant (SFRP) is an event that probably leads to the release of dangerous material to jeopardize workers, public and environment. The main difference between SFRPs and nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that hazard materials spread diffusely in a SFRP and radioactive material is just one kind of hazard material. Since the research on IEs for NPPs is in-depth around the world, there are several general methods to identify IEs: reference of lists in existence, review of experience feedback, qualitative analysis method, and deductive analysis method. While failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important qualitative analysis method, master logic diagram (MLD) method is the deductive analysis method. IE identification in SFRPs should be consulted with the experience of NPPs, however the differences between SFRPs and NPPs should be considered seriously. The plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process is adopted by the technics in a model reprocessing plant. The first extraction cycle (FEC) is the pivotal process in the Purex process. Whether the FEC can function safely and steadily would directly influence the production process of the whole plant-production quality. Important facilities of the FEC are installed in the equipment cells (ECs). In this work, IEs in the FEC process were identified and categorized by FMEA and MLD two methods, based on the fact that ECs are containments in the plant. The results show that only two ECs in the FEC do not need to be concerned particularly with safety problems, and criticality, fire and red oil explosion are IEs which should be emphatically analyzed. The results are accordant with the references.

  16. ASPIE: A Framework for Active Sensing and Processing of Complex Events in the Internet of Manufacturing Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid perception and processing of critical monitoring events are essential to ensure healthy operation of Internet of Manufacturing Things (IoMT-based manufacturing processes. In this paper, we proposed a framework (active sensing and processing architecture (ASPIE for active sensing and processing of critical events in IoMT-based manufacturing based on the characteristics of IoMT architecture as well as its perception model. A relation model of complex events in manufacturing processes, together with related operators and unified XML-based semantic definitions, are developed to effectively process the complex event big data. A template based processing method for complex events is further introduced to conduct complex event matching using the Apriori frequent item mining algorithm. To evaluate the proposed models and methods, we developed a software platform based on ASPIE for a local chili sauce manufacturing company, which demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods for active perception and processing of complex events in IoMT-based manufacturing.

  17. Visual processing of music notation: a study of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horng-Yih; Wang, Yu-Sin

    2011-04-01

    In reading music, the acquisition of pitch information depends mostly on the spatial position of notes, hence more spatial processing, whereas the acquisition of temporal information depends mostly on the visual features of notes and object recognition. This study used both electrophysiological and behavioral methods to compare the processing of pitch and duration in reading single musical notes. It was observed that in the early stage of note reading, identification of pitch could elicit greater N1 and N2 amplitude than identification of duration at the parietal lobe electrodes. In the later stages of note reading, identifying pitch elicited a greater negative slow wave at parietal electrodes than did identifying note duration. The sustained contribution of parietal processes for pitch suggests that the dorsal pathway is essential for pitch processing. However, the duration task did not elicit greater amplitude of any early ERP components than the pitch task at temporal electrodes. Accordingly, a double dissociation, suggesting involvement of the dorsal visual stream, was not observed in spatial pitch processing and ventral visual stream in processing of note durations.

  18. EXTRACTING SPATIOTEMPORAL OBJECTS FROM RASTER DATA TO REPRESENT PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANALYZE RELATED PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zollweg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don’t see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm ‘object’. Temporally, we don’t see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain’s perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2 data stream.

  19. Extracting Spatiotemporal Objects from Raster Data to Represent Physical Features and Analyze Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollweg, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don't see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm `object'. Temporally, we don't see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain's perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA's High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2) data stream.

  20. Intelligent monitoring and fault diagnosis for ATLAS TDAQ: a complex event processing solution

    CERN Document Server

    Magnoni, Luca; Luppi, Eleonora

    Effective monitoring and analysis tools are fundamental in modern IT infrastructures to get insights on the overall system behavior and to deal promptly and effectively with failures. In recent years, Complex Event Processing (CEP) technologies have emerged as effective solutions for information processing from the most disparate fields: from wireless sensor networks to financial analysis. This thesis proposes an innovative approach to monitor and operate complex and distributed computing systems, in particular referring to the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system currently in use at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The result of this research, the AAL project, is currently used to provide ATLAS data acquisition operators with automated error detection and intelligent system analysis. The thesis begins by describing the TDAQ system and the controlling architecture, with a focus on the monitoring infrastructure and the expert system used for error detection and automated reco...

  1. Discrete-Event Execution Alternatives on General Purpose Graphical Processing Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.

    2006-01-01

    Graphics cards, traditionally designed as accelerators for computer graphics, have evolved to support more general-purpose computation. General Purpose Graphical Processing Units (GPGPUs) are now being used as highly efficient, cost-effective platforms for executing certain simulation applications. While most of these applications belong to the category of time-stepped simulations, little is known about the applicability of GPGPUs to discrete event simulation (DES). Here, we identify some of the issues and challenges that the GPGPU stream-based interface raises for DES, and present some possible approaches to moving DES to GPGPUs. Initial performance results on simulation of a diffusion process show that DES-style execution on GPGPU runs faster than DES on CPU and also significantly faster than time-stepped simulations on either CPU or GPGPU.

  2. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  3. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  4. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Savic

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  5. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Olivera; Savic, Andrej M; Kovic, Vanja

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  6. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J.; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T.; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A.; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention. PMID:26926868

  7. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eNelis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70 or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159, followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects: In Study 1, a ‘concrete/imagery’ vs. ‘abstract/verbal’ processing style was compared. In Study 2, a ‘concrete/imagery’, ‘abstract/verbal’, and ‘comparative/verbal’ processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavourable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather then general abstract/verbal processing per se. The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  9. Non-retinotopic feature processing in the absence of retinotopic spatial layout and the construction of perceptual space from motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağaoğlu, Mehmet N; Herzog, Michael H; Oğmen, Haluk

    2012-10-15

    The spatial representation of a visual scene in the early visual system is well known. The optics of the eye map the three-dimensional environment onto two-dimensional images on the retina. These retinotopic representations are preserved in the early visual system. Retinotopic representations and processing are among the most prevalent concepts in visual neuroscience. However, it has long been known that a retinotopic representation of the stimulus is neither sufficient nor necessary for perception. Saccadic Stimulus Presentation Paradigm and the Ternus-Pikler displays have been used to investigate non-retinotopic processes with and without eye movements, respectively. However, neither of these paradigms eliminates the retinotopic representation of the spatial layout of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how stimulus features are processed in the absence of a retinotopic layout and in the presence of retinotopic conflict. We used anorthoscopic viewing (slit viewing) and pitted a retinotopic feature-processing hypothesis against a non-retinotopic feature-processing hypothesis. Our results support the predictions of the non-retinotopic feature-processing hypothesis and demonstrate the ability of the visual system to operate non-retinotopically at a fine feature processing level in the absence of a retinotopic spatial layout. Our results suggest that perceptual space is actively constructed from the perceptual dimension of motion. The implications of these findings for normal ecological viewing conditions are discussed. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  10. Identification of Hazardous Events for Drinking Water Production Process Using Managed Aquifer Recharge in the Nakdong River Delta, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang-Il, L.; Ji, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Various hazardous events can cause chemical, microbial or physical hazards to a water supply system. The World Health Organization (WHO) and some countries have introduced the hazardous event analysis for identifying potential events which may be harmful to the safety of drinking water. This study extends the application of the hazardous event analysis into drinking water production using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). MAR is a way of using an aquifer to secure water resources by storing freshwater for future use and pumping it whenever necessary. The entire drinking water production process is subjected to the analysis from the catchment area to the consumer. Hazardous event analysis incorporates site-specific data as well as common issues occurring in the process of drinking water production. The hazardous events are classified based on chemical, microbial or physical characteristics. Likelihood and severity values are assigned, resulting in quantitative risk by multiplying them. The study site is located at a coastal area in the delta of the Nakdong River, South Korea. The site has suffered from salt water intrusion and surface water pollution from the water upstream. Nine major hazardous events were identified out of total 114 events from 10 drinking water production processes. These major hazardous events will provide useful information on what to be done to secure the water quality produced by a new water supply method. (author)

  11. Analyzing the evolution of beta-endorphin post-translational processing events: studies on reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Pezhman; Baron, Andrea; Szynskie, Laura; Dores, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    In many cartilaginous fishes, most ray-finned fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians, the post-translational processing of POMC includes the monobasic cleavage of beta-endorphin to yield an opioid that is eight to ten amino acids in length. The amino acid motif within the beta-endorphin sequence required for a monobasic cleavage event is -E-R-(S/G)-Q-. Mammals and birds lack this motif and as a result beta-endorphin(1-8) is a not an end-product in either group. Since both mammals and birds were derived from ancestors with reptilian origins, an analysis of beta-endorphin sequences from extant groups of reptiles should provide insights into the manner in which beta-endorphin post-translational processing mechanisms have evolved in amniotes. To this end a POMC cDNA was cloned from the pituitary of the turtle, Chrysemys scripta. The beta-endorphin sequence in this species was compared to other reptile beta-endorphin sequences (i.e., Chinese soft shell turtle and gecko) and to known bird and mammal sequences. This analysis indicated that either the loss of the arginine residue at the cleavage site (the two turtle species, chick, and human) or a substitution at the glutamine position in the consensus sequence (gecko and ostrich) would account for the loss of the monobasic cleavage reaction in that species. Since amphibians are capable of performing the beta-endorphin monobasic reaction, it would appear that the amino acid substitutions that eliminated this post-translational process event in reptilian-related tetrapods must have occurred in the ancestral amniotes.

  12. Mastication accelerates Go/No-go decisional processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Sadato, Norihiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of mastication on Go/No-go decisional processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen normal subjects underwent seven sessions of a somatosensory Go/No-go paradigm for approximately 4min; Pre, and Post 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The Control condition included the same seven sessions. The RT and standard deviation were recorded, and the peak amplitude and latency of the N140 and P300 components were analyzed. The RT was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 1-3 and 4-6. The peak latency of N140 was earlier in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The latency of N140 was shortened by repeated sessions in Mastication, but not by those in Control. The peak latency of P300 was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The peak latency of P300 was significantly longer in Control with repeated sessions, but not in Mastication. These results suggest that mastication may influence response execution processing in Go trials, as well as response inhibition processing in No-go trials. Mastication accelerated Go/No-go decisional processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. False memory and level of processing effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Boldini, Angela; Cadavid, Sara

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to determine the effects of level of processing on true and false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, lists of words highly associated to a single nonpresented word (the 'critical lure') are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. Lists with three critical lures per list were auditorily presented here to participants who studied them with either a shallow (saying whether the word contained the letter 'o') or a deep (creating a mental image of the word) processing task. Visual presentation modality was used on a final recognition test. True recognition of studied words was significantly higher after deep encoding, whereas false recognition of nonpresented critical lures was similar in both experimental groups. At the ERP level, true and false recognition showed similar patterns: no FN400 effect was found, whereas comparable left parietal and late right frontal old/new effects were found for true and false recognition in both experimental conditions. Items studied under shallow encoding conditions elicited more positive ERP than items studied under deep encoding conditions at a 1000-1500 ms interval. These ERP results suggest that true and false recognition share some common underlying processes. Differential effects of level of processing on true and false memory were found only at the behavioral level but not at the ERP level.

  14. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela I. Olivares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM. New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing.

  15. Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Ku, Li-Chuan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000-1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Precursor analyses - The use of deterministic and PSA based methods in the event investigation process at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The efficient feedback of operating experience (OE) is a valuable source of information for improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs). It is therefore essential to collect information on abnormal events from both internal and external sources. Internal operating experience is analysed to obtain a complete understanding of an event and of its safety implications. Corrective or improvement measures may then be developed, prioritized and implemented in the plant if considered appropriate. Information from external events may also be analysed in order to learn lessons from others' experience and prevent similar occurrences at our own plant. The traditional ways of investigating operational events have been predominantly qualitative. In recent years, a PSA-based method called probabilistic precursor event analysis has been developed, used and applied on a significant scale in many places for a number of plants. The method enables a quantitative estimation of the safety significance of operational events to be incorporated. The purpose of this report is to outline a synergistic process that makes more effective use of operating experience event information by combining the insights and knowledge gained from both approaches, traditional deterministic event investigation and PSA-based event analysis. The PSA-based view on operational events and PSA-based event analysis can support the process of operational event analysis at the following stages of the operational event investigation: (1) Initial screening stage. (It introduces an element of quantitative analysis into the selection process. Quantitative analysis of the safety significance of nuclear plant events can be a very useful measure when it comes to selecting internal and external operating experience information for its relevance.) (2) In-depth analysis. (PSA based event evaluation provides a quantitative measure for judging the significance of operational events, contributors to

  17. Aesthetic appreciation of poetry correlates with ease of processing in event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A; Jessen, Sarah; Raettig, Tim; von Koppenfels, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-04-01

    Rhetorical theory suggests that rhythmic and metrical features of language substantially contribute to persuading, moving, and pleasing an audience. A potential explanation of these effects is offered by "cognitive fluency theory," which stipulates that recurring patterns (e.g., meter) enhance perceptual fluency and can lead to greater aesthetic appreciation. In this article, we explore these two assertions by investigating the effects of meter and rhyme in the reception of poetry by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants listened to four versions of lyrical stanzas that varied in terms of meter and rhyme, and rated the stanzas for rhythmicity and aesthetic liking. The behavioral and ERP results were in accord with enhanced liking and rhythmicity ratings for metered and rhyming stanzas. The metered and rhyming stanzas elicited smaller N400/P600 ERP responses than their nonmetered, nonrhyming, or nonmetered and nonrhyming counterparts. In addition, the N400 and P600 effects for the lyrical stanzas correlated with aesthetic liking effects (metered-nonmetered), implying that modulation of the N400 and P600 has a direct bearing on the aesthetic appreciation of lyrical stanzas. We suggest that these effects are indicative of perceptual-fluency-enhanced aesthetic liking, as postulated by cognitive fluency theory.

  18. Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijal, Shruti; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2013-06-07

    Human observers show remarkable efficiency in statistical estimation; they are able, for instance, to estimate the mean size of visual objects, even if their number exceeds the capacity limits of focused attention. This ability has been understood as the result of a distinct mode of attention, i.e. distributed attention. Compared to the focused attention mode, working memory representations under distributed attention are proposed to be more compressed, leading to reduced working memory loads. An alternate proposal is that distributed attention uses less structured, feature-level representations. These would fill up working memory (WM) more, even when target set size is low. Using event-related potentials, we compared WM loading in a typical distributed attention task (mean size estimation) to that in a corresponding focused attention task (object recognition), using a measure called contralateral delay activity (CDA). Participants performed both tasks on 2, 4, or 8 different-sized target disks. In the recognition task, CDA amplitude increased with set size; notably, however, in the mean estimation task the CDA amplitude was high regardless of set size. In particular for set-size 2, the amplitude was higher in the mean estimation task than in the recognition task. The result showed that the task involves full WM loading even with a low target set size. This suggests that in the distributed attention mode, representations are not compressed, but rather less structured than under focused attention conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Older Adults' Coping with Negative Life Events: Common Processes of Managing Health, Interpersonal, and Financial/Work Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether common stress and coping processes hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped…

  20. Features of single and double ionization processes induced by few cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starace, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The advent of laser pulses with attosecond pulse lengths ushers in the regime of few cycle laser pulse interactions with atoms and ions, including the interesting cases of single and half cycle laser pulses. In this talk I will present results of recent studies of single electron ionization/detachment and double electron ionization/detachment produced by a few cycle laser pulse. For the former case, we shall demonstrate that the ionized/detached electron momentum distribution reflects the interference of electron probability wave packets produced by each half cycle of a single cycle pulse. Also, that the ionized/detached electron momentum distribution uniquely characterizes the phase of the single cycle laser pulse within the laser pulse envelope. Regarding double ionization/detachment, our numerical experiments have shown that single cycle and double half cycle pulses produce different electron angular distributions. Some double ionization features that are present only in the single cycle case can only have been produced by electron impact ionization during rescattering of an initially ionized electron and thus represent a sensitive measure of the rescattering process. Refs. 2 (author)

  1. Nutrient Canals of the Alveolar Process as an Anatomical Feature for Age and Gender Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrient canals are anatomic structures of the alveolar bone through which neurovascular elements transit to supply teeth and supporting structures. Dental identification using nutrient canal of the mandibular alveolar process as the most compelling anatomic feature for antemortem–postmortem radiographic comparison can be potentially used in forensic identification. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the appearance of nutrient canals as a potential clue to age and gender determination. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, 60 males and 60 females, were selected in the 11–60-year age group. Systemic disease, especially hypertension, was ruled out in the patients. Periapical radiographs were taken from mandibular anterior cuspid central incisor region because nutrient canals are commonly observed in this area. Data obtained was analyzed by SPSS software and various statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Study revealed nutrient canals to be commonly seen in females compared to males. Males had maximum canals in the age group of 21–30-year whereas females in the age group of 31–40 years had the maximum canals. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between the gender and nutrient canals whereas no significant correlation existed between the age and presence of nutrient canals.

  2. Selection of yeasts with multifunctional features for application as starters in natural black table olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatsou, S; Benítez, A; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Panagou, E Z; Arroyo-López, F N

    2015-04-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms with a great importance in the elaboration on many foods and beverages. In the last years, researches have focused their attention to determine the favourable effects that these microorganisms could provide to table olive processing. In this context, the present study assesses, at laboratory scale, the potential technological (resistance to salt, lipase, esterase and β-glucosidase activities) and probiotic (phytase activity, survival to gastric and pancreatic digestions) features of 12 yeast strains originally isolated from Greek natural black table olive fermentations. The multivariate classification analysis carried out with all information obtained (a total of 336 quantitative input data), revealed that the most promising strains (clearly discriminated from the rest of isolates) were Pichia guilliermondii Y16 (which showed overall the highest resistance to salt and simulated digestions) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus Y18 (with the overall highest technological enzymatic activities), while the rest of strains were grouped together in two clearly differentiated clusters. Thus, this work opens the possibility for the evaluation of these two selected yeasts as multifunctional starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, in real table olive fermentations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of features of electronic prescribing systems to support quality and safety in primary care using a modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweidan, Michelle; Williamson, Margaret; Reeve, James F; Harvey, Ken; O'Neill, Jennifer A; Schattner, Peter; Snowdon, Teri

    2010-04-15

    Electronic prescribing is increasingly being used in primary care and in hospitals. Studies on the effects of e-prescribing systems have found evidence for both benefit and harm. The aim of this study was to identify features of e-prescribing software systems that support patient safety and quality of care and that are useful to the clinician and the patient, with a focus on improving the quality use of medicines. Software features were identified by a literature review, key informants and an expert group. A modified Delphi process was used with a 12-member multidisciplinary expert group to reach consensus on the expected impact of the features in four domains: patient safety, quality of care, usefulness to the clinician and usefulness to the patient. The setting was electronic prescribing in general practice in Australia. A list of 114 software features was developed. Most of the features relate to the recording and use of patient data, the medication selection process, prescribing decision support, monitoring drug therapy and clinical reports. The expert group rated 78 of the features (68%) as likely to have a high positive impact in at least one domain, 36 features (32%) as medium impact, and none as low or negative impact. Twenty seven features were rated as high positive impact across 3 or 4 domains including patient safety and quality of care. Ten features were considered "aspirational" because of a lack of agreed standards and/or suitable knowledge bases. This study defines features of e-prescribing software systems that are expected to support safety and quality, especially in relation to prescribing and use of medicines in general practice. The features could be used to develop software standards, and could be adapted if necessary for use in other settings and countries.

  4. Social anxiety and post-event processing among African-American individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Dean, Kimberlye E

    2017-03-01

    Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African-American (AA; n = 127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n = 127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Data were collected online among undergraduates. PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr = .30, p = .001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β = -1.57, 95% CI: -5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.02. PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety.

  5. Social Anxiety and Post-Event Processing: The Impact of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. Design We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African American (AA; n=127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n=127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Method Data were collected online among undergraduates. Results PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr=.30, p=.001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β=−1.57, 95% C.I.: −5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β=0.00, 95% C.I.: −0.02, 0.02. Conclusions PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety. PMID:27576610

  6. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Gabriel; The ATLAS collaboration; Kazarov, Andrei; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Santos, Alejandro; Soloviev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from different sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment’s operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system’s behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP directives is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the directives work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the persistent storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second is a...

  7. Event-related delta, theta, alpha and gamma correlates to auditory oddball processing during Vipassana meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Arnaud; Polich, John

    2013-01-01

    Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control (instructed mind wandering) states for 25 min, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and condition order counterbalanced. For the last 4 min, a three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented during both meditation and control periods through headphones and no task imposed. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that meditation relative to the control condition evinced decreased evoked delta (2–4 Hz) power to distracter stimuli concomitantly with a greater event-related reduction of late (500–900 ms) alpha-1 (8–10 Hz) activity, which indexed altered dynamics of attentional engagement to distracters. Additionally, standard stimuli were associated with increased early event-related alpha phase synchrony (inter-trial coherence) and evoked theta (4–8 Hz) phase synchrony, suggesting enhanced processing of the habituated standard background stimuli. Finally, during meditation, there was a greater differential early-evoked gamma power to the different stimulus classes. Correlation analysis indicated that this effect stemmed from a meditation state-related increase in early distracter-evoked gamma power and phase synchrony specific to longer-term expert practitioners. The findings suggest that Vipassana meditation evokes a brain state of enhanced perceptual clarity and decreased automated reactivity. PMID:22648958

  8. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Avolio, Giuseppe; Kazarov, Andrei; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Soloviev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from many sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment’s operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system’s behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP rules is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the directives work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the data reader from existing storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second...

  9. The Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Post Event Processing Among Those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  10. Innate immunity phenotypic features point toward simultaneous raise of activation and modulation events following 17DD live attenuated yellow fever first-time vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marina Angela; Silva, Maria Luiza; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Ribeiro, José Geraldo Leite; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Marciano, Ana Paula Vieira; Homma, Akira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2008-02-26

    Detailed multiparametric phenotypic investigation aiming to characterize the kinetics of the innate immune response in the peripheral blood following 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) first-time vaccination was performed. Results showed increased frequency of monocytes and NK cell subpopulations besides unexpected up-regulation of granulocytes activation status (CD28+/CD23+ and CD28+/HLA-DR+, respectively). Up-regulation of Fcgamma-R and IL-10-R expression emerge as putative events underlying the mixed pattern of phenotypic features triggered by the 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) vaccination. Mixed pattern of chemokine receptors expression further support our hypothesis that a parallel establishment of activation/modulation microenvironment plays a pivotal role in the protective immunity triggered by the 17DD-YF vaccine.

  11. U.S. Marine Corps Communication-Electronics School Training Process: Discrete-Event Simulation and Lean Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neu, Charles R; Davenport, Jon; Smith, William R

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses discrete-event simulation modeling, inventory-reduction, and process improvement concepts to identify and analyze possibilities for improving the training continuum at the Marine Corps...

  12. The time course of implicit processing of erotic pictures: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Wang, Lili; Wang, Naiyi; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2012-12-13

    The current study investigated the time course of the implicit processing of erotic stimuli using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs elicited by erotic pictures were compared with those by three other types of pictures: non-erotic positive, negative, and neutral pictures. We observed that erotic pictures evoked enhanced neural responses compared with other pictures at both early (P2/N2) and late (P3/positive slow wave) temporal stages. These results suggested that erotic pictures selectively captured individuals' attention at early stages and evoked deeper processing at late stages. More importantly, the amplitudes of P2, N2, and P3 only discriminated between erotic and non-erotic (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative) pictures. That is, no difference was revealed among non-erotic pictures, although these pictures differed in both valence and arousal. Thus, our results suggest that the erotic picture processing is beyond the valence and arousal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional processing and psychopathic traits in male college students: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amy L; Kirilko, Elvira; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    Emotional processing deficits are often considered a hallmark of psychopathy. However, there are relatively few studies that have investigated how the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by both positive and negative emotional stimuli is modulated by psychopathic traits, especially in undergraduates. Attentional deficits have also been posited to be associated with emotional blunting in psychopathy, consequently, results from previous studies may have been influenced by task demands. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the neural correlates of emotional processing and psychopathic traits by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) during a task with a relatively low cognitive load. A group of male undergraduates were classified as having either high or low levels of psychopathic traits according to their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R). A subgroup of these participants then passively viewed complex emotional and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their EEGs were recorded. As hypothesized, in general the late LPP elicited by emotional pictures was found to be significantly reduced for participants with high Total PPI-R scores relative to those with low scores, especially for pictures that were rated as less emotionally arousing. Our data suggest that male undergraduates with high, but subclinical levels of psychopathic traits did not maintain continued higher-order processing of affective information, especially when it was perceived to be less arousing in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Specific neural basis of Chinese idioms processing: an event-related functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqi; Zhang Yanzhen; Xiao Zhuangwei; Zhang Xuexin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To address the neural basis of Chinese idioms processing with different kinds of stimuli using an event-related fMRI design. Methods: Sixteen native Chinese speakers were asked to perform a semantic decision task during fMRI scanning. Three kinds of stimuli were used: Real idioms (Real-idiom condition); Literally plausible phrases (Pseudo-idiom condition, the last character of a real idiom was replaced by a character with similar meaning); Literally implausible strings (Non-idiom condition, the last character of a real idiom was replaced by a character with unrelated meaning). Reaction time and correct rate were recorded at the same time. Results: The error rate was 2.6%, 5.2% and 0.9% (F=3.51, P 0.05) for real idioms, pseudo-idioms and wrong idioms, respectively. Similar neural network was activated in all of the three conditions. However, the right hippocampus was only activated in the real idiom condition, and significant activations were found in anterior portion of left inferior frontal gyms (BA47) in real-and pseudo-idiom conditions, but not in non-idiom condition. Conclusion: The right hippocampus plays a specific role in the particular wording of the Chinese idioms. And the left anterior inferior frontal gyms (BA47) may be engaged in the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. The results support the notion that there were specific neural bases for Chinese idioms processing. (authors)

  15. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A Dorothea; Otten, Leun J

    2013-09-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual and auditory words for later recall. Each word was preceded by a cue that indicated the modality of the upcoming word. The degree to which processing resources were available before word onset was manipulated by asking participants to make an easy or difficult perceptual discrimination on the cue. Brain activity before word onset predicted later recall of the word, but only in the easy discrimination condition. These findings indicate that anticipatory influences on long-term memory are limited in capacity and sensitive to the degree to which attention is divided between tasks. Prestimulus activity that affects later encoding can only be engaged when the necessary cognitive resources can be allocated to the encoding process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning during Spoken Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Barry J.; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in ("distinctiveness/sharedness") and likelihood of co-occurrence ("correlational…

  17. Face Recognition in 4- to 7-Year-Olds: Processing of Configural, Featural, and Paraphernalia Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Alejo; Lee, Kang

    2001-01-01

    Tested in two studies 4- to 7-year-olds' face recognition by manipulating the faces' configural and featural information. Found that even with only a single 5-second exposure, most children could use configural and featural cues to make identity judgments. Repeated exposure and feedback improved others' performance. Even proficient memories were…

  18. The Mega Events in the processes of foundation and transformation of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Every city arises from an event, an individual decision supported by a collective engagement, disciplined by rules defining technical and legal norms for implementing and managing, breeding customs, traditions, rituals and shared behaviours, as roots of culture and civilization. The origin of the foundation city, both in the ancient time and in the medieval and modern ages, represents the first major event for the city which resumes, in its physical and management setting-up, the matrix characteristics of urban planning complexity, putting into a dialectic comparison not only “where” (place and space, “when” (age and time and “how” (form and behaviour, but also “why” and “for whom”, turning out as the dominant subjects of the residential making-process since the beginning of civilisations. “Why” resumes the ambit of needs, material and spiritual instances, concrete and abstract instances, strictly connected with the ambit of will, wishes and ambitions, leading decisions and policies at the basis of plans, programmes and projects dominated by “must-can” binomial dialectics. “For whom” determines the transition from the material to the immaterial, from the concreteness of actions to relative aims, from the object to the subject, from the operator to the addressee of the operation, recalling the “ethical reason” which finds its deepest roots in the ideology of “idea” sublimation, fulfilled by new linguistic assumptions, symbolic messages aiming at exalting the membership extension from the family, brotherhood and tribe to the native land, to the territory and the city. In this perspective, the pyramid verticalisation of social relationships, disciplining the urban order, finds a convenient and comfortable acceptance for a faithful commonality (which guarantees trust relations and a progressive process of “civic sense”, which makes the general particular and the particular general, connecting rationality

  19. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    In this report the rate, duration, and magnitude of changes from geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and the Gulf Coast over the next million years are projected. The projections were made by reviewing the pertinent literature; evaluating the geomorphic history of each region, especially that during the Quaternary Period; identifying the geomorphic processes and events likely to be significant in the two regions of interest; and estimating the average and worst-case conditions expected over the next million years

  20. The symbiotic star CI Cygni: S-process episode or accretion event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Webbink, R.F.; Gallagher, J.S.; Truran, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence that the symbiotic star C I Cygni is an eclipsing binary is reviewed. It is shown that the 's-process episode' described by Audouze et al. (1981) during its 1975 outburst arises from superposition of normal gM4 absorption features on the continuum of the hot component during eclipse ingress, and not to sudden enhancements of rare earth elements. The peculiar velocity displacements of absorption lines with different excitation potentials during this episode are identified as signatures of an optically thick accretion disk, which dominates the visible spectrum during outburst. The data presented by Audouze et al., and the shape of the light curve thus provide evidence that the outburst is accretion-powered. (orig.)

  1. Symbiotic star CI Cygni: S-process episode or accretion event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, S J; Webbink, R F; Gallagher, J S; Truran, J W

    1982-02-01

    Evidence that the symbiotic star C I Cygni is an eclipsing binary is reviewed. It is shown that the s-process episode described by Audouze et al. (1981) during its 1975 outburst arises from superposition of normal gM4 absorption features on the continuum of the hot component during eclipse ingress, and not to sudden enhancements of rare earth elements. The peculiar velocity displacements of absorption lines with different excitation potentials during this episode are identified as signatures of an optically thick accretion disk, which dominates the visible spectrum during outburst. The data presented by Audouze et al., and the shape of the light curve thus provide evidence that the outburst is accretion-powered.

  2. Eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bengis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa. Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication. Laboratory toxicity tests and assays also confirmed the presence of significant levels of microcystins in water from the two dams. These outbreaks occurred during the dry autumn and early winter seasons when water levels in these dams were dropping, and a common feature was that all the affected dams were supporting a large number of hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibius. It is hypothesised that hippopotamus’ urine and faeces, together with agitation of the sediments, significantly contributed to internal loading of phosphates and nitrogen – leading to eutrophication of the water in these impoundments and subsequent cyanobacterial blooms. A major cause for concern was that a number of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum were amongst the victims of these bio-intoxication events. This publication discusses the eco-epidemiology and pathology of these clustered mortalities, as well as the management options considered and eventually used to address the problem.

  3. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  4. Cyclotron resonant scattering feature simulations. II. Description of the CRSF simulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, F.-W.; Ballhausen, R.; Falkner, S.; Schönherr, G.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wolff, M. T.; Becker, P. A.; Fürst, F.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Hemphill, P. B.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Dauser, T.; Klochkov, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Wilms, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are formed by scattering of X-ray photons off quantized plasma electrons in the strong magnetic field (of the order 1012 G) close to the surface of an accreting X-ray pulsar. Due to the complex scattering cross-sections, the line profiles of CRSFs cannot be described by an analytic expression. Numerical methods, such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the scattering processes, are required in order to predict precise line shapes for a given physical setup, which can be compared to observations to gain information about the underlying physics in these systems. Aims: A versatile simulation code is needed for the generation of synthetic cyclotron lines. Sophisticated geometries should be investigatable by making their simulation possible for the first time. Methods: The simulation utilizes the mean free path tables described in the first paper of this series for the fast interpolation of propagation lengths. The code is parallelized to make the very time-consuming simulations possible on convenient time scales. Furthermore, it can generate responses to monoenergetic photon injections, producing Green's functions, which can be used later to generate spectra for arbitrary continua. Results: We develop a new simulation code to generate synthetic cyclotron lines for complex scenarios, allowing for unprecedented physical interpretation of the observed data. An associated XSPEC model implementation is used to fit synthetic line profiles to NuSTAR data of Cep X-4. The code has been developed with the main goal of overcoming previous geometrical constraints in MC simulations of CRSFs. By applying this code also to more simple, classic geometries used in previous works, we furthermore address issues of code verification and cross-comparison of various models. The XSPEC model and the Green's function tables are available online (see link in footnote, page 1).

  5. Low Level Event and Near Miss Process for Nuclear Power Plants: Best Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA programme on the operational safety of nuclear power plants gives priority to the development and promotion of the proper use of IAEA safety standards through the provision of assistance to Member States in the application of safety standards, the performance of safety review missions and the conduct of training activities based on safety standards. A number of IAEA safety standards and nuclear safety publications discuss the processes that need to be put into place for the feedback and analysis of operating experience (OE) at nuclear power plants. These include: Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-2/2), Application of the Management System for Facilities and Activities (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-3.1) and A System for the Feedback of Experience from Events in Nuclear Installations (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.11). Additionally, several IAEA TECDOCs cover many aspects of the establishment, conduct and continuous improvement of an OE programme at nuclear power plants, including the consideration of low level events (LLEs) and near misses (NMs). Although these IAEA safety standards and nuclear safety publications have been in existence for several years, 70 per cent of the IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions carried out at nuclear power plants between 2006 and 2010 identified weaknesses in the reporting and analysis process for LLEs and NMs. In fact, this has been one of the recurring issues most often identified in the area of OE during these missions. These weaknesses have been further confirmed by most of the IAEA Peer Review of the Operational Safety Performance Experience (PROSPER) missions that have been conducted to date. Finally, the IAEA International Nuclear Safety Group, in their report entitled Improving the International System for Operating Experience Feedback (INSAG-23

  6. Sociality Mental Modes Modulate the Processing of Advice-Giving: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People have different motivations to get along with others in different sociality mental modes (i.e., communal mode and market mode, which might affect social decision-making. The present study examined how these two types of sociality mental modes affect the processing of advice-giving using the event-related potentials (ERPs. After primed with the communal mode and market mode, participants were instructed to decide whether or not give an advice (profitable or damnous to a stranger without any feedback. The behavioral results showed that participants preferred to give the profitable advice to the stranger more slowly compared with the damnous advice, but this difference was only observed in the market mode condition. The ERP results indicated that participants demonstrated more negative N1 amplitude for the damnous advice compared with the profitable advice, and larger P300 was elicited in the market mode relative to both the communal mode and the control group. More importantly, participants in the market mode demonstrated larger P300 for the profitable advice than the damnous advice, whereas this difference was not observed at the communal mode and the control group. These findings are consistent with the dual-process system during decision-making and suggest that market mode may lead to deliberate calculation for costs and benefits when giving the profitable advice to others.

  7. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

  8. Impaired Empathy Processing in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others’ pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs. The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups. Robust picture × group interactions were observed for N2 and P3. The painful pictures elicited larger N2 and P3 amplitudes than the non-painful pictures did only in the HC group but not in the IAD group. The results of this study suggest that both of the early automatic and of the later cognitive processes of pain empathy may be impaired in IADs. This study provides psychophysical evidence of empathy deficits in association with IAD. Further studies combining multidimensional measurements of empathy are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  10. Feedback processing in adolescence: an event-related potential study of age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Migliaccio, Renee; Zottoli, Tina M

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence has frequently been characterized as a period of increased risk taking, which may be largely driven by maturational changes in neural areas that process incentives. To investigate age- and gender-related differences in reward processing, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 80 participants in a gambling game, in which monetary wins and losses were either large or small. We measured two ERP components: the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback P3 (fP3). The FRN was sensitive to the size of a win in both adult (aged 23-35 years) and adolescent (aged 13-17 years) males, but not in females. Small wins appeared to be less rewarding for males than for females, which may in part explain more approach-driven behavior in males in general. Furthermore, adolescent boys showed both delayed FRNs to high losses and less differentiation in FRN amplitude between wins and losses in comparison to girls. The fP3, which is thought to index the salience of the feedback at a more conscious level than the FRN, was also larger in boys than in girls. Taken together, these results imply that higher levels of risk taking that are commonly reported in adolescent males may be driven both by hypersensitivity to high rewards and insensitivity to punishment or losses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. An Address Event Representation-Based Processing System for a Biped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uziel Jaramillo-Avila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several important advances have been made in the fields of both biologically inspired sensorial processing and locomotion systems, such as Address Event Representation-based cameras (or Dynamic Vision Sensors and in human-like robot locomotion, e.g., the walking of a biped robot. However, making these fields merge properly is not an easy task. In this regard, Neuromorphic Engineering is a fast-growing research field, the main goal of which is the biologically inspired design of hybrid hardware systems in order to mimic neural architectures and to process information in the manner of the brain. However, few robotic applications exist to illustrate them. The main goal of this work is to demonstrate, by creating a closed-loop system using only bio-inspired techniques, how such applications can work properly. We present an algorithm using Spiking Neural Networks (SNN for a biped robot equipped with a Dynamic Vision Sensor, which is designed to follow a line drawn on the floor. This is a commonly used method for demonstrating control techniques. Most of them are fairly simple to implement without very sophisticated components; however, it can still serve as a good test in more elaborate circumstances. In addition, the locomotion system proposed is able to coordinately control the six DOFs of a biped robot in switching between basic forms of movement. The latter has been implemented as a FPGA-based neuromorphic system. Numerical tests and hardware validation are presented.

  12. [The strategy and process of out-hospital emergency care of acute cardiovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Wu, Li-e; Li, Qian-ying; Yang, Ye; Wang, Zi-chao; Zhang, Jing-yin; Li, Shu-jun; Yan, Xu-long; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wen-xiang; Huang, Guan-hua

    2009-06-01

    To study the strategy and process of out-hospital emergency care of acute cardiovascular events. One hundred and eighty-three patients in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College were prospectively studied. The patients were divided into two groups according to the different ways of out-hospital care, one group consisted of patients who received first-aid care after calling "120" (94 cases), another was self-aid group consisting of patients sent to hospital by relatives (89 cases). The proportion of persons with higher than high school education and better knowledge for emergency care of patients with heart disease in first-aid group was higher than self-aid group (50.0% vs. 29.2%, 83.0% vs. 60.7%, both Pemergency room, they were all treated according to our standard procedure and then registered. All patients were followed up at the end of first and third month after illness. Cardiovascular events were mainly myocardial infarction (61.7%) among 183 patients. There were statistically significant differences between two groups in self-aid response time, first disposal time and out-hospital rescuing time [(32.3+/-5.6) minutes vs. (89.6+/- 8.4) minutes, (47.3+/-7.3) minutes vs. (149.8+/-13.5) minutes, (61.7+/-8.3) minutes vs. [(149.8+/- 13.5) minutes, all P0.05]. Morbidity rate was lower in first-aid group than self-aid group in 1st and 3rd month, respectively (2.1% vs. 9.0%, 4.2% vs. 12.4%, both Pemergency system and procedure can shorten initial disposal time and out-hospital rescuing time, thus improve patients' prognosis. The education level and health knowledge of patients and their relatives directly affect their mode of arriving hospital and prognosis.

  13. Transport mechanisms of soil-bound mercury in the erosion process during rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Han, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination by mercury (Hg) is a global environmental issue. In watersheds with a significant soil Hg storage, soil erosion during rainfall-runoff events can result in nonpoint source (NPS) Hg pollution and therefore, can extend its environmental risk from soils to aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, transport mechanisms of soil-bound Hg in the erosion process have not been explored directly, and how different fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) impact transport is not fully understood. This study investigated transport mechanisms based on rainfall-runoff simulation experiments. The experiments simulated high-intensity and long-duration rainfall conditions, which can produce significant soil erosion and NPS pollution. The enrichment ratio (ER) of total mercury (THg) was the key variable in exploring the mechanisms. The main study findings include the following: First, the ER-sediment flux relationship for Hg depends on soil composition, and no uniform ER-sediment flux function exists for different soils. Second, depending on soil composition, significantly more Hg could be released from a less polluted soil in the early stage of large rainfall events. Third, the heavy fraction of SOM (i.e., the remnant organic matter coating on mineral particles) has a dominant influence on the enrichment behavior and transport mechanisms of Hg, while clay mineral content exhibits a significant, but indirect, influence. The study results imply that it is critical to quantify the SOM composition in addition to total organic carbon (TOC) for different soils in the watershed to adequately model the NPS pollution of Hg and spatially prioritize management actions in a heterogeneous watershed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Referential Processing in Adolescents: Stability of Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Bondy, Erin; Stanton, Colin H.; Webb, Christian A.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The self-referential encoding task (SRET)—an implicit measure of self-schema—has been used widely to probe cognitive biases associated with depression, including among adolescents. However, research testing the stability of behavioral and electrocortical effects is sparse. Therefore, the current study sought to evaluate the stability of behavioral markers and event-related potentials (ERP) elicited from the SRET over time in healthy, female adolescents (n = 31). At baseline, participants were administered a diagnostic interview and a self-report measure of depression severity. In addition, they completed the SRET while 128-channel event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded to examine early (P1) and late (late positive potential [LPP]) ERPs. Three months later, participants were re-administered the depression self-report measure and the SRET in conjunction with ERPs. Results revealed that healthy adolescents endorsed, recalled, and recognized more positive and fewer negative words at each assessment, and these effects were stable over time (rs = 0.44–0.83). Similarly, they reported a faster reaction time when endorsing self-relevant positive words, as opposed to negative words, at both the initial and follow-up assessment (r = 0.82). Second, ERP responses, specifically potentiated P1 and late LPP positivity to positive versus negative words, were consistent over time (rs = 0.56–0.83), and the internal reliability of ERPs were robust at each time point (rs = 0.52–0.80). As a whole, these medium-to-large effects suggest that the SRET is a reliable behavioral and neural probe of self-referential processing. PMID:27302282

  15. Feature integration and spatial attention: common processes for endogenous and exogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderickx, David; Maetens, Kathleen; Soetens, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Briand (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 24:1243-1256, 1998) and Briand and Klein (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 13:228-241, 1987) demonstrated that spatial cueing effects are larger for detecting conjunction of features than for detecting simple features when spatial attention is oriented exogenously, and not when attention is oriented endogenously. Their results were interpreted as if only exogenous attention affects the posterior spatial attention system that performs the feature binding function attributed to spatial attention by Treisman's feature integration theory (FIT; 1980). In a series of 6 experiments, we attempted to replicate Briand's findings. Manipulations of distractor string size and symmetry of stimulus presentation left and right from fixation were implemented in Posner's cueing paradigm. The data indicate that both exogenous and endogenous cueing address the same attentional mechanism needed for feature binding. The results also limit the generalisability of Briand's proposal concerning the role of exogenous attention in feature integration. Furthermore, the importance to control the effect of unintended attentional capture in a cueing task is demonstrated.

  16. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  17. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-06-20

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.

  18. The development of control processes supporting source memory discrimination as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M

    2007-08-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout childhood is thought to be mediated by the development of executive control. As postretrieval control processes may be better time-locked to the recognition response rather than the retrieval cue, the development of processes underlying source memory was investigated with both stimulus- and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). These were recorded in children, adolescents, and adults during a recognition memory exclusion task. Green- and red-outlined pictures were studied, but were tested in black outline. The test requirement was to endorse old items shown in one study color ("targets") and to reject new items along with old items shown in the alternative study color ("nontargets"). Source memory improved with age. All age groups retrieved target and nontarget memories as reflected by reliable parietal episodic memory (EM) effects, a stimulus-locked ERP correlate of recollection. Response-locked ERPs to targets and nontargets diverged in all groups prior to the response, although this occurred at an increasingly earlier time point with age. We suggest these findings reflect the implementation of attentional control mechanisms to enhance target memories and facilitate response selection with the greatest and least success, respectively, in adults and children. In adults only, response-locked ERPs revealed an early-onsetting parietal negativity for nontargets, but not for targets. This was suggested to reflect adults' ability to consistently inhibit prepotent target responses for nontargets. The findings support the notion that the development of source memory relies on the maturation of control processes that serve to enhance accurate selection of task-relevant memories.

  19. Application of process monitoring to anomaly detection in nuclear material processing systems via system-centric event interpretation of data from multiple sensors of varying reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Simpson, Michael F.; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Carlson, Reed B.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Process monitoring can strengthen nuclear safeguards and material accountancy. • Assessment is conducted at a system-centric level to improve safeguards effectiveness. • Anomaly detection is improved by integrating process and operation relationships. • Decision making is benefited from using sensor and event sequence information. • Formal framework enables optimization of sensor and data processing resources. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply an advanced safeguards approach and associated methods for process monitoring to a hypothetical nuclear material processing system. The assessment regarding the state of the processing facility is conducted at a system-centric level formulated in a hybrid framework. This utilizes architecture for integrating both time- and event-driven data and analysis for decision making. While the time-driven layers of the proposed architecture encompass more traditional process monitoring methods based on time series data and analysis, the event-driven layers encompass operation monitoring methods based on discrete event data and analysis. By integrating process- and operation-related information and methodologies within a unified framework, the task of anomaly detection is greatly improved. This is because decision-making can benefit from not only known time-series relationships among measured signals but also from known event sequence relationships among generated events. This available knowledge at both time series and discrete event layers can then be effectively used to synthesize observation solutions that optimally balance sensor and data processing requirements. The application of the proposed approach is then implemented on an illustrative monitored system based on pyroprocessing and results are discussed.

  20. Dynamic anticipatory processing of hierarchical sequential events: a common role for Broca's area and ventral premotor cortex across domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebach, Christian J; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2006-05-01

    This paper proposes a domain-general model for the functional contribution of ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and adjacent Broca's area to perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential events onto stored structural templates and Broca's Area involved in more complex, hierarchical or hypersequential processing. This proposal is supported by reference to previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating abstract sequence processing and syntactic processing.

  1. BPMN as a Communication Language for the Process- and Event-Oriented Perspectives in Fact-Oriented Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Peter

    In this paper we will show how the OMG specification of BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) can be used to model the process- and event-oriented perspectives of an application subject area. We will illustrate how the fact-oriented conceptual models for the information-, process- and event perspectives can be used in a 'bottom-up' approach for creating a BPMN model in combination with other approaches, e.g. the use of a textual description. We will use the common doctor's office example as a running example in this article.

  2. Visual search in Alzheimer's disease: a deficiency in processing conjunctions of features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tales, A; Butler, S R; Fossey, J; Gilchrist, I D; Jones, R W; Troscianko, T

    2002-01-01

    Human vision often needs to encode multiple characteristics of many elements of the visual field, for example their lightness and orientation. The paradigm of visual search allows a quantitative assessment of the function of the underlying mechanisms. It measures the ability to detect a target element among a set of distractor elements. We asked whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are particularly affected in one type of search, where the target is defined by a conjunction of features (orientation and lightness) and where performance depends on some shifting of attention. Two non-conjunction control conditions were employed. The first was a pre-attentive, single-feature, "pop-out" task, detecting a vertical target among horizontal distractors. The second was a single-feature, partly attentive task in which the target element was slightly larger than the distractors-a "size" task. This was chosen to have a similar level of attentional load as the conjunction task (for the control group), but lacked the conjunction of two features. In an experiment, 15 AD patients were compared to age-matched controls. The results suggested that AD patients have a particular impairment in the conjunction task but not in the single-feature size or pre-attentive tasks. This may imply that AD particularly affects those mechanisms which compare across more than one feature type, and spares the other systems and is not therefore simply an 'attention-related' impairment. Additionally, these findings show a double dissociation with previous data on visual search in Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a different effect of these diseases on the visual pathway.

  3. Cannabis-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Mediational Role of Post-Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2018-01-02

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Post-event processing (PEP, i.e., cognitively reviewing past social interactions/performances) is a social anxiety-related phenomenon that may be one such mechanism. The current study sought to test PEP as a mediator of the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems, adjusting for cannabis use frequency. Cannabis-using (past 3-month) undergraduate students recruited in 2015 (N = 244; 76.2% female; 74.2% Non-Hispanic Caucasian) completed an online survey of cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, social anxiety, and PEP. Bootstrap estimate of the indirect effect of social anxiety through PEP was significant, suggesting PEP is a mediator of the social anxiety-cannabis-related problems relationship. Conclusions/Importance: Treatment and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting PEP among individuals with elevated social anxiety and cannabis-related problems.

  4. Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Shalev, Hadar; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Guez, Jonathan; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E

    2015-08-30

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. Response time in PTSD patients was slower compared with that in controls, irrespective to emotional valence. In both PTSD and controls, response time to negative pictures was slower compared with that to neutral or positive pictures. Upon ranking, both control and PTSD subjects similarly discriminated between pictures with different emotional valences. ERP analysis revealed three distinctive components (at ~300, ~600 and ~1000 ms post-stimulus onset) for emotional valence in control subjects. In contrast, PTSD patients displayed a similar brain response across all emotional categories, resembling the response of controls to negative stimuli. We interpret these findings as a brain-circuit response tendency towards negative overgeneralization in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive processing in non-communicative patients: what can event-related potentials tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulay Rosario Lugo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERP have been proposed to improve the differential diagnosis of non-responsive patients. We investigated the potential of the P300 as a reliable marker of conscious processing in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS. Eleven chronic LIS patients and ten healthy subjects (HS listened to a complex-tone auditory oddball paradigm, first in a passive condition (listen to the sounds and then in an active condition (counting the deviant tones. Seven out of nine HS displayed a P300 waveform in the passive condition and all in the active condition. HS showed statistically significant changes in peak and area amplitude between conditions. Three out of seven LIS patients showed the P3 waveform in the passive condition and 5 of 7 in the active condition. No changes in peak amplitude and only a significant difference at one electrode in area amplitude were observed in this group between conditions. We conclude that, in spite of keeping full consciousness and intact or nearly intact cortical functions, compared to HS, LIS patients present less reliable results when testing with ERP, specifically in the passive condition. We thus strongly recommend applying ERP paradigms in an active condition when evaluating consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  7. Hemispheric Lateralization of Event-Related Brain Potentials in Different Processing Phases during Unimanual Finger Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Li

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI and brain electrophysiology studies have studied the left-right differences during the tapping tasks and found that the activation of left hemisphere was more significant than that of right hemisphere. In this study, we wanted to delineate this lateralization phenomenon not only in the execution phase but also in other processing phases, such as early visual, pre-executive and post-executive phases. We have designed a finger-tapping task to delineate the left-right differences of event related potentials (ERPs to right finger movement in sixteen right handed college students. The mean amplitudes of ERPs were analyzed to examine the left-right dominance of cortical activity in the phase of early visual process (75-120ms, pre-execution (175-260ms, execution (310-420ms and post-execution (420-620ms. In the execution phase, ERPs at the left electrodes were significantly more pronounced than those at the right electrodes (F3 > F4, C3 > C4, P3 > P4, O1 > O2 under the situation without comparing the central electrodes (Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz. No difference was found between left and right electrodes in other three phases except the C3 electrode still showed more dominant than C4 in the pre- and post-execution phase. In conclusion, the phenomenon of brain lateralization occur major in the execution phase. The central area also showed the lateralization in the pre- and post-execution to demonstrate its unique lateralized contributions to unilateral simple finger movements.

  8. Study of multiple hard-scatter processes from different p p interactions in the same ATLAS event

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Given the large integrated luminosity and the large average pileup in the 2017 ATLAS dataset, the probability of having two leptonically decaying Z bosons originating from separate $pp$ interactions in the same LHC bunch crossing becomes non-negligible. Such events are searched for and the number observed compared with the expectation. These types of events (also for the case involving other hard scatter processes, such as W, photon or top quark production, in the same event) may cause additional backgrounds for particular physics analyses, and therefore this background must be accounted for when relevant.

  9. Geometrical shape assessment of additively manufactured features by direct light processing vat polymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péreza, Lucia C. Díaz; Davoudinejad, Ali; Quagliotti, Danilo

    The importance of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in the field of micro manufacturing is increasing. Vat Polymerization Methods are one of the lead AM technologies to produce polymer micro parts. In the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a vat photopolymerization AM machine able to print features...

  10. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  11. Effects of Lexical Features, Textual Properties, and Individual Differences on Word Processing Times during Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical features and textual properties along with individual differences on the part of readers influence word processing times during second language (L2) reading comprehension. Forty-eight Spanish-speaking adolescent and adult learners of English read nine English passages in a self-paced word-by-word reading…

  12. Achieving Accurate Automatic Sleep Staging on Manually Pre-processed EEG Data Through Synchronization Feature Extraction and Graph Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriskos, Panteleimon; Frantzidis, Christos A; Gkivogkli, Polyxeni T; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula

    2018-01-01

    Sleep staging, the process of assigning labels to epochs of sleep, depending on the stage of sleep they belong, is an arduous, time consuming and error prone process as the initial recordings are quite often polluted by noise from different sources. To properly analyze such data and extract clinical knowledge, noise components must be removed or alleviated. In this paper a pre-processing and subsequent sleep staging pipeline for the sleep analysis of electroencephalographic signals is described. Two novel methods of functional connectivity estimation (Synchronization Likelihood/SL and Relative Wavelet Entropy/RWE) are comparatively investigated for automatic sleep staging through manually pre-processed electroencephalographic recordings. A multi-step process that renders signals suitable for further analysis is initially described. Then, two methods that rely on extracting synchronization features from electroencephalographic recordings to achieve computerized sleep staging are proposed, based on bivariate features which provide a functional overview of the brain network, contrary to most proposed methods that rely on extracting univariate time and frequency features. Annotation of sleep epochs is achieved through the presented feature extraction methods by training classifiers, which are in turn able to accurately classify new epochs. Analysis of data from sleep experiments on a randomized, controlled bed-rest study, which was organized by the European Space Agency and was conducted in the "ENVIHAB" facility of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany attains high accuracy rates, over 90% based on ground truth that resulted from manual sleep staging by two experienced sleep experts. Therefore, it can be concluded that the above feature extraction methods are suitable for semi-automatic sleep staging.

  13. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    OpenAIRE

    Szűcs, Denes; Soltész, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of t...

  14. Impacts of natural events and processes on groundwater flow conditions: a case study in the Horonobe Area, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, T.; Yasue, K.I.; Kurikami, H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the long-term stability of the geological environments for over several hundred thousand years, it is important to consider the influence of natural events and processes, such as uplift, subsidence, denudation and climate change, on the geological environments, especially in an active region such as Japan. This study presents a conceptual model related to the future natural events and processes which have potential impacts on the groundwater flow conditions in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, northern Japan on the basis of the neo-tectonics, palaeogeography, palaeo-climate, historical development of landform, and present state of groundwater flow conditions. We conclude that it is important to consider interactions among natural events and processes on the describing of the best-possible approximation of the time-variation of geological environment. (authors)

  15. Reliability of the peer-review process for adverse event rating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Forster

    Full Text Available Adverse events are poor patient outcomes caused by medical care. Their identification requires the peer-review of poor outcomes, which may be unreliable. Combining physician ratings might improve the accuracy of adverse event classification.To evaluate the variation in peer-reviewer ratings of adverse outcomes; determine the impact of this variation on estimates of reviewer accuracy; and determine the number of reviewers who judge an adverse event occurred that is required to ensure that the true probability of an adverse event exceeded 50%, 75% or 95%.Thirty physicians rated 319 case reports giving details of poor patient outcomes following hospital discharge. They rated whether medical management caused the outcome using a six-point ordinal scale. We conducted latent class analyses to estimate the prevalence of adverse events as well as the sensitivity and specificity of each reviewer. We used this model and Bayesian calculations to determine the probability that an adverse event truly occurred to each patient as function of their number of positive ratings.The overall median score on the 6-point ordinal scale was 3 (IQR 2,4 but the individual rater median score ranged from a minimum of 1 (in four reviewers to a maximum median score of 5. The overall percentage of cases rated as an adverse event was 39.7% (3798/9570. The median kappa for all pair-wise combinations of the 30 reviewers was 0.26 (IQR 0.16, 0.42; Min = -0.07, Max = 0.62. Reviewer sensitivity and specificity for adverse event classification ranged from 0.06 to 0.93 and 0.50 to 0.98, respectively. The estimated prevalence of adverse events using a latent class model with a common sensitivity and specificity for all reviewers (0.64 and 0.83 respectively was 47.6%. For patients to have a 95% chance of truly having an adverse event, at least 3 of 3 reviewers are required to deem the outcome an adverse event.Adverse event classification is unreliable. To be certain that a case

  16. Using Complex Event Processing (CEP) and vocal synthesis techniques to improve comprehension of sonified human-centric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeff; Ballora, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The field of sonification, which uses auditory presentation of data to replace or augment visualization techniques, is gaining popularity and acceptance for analysis of "big data" and for assisting analysts who are unable to utilize traditional visual approaches due to either: 1) visual overload caused by existing displays; 2) concurrent need to perform critical visually intensive tasks (e.g. operating a vehicle or performing a medical procedure); or 3) visual impairment due to either temporary environmental factors (e.g. dense smoke) or biological causes. Sonification tools typically map data values to sound attributes such as pitch, volume, and localization to enable them to be interpreted via human listening. In more complex problems, the challenge is in creating multi-dimensional sonifications that are both compelling and listenable, and that have enough discrete features that can be modulated in ways that allow meaningful discrimination by a listener. We propose a solution to this problem that incorporates Complex Event Processing (CEP) with speech synthesis. Some of the more promising sonifications to date use speech synthesis, which is an "instrument" that is amenable to extended listening, and can also provide a great deal of subtle nuance. These vocal nuances, which can represent a nearly limitless number of expressive meanings (via a combination of pitch, inflection, volume, and other acoustic factors), are the basis of our daily communications, and thus have the potential to engage the innate human understanding of these sounds. Additionally, recent advances in CEP have facilitated the extraction of multi-level hierarchies of information, which is necessary to bridge the gap between raw data and this type of vocal synthesis. We therefore propose that CEP-enabled sonifications based on the sound of human utterances could be considered the next logical step in human-centric "big data" compression and transmission.

  17. Passive autocatalytic recombiner process features and new status of international qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, Bernd A.; Losch, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    New results of International PAR-Severe Accidents Qualification in frame of EC/IRSN Core Melt Program PHEBUS (with real molten core) are presented. Example Results: AREVA PAR Design: Best performance very fast start-up • highest efficiency absolutely constant hydrogen depletion rates. Others: Some industrial competitors failed. This enveloping real severe accident tests represents the new international PAR qualification standard and finalized the PAR qualification successfully. The design features supports PAR Dual function

  18. An image-processing method to detect sub-optical features based on understanding noise in intensity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Tripta

    2018-02-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of image data requires that we distinguish between fluorescence intensity (true signal) and the noise inherent to its measurements to the extent possible. We image multilamellar membrane tubes and beads that grow from defects in the fluid lamellar phase of the lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine dissolved in water and water-glycerol mixtures by using fluorescence confocal polarizing microscope. We quantify image noise and determine the noise statistics. Understanding the nature of image noise also helps in optimizing image processing to detect sub-optical features, which would otherwise remain hidden. We use an image-processing technique "optimum smoothening" to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of features of interest without smearing their structural details. A high SNR renders desired positional accuracy with which it is possible to resolve features of interest with width below optical resolution. Using optimum smoothening, the smallest and the largest core diameter detected is of width [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] nm, respectively, discussed in this paper. The image-processing and analysis techniques and the noise modeling discussed in this paper can be used for detailed morphological analysis of features down to sub-optical length scales that are obtained by any kind of fluorescence intensity imaging in the raster mode.

  19. On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergisser, H.M.; Herrnberger, V.

    1981-01-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km 2 -area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10 6 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10 4 to 10 5 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 10 5 to 10 6 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

  20. Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eSan Martín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.

  1. Risk analysis for repositories in north Switzerland. Extent and probability of geologic processes and events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergisser, H M; Herrnberger, V

    1981-07-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km/sup 2/-area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10/sup 6/ years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/ years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with asociated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a response to an uplift could reach similar values after 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed.

  2. Locating seismicity on the Arctic plate boundary using multiple-event techniques and empirical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Harris, D. B.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Kværna, T.; Larsen, T. B.; Paulsen, B.; Voss, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The oceanic boundary separating the Eurasian and North American plates between 70° and 84° north hosts large earthquakes which are well recorded teleseismically, and many more seismic events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited station coverage and deficiencies in the velocity models applied. This is particularly acute for the lower magnitude events which may only be constrained by a small number of Pn and Sn arrivals. Over the past two decades there has been a significant improvement in the seismic network in the Arctic: a difficult region to instrument due to the harsh climate, a sparsity of accessible sites (particularly at significant distances from the sea), and the expense and difficult logistics of deploying and maintaining stations. New deployments and upgrades to stations on Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Hopen, and Bjørnøya have resulted in a sparse but stable regional seismic network which results in events down to magnitudes below 3 generating high-quality Pn and Sn signals on multiple stations. A catalogue of several hundred events in the region since 1998 has been generated using many new phase readings on stations on both sides of the spreading ridge in addition to teleseismic P phases. A Bayesian multiple event relocation has resulted in a significant reduction in the spread of hypocentre estimates for both large and small events. Whereas single event location algorithms minimize vectors of time residuals on an event-by-event basis, the Bayesloc program finds a joint probability distribution of origins, hypocentres, and corrections to traveltime predictions for large numbers of events. The solutions obtained favour those event hypotheses resulting in time residuals which are most consistent over a given source region. The relocations have been performed with different 1-D velocity models applicable to the Arctic region and

  3. EEG-based cognitive load of processing events in 3D virtual worlds is lower than processing events in 2D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Interacting with 2D displays, such as computer screens, smartphones, and TV, is currently a part of our daily routine; however, our visual system is built for processing 3D worlds. We examined the cognitive load associated with a simple and a complex task of learning paper-folding (origami) by observing 2D or stereoscopic 3D displays. While connected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) system, participants watched a 2D video of an instructor demonstrating the paper-folding tasks, followed by a stereoscopic 3D projection of the same instructor (a digital avatar) illustrating identical tasks. We recorded the power of alpha and theta oscillations and calculated the cognitive load index (CLI) as the ratio of the average power of frontal theta (Fz.) and parietal alpha (Pz). The results showed a significantly higher cognitive load index associated with processing the 2D projection as compared to the 3D projection; additionally, changes in the average theta Fz power were larger for the 2D conditions as compared to the 3D conditions, while alpha average Pz power values were similar for 2D and 3D conditions for the less complex task and higher in the 3D state for the more complex task. The cognitive load index was lower for the easier task and higher for the more complex task in 2D and 3D. In addition, participants with lower spatial abilities benefited more from the 3D compared to the 2D display. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive processing associated with 2D and 3D worlds and for employing stereoscopic 3D technology over 2D displays in designing emerging virtual and augmented reality applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving feature selection process resistance to failures caused by curse-of-dimensionality effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Grim, Jiří; Novovičová, Jana; Pudil, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2011), s. 401-425 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * curse of dimensionality * over-fitting * stability * machine learning * dimensionality reduction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/somol-0368741.pdf

  5. How to measure a-few-nanometer-small LER occurring in EUV lithography processed feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hiroki; Kawasaki, Takahiro; Kakuta, Junichi; Ikota, Masami; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2018-03-01

    For EUV lithography features we want to decrease the dose and/or energy of CD-SEM's probe beam because LER decreases with severe resist-material's shrink. Under such conditions, however, measured LER increases from true LER, due to LER bias that is fake LER caused by random noise in SEM image. A gap error occurs between the right and the left LERs. In this work we propose new procedures to obtain true LER by excluding the LER bias from the measured LER. To verify it we propose a LER's reference-metrology using TEM.

  6. A Hybrid FPGA/Coarse Parallel Processing Architecture for Multi-modal Visual Feature Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Alonso, Javier Díaz

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the hybrid architecture developed for speeding up the processing of so-called multi-modal visual primitives which are sparse image descriptors extracted along contours. In the system, the first stages of visual processing are implemented on FPGAs due to their highly parallel...

  7. Plasma and process characterization of high power magnetron physical vapor deposition with integrated plasma equipment--feature profile model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Da; Stout, Phillip J.; Ventzek, Peter L.G.

    2003-01-01

    High power magnetron physical vapor deposition (HPM-PVD) has recently emerged for metal deposition into deep submicron features in state of the art integrated circuit fabrication. However, the plasma characteristics and process mechanism are not well known. An integrated plasma equipment-feature profile modeling infrastructure has therefore been developed for HPM-PVD deposition, and it has been applied to simulating copper seed deposition with an Ar background gas for damascene metalization. The equipment scale model is based on the hybrid plasma equipment model [M. Grapperhaus et al., J. Appl. Phys. 83, 35 (1998); J. Lu and M. J. Kushner, ibid., 89, 878 (2001)], which couples a three-dimensional Monte Carlo sputtering module within a two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma kinetics of thermalized, athermal, and ionized metals and the contributions of these species in feature deposition are resolved. A Monte Carlo technique is used to derive the angular distribution of athermal metals. Simulations show that in typical HPM-PVD processing, Ar + is the dominant ionized species driving sputtering. Athermal metal neutrals are the dominant deposition precursors due to the operation at high target power and low pressure. The angular distribution of athermals is off axis and more focused than thermal neutrals. The athermal characteristics favor sufficient and uniform deposition on the sidewall of the feature, which is the critical area in small feature filling. In addition, athermals lead to a thick bottom coverage. An appreciable fraction (∼10%) of the metals incident to the wafer are ionized. The ionized metals also contribute to bottom deposition in the absence of sputtering. We have studied the impact of process and equipment parameters on HPM-PVD. Simulations show that target power impacts both plasma ionization and target sputtering. The Ar + ion density increases nearly linearly with target power, different from the behavior of typical ionized PVD processing. The

  8. Haralick texture features from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MRI images depend on imaging and pre-processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynolfsson, Patrik; Nilsson, David; Torheim, Turid; Asklund, Thomas; Karlsson, Camilla Thellenberg; Trygg, Johan; Nyholm, Tufve; Garpebring, Anders

    2017-06-22

    In recent years, texture analysis of medical images has become increasingly popular in studies investigating diagnosis, classification and treatment response assessment of cancerous disease. Despite numerous applications in oncology and medical imaging in general, there is no consensus regarding texture analysis workflow, or reporting of parameter settings crucial for replication of results. The aim of this study was to assess how sensitive Haralick texture features of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MR images are to changes in five parameters related to image acquisition and pre-processing: noise, resolution, how the ADC map is constructed, the choice of quantization method, and the number of gray levels in the quantized image. We found that noise, resolution, choice of quantization method and the number of gray levels in the quantized images had a significant influence on most texture features, and that the effect size varied between different features. Different methods for constructing the ADC maps did not have an impact on any texture feature. Based on our results, we recommend using images with similar resolutions and noise levels, using one quantization method, and the same number of gray levels in all quantized images, to make meaningful comparisons of texture feature results between different subjects.

  9. Color feature extraction of HER2 Score 2+ overexpression on breast cancer using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhimmah Izzati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in the development of early diagnosis to assess HER2 status is recognized in the form of Gold Standard. The accuracy, validity and refraction of the Gold Standard HER2 methods are widely used in laboratory (Perez, et al., 2014. Method determining the status of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is affected by reproductive problems and not reliable in predicting the benefit from anti-HER2 therapy (Nuciforo, et al., 2016. We extracted color features by methods adopting Statistics-based segmentation using a continuous-scale naïve Bayes approach. In this study, there were three parts of the main groups, namely image acquisition, image segmentation, and image testing. The stages of image acquisition consisted of image data collection and color deconvolution. The stages of image segmentation consisted of color features, classifier training, classifier prediction, and skeletonization. The stages of image testing were image testing, expert validation, and expert validation results. Area segmentation of the membrane is false positive and false negative. False positive and false negative from area are called the area of system failure. The failure of the system can be validated by experts that the results of segmentation region is not membrane HER2 (noise and the segmentation of the cytoplasm region. The average from 40 data of HER2 score 2+ membrane images show that 75.13% of the area is successfully recognized by the system.

  10. Physical features of the wire-array Z-pinch plasmas imploding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunming; Feng Kaiming

    2001-01-01

    In the process of research on controlled fusion reactors, scientists found that the Z-pinch plasma can produce very strong X-rays, comparing with other X-ray sources. In researching the process of imploding, the snowplow model and Haines model are introduced and proved. About amassing X-rays, several ways of discharging X-rays are carefully analyzed and the relative theories are proved. In doing simulations, the one dimension model is used in writing codes, the match relationships are calculated and the process of imploding is also simulated. Some useful and reasonable results are obtained

  11. Features of risks, damage claims processing and damage prevention overseas. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splittgerber, E

    1981-01-01

    In opening up new raw material resources in remote locations and in the erection of industrial installations in overseas countries, manufacturers are often confronted with additional, unusual and hitherto unknown risks which can have considerable influence upon the orderly and timely execution of their projects. In Part I, various risk factors are considered from the experiences of Allianz as technical insurer in foreign damages connected with plant, civil and installation work insurance. The influence of climatic conditions upon damage events is illustrated with examples and the effects of storm, sand storm, flooding and earthquake discussed using a world map of natural dangers. The customs of people from culturally different nations and races, dictated as they often are by religion, must be taken into account by site managers and other staff on the building sites. The necessity for improvisations on building sites far from home and the limits of such improvisations are also discussed.

  12. [Process study on hysteresis of vegetation cover influencing sand-dust events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Kui; Wang, Xiao-Tao; Zhang, Feng

    2009-02-15

    Data analysis from satellite and weather stations during 1982-2000 shows nonlinear relationship between vegetation cover and sand-dust events is present in most part of China. Vegetation cover ratio in summer can impact significantly on the frequency of sand-dust storms from winter to spring in the source regions of sand-dust events. It is not quite clear about the hysteresis that vegetation cover in summer influence sand-dust events during winter and spring. A quasi-geostrophic barotropic model is used under the condition of 3 magnitude of frictional coefficient to investigate the cause of the hysteresis. Wind velocity shows a greatest decline at 90% during 72 h as initial wind velocity is 10 m/s for magnitude of frictional coefficient between atmosphere and water surface, greatest decline at 100% during 18 h for magnitude of frictional coefficient between atmosphere and bare soil and a 100% reduction of wind speed during 1 h for magnitude of frictional coefficient between atmosphere and vegetation cover. Observation and simulation prove that residual root and stem from summervegetation are one of factors to influence sand-dust events happened during winter and spring. Air inhibition from residual root and stem is a most important reason for hysteresis that vegetation cover influence sand-dust events.

  13. Event-related cortical processing in neuropathic pain under long-term spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Capelle, H Holger; Flor, Herta; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms were suggested in the past to explain the beneficial effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Little is known about potential supraspinal mechanisms. In this study cortical signaling of patients with neuropathic pain and successful long-term treatment with SCS was analyzed. Observational study. University hospital, neurosurgical department, outpatient clinic for movement disorders and pain, institute for cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Nine patients with neuropathic pain of a lower extremity with a lasting response to chronic SCS were included. Cortical activity was analyzed using event-related potentials of the electroencephalogram after non-painful and painful stimulation. Each patient was tested under the effect of long-term SCS and 24 hours after cessation of SCS. Cortical areas involved in the peaks of evoked potentials were localized using a source localization method based on a fixed dipole model. Detection threshold and intensity of non-painful stimulation did not differ significantly on both sides. Pain threshold was significantly lower on the neuropathic side under the effect of SCS (P = 0.03). Bilateral pain thresholds were significantly lower (P = 0.03 healthy side, P = 0.003 neuropathic side) in 5 patients with increased pain after cessation of SCS. Under the effect of SCS cortical negativities (N1, N2, N3) and positivities (P1) demonstrated bilaterally comparable amplitudes. After cessation of SCS, decreased threshold for peripheral stimulation resulted in lowered negativities on both sides. The positivity P1 was differentially regulated and was reduced more contralateral to the unaffected side. N2 was localized at the sensory representation of the leg within the homunculus. The main vector of P1 was localized within the cingular cortex (CC) and moved more anteriorly under the effect of SCS. The exact time span that SCS continues to have an effect is not known. However, due to patient

  14. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  15. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  16. Social Information Processing of Positive and Negative Hypothetical Events in Children with ADHD and Conduct Problems and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…

  17. Peculiar features of modeling of thermal processes of the cutting area in the SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepchin Ya.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of thermo-physical process of cutting zone by changing certain parameters of the cutting regime, tool geometry or coolant using allows to achieve a higher level of handling performance. The forecasting of thermal processes during metal cutting is characterized by the multifactor of the model and the nonlinearity of the connection between the temperature field of the cutting zone and the processing parameters. Therefore realistic modeling of these processes with regard to the maximum number of influencing factors which will minimize the time and cost of experimental studies is very important. The research investigates the use of computer-aided design SolidWorks Simulation system to analyze the thermal processes occurring in the cutting zone during finishing turning of hardened circular steel cutting blade of superhard material. While modeling, the distribution of heat generated in cut (in the zone of plastic deformation of the workpiece and on the surfaces of friction of the cutting blade with chips and the treated surface is observed by four flows: to the tool, chips, workpiece and the environment. The limiting conditions for the existence of the developed model-geometric, physical and temporal limits are defined. Simulation is performed in steady and transient modes. Control of adequacy of simulation results is made. The conclusions of the analysis of opportunities of CAD SolidWorks Simulation System for research of thermal processes the cutting zone are drawn.

  18. Collection and analysis of existing information on applicability of investigation methods for characterizing natural events/processes in a coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Doke, Ryosuke; Shigehiro, Michiko; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako

    2011-02-01

    The investigation methods for characterizing natural events and processes in a coastal field have been extracted on the basis of analysis of previous research. Collected information is classified into three groups according to the characteristics of natural events/processes and investigation methods. First group is the methods for evaluation of uplift, subsidence and sedimentation rates. Second group is the methods for evaluation of denudation rates. The third group is the methods for reconstruction of the climatic and sea-level changes. Study area, timeframe of the investigation, work sequences, techniques for age-determination, index and objects for characterizing natural events/processes, etc. in each research example were arranged in an 'information spread sheet'. Information on applicability of the each investigation method was extracted from information spread sheet, and was arranged in tabular form. Based on an analysis of the above information, investigation method that can be applied to a coastal region was extracted. The methods and indices are as follows: Uplift rate: the heights of marine terraces are the most important index in an upheaval region. Subsidence and sedimentation rate: the depths of strata underlying an alluvial plain are main indices in a subsidence region. Denudation rate: the features of marine terrace are main indices and the inspection of denudation processes by the use of a numerical simulation is necessary. Climate change: lacustrine deposits are main object for investigation. Sea-level change: reconstruction of relative sea-level change curve including uplift/subsidence factor and paleogeography based on acoustic exploration and the investigation of marine terraces. (author)

  19. Observation of hard processes in rapidity gap events in {gamma}p interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H.P.; Behrend, H.J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Buengener, L.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A.B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D.G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J.B.; Danilov, M.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J.D.; Dreis, H.B.; Droutskoi, V.; Duboc, J.; Duellmann, D.; Duenger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T.R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R.J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Goodall, A.M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Graessler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E.M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W.J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    Events with no hadronic energy flow in a large interval of pseudo-rapidity in the proton direction are observed in photon-proton interactions at an average centre of mass energy left angle {radical}(s{sub {gamma}p}) right angle of 200 GeV. These events are interpreted as photon diffractive dissociation. Evidence for hard scattering in photon diffractive dissociation is demonstrated using inclusive single particle spectra, thrust as a function of transverse energy, and the observation of jet production. The data can be described by a Monte Carlo calculation including hard photon-pomeron scattering. ((orig.))

  20. Structure and Randomness of Continuous-Time, Discrete-Event Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Loosely speaking, the Shannon entropy rate is used to gauge a stochastic process' intrinsic randomness; the statistical complexity gives the cost of predicting the process. We calculate, for the first time, the entropy rate and statistical complexity of stochastic processes generated by finite unifilar hidden semi-Markov models—memoryful, state-dependent versions of renewal processes. Calculating these quantities requires introducing novel mathematical objects (ɛ -machines of hidden semi-Markov processes) and new information-theoretic methods to stochastic processes.

  1. MATHEMATICAL МODELLING OF SELECTING INFORMATIVE FEATURES FOR ANALYZING THE LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES OF RADIO-ELECTRONIC MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Григорьевич Стародубцев

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study are methods and models for extracting information about the processes of the life cycle of radio electronic means at the design, production and operation stages. The goal is to develop the fundamentals of the theory of holistic monitoring of the life cycle of radio electronic means at the stages of their design, production and operation, in particular the development of information models for monitoring life cycle indicators in the production of radio electronic means. The attainment of this goal is achieved by solving such problems: research and development of a methodology for solving the problems of selecting informative features characterizing the state of the life cycle of radio electronic means; choice of informative features characterizing the state of the life cycle processes of radio electronic means; identification of the state of the life cycle processes of radio electronic means. To solve these problems, general scientific methods were used: the main provisions of functional analysis, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, estimation and prediction of random processes, optimization methods, pattern recognition. The following results are obtained. Methods for solving the problems of selecting informative features for monitoring the life cycle of radioelectronic facilities are developed by classifying the states of radioelectronic means and the processes of LC in the space of characteristics, each of which has a certain significance, which allowed finding a complex criterion and formalizing the selection procedures. When the number of a priori data is insufficient for a correct classification, heuristic methods of selection according to the criteria for using basic prototypes and information priorities are proposed. Conclusions. The solution of the problem of mathematical modeling of the efficiency functions of the processes of the life cycle of radioelectronic facilities and the choice of informative features for

  2. The Specific Features of design and process engineering in branch of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosedko, V. V.; Yanishevskaya, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Production output of industrial enterprise is organized in debugged working mechanisms at each stage of product’s life cycle from initial design documentation to product and finishing it with utilization. The topic of article is mathematical model of the system design and process engineering in branch of the industrial enterprise, statistical processing of estimated implementation results of developed mathematical model in branch, and demonstration of advantages at application at this enterprise. During the creation of model a data flow about driving of information, orders, details and modules in branch of enterprise groups of divisions were classified. Proceeding from the analysis of divisions activity, a data flow, details and documents the state graph of design and process engineering was constructed, transitions were described and coefficients are appropriated. To each condition of system of the constructed state graph the corresponding limiting state probabilities were defined, and also Kolmogorov’s equations are worked out. When integration of sets of equations of Kolmogorov the state probability of system activity the specified divisions and production as function of time in each instant is defined. On the basis of developed mathematical model of uniform system of designing and process engineering and manufacture, and a state graph by authors statistical processing the application of mathematical model results was carried out, and also advantage at application at this enterprise is shown. Researches on studying of loading services probability of branch and third-party contractors (the orders received from branch within a month) were conducted. The developed mathematical model of system design and process engineering and manufacture can be applied to definition of activity state probability of divisions and manufacture as function of time in each instant that will allow to keep account of loading of performance of work in branches of the enterprise.

  3. PROCESS FEATURES OF FLUCTUATIONS PROPAGATION AT STRESS-STRAIN WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the determination the basic laws of fluctuations propagation process from exitation of rolling stock in the design system of permanent way and substructures of the railway lines for studing the deformation processes as the basis for a regulatory framework of the track operation in the conditions of ensuring the reliability of railways. Methodology. To achieve the aim the principles of elasticity theories and wave propagation process in describing the interaction track and rolling stock were applied. Findings. The kinds of fluctuations and system which should be used when considering the fluctuations in the deformation process of rail track were established. The general view of the displacement function was determined. Originality. The theoretical concepts and principles to consider fluctuations of a structures system of permanent way and substructures of the railway track, energised by rolling stock were grounded. This will allow studing the process of deformation work of the mentioned system, which changes its state. That in turn will allow us to determine the parameters of the trains functional reliability, as part of the security passes of rolling stock on the track section with regard to its technical condition. Practical value. Usually for safe crossing of rolling stock parameters of fluctuation process in the system «vehicle-track» are determined. Existing models or carefully consider fluctuations of rolling stock in generalized characteristics of the structures of permanent way and substructures of the railway tracks or view of quasi-dynamic fluctuations rails with general characteristics of under rail base. This review process of oscillations, energised by rolling stock and delivered to all the elements of the permanent way and substructures of the railway track do not allow determining both the reliability parameters of elements in the system of track construction and parameters of functional

  4. Asymmetry in infants’ selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Smith

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker’s right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker’s apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a perceptual processing bias rather than a stimulus artifact, which may be related to cerebral lateralization of emotion processing.

  5. Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

  6. Semantic ambiguity processing in sentence context: Evidence from event-related fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Renken, Remco; Hoeks, John C. J.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical semantic ambiguity is the phenomenon when a word has multiple meanings (e.g. 'bank'). The aim of this event-related functional MRI study was to identify those brain areas, which are involved in contextually driven ambiguity resolution. Ambiguous words were selected which have a most

  7. Pattern-based feature extraction for fault detection in quality relevant process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peruzzo, S.; Holenderski, M.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Statistical quality control (SQC) applies multivariate statistics to monitor production processes over time and detect changes in their performance in terms of meeting specification limits on key product quality metrics. These limits are imposed by customers and typically assumed to be a single

  8. Featural versus configural face processing in a rare genetic disorder: Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, L.; Lincoln, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WMS) is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 20 000 live births. Among other characteristics, WMS has a distinctive cognitive profile with spared face processing and language skills that contrasts with impairment in the cognitive domains of

  9. The structural features of hemicelluloses dissolved out at different cooking stages of active oxygen cooking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin; Lin, Lu

    2014-04-15

    This work described the morphologic changes of corn stalk and the structural characterization of its hemicelluloses dissolved in yellow liquor at different cooking stages. The results showed that active oxygen cooking process was an efficient method to depolymerize the corn stalk into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as a pretreatment of biomass conversion. This cooking process can also be divided into three phases: bulk delignification, extended delignification, and residual delignification. During the heating-up period 57.67% of hemicelluloses and 62.31% of lignin were removed from the raw material. However, only 15% of hemicelluloses and 23.21% of lignin were removed during at temperature' period. The hemicelluloses from the corn stalk and yellow liquor were composed of (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose backbones substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl, 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid, and some methoxyl residues. The backbones of hemicelluloses were gradually cleaved during the cooking process. The acetyl groups substituted with xylopyranosyl residues were completely cleaved during the cooking process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring the transformation of historic features in Antarctica and Svalbard : local processes and regional contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Historical sites in Antarctica and Svalbard contain the material remains of past activities of exploration and exploitation of these regions. These sites have been subject to transformation by cultural and non-cultural (natural) processes since their abandonment to the present. For research and

  11. Features of measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of electrical machines

    OpenAIRE

    Gyzhko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of the electrical machines using the diagnostic information-measuring system that uses Bluetooth wireless standard for the transmission of the measured data from moving parts of electrical machine is discussed.

  12. Structural features of the KPI domain control APP dimerization, trafficking, and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khalifa, Naouel; Tyteca, Donatienne; Marinangeli, Claudia; Depuydt, Mathieu; Collet, Jean-François; Courtoy, Pierre J; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Constantinescu, Stefan; Octave, Jean-Noël; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    The two major isoforms of human APP, APP695 and APP751, differ by the presence of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) domain in the extracellular region. APP processing and function is thought to be regulated by homodimerization. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to study dimerization of different APP isoforms and mutants. APP751 was found to form significantly more homodimers than APP695. Mutation of dimerization motifs in the TM domain did not affect fluorescence complementation, but native folding of KPI is critical for APP751 homodimerization. APP751 and APP695 dimers were mostly localized at steady state in the Golgi region, suggesting that most of the APP751 and 695 dimers are in the secretory pathway. Mutation of the KPI led to the retention of the APP homodimers in the endoplasmic reticulum. We finally showed that APP751 is more efficiently processed through the nonamyloidogenic pathway than APP695. These findings provide new insight on the particular role of KPI domain in APP dimerization. The correlation observed between dimerization, subcellular localization, and processing suggests that dimerization acts as an efficient regulator of APP trafficking in the secretory compartments that has major consequences on its processing.

  13. The Distribution of the Interval between Events of a Cox Process with Shot Noise Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Dassios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying piecewise deterministic Markov processes theory, the probability generating function of a Cox process, incorporating with shot noise process as the claim intensity, is obtained. We also derive the Laplace transform of the distribution of the shot noise process at claim jump times, using stationary assumption of the shot noise process at any times. Based on this Laplace transform and from the probability generating function of a Cox process with shot noise intensity, we obtain the distribution of the interval of a Cox process with shot noise intensity for insurance claims and its moments, that is, mean and variance.

  14. The Role of Public Interaction with the Juno Mission: Documentation, Discussion, Selection and Processing of JunoCam Images of Jovian Cloud Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott

    2017-04-01

    additional comments on features from their various points of view, but Juno's science team has no greater weighting in the voting process than the public at large, short of an extraordinary event, such as an impact event or a sudden atmospheric outburst. Public voting was tested for the first time on three regions for PJ3 and has continued for PJ4 and PJ5 with voting on nearly all non-polar images. One of the big challenges in this process was the accurate prediction of which features would be in the field of view at the time of the perijove some 10 days following the end of voting, due to Jupiter's differential rotation. The results of public processing and re-posting of JunoCam images have ranged all the way from artistic renditions up to professional-equivalent analysis that is equivalent to anything JunoCam team members could have produced. All aspects of this effort are available on the Mission Juno web site, linked to the JunoCam instrument (https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam/).

  15. Features of development process displacement of earth’s surface when dredging coal in Eastern Donbas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posylniy, Yu V.; Versilov, S. O.; Shurygin, D. N.; Kalinchenko, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of studies of the process of the earth’s surface displacement due to the influence of the adjacent longwalls are presented. It is established that the actual distributions of soil subsidence in the fall and revolt of the reservoir with the same boundary settlement processes differ both from each other and by the distribution of subsidence, recommended by the rules of structures protection. The application of the new boundary criteria - the relative subsidence of 0.03 - allows one to go from two distributions to one distribution, which is also different from the sedimentation distribution of protection rules. The use of a new geometrical element - a virtual point of the mould - allows one to transform the actual distribution of subsidence in the model distribution of rules of constructions protection. When transforming the curves of subsidence, the boundary points vary and, consequently, the boundary corners do.

  16. An image processing approach to analyze morphological features of microscopic images of muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Xu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Yaming; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Yang, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    We present an image processing approach to automatically analyze duo-channel microscopic images of muscular fiber nuclei and cytoplasm. Nuclei and cytoplasm play a critical role in determining the health and functioning of muscular fibers as changes of nuclei and cytoplasm manifest in many diseases such as muscular dystrophy and hypertrophy. Quantitative evaluation of muscle fiber nuclei and cytoplasm thus is of great importance to researchers in musculoskeletal studies. The proposed computational approach consists of steps of image processing to segment and delineate cytoplasm and identify nuclei in two-channel images. Morphological operations like skeletonization is applied to extract the length of cytoplasm for quantification. We tested the approach on real images and found that it can achieve high accuracy, objectivity, and robustness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Features of digital photogrammetry methods application and image processing in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper discusses the methods of survey enterprises employees effective training to use modern measurement systems and the need for further photogrammetric processing of the results obtained. Attention is also paid to integrated learning, based primarily on web content, the introduction of a social component in the development and familiarization with new photogrammetric equipment and technologies in order to increase the competitiveness of engineering and research small and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. Cosensitization process effect of D-A-π-A featured dyes on photovoltaic performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosensitization based on two or multiple dyes as “dye cocktails” can hit the target on compensating and broadening light-harvesting region. Two indoline D-A-π-A motif sensitizers (WS-2 and WS-39 that possess similar light response area but distinctly reversed feature in photovoltaic performance are selected as the specific cosensitization couple. That is, WS-2 shows quite high photocurrent but low photovoltage, and WS-39 gives relatively low photocurrent but quite high photovoltage. Due to the obvious “barrel effect”, both dyes show medium PCE around 8.50%. In contrast with the previous cosensitization strategy mostly focused on the compensation of light response region, herein we perform different cosensitization sequence, for taking insight into the balance of photocurrent and photovoltage, and achieving the synergistic improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE. Electronic impedance spectra (EIS indicate that exploiting dye WS-39 with high VOC value as the primary sensitizer can repress the charge recombination more effectively, resulting in superior VOC rather than using dye WS-2 with high JSC as the primary sensitizer. As a consequence, a high PCE value of 9.48% is obtained with the delicate cosensitization using WS-39 as primary dye and WS-2 as accessory dye, which is higher than the corresponding devices sensitized by each individual dye (around 8.48–8.67%. It provides an effective optimizing strategy of cosensitization how to combine the individual dye advantages for developing highly efficient solar cells. Keywords: Indoline dye, Cosensitization, Adsorption sequence, Charge recombination, Photovoltaic performances

  19. Processing ser and estar to locate objects and events: An ERP study with L2 speakers of Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E; Contemori, Carla; Román, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Spanish locative constructions, a different form of the copula is selected in relation to the semantic properties of the grammatical subject: sentences that locate objects require estar while those that locate events require ser (both translated in English as 'to be'). In an ERP study, we examined whether second language (L2) speakers of Spanish are sensitive to the selectional restrictions that the different types of subjects impose on the choice of the two copulas. Twenty-four native speakers of Spanish and two groups of L2 Spanish speakers (24 beginners and 18 advanced speakers) were recruited to investigate the processing of 'object/event + estar/ser ' permutations. Participants provided grammaticality judgments on correct (object + estar ; event + ser ) and incorrect (object + ser ; event + estar ) sentences while their brain activity was recorded. In line with previous studies (Leone-Fernández, Molinaro, Carreiras, & Barber, 2012; Sera, Gathje, & Pintado, 1999), the results of the grammaticality judgment for the native speakers showed that participants correctly accepted object + estar and event + ser constructions. In addition, while 'object + ser ' constructions were considered grossly ungrammatical, 'event + estar ' combinations were perceived as unacceptable to a lesser degree. For these same participants, ERP recording time-locked to the onset of the critical word ' en ' showed a larger P600 for the ser predicates when the subject was an object than when it was an event (*La silla es en la cocina vs. La fiesta es en la cocina). This P600 effect is consistent with syntactic repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. For estar predicates (La silla está en la cocina vs. *La fiesta está en la cocina), the findings showed a central-frontal negativity between 500-700 ms. Grammaticality judgment data for the L2 speakers of Spanish showed that beginners were significantly less accurate than

  20. Features of transformation of the civil identity in the Russian political process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponedelkov Aleksander Vasilievich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the dynamics of the political process in Russia shows that institutional changes are taking place in the political system. Integration into the world community is accompanied with a request from the Russian society to a civil dialogue with the government, social stability based on democratic principles, the institutionalization of the turnover of the elites. Problems of search of civil identity are caused by the actualization in the public mind the necessity to mobilize the nation on the principles of patriotism, moral revival.

  1. Turning event logs into process movies : animating what has really happened

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoni, de M.; Suriadi, S.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Today's information systems log vast amount of data which contains information about the actual execution of business processes. The analysis of this data can provide a solid starting point for business process improvement. This is the realm of process mining, an area which has provided a repertoire

  2. AGING, CAFFEINE, AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING - AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; MULDER, G; KOK, A

    Structural and energetic processes in information processing were studied in young and elderly subjects. A visually focussed selective search task was used, in which subjects had to select relevant information, followed by controlled memory search processes to locate a target item. Caffeine was used

  3. A design pattern for event-based processing of security-enriched SOAP messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko; Lo Iacono, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    For Web Services in Cloud Computing contexts, the efficient processing of XML documents is a major topic of interest. Especially for WS-Security-enriched messages, processing performance nowadays tends to become a major issue. Streaming XML processing approaches lead to valuable optimization due ...

  4. Desire lines in big data : using event data for process discovery and conformance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Becker, J.; Matzner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  5. Effect of supply voltage and body-biasing on single-event transient pulse quenching in bulk fin field-effect-transistor process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun-Ting; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Huang Peng-Cheng; Song Rui-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Charge sharing is becoming an important topic as the feature size scales down in fin field-effect-transistor (FinFET) technology. However, the studies of charge sharing induced single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching with bulk FinFET are reported seldomly. Using three-dimensional technology computer aided design (3DTCAD) mixed-mode simulations, the effects of supply voltage and body-biasing on SET pulse quenching are investigated for the first time in bulk FinFET process. Research results indicate that due to an enhanced charge sharing effect, the propagating SET pulse width decreases with reducing supply voltage. Moreover, compared with reverse body-biasing (RBB), the circuit with forward body-biasing (FBB) is vulnerable to charge sharing and can effectively mitigate the propagating SET pulse width up to 53% at least. This can provide guidance for radiation-hardened bulk FinFET technology especially in low power and high performance applications. (paper)

  6. THE FEATURES OF LASER EMISSION ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AT MATHEMATIC MODELING OF WORKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Avsiyevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space laser emission energy distribution of different continuous operation settings depends from many factors, first on the settings design. For more accurate describing of multimode laser emission energy distribution intensity the experimental and theoretic model, which based on experimental laser emission distribution shift presentation with given accuracy rating in superposition basic function form, is proposed. This model provides the approximation error only 2,2 percent as compared with 24,6 % and 61 % for uniform and Gauss approximation accordingly. The proposed model usage lets more accurate take into consideration the laser emission and working surface interaction peculiarity, increases temperature fields calculation accuracy for mathematic modeling of laser treatment processes. The method of experimental laser emission energy distribution studying for given source and mathematic apparatus for calculation of laser emission energy distribution intensity parameters depended from the distance in radial direction on surface heating zone are shown.

  7. Specific features of emergency processes associated with water leacs into sodium in a reverse steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroelov, V.S.; Nikol'skij, R.V.; Chernobrovkin, Yu.V.; Privalov, Yu.V.; Bocharin, P.P.; Shtynda, Yu.E.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical data characterizing the development of emergency processes arising in the course of water leaks into sodium in a reverse steam generator (sodium in tubes, water in intertube space) are considered. The results of calculations performed for BOR-60 reactor steam generator at initial leaks of 0.01 and 0.55 g/s are presented. It is shown that in the reverse steam generator the development of accident occurs much slower than in steam generators of traditional design. At same stage of accident sodium is displaced from the damaged tube and as a result the destruction of tube material discontinues. The conclusion is drawn that by the development of emergency protection systems for reverse steam generator the requirements for sensitivity and fast response of leak detectors could be reduced

  8. Toward Meaningful Manufacturing Variation Data in Design - Feature Based Description of Variation in Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The need to mitigate the effects of manufacturing variation already in design is nowadays commonly acknowledged and has led to a wide use of predictive modeling techniques, tolerancing approaches, etc. in industry. The trustworthiness of corresponding variation analyses is, however, not ensured...... by the availability of sophisticated methods and tools alone, but does evidently also depend on the accuracy of the input information used. As existing approaches for the description of manufacturing variation focus however, almost exclusively, on monitoring and controlling production processes, there is frequently...... a lack of objective variation data in design. As a result, variation analyses and tolerancing activities rely on numerous assumptions made to fill the gaps of missing or incomplete data. To overcome this hidden subjectivity, a schema for a consistent and standardised description of manufacturing...

  9. Features of Heart Rate Variability and Early Postinfarction Remodeling Process in Patients with Recurrent Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Şerban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV level and the features of early post-infarction left ventricular remodeling (PIR in patients with recurrent myocardial infarction (MI, which developed within six months post the initial Q-wave MI (Q-MI. Material and Methods: The study surveyed 105 male patients between 29 and 69 years of age (mean age 52.08±8.5, who underwent a Q-MI and who, for various reasons, have not undergone coronary angiography. All patients underwent echocardiography and the LVM, EDV, ESV and their indexed values, as well as the ejection fraction were determined, including Holter ECG monitoring. In the interim, analysis included the indicators recommended by the standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use of heart rate variability, such as SDNN, SDANN and RMSSD. The reduction of the total reduction of HRV was taken as SDNN≤100ms, and the marked reduction in HRV - SDNN≤50ms. Results: All the patients were divided into two groups: Group I consisted of patients who, within six months after the initial Q-wave MI, developed fatal or nonfatal reinfarction; Group II included those patients with a favorable course of the disease. The patients in both groups belonged to a somewhat similar age category. By localization of MI, occurrence of AH, as well as the incidence of LV aneurysm, both groups were comparable. However, the Group I patients in acute Q-MI showed significantly more preserved signs of residual myocardial ischemia, which was manifested as early post-infarction angina. The average values of SDNN in patients in Group I were noted to be significantly lower than that in the Group II patients. The same ratio was observed in both groups and also the indicator of SDANN, whereas the mean RMSSD values of the patients of both groups were not significantly different. The percentage of patients with reduced HRV in Group I was 1.8 times higher than that in Group II

  10. An electronic image processing device featuring continuously selectable two-dimensional bipolar filter functions and real-time operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleston, B.D.; Beckman, F.H.; Franco, M.J.; Charleston, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile electronic-analogue image processing system has been developed for use in improving the quality of various types of images with emphasis on those encountered in experimental and diagnostic medicine. The operational principle utilizes spatial filtering which selectively controls the contrast of an image according to the spatial frequency content of relevant and non-relevant features of the image. Noise can be reduced or eliminated by selectively lowering the contrast of information in the high spatial frequency range. Edge sharpness can be enhanced by accentuating the upper midrange spatial frequencies. Both methods of spatial frequency control may be adjusted continuously in the same image to obtain maximum visibility of the features of interest. A precision video camera is used to view medical diagnostic images, either prints, transparencies or CRT displays. The output of the camera provides the analogue input signal for both the electronic processing system and the video display of the unprocessed image. The video signal input to the electronic processing system is processed by a two-dimensional spatial convolution operation. The system employs charged-coupled devices (CCDs), both tapped analogue delay lines (TADs) and serial analogue delay lines (SADs), to store information in the form of analogue potentials which are constantly being updated as new sampled analogue data arrive at the input. This information is convolved with a programmed bipolar radially symmetrical hexagonal function which may be controlled and varied at each radius by the operator in real-time by adjusting a set of front panel controls or by a programmed microprocessor control. Two TV monitors are used, one for processed image display and the other for constant reference to the original image. The working prototype has a full-screen display matrix size of 200 picture elements per horizontal line by 240 lines. The matrix can be expanded vertically and horizontally for the

  11. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of Location Similarity Measures and Conceptual Spaces to Event Coreference and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConky, Katie Theresa

    2013-01-01

    This work covers topics in event coreference and event classification from spoken conversation. Event coreference is the process of identifying descriptions of the same event across sentences, documents, or structured databases. Existing event coreference work focuses on sentence similarity models or feature based similarity models requiring slot…

  13. Tool Monitoring and Electronic Event Logging for Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Heiserich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes some innovative solutions regarding sensor systems for tool monitoring in the sheet metal industry. Autonomous and tamper-proof sensors, which are integrated in the forming tools, can detect and count the strokes carried out by a sheet metal forming press. Furthermore, an electronic event logger for documentary purposes and quality control was developed. Based on this technical solution, new business models such as leasing of sheet metal forming tools can be established for cooperation among enterprises. These models allow usage-based billing for the contractors, taking the effectively produced number of parts into account.

  14. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features: implications for mapping language recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-06-01

    Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required subjects to decide whether a stimulus is natural or man-made; the phonologic decision required a decision on whether a stimulus contains two or three syllables. Compared to phonologic or semantic decision, nonlinguistic perceptual decisions resulted in a stronger right-hemispheric activation. Specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially reflect increased attentional focus on nonlinguistic perceptual aspects of language. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Processing conditions and microstructural features of porous 316L stainless steel components by DMLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Dongdong [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, 210016 Nanjing (China)], E-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn; Shen Yifu [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, 210016 Nanjing (China)

    2008-12-30

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), due to its flexibility in materials and shapes, would be especially interesting to produce complex shaped porous metallic components. In the present work, processing conditions and microstructural characteristics of direct laser sintered porous 316L stainless steel components were studied. It was found that a partial melting mechanism of powders gave a high feasibility in obtaining porous sintered structures possessing porosities of {approx}21-{approx}55%. Linear energy density (LED), which was defined by the ratio of laser power to scan speed, was used to tailor the laser sintering mechanism. A moderate LED of {approx}3400-{approx}6000 J/m and a lower scan speed less than 0.06 m/s proved to be feasible. With the favorable sintering mechanism prevailed, lowering laser power or increasing scan speed, scan line spacing, and powder layer thickness generally led to a higher porosity. Metallurgical mechanisms of pore formation during DMLS were addressed. It showed that the presence of pores was through: (i) the formation of liquid bridges between partially melted particles during laser irradiation; and (ii) the growth of sintering necks during solidification, leaving residual pores between solidified metallic agglomerates.