WorldWideScience

Sample records for features demonstrating defects

  1. Software defect, feature and requirements management system

    OpenAIRE

    Indriūnas, Paulius

    2006-01-01

    Software development is an iterative process which is based on teamwork and information exchange. In order to keep this process running, proper informational flow control techniques in a software development company have to be applied. As number of employees grows, manual control of this process becomes inaffective and automated solutions takes over this task. The most common informational units in the software development process are defects, new features and requirements. This paper address...

  2. Feature selection from hyperspectral imaging for guava fruit defects detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Tan, Sou Ching

    2017-06-01

    Development of technology makes hyperspectral imaging commonly used for defect detection. In this research, a hyperspectral imaging system was setup in lab to target for guava fruits defect detection. Guava fruit was selected as the object as to our knowledge, there is fewer attempts were made for guava defect detection based on hyperspectral imaging. The common fluorescent light source was used to represent the uncontrolled lighting condition in lab and analysis was carried out in a specific wavelength range due to inefficiency of this particular light source. Based on the data, the reflectance intensity of this specific setup could be categorized in two groups. Sequential feature selection with linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) function were used to select features that could potentially be used in defects detection. Besides the ordinary training method, training dataset in discriminant was separated in two to cater for the uncontrolled lighting condition. These two parts were separated based on the brighter and dimmer area. Four evaluation matrixes were evaluated which are LD with common training method, QD with common training method, LD with two part training method and QD with two part training method. These evaluation matrixes were evaluated using F1-score with total 48 defected areas. Experiment shown that F1-score of linear discriminant with the compensated method hitting 0.8 score, which is the highest score among all.

  3. Predicting internal red oak (Quercus rubra) log defect features using surface defect defect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Determining the defects located within a log is crucial to understanding the tree/log resource for efficient processing. However, existing means of doing this non-destructively requires the use of expensive x-ray/CT (computerized tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or microwave technology. These methods do not lend themselves to fast, efficient, and cost-...

  4. Features of accumulation of radiation defects in metal with impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskakov, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The processes of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids are being studied for the last fifty years quite intensively. Many regularities of these processes are fixed, but there are more unsolved problems. The computer simulation is one of the effective tools in finding the mechanisms of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids. The numerical solution of the system of the differential equations by means of computers describing kinetics of accumulation of radiation point defects in metals with impurity, has allowed to receive a number of new outcomes. It was revealed, that a determinative factor influential in concentration of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms), formed during an exposure of metal, is the correlation a speed of Frenkel twins recombination, the capture of defects by impurity atoms and absorption of defects by other drainage, for example by dislocations. If the speed of capture of interstitial atoms by impurity atoms for two - three order is lower than the recombination speed of Frenkel twins and on two - three order exceeds the speed of capture of vacancies by impurity atoms, the concentration of interstitial atoms within the first seconds of an exposure passes through a maximum, then quickly decreases in some times and after that starts slowly to grow. The change of concentration of interstitial atoms in an initial period of an exposure does not influence on the change of a vacancy concentration. Within the whole period of an exposure, during which the concentration of interstitial atoms achieves a maximum and then is reduced, the vacancy concentration is steadily enlarged. However subsequent sluggish rise of concentration of interstitial atoms during an exposure is followed by the decrease of the vacancy concentration. The most remarkable feature of the kinetics of accumulation of interstitial atoms in metals with impurity is the presence of two extremum on curve dependence of interstitial atoms on a

  5. Modeling the relationships among internal defect features and external Appalachian hardwood log defect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a hardwood tree grows and develops, surface defects such as branch stubs and wounds are overgrown. Evidence of these defects remain on the log surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. As the tree grows the defect is encapsulated or grown over by new wood. During this process the appearance of the defect in the tree's bark changes. The...

  6. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Predicting internal white oak (Quercus alba) log defect features using surface defect indicator measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As hardwood trees grow and develop, surface defects such as limb stubs and wounds are overgrown and encapsulated into the tree. Evidence of these defects can remain on the tree's surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. The location and severity of internal defects dictate the quality and value of products that can be obtained from logs...

  8. Features of cardiac disease demonstrated on CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heart and mediastinal structures can be overlooked at CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). This pictorial review will demonstrate the features of cardiac disease that may be evident on a CTPA. CTPA allows assessment of not only the pulmonary arteries for embolism, but also of the bronchi, lung parenchyma, mediastinum and heart. Co-existent underlying or incidental cardiac disease is often present. Potentially life-threatening alternative diagnoses in a patient with chest symptoms can be reliably identified. Pathologies of the myocardium including hypertrophic cardio myopathy, pericardial disease, valvular disease, coronary artery disease, and intracardiac abnormalities are demonstrated pictorially. CTPA is increasingly used for the detection of pulmonary embolism. Most patients investigated have pathology other than PE as a cause of their symptoms. Frequently information about the heart is produced that provides important clues to determine the cause for the presenting symptoms and signs or reveals co-existing pathology. It is important to have a clear understanding of the features of cardiac disease which may be seen on a CTPA

  9. Features of cardiac disease demonstrated on CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKie, S.J. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: scott.mckie@blueyonder.co.uk; Hardwick, D.J. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Borders General Hospital, Melrose, Scotland (United Kingdom); Reid, J.H. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Borders General Hospital, Melrose, Scotland (United Kingdom); Murchison, J.T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The heart and mediastinal structures can be overlooked at CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). This pictorial review will demonstrate the features of cardiac disease that may be evident on a CTPA. CTPA allows assessment of not only the pulmonary arteries for embolism, but also of the bronchi, lung parenchyma, mediastinum and heart. Co-existent underlying or incidental cardiac disease is often present. Potentially life-threatening alternative diagnoses in a patient with chest symptoms can be reliably identified. Pathologies of the myocardium including hypertrophic cardio myopathy, pericardial disease, valvular disease, coronary artery disease, and intracardiac abnormalities are demonstrated pictorially. CTPA is increasingly used for the detection of pulmonary embolism. Most patients investigated have pathology other than PE as a cause of their symptoms. Frequently information about the heart is produced that provides important clues to determine the cause for the presenting symptoms and signs or reveals co-existing pathology. It is important to have a clear understanding of the features of cardiac disease which may be seen on a CTPA.

  10. Demonstration of inherent safety features of HTGRs using the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yukio; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    Safety demonstration tests using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) are conducted for the purpose of demonstrating inherent safety features of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) quantitatively as well as providing the core and plant transient data for validation of HTGR analysis codes for safety evaluation. The safety demonstration test are divided to the first phase and second phase tests. In the first phase tests, simulation tests of anticipated operational occurrences and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) are conducted. The second phase tests will simulate accidents such as a depressurization accident (loss of coolant accident). The first phase test simulating reactivity insertion events and coolant flow reduction events stared in FY 2002. Post-test analyses have been conducted to reproduced the test results by using the core and plant dynamics analysis code, ACCORD and Monte Carlo code, MVP. The analysis results agreed fairly well with the test results of a control rod withdrawal test simulating reactivity insertion, and gas circulators trip test simulating coolant flow reduction, at power levels of 50% and 30% of the rated power, respectively. It is shown that improvement of the ACCORD code by taking into consideration vertical and horizontal temperature distribution gives better analysis results in the control rod withdrawal test. The fist phase safety demonstration tests will continue until FY 2005, and the second phase tests are planned to be started in FY 2006. (author)

  11. Subatomic electronic feature from dynamic motion of Si dimer defects in Bi nanolines on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, C. J.; Longobardi, M.; Köster, S. A.; Renner, Ch.; Bowler, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals unusual sharp features in otherwise defect-free Bi nanolines self-assembled on Si(001). They appear as subatomic thin lines perpendicular to the Bi nanoline at positive biases and as atomic size beads at negative biases. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations show that these features can be attributed to buckled Si dimers substituting for Bi dimers in the nanoline, where the sharp feature is the counterintuitive signature of these dimers flipping during scanning. The perfect correspondence between the STM data and the DFT simulation demonstrated in this paper highlights the detailed understanding we have of the complex Bi-Si(001) Haiku system. This discovery has applications in the patterning of Si dangling bonds for nanoscale electronics.

  12. Comparison of ultrasonic image features with echodynamic curves for defect classification and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wedge, Sam; Rogerson, Allan; Drinkwater, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic array imaging and multi-probe pulse echo inspection are two common ultrasonic techniques used for defect detection, classification and characterization in non-destructive evaluation. Compared to multi-probe pulse echo inspection, ultrasonic array imaging offers some advantages such as higher resolution images and the requirement to obtain fewer measurements. However, it is also limited by a lack of industry-approved inspection procedures and standards. In this paper, several artificial planar and volumetric weld defects of different orientations and locations embedded in 60 mm thick welded ferritic test specimens were measured using both ultrasonic arrays and multiple single crystal probes. The resultant TFM images and echodynamic curves for each defect were compared and the results demonstrate the correlations between TFM image features and echodynamic curve characteristics. Combining the analysis of multi-probe pulse echo inspection data and ultrasonic array images offers better classification and characterization of defects. These findings benefit the further development of industrial ultrasonic array inspection procedures and encourage the uptake of TFM technology within industry.

  13. Simulation of the diffusion features of point defects in bcc metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirkov, AS; Nazarov, AV; Bokstein, BS; Straumal, BB

    2006-01-01

    This work is devoted to simulation of the diffusion features of point defects in bee metals. The properties of point defects have been investigated with the usage of many-body interatomic potentials. This approach, based on the density-functional theory, permitted us to derive more adequate

  14. Radiographic and ultrasonographic features of uroliths and other urinary tract filling defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, G.R.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiopaque uroliths and nonradiopaque (water density) uroliths are filling defects encountered in the urinary tracts of dogs and cats. Other free luminal and attached soft tissue density filling defects encountered during uroradiographic special procedures include blood clots, air bubbles, hematomas, granulomas, abscesses, inflammatory and neoplastic polyps. Nonradiopaque uroliths cannot be identified on survey radiographs from other soft tissue dense structures. Gray scale ultrasonography can be used to differentiate nonradiopaque (water dense) uroliths from other soft tissue attached or free luminal filling defects of the excretory pathway. The differential radiographic features of filling defects encountered during cystography and urethrography are described and illustrated

  15. Density Functional Theory Study on Defect Feature of AsGaGaAs in Gallium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the defect feature of AsGaGaAs defect in gallium arsenide clusters in detail by using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT. Our calculations reveal that the lowest donor level of AsGaGaAs defect on the gallium arsenide crystal surface is 0.85 eV below the conduction band minimum, while the lowest donor level of the AsGaGaAs defect inside the gallium arsenide bulk is 0.83 eV below the bottom of the conduction band, consistent with gallium arsenide EL2 defect level of experimental value (Ec-0.82 eV. This suggests that AsGaGaAs defect is one of the possible gallium arsenide EL2 deep-level defects. Moreover, our results also indicate that the formation energies of internal AsGaGaAs and surface AsGaGaAs defects are predicted to be around 2.36 eV and 5.54 eV, respectively. This implies that formation of AsGaGaAs defect within the crystal is easier than that of surface. Our results offer assistance in discussing the structure of gallium arsenide deep-level defect and its effect on the material.

  16. Feature selection for neural network based defect classification of ceramic components using high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharaju, Manasa; Nagarajah, Romesh

    2015-09-01

    The motivation for this research stems from a need for providing a non-destructive testing method capable of detecting and locating any defects and microstructural variations within armour ceramic components before issuing them to the soldiers who rely on them for their survival. The development of an automated ultrasonic inspection based classification system would make possible the checking of each ceramic component and immediately alert the operator about the presence of defects. Generally, in many classification problems a choice of features or dimensionality reduction is significant and simultaneously very difficult, as a substantial computational effort is required to evaluate possible feature subsets. In this research, a combination of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are used to optimize the feature subset used in classification of various defects in reaction-sintered silicon carbide ceramic components. Initially wavelet based feature extraction is implemented from the region of interest. An Artificial Neural Network classifier is employed to evaluate the performance of these features. Genetic Algorithm based feature selection is performed. Principal Component Analysis is a popular technique used for feature selection and is compared with the genetic algorithm based technique in terms of classification accuracy and selection of optimal number of features. The experimental results confirm that features identified by Principal Component Analysis lead to improved performance in terms of classification percentage with 96% than Genetic algorithm with 94%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution Features of Small Defects in Precision Weldments of Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, T; Shi, D H; Yuan, Y; Yang, S Y

    2006-01-01

    The detection method of real time radioscopy was adopted to test titanium alloys precision weldments with complex structure non-destructively. The location of small defects in the line grey distribution curve was determined based on the analysis of X-ray detection images and the geometry relationship of precision weldments components, and a formula which can calculate the depth of defects was deduced. In order to improve the accuracy of defect locating a formula which can calculate the deviation of defects was deduced also by adopting the method of rotation weldments in this paper. Automated extraction algorithm of projection distance was developed according to the characteristic of the typical defects - peak anomaly and slant concave anomaly in the line grey distribution curve. The experimental results show that the defect depth, deviation and distribution along the longitudinal direction of weld can be figured out, and the spatial distribution features of defects can be determined, the above features will provide better basis for further structural integrity evaluation of the precision weldments

  18. Distribution Features of Small Defects in Precision Weldments of Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, T.; Shi, D. H.; Yuan, Y.; Yang, S. Y.

    2006-10-01

    The detection method of real time radioscopy was adopted to test titanium alloys precision weldments with complex structure non-destructively. The location of small defects in the line grey distribution curve was determined based on the analysis of X-ray detection images and the geometry relationship of precision weldments components, and a formula which can calculate the depth of defects was deduced. In order to improve the accuracy of defect locating a formula which can calculate the deviation of defects was deduced also by adopting the method of rotation weldments in this paper. Automated extraction algorithm of projection distance was developed according to the characteristic of the typical defects — peak anomaly and slant concave anomaly in the line grey distribution curve. The experimental results show that the defect depth, deviation and distribution along the longitudinal direction of weld can be figured out, and the spatial distribution features of defects can be determined, the above features will provide better basis for further structural integrity evaluation of the precision weldments.

  19. Evaluation of the relevant features of welding defects in radiographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves de Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of X-ray as an inspection technique to ensure the integrity of industrial products dates from the beginning of the 20th century. Therefore, it is a tool of non-destructive inspection widely known. Nowadays, however, there are several researches forward on the optimization of such inspection technique, mainly for the development of an automatic system of radiographic image analysis. That is, a system that can identify and classify the defects in the radiography. An important step in the construction of this system is the classification of defects, which is usually done by using some of their features. The purpose of this work is to study the relevance of some defect features in order to classify some of the main classes of defects. The employed technique is the linear correlation between the defect features and the classes of defects. A non-linear pattern classifier is used, implemented by a neural network, to evaluate the performance in the classification. The results showed the efficiency of the method used.

  20. Parotid mandibular bone defect: A case report emphasizing imaging features in plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Miki; Munhoz, Luciana; Asaumi, Junichi; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2017-12-01

    Mandibular bone depression, also known as Stafne bone cavity, is defined as a bone depression filled mainly with salivary gland tissue. Parotid gland bone defects are infrequently observed. We report the case of a 52-year-old male patient who underwent radiographic examinations due to temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and a radiolucent area was detected in the mandibular ramus, with a provisional diagnosis of traumatic bone cyst or parotid mandibular bone defect. The patient was then referred for magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated a hyperintense area eroding the mandibular ramus, which corresponded to glandular tissue. Although the defect was a benign lesion, radiolucencies in the mandibular ramus lead to concerns among professionals, because their radiographic features can resemble various intrabony neoplastic lesions, such as giant cell tumors or benign tumors of the parotid gland.

  1. A surface defect detection method based on multi-feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Xiong, Huijiang; Yu, Zhiyang; Wen, Peizhi

    2017-07-01

    Automatic inspection takes a great role in guaranteeing the product quality. But one of the limitations of current inspection algorithms is either product specific or problem specific. In this paper, we propose a defect detection method based on three image features fusion for variety of industrial products surface detection. The proposed method learns sub-image gray level difference, color histogram and pixel regularity of qualified images off-line and test the images based on the detection results of these three image features. It avoids the feature training of defect products as it is difficult to collect large amount of defect samples. The experimental results show that the detection accuracy is between 93% and 98% and the approach is efficient for the real time applications of industrial product inspect.

  2. Defect-Repairable Latent Feature Extraction of Driving Behavior via a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiLong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Data representing driving behavior, as measured by various sensors installed in a vehicle, are collected as multi-dimensional sensor time-series data. These data often include redundant information, e.g., both the speed of wheels and the engine speed represent the velocity of the vehicle. Redundant information can be expected to complicate the data analysis, e.g., more factors need to be analyzed; even varying the levels of redundancy can influence the results of the analysis. We assume that the measured multi-dimensional sensor time-series data of driving behavior are generated from low-dimensional data shared by the many types of one-dimensional data of which multi-dimensional time-series data are composed. Meanwhile, sensor time-series data may be defective because of sensor failure. Therefore, another important function is to reduce the negative effect of defective data when extracting low-dimensional time-series data. This study proposes a defect-repairable feature extraction method based on a deep sparse autoencoder (DSAE to extract low-dimensional time-series data. In the experiments, we show that DSAE provides high-performance latent feature extraction for driving behavior, even for defective sensor time-series data. In addition, we show that the negative effect of defects on the driving behavior segmentation task could be reduced using the latent features extracted by DSAE.

  3. Defect-Repairable Latent Feature Extraction of Driving Behavior via a Deep Sparse Autoencoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, HaiLong; Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Takenaka, Kazuhito; Bando, Takashi

    2018-02-16

    Data representing driving behavior, as measured by various sensors installed in a vehicle, are collected as multi-dimensional sensor time-series data. These data often include redundant information, e.g., both the speed of wheels and the engine speed represent the velocity of the vehicle. Redundant information can be expected to complicate the data analysis, e.g., more factors need to be analyzed; even varying the levels of redundancy can influence the results of the analysis. We assume that the measured multi-dimensional sensor time-series data of driving behavior are generated from low-dimensional data shared by the many types of one-dimensional data of which multi-dimensional time-series data are composed. Meanwhile, sensor time-series data may be defective because of sensor failure. Therefore, another important function is to reduce the negative effect of defective data when extracting low-dimensional time-series data. This study proposes a defect-repairable feature extraction method based on a deep sparse autoencoder (DSAE) to extract low-dimensional time-series data. In the experiments, we show that DSAE provides high-performance latent feature extraction for driving behavior, even for defective sensor time-series data. In addition, we show that the negative effect of defects on the driving behavior segmentation task could be reduced using the latent features extracted by DSAE.

  4. Feature extraction for ultrasonic sensor based defect detection in ceramic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharaju, Manasa; Nagarajah, Romesh

    2014-02-01

    High density silicon carbide materials are commonly used as the ceramic element of hard armour inserts used in traditional body armour systems to reduce their weight, while providing improved hardness, strength and elastic response to stress. Currently, armour ceramic tiles are inspected visually offline using an X-ray technique that is time consuming and very expensive. In addition, from X-rays multiple defects are also misinterpreted as single defects. Therefore, to address these problems the ultrasonic non-destructive approach is being investigated. Ultrasound based inspection would be far more cost effective and reliable as the methodology is applicable for on-line quality control including implementation of accept/reject criteria. This paper describes a recently developed methodology to detect, locate and classify various manufacturing defects in ceramic tiles using sub band coding of ultrasonic test signals. The wavelet transform is applied to the ultrasonic signal and wavelet coefficients in the different frequency bands are extracted and used as input features to an artificial neural network (ANN) for purposes of signal classification. Two different classifiers, using artificial neural networks (supervised) and clustering (un-supervised) are supplied with features selected using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and their classification performance compared. This investigation establishes experimentally that Principal Component Analysis(PCA) can be effectively used as a feature selection method that provides superior results for classifying various defects in the context of ultrasonic inspection in comparison with the X-ray technique.

  5. Vision-based in-line fabric defect detection using yarn-specific shape features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dorian; Aach, Til

    2012-01-01

    We develop a methodology for automatic in-line flaw detection in industrial woven fabrics. Where state of the art detection algorithms apply texture analysis methods to operate on low-resolved ({200 ppi) image data, we describe here a process flow to segment single yarns in high-resolved ({1000 ppi) textile images. Four yarn shape features are extracted, allowing a precise detection and measurement of defects. The degree of precision reached allows a classification of detected defects according to their nature, providing an innovation in the field of automatic fabric flaw detection. The design has been carried out to meet real time requirements and face adverse conditions caused by loom vibrations and dirt. The entire process flow is discussed followed by an evaluation using a database with real-life industrial fabric images. This work pertains to the construction of an on-loom defect detection system to be used in manufacturing practice.

  6. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hye-Joung; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  7. Extracting Feature Information and its Visualization Based on the Characteristic Defect Octave Frequencies in a Rolling Element Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Lei

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the condition of rolling element bearings and defect diagnosis has received considerable attention for many years because the majority of problems in rotating machines are caused by defective bearings. In order to monitor conditions and diagnose defects in a rolling element bearing, a new approach is developed, based on the characteristic defect octave frequencies. The characteristic defect frequencies make it possible to detect the presence of a defect and diagnose in what part of the bearing the defect appears. However, because the characteristic defect frequencies vary with rotational speed, it is difficult to extract feature information from data at variable rotational speeds. In this paper, the characteristic defect octave frequencies, which do not vary with rotation speed, are introduced to replace the characteristic defect frequencies. Therefore feature information can be easily extracted. Moreover, based on characteristic defect octave frequencies, an envelope spectrum array, which associates 3-D visualization technology with extremum envelope spectrum technology, is established. This method has great advantages in acquiring the characteristics and trends of the data and achieves a straightforward and creditable result.

  8. Perinatal features of omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects (OEIS complex) associated with large meningomyeloceles and severe limb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C P; Shih, S L; Liu, F F; Jan, S W; Jeng, C J; Lan, C C

    1997-05-01

    Omphalocele-Exstrophy-Imperforate anus-Spinal defects (OEIS complex), a combination of omphalocele, exstrophy of the bladder, an imperforate anus and spinal defects, arises from a single localized defect in the early development of the mesoderm that will later contribute to infraumbilical mesenchyme, cloacal septum, and caudal vertebrae. In this report, we document the perinatal features of two cases of OEIS complex associated with meningomyeloceles and severe lower limb defects, and discuss the prenatal diagnosis, inheritance, and differential diagnosis of this association of malformations. Although long-term survival can be achieved by successful corrective surgery, the associated structural defects such as large meningomyelocele and severe limb aplasia or hypoplasia, as seen in our patient, can influence the patient's quality of life. We would like to emphasize that an accurate prenatal diagnosis of OEIS complex and associated malformations is important for the detailed counseling of the family as well as appropriate perinatal management by the obstetricians, pediatric surgeons, urologists, neurosurgeons, and neonatologists.

  9. A robust segmentation approach based on analysis of features for defect detection in X-ray images of aluminium castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecomte, G.; Kaftandjian, V.; Cendre, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    A robust image processing algorithm has been developed for detection of small and low contrasted defects, adapted to X-ray images of castings having a non-uniform background. The sensitivity to small defects is obtained at the expense of a high false alarm rate. We present in this paper a feature...... extraction approach to complement the image processing, reducing the false alarms rate, while keeping a high defect detection rate, which is impossible by image processing techniques alone. ROC curves show a very good performance by using a new feature parameter, called 'Defect Confidence Index', combining...... three parameters and taking into account the fact that X-ray grey-levels follow a statistical normal law. Results are shown on a set of 684 images, involving 59 defects, on which we obtained a 100% detection rate without any false alarm....

  10. New feature for evaluation of subsurface defects via multi-frequency alternating current field signature method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fangji; Li, Wenyang; Liao, Junbi

    2018-01-01

    A multi-frequency alternating current field signature method (MACFSM) that combines multi-frequency excitation and zero phase is proposed to detect subsurface defects in metal pipes. In a numerical analysis, multi-frequency exciting currents are applied to a metal pipe (wall thickness T = 10mm) which contains different depth defects, and then zero phase is extracted from phase spectrum to assess defect depth. The investigation shows that in comparison with derivative extremum, the monotonic relationship between zero phase and defect depth can enable accurate determinations of defect depths. A general solution for calculating defect depth using zero phase is given in MACFSM. Pulse excitation field signature method is proposed for future research of quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) in the end of this paper.

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Feature Extraction and Dimensionality Reduction Using Memristor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinhyun; Shin, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jihang; Sheridan, Patrick; Lu, Wei D

    2017-05-10

    Memristors have been considered as a leading candidate for a number of critical applications ranging from nonvolatile memory to non-Von Neumann computing systems. Feature extraction, which aims to transform input data from a high-dimensional space to a space with fewer dimensions, is an important technique widely used in machine learning and pattern recognition applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that memristor arrays can be used to perform principal component analysis, one of the most commonly used feature extraction techniques, through online, unsupervised learning. Using Sanger's rule, that is, the generalized Hebbian algorithm, the principal components were obtained as the memristor conductances in the network after training. The network was then used to analyze sensory data from a standard breast cancer screening database with high classification success rate (97.1%).

  12. Demonstration of defect free EUV mask for 22nm NAND flash contact layer using electron beam inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Kawashima, Satoshi; Inazuki, Yuichi; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long Eric; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Xiao, Hong; Jau, Jack

    2011-04-01

    Fabrication of defect free EUV masks including their inspection is the most critical challenge for implementing EUV lithography into semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM) beyond 22nm half-pitch (HP) node. The contact to bit-line (CB) layers of NAND flash devices are the most likely the first lithography layers that EUV will be employed for manufacturing due to the aggressive scaling and the difficulty for making the pattern with the current ArF lithography. To assure the defect free EUV mask, we have evaluated electron beam inspection (EBI) system eXplore™ 5200 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) [1]. As one knows, the main issue of EBI system is the low throughput. To solve this challenge, a function called Lightning Scan™ mode has been recently developed and installed in the system, which allows the system to only inspect the pattern areas while ignoring blanket areas, thus dramatically reduced the overhead time and enable us to inspect CB layers of NAND Flash device with much higher throughput. In this present work, we compared the Lightning scan mode with Normal scan mode on sensitivity and throughput. We found out the Lightning scan mode can improve throughput by a factor of 10 without any sacrifices of sensitivity. Furthermore, using the Lightning scan mode, we demonstrated the possibility to fabricate the defect free EUV masks with moderate inspection time.

  13. Clinical features and molecular genetic analysis of a boy with Prader-Willi syndrome caused by an imprinting defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A; Hansen, Claus; Baekgaard, P

    1997-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuroendocrine disorder caused by a non-functioning paternally derived gene(s) within the chromosome region 15q11-q13. Most cases result from microscopically visible deletions of paternal origin, or maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. In both instances...... no recurrence has been reported. In rare cases, PWS is associated with lack of gene expression from the paternal allele due to an imprinting defect. We report the clinical features and the molecular genetic analysis of the first Danish child with PWS due to a defect of the putative imprinting centre (IC). When...

  14. Clinical features and molecular genetic analysis of a boy with Prader-Willi syndrome caused by an imprinting defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A; Hansen, Claus; Baekgaard, P

    1997-01-01

    no recurrence has been reported. In rare cases, PWS is associated with lack of gene expression from the paternal allele due to an imprinting defect. We report the clinical features and the molecular genetic analysis of the first Danish child with PWS due to a defect of the putative imprinting centre (IC). When...... the imprinting mutation is inherited from a carrier father, the risk that future children will be affected is theoretically 50%. It is therefore important that these families are referred to a geneticist for counselling and further investigation. Prenatal diagnosis is currently only feasible when the mutation...

  15. A deep feature fusion methodology for breast cancer diagnosis demonstrated on three imaging modality datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, Natalia; Huynh, Benjamin Q; Giger, Maryellen L

    2017-10-01

    Deep learning methods for radiomics/computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) are often prohibited by small datasets, long computation time, and the need for extensive image preprocessing. We aim to develop a breast CADx methodology that addresses the aforementioned issues by exploiting the efficiency of pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and using pre-existing handcrafted CADx features. We present a methodology that extracts and pools low- to mid-level features using a pretrained CNN and fuses them with handcrafted radiomic features computed using conventional CADx methods. Our methodology is tested on three different clinical imaging modalities (dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI [690 cases], full-field digital mammography [245 cases], and ultrasound [1125 cases]). From ROC analysis, our fusion-based method demonstrates, on all three imaging modalities, statistically significant improvements in terms of AUC as compared to previous breast cancer CADx methods in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. (DCE-MRI [AUC = 0.89 (se = 0.01)], FFDM [AUC = 0.86 (se = 0.01)], and ultrasound [AUC = 0.90 (se = 0.01)]). We proposed a novel breast CADx methodology that can be used to more effectively characterize breast lesions in comparison to existing methods. Furthermore, our proposed methodology is computationally efficient and circumvents the need for image preprocessing. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Predicting internal yellow-poplar log defect features using surface indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Determining the defects that are located within the log is crucial to understanding the tree/log resource for efficient processing. However, existing means of doing this non-destructively requires the use of expensive X-ray/CT, MRI, or microwave technology. These methods do not lend themselves to fast, efficient, and cost-effective analysis of logs and tree stems in...

  17. Cascade overlap and amorphization in 3C-SiC: Defect accumulation, topological features, and disordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Weber, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a modified Tersoff potential have been used to investigate cascade overlap, damage accumulation, and amorphization processes in 3C-SiC over dose levels comparable to experimental conditions. A large number of 10 keV displacement cascades were randomly generated in a model crystal to produce damage and cause amorphization. At low dose, the damage state is dominated by point defects and small clusters, where their concentration increases sigmoidally with increasing dose. The coalescence and growth of clusters at intermediate and higher doses is an important mechanism leading to amorphization in SiC. The homogeneous nucleation of small clusters at low dose underpins the homogeneouslike amorphization observed in SiC. A large increase in the number of antisite defects at higher dose indicates that both interstitials and antisite defects play an important role in producing high-energy states that lead to amorphization in SiC. The topologies (such as total pair correlation function, bond-angle, and bond-length distributions) of damage accumulation in the crystal suggest that a crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) transition occurs at about 0.28 dpa. This value is in qualitative agreement with the experimental value of 0.27 dpa under similar irradiation conditions. After the model crystal transforms to the fully amorphous state, the long-range order is completely lost, while the short-range order parameter saturates at a value of about 0.49

  18. Heart defects and other features of the 22q11 distal deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Christina R; Graakjaer, Jesper; Heinl, Ulrike D

    2013-01-01

    with 22q11 distal deletions, and discuss the possible roles of haploinsufficiency of the MAPK1 gene. We find the most frequent features in 22q11 distal deletion to be developmental delay or learning disability, short stature, microcephalus, premature birth with low birth weight, and congenital heart...... malformation ranging from minor anomalies to complex malformations. Behavioral problems are also seen in a substantial portion of patients. The following dysmorphic features are relatively common: smooth philtrum, abnormally structured ears, cleft palate/bifid uvula, micro-/retrognathia, upslanting palpebral...

  19. Characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects by clinical features, flow cytometry, and automated image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaus, Alexej; Pantel, Jean Tori; Pendziwiat, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    , the increasing number of individuals with a GPIBD shows that hyperphosphatasia is a variable feature that is not ideal for a clinical classification. METHODS: We studied the discriminatory power of multiple GPI-linked substrates that were assessed by flow cytometry in blood cells and fibroblasts of 39 and 14...

  20. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    in the intraosseous part of the sac: mitochondria-rich cells, ribosome-rich cells, and nonclassifiable cells. A fourth cell type was found in the extraosseous part. Novel ultrastructural features of the epithelial lining and the subepithelial layer are described and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The results in the present...

  1. Software defined networking (SDN) over space division multiplexing (SDM) optical networks: features, benefits and experimental demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, N; Yan, S; Channegowda, M; Rofoee, B R; Shu, Y; Rashidi, M; Ou, Y; Hugues-Salas, E; Zervas, G; Nejabati, R; Simeonidou, D; Puttnam, B J; Klaus, W; Sakaguchi, J; Miyazawa, T; Awaji, Y; Harai, H; Wada, N

    2014-02-10

    We present results from the first demonstration of a fully integrated SDN-controlled bandwidth-flexible and programmable SDM optical network utilizing sliceable self-homodyne spatial superchannels to support dynamic bandwidth and QoT provisioning, infrastructure slicing and isolation. Results show that SDN is a suitable control plane solution for the high-capacity flexible SDM network. It is able to provision end-to-end bandwidth and QoT requests according to user requirements, considering the unique characteristics of the underlying SDM infrastructure.

  2. Graphene-augmented nanofiber scaffolds demonstrate new features in cells behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, Jekaterina; Ivanov, Roman; Gasik, Michael; Neuman, Toomas; Hussainova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) customized scaffolds capable to mimic a native extracellular matrix open new frontiers in cells manipulation and advanced therapy. The major challenge is in a proper substrate for in vitro models on engineered scaffolds, capable to modulate cells differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate novel design and functionality of the 3D porous scaffolds of aligned, self-assembled ceramic nanofibers of ultra-high anisotropy ratio (~107), augmented into graphene shells. This unique hybrid nano-network allows an exceptional combination of selective guidance stimuli of stem cells differentiation, immune reactions variations, and local immobilization of cancer cells, which was not available before. The scaffolds were shown to be able to direct human mesenchymal stem cells (important for stimulation of neuronal and muscle cells) preferential orientation, to suppress major inflammatory factors, and to localize cancer cells; all without additions of specific culture media. The selective downregulation of specific cytokines is anticipated as a new tool for understanding of human immune system and ways of treatment of associated diseases. The effects observed are self-regulated by cells only, without side effects, usually arising from use of external factors. New scaffolds may open new horizons for stem cells fate control such as towards axons and neurites regeneration (Alzheimer’s disease) as well as cancer therapy development.

  3. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L. into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S McDonald

    Full Text Available Field peas (Pisum sativum L. are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  4. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  5. A zebrafish model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy recapitulates key disease features and demonstrates a developmental requirement for abcd1 in oligodendrocyte patterning and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Lauren R; Stevenson, Tamara J; Freshner, Briana; Keefe, Matthew D; Miranda Bowles, D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-09-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by defects in the ABCD1 gene and affecting peripheral and central nervous system myelin. ABCD1 encodes a peroxisomal transmembrane protein required for very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) Abcd1 is highly conserved at the amino acid level with human ABCD1, and during development is expressed in homologous regions including the central nervous system and adrenal glands. We used TALENs to generate five zebrafish abcd1 mutant allele lines introducing premature stop codons in exon 1, as well as obtained an abcd1 allele from the Zebrafish Mutation Project carrying a point mutation in a splice donor site. Similar to patients with ALD, zebrafish abcd1 mutants have elevated VLCFA levels. Interestingly, we found that CNS development of the abcd1 mutants is disrupted, with hypomyelination in the spinal cord, abnormal patterning and decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes, and increased cell death. By day of life five abcd1 mutants demonstrate impaired motor function, and overall survival to adulthood of heterozygous and homozygous mutants is decreased. Expression of human ABCD1 in oligodendrocytes rescued apoptosis in the abcd1 mutant. In summary, we have established a zebrafish model of ALD that recapitulates key features of human disease pathology and which reveals novel features of underlying disease pathogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Features of categorization of prevention of conducting meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches, picketing or participation in them as a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovichenko K.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimum rates of applying article 149 of the RF Criminal Code, caused by crime categorization errors and technical and legal defects of article’s structure are stated. The elements of crime under this article include violating the constitutional right to freedom of meetings as a result of preventing mass actions. The commission of unlawful act by an official should be categorized as a crime according to article 149 when using prevention means stipulated in objective side of this act. Improper use of official position for illegal prevention and use of violence to people form a cumulative crime (articles 149 and 286 of the RF Criminal Code. Signs of violence and threats to use violence, specified by corpus delicti, draw a question on the amount of damage to health which does not demand additional categorization. Damage limits implies beating and slight damage to health. More serious damage forms a cumulative crime. Any threats to use violence are included in the elements of crime under study. Thus, illegal prevention of conducting public mass action can be categorized as a cumulative crime. Gross violation of public order which expresses contempt against public (committed by using means, specified in Art. 213 of the FR Criminal Code and simultaneously prevents conducting a rally, meeting, demonstration, march, picketing or participating in them (ideal cumulative crime complicates the categorization. If such prevention is accompanied with gross violation of public order, the act should be categorized as a cumulative crime according to articles 149 and 213.

  7. Late gadolinium uptake demonstrated with magnetic resonance in patients where automated PERFIT analysis of myocardial SPECT suggests irreversible perfusion defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, Lene; Blomstrand, Peter; Ohlsson, Jan L; Björklund, Per-Gunnar; Ahlander, Britt-Marie; Starck, Sven-Åke; Engvall, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) is frequently used as the reference method for the determination of myocardial infarct size. PERFIT ® is a software utilizing a three-dimensional gender specific, averaged heart model for the automatic evaluation of myocardial perfusion. The purpose of this study was to compare the perfusion defect size on MPS, assessed with PERFIT, with the hyperenhanced volume assessed by late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE) and to relate their effect on the wall motion score index (WMSI) assessed with cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) and echocardiography (echo). LGE was performed in 40 patients where clinical MPS showed an irreversible uptake reduction suggesting a myocardial scar. Infarct volume, extent and major coronary supply were compared between MPS and LGE as well as the relationship between infarct size from both methods and WMSI. MPS showed a slightly larger infarct volume than LGE (MPS 29.6 ± 23.2 ml, LGE 22.1 ± 16.9 ml, p = 0.01), while no significant difference was found in infarct extent (MPS 11.7 ± 9.4%, LGE 13.0 ± 9.6%). The correlation coefficients between methods in respect to infarct size and infarct extent were 0.71 and 0.63 respectively. WMSI determined with cine-MRI correlated moderately with infarct volume and infarct extent (cine-MRI vs MPS volume r = 0.71, extent r = 0.71, cine-MRI vs LGE volume r = 0.62, extent r = 0.60). Similar results were achieved when wall motion was determined with echo. Both MPS and LGE showed the same major coronary supply to the infarct area in a majority of patients, Kappa = 0.84. MPS and LGE agree moderately in the determination of infarct size in both absolute and relative terms, although infarct volume is slightly larger with MPS. The correlation between WMSI and infarct size is moderate

  8. Characteristic Features of Stone-Wales Defects in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube; Adsorption, Dispersion, and Field Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkwang Roh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption behaviors of dodecanethiol (C12H25SH molecules are investigated on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with vibrational and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers. The active adsorption sites are proved as Stone-Wales (SW defects (5–7 ring defects. The SW defect-removed SWCNTs formed by reacting nanotubes with allyl acrylate molecules are compared with pristine SWCNTs in dispersion and field emission. The former shows higher dispersion and field emission than the latter.

  9. Erythroid precursors from patients with low-risk myelodysplasia demonstrate ultrastructural features of enhanced autophagy of mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, E. J.; Pol, H-W D.; Blom, N. R.; van der Want, J. J. L.; de Wolf, J. Thm; Vellenga, E.

    Recent studies in erythroid cells have shown that autophagy is an important process for the physiological clearance of mitochondria during terminal differentiation. However, autophagy also plays an important role in removing damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria. Defective mitochondria and impaired

  10. The Grotesques of Oval Defects on the MBE-Grown GaAs Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.; Lee, C. T.

    1987-05-01

    In addition to the regular oval defect, two grotesque features, named pyramidal and ellipsoidal shaped defects, have been observed on MBE-grown GaAs layers. Those grotesque defects were demonstrated to have come from a foreign contamination of the Ga source. A method for reducing those defects is also proposed.

  11. Defect features, texture and mechanical properties of friction stir welded lap joints of 2A97 Al-Li alloy thin sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haiyan; Fu, Li; Liang, Pei; Liu, Fenjun

    2017-01-01

    1.4 mm 2A97 Al-Li alloy thin sheets were welded by friction stir lap welding using the stirring tools with different pin length at different rotational speeds. The influence of pin length and rotational speed on the defect features and mechanical properties of lap joints were investigated in detail. Microstructure observation shows that the hook defect geometry and size mainly varies with the pin length instead of the rotational speed. The size of hook defects on both the advancing side (AS) and the retreating side (RS) increased with increasing the pin length, leading to the effective sheet thickness decreased accordingly. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis reveals that the weld zones, especially the nugget zone (NZ), have the much lower texture intensity than the base metal. Some new texture components are formed in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and the NZ of joint. Lap shear test results show that the failure load of joints generally decreases with increasing the pin length and the rotational speed. The joints failed during the lap shear tests at three locations: the lap interface, the RS of the top sheet and the AS of the bottom sheet. The fracture locations are mainly determined by the hook defects. - Highlights: • Hook defect size mainly varies with the pin length of stirring tool. • The proportion of LAGBs and substructured grains increases from NZ to TMAZ. • Weld zones, especially the NZ, have the much lower texture intensity than the BM. • Lap shear failure load and fracture location of joints is relative to the hook defects.

  12. Demonstration of thermal control, microstructure control, defect mitigation and process parameter database generation for Ti-6Al-4V Direct Digital Manufacturing - Understanding defect mitigation and process parameter database generation for direct digital manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Niyanth S, Niyanth [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Robson, Alan [University of Tennessee (UT); Jordan, Brian H [ORNL; Chaudhary, Anil [Applied Optimization; Babu, Prof. Sudarsanam Suresh [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-09-01

    Researchers from Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Applied Optimization (AO) to understand and evaluate the propensity for defect formation in builds manufactured using DM3D-POM laser direct metal deposition. The main aim of this collaboration was to understand the character of powder jet behavior as a function of the nozzle parameters such as cover gas, carrier gas, and shaping gas. In order to evaluate the sensitivities of the parameters used in model, various experiments were performed with in-situ monitoring of the powder stream characteristics using a high speed camera. A wide variety of conditions while keeping the hopper motor rpm constant, including laser power and travel speed were explored. The cross sections of the deposits were characterized using optical microscopy.

  13. Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus and spinal defect (OEIS Complex) with overlapping features of body stalk anomaly (limb body wall complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrekar, Suresh R S; Amoncar, Sangeeta; Banaulikar, Siddhartha; Sawant, Vishal; Pinto, R G W

    2014-04-01

    OEIS is an extremely rare constellation of malformations, which includes omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defect. We report here autopsy findings in a case of OEIS complex, which apart from the major anomalies of the complex had bilateral club foot that is, congenital talipes equinovarus, right hydroureter, and body stalk anomaly. The umbilical cord was absent, and the umbilical vessels were embedded in an amniotic sheet, which connected the skin margin of the anterior body wall defect to the placenta, this feature being the hallmark of limb body wall complex (LBWC). This case further supports the view that OEIS and LBWC represent a continuous spectrum of abnormalities rather than separate conditions and may share a common etiology and pathogenetic mechanism as proposed by some authors.

  14. Clinical and biological features at diagnosis in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation defects: a French pediatric study of 187 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, Julien; Sachs, Philippe; Broué, Pierre; Brivet, Michèle; Abdoul, Hendy; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation defects (FAODs) are a group of severe inherited metabolic diseases, most of which can be treated with favorable prognosis following diagnosis. A description of the broad range of phenotypes resulting from these defects remains incomplete, and for this study, we sought to investigate the semiology at diagnosis in a country without a newborn screening program for FAODs. Using a retrospective French multicentre study, we analyzed 187 children aged cardiac features (55 %) [as either cardiomyopathy (47 %) or arrhythmias (31 %)] were frequently documented. Hemodynamic events (41 %) were represented by shock (31 %) or sudden death (35 %). Hyperammonemia (73 %) and hyperlactacidemia (57 %) were the two main biochemical features. Total, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCADD), long-chain 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase (LCHADD), and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCADD) deficiency mortality rates were 48 %, 60 %, 63 %, and 20 % respectively. This study presents clinical features of a large cohort of patients with FAODs in a country without neonatal screening for FAODs. Our results highlight liver as the main organ involved at diagnosis regardless of age at diagnosis, classical phenotype (i.e., cardiac, hepatic, or muscular), or enzyme deficiency. Although steatosis may be observed in various inherited metabolic defects, it is a reliable indicator of FAOD and should prompt systematic screening when the diagnosis is suspected. The poor long-term prognoses reported are a strong argument for inclusion of FAODs in newborn screening programs.

  15. Major difference in visible-light photocatalytic features between perfect and self-defective Ta3N5 materials: A screened coulomb hybrid dft investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2014-09-11

    Relevant properties to visible-light overall water splitting reactions of perfect and self-defective bulk Ta3N5 semiconductor photocatalysts are investigated using accurate first-principles quantum calculations on the basis of density functional theory (DFT, including the perturbation theory DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid (HSE06) exchange-correlation formalism. Among the various explored self-defective structures, a strong stabilization is obtained for the configuration displaying a direct interaction between the created N- and Ta-vacancies. In the lowest-energy structure, each of the three created Ta-vacancies and the five created N-vacancies is found to be in aggregated disposition, leading to the formation of cages into the lattice. Although the calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties of the two materials are found to be very similar and in good agreement with available experimental works, their photocatalytic features for visible-light overall water splitting reactions show completely different behaviors. On the basis of calculated band edge positions relative to water redox potentials, the perfect Ta3N5 (calculated band gap of 2.2 eV) is predicted by HSE06 to be a good candidate only for H+ reduction while the self-defective Ta3N5 (calculated band gap of 2.0 eV) reveals suitable band positions for both water oxidation and H+ reduction similar to the experimental data reported on Ta3N5 powders. Its ability to reduce H+ is predicted to be lower than the perfect one. However, the strongly localized electronic characters of the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) edge states of the self-defective material only on the N 2p and Ta 5d orbitals surrounding the aggregated N- and Ta-vacancies are expected to strongly limit the probability of photogenerated carrier mobility through its crystal structure.

  16. Theoretical study of the role of metallic contacts in probing transport features of pure and defected graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Magna Antonino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding the roles of disorder and metal/graphene interface on the electronic and transport properties of graphene-based systems is crucial for a consistent analysis of the data deriving from experimental measurements. The present work is devoted to the detailed study of graphene nanoribbon systems by means of self-consistent quantum transport calculations. The computational formalism is based on a coupled Schrödinger/Poisson approach that respects both chemistry and electrostatics, applied to pure/defected graphene nanoribbons (ideally or end-contacted by various fcc metals. We theoretically characterize the formation of metal-graphene junctions as well as the effects of backscattering due to the presence of vacancies and impurities. Our results evidence that disorder can infer significant alterations on the conduction process, giving rise to mobility gaps in the conductance distribution. Moreover, we show the importance of metal-graphene coupling that gives rise to doping-related phenomena and a degradation of conductance quantization characteristics.

  17. Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and s...

  18. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  19. The Loss of Grammatical Gender and Case Features Between Old and Early Middle English: Its Impact on Simple Demonstratives and Topic Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczyk Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the relation between the loss of formal gender and Case features on simple demonstratives and the topic shifting property they manifest. The examination period spans between Old English and Early Middle English. While we argue that this loss has important discourse-pragmatic and derivational effects on demonstratives, we also employ the Strong Minimalist Hypothesis approach (Chomsky 2001 and feature valuation, as defined in Pesetsky & Torrego (2007, to display how their syntactic computation and pragmatic properties have come about. To account for the above innovations yielding the Early Middle English ϸe (‘the’, we first discuss the formal properties of the Old English demonstratives which distinguish number, gender, and Case features. This inflectional variety of forms allows the Old English demonstratives to be used independently and to show the anaphoric and discourse-linking properties of topics. Crucially, the same properties characterise also German and Dutch demonstratives that manifest Case and/or gender morphology overtly, which shows that the syntactic distribution of LIs and their morphological richness should be considered as intertwined. The above properties are then confronted with the determiner system in Early Middle English, whose forms undergo inflectional levelling producing the invariant ϸe/ðe form that loses its distributional independence and acquires the article status. The levelling process in question is argued to stimulate the shift of the [+ref/spec] feature from the formal to the semantic pole. This suggests that the Early Middle English ϸe form no longer counts as an appropriate anaphor in topic shift contexts owing to its indeterminacy of Case, gender, and φ-features, which means that it cannot satisfy the Full Interpretation requirement at the interfaces.

  20. A novel malformation complex of bilateral and symmetric preaxial radial ray-thumb aplasia and lower limb defects with minimal facial dysmorphic features: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Klaushofer, Klaus; Krebs, Alexander; Grill, Franz

    2008-10-24

    Radial hemimelia is a congenital abnormality characterised by the partial or complete absence of the radius. The longitudinal hemimelia indicates the absence of one or more bones along the preaxial (medial) or postaxial (lateral) side of the limb. Preaxial limb defects occurred more frequently with a combination of microtia, esophageal atresia, anorectal atresia, heart defects, unilateral kidney dysgenesis, and some axial skeletal defects. Postaxial acrofacial dysostoses are characterised by distinctive facies and postaxial limb deficiencies, involving the 5th finger, metacarpal/ulnar/fibular/and metatarsal. The patient, an 8-year-old-boy with minimal craniofacial dysmorphic features but with profound upper limb defects of bilateral and symmetrical absence of the radius and the thumbs respectively. In addition, there was a unilateral tibio-fibular hypoplasia (hemimelia) associated with hypoplasia of the terminal phalanges and malsegmentation of the upper thoracic vertebrae, causing effectively the development of thoracic kyphosis. In the typical form of the preaxial acrofacial dysostosis, there are aberrations in the development of the first and second branchial arches and limb buds. The craniofacial dysmorphic features are characteristic such as micrognathia, zygomatic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and preaxial limb defects. Nager and de Reynier in 1948, who used the term acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) to distinguish the condition from mandibulofacial dysostosis. Neither the facial features nor the limb defects in our present patient appear to be absolutely typical with the previously reported cases of AFD. Our patient expands the phenotype of syndromic preaxial limb malformation complex. He might represent a new syndromic entity of mild naso-maxillary malformation in connection with axial and extra-axial malformation complex.

  1. Keyhole defect production in tubular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, H E; Gunther, W M

    2000-03-01

    Fracture characteristics, reported primarily for the cranium, are valuable indicators of bullet direction. A bullet striking the vault tangentially produces an irregular opening, termed a "keyhole defect." with the circular portion of the defect being the initial point of impact. Identifying this feature in tubular bone (long bone) can also demonstrate bullet direction and the position of the bone at the time of the shooting. This case study involving a tangential shot (i.e., a keyhole fracture) to the humerus demonstrates some of the same fracture mechanics seen in the cranium.

  2. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  3. A support vector machine approach for classification of welding defects from ultrasonic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Ma, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Guang-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Defect classification is an important issue in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. A layered multi-class support vector machine (LMSVM) classification system, which combines multiple SVM classifiers through a layered architecture, is proposed in this paper. The proposed LMSVM classification system is applied to the classification of welding defects from ultrasonic test signals. The measured ultrasonic defect echo signals are first decomposed into wavelet coefficients by the wavelet packet transform. The energy of the wavelet coefficients at different frequency channels are used to construct the feature vectors. The bees algorithm (BA) is then used for feature selection and SVM parameter optimisation for the LMSVM classification system. The BA-based feature selection optimises the energy feature vectors. The optimised feature vectors are input to the LMSVM classification system for training and testing. Experimental results of classifying welding defects demonstrate that the proposed technique is highly robust, precise and reliable for ultrasonic defect classification.

  4. Utility of dual source CT with ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition (Flash Spiral Cardio mode) to evaluate morphological features of ventricles in children with complex congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Nomura, Norikazu; Inukai, Sachiko; Tsubokura, Satoshi; Sakurai, Keita; Shimohira, Masashi; Ogawa, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the ability of dual source CT (DSCT) with ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition (Flash Spiral Cardio mode) to depict the morphological features of ventricles in pediatric patients with congenital heart defects (CHD). Between July 2013 and April 2015, 78 pediatric patients with CHD (median age 4 months) were examined using DSCT with the Flash Spiral Cardio mode. The types of ventricular abnormalities were ventricular septal defect (VSD) in 42 (the malaligned type in 11, perimembranous type in 23, supracristal type in 2, atrioventricular type in 2, and muscular type in 4), single ventricle (SV) in 11, and congenital corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) in 4. We evaluated the accuracy of the diagnosis of the VSD type. In cases of SV and ccTGA, we assessed the detectability of the anatomical features of both ventricles for a diagnosis of ventricular situs. DSCT confirmed the diagnoses for all VSDs. The type of defect was precisely diagnosed for all patients. The anatomical features of both ventricles were also depicted and ventricular situs of SV and ccTGA was correctly diagnosed. The results suggest that DSCT has the ability to clearly depict the configuration of ventricles.

  5. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  6. Features of transformation of impurity-defect complexes in СdTe:Сl under the influence of microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzulyak S. I.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resistance cadmium telluride single crystals are promising material for production of ionizing radiation detectors. To increase crystal resistance, they are doped with chlorine. The detector quality depends on uniformity of chlorine impurity distribution over crystal. It is known that low-dose microwave irradiation can homogenize impurity distribution in a specimen. In the present work, we made an attempt to improve the detector material quality by using such post-technological treatment, as well as to study state variation for impurity-defect complexes. To this end, the effect of microwave irradiation on transformation of impurity-defect complexes in CdTe:Cl single crystals was investigated using low-temperature photoluminescence. It is shown that activation of ClTe donor centers by microwave irradiation for 10 s and presence of VCd acceptor centers in the specimens under investigation effectively facilitate formation of (VNd–ClTe defect centers at which excitons are bound. Detailed investigations of the band form for donor-acceptor pairs (DAPs in CdTe:Cl single crystals made it possible to determine the Huang—Rhys factor (that characterizes electron-phonon interaction in CdTe:Cl DAPs as a function of microwave treatment duration. It is shown for single crystals with NCl = 5·1017 cm–3 and 5·1019 cm–3 that the Huang—Rhys factor grows with microwave irradiation dose. This is related to both homogenization of donor and acceptor centers distribution and increase of donor—acceptor spacing. It is shown that microwave irradiation of CdTe:Cl single crystals results in concentration reduction for separate cadmium vacancies VCd because of formation of (VNd—ClTe defect centers at which excitons are bound.

  7. Cortical fibrous defects and non-ossifying fibromas in children and young adults: The analysis of radiological features in 28 cases and a review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Błaż, Marcin; Palczewski, Piotr; Świątkowski, Jan; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    To assess and describe the variability of radiological presentations of fibrous cortical defects and non-ossifying fibromas in children and young adults. Medical records of 28 patients (15 males, 13 females, mean age of 17 years) with a radiological diagnosis of cortical fibrous defect or non-ossifying fibroma were reviewed retrospectively. The presentation of the lesion, its location and morphology according to Ritschl’s classification, as well as the number and types of imaging studies performed in the study group were assessed. Almost all lesions constituted an incidental finding discovered on plain films performed due to trauma. One lesion presented with a pathological fracture. There were 4 patients (mean age of 11 years) with stage A lesion, 9 patients (mean age of 16 years) with stage B lesion, 10 patients (mean age of 18 years) with stage C lesion, and 5 patients (mean age of 23 years) with stage D lesion. The lesions were located mostly in bones around the knee joint. In more than a half of the patients, further imaging was performed apart from plain films. Four lesions were biopsied (1 of stage B and 3 of stage C). A considerable morphological variability of cortical fibrous defects and non-ossifying fibromas, especially of stage C, seems to be the main cause of unnecessary additional imaging and invasive diagnostic procedures in patients with this benign pathology. The knowledge of their age-related evolution and typical skeletal distribution should help in making a correct diagnosis

  8. Deep feature representation with stacked sparse auto-encoder and convolutional neural network for hyperspectral imaging-based detection of cucumber defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is challenging to achieve rapid and accurate processing of large amounts of hyperspectral image data. This research was aimed to develop a novel classification method by employing deep feature representation with the stacked sparse auto-encoder (SSAE) and the SSAE combined with convolutional neur...

  9. Defects in individual semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes: Raman spectroscopic and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbac, Martin; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Farhat, Hootan; Kavan, Ladislav; Hofmann, Mario; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2010-11-10

    Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry have been used to study the influence of defects on the Raman spectra of semiconducting individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The defects were created intentionally on part of an originally defect-free individual semiconducting nanotube, which allowed us to analyze how defects influence this particular nanotube. The formation of defects was followed by Raman spectroscopy that showed D band intensity coming from the defective part and no D band intensity coming from the original part of the same nanotube. It is shown that the presence of defects also reduces the intensity of the symmetry-allowed Raman features. Furthermore, the changes to the Raman resonance window upon the introduction of defects are analyzed. It is demonstrated that defects lead to both a broadening of the Raman resonance profile and a decrease in the maximum intensity of the resonance profile. The in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical data show a doping dependence of the Raman features taken from the defective part of the tested SWCNT.

  10. A preclinical orthotopic model for glioblastoma recapitulates key features of human tumors and demonstrates sensitivity to a combination of MEK and PI3K pathway inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa El Meskini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the highest grade malignant brain tumor, are mostly ineffective, and better preclinical model systems are needed to increase the successful translation of drug discovery efforts into the clinic. Previous work describes a genetically engineered mouse (GEM model that contains perturbations in the most frequently dysregulated networks in GBM (driven by RB, KRAS and/or PI3K signaling and PTEN that induce development of Grade IV astrocytoma with properties of the human disease. Here, we developed and characterized an orthotopic mouse model derived from the GEM that retains the features of the GEM model in an immunocompetent background; however, this model is also tractable and efficient for preclinical evaluation of candidate therapeutic regimens. Orthotopic brain tumors are highly proliferative, invasive and vascular, and express histology markers characteristic of human GBM. Primary tumor cells were examined for sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs. PI3K and MAPK pathway inhibitors, when used as single agents, inhibited cell proliferation but did not result in significant apoptosis. However, in combination, these inhibitors resulted in a substantial increase in cell death. Moreover, these findings translated into the in vivo orthotopic model: PI3K or MAPK inhibitor treatment regimens resulted in incomplete pathway suppression and feedback loops, whereas dual treatment delayed tumor growth through increased apoptosis and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Analysis of downstream pathway components revealed a cooperative effect on target downregulation. These concordant results, together with the morphologic similarities to the human GBM disease characteristics of the model, validate it as a new platform for the evaluation of GBM treatment.

  11. A case of familial tumoral calcinosis/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome due to a compound heterozygous mutation in GALNT3 demonstrating new phenotypic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Claudia E.; Kelly, Marilyn H.; Khosravi, Azarmindokht; Hart, Thomas C.; Brahim, Jaime; White, Kenneth E.; Farrow, Emily G.; Nathan, Muriel H.; Murphey, Mark D.; Collins, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC) and hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) are caused by mutations in FGF23, GALNT3, or KLOTHO. They are characterized by hyperphosphatemia, increased phosphate reabsorption, and elevated or inappropriately normal serum 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D); FTC is associated with calcific masses, and HHS with diaphyseal hyperostosis. Methods A 36-year-old woman presented with abnormal dental x-rays at age 12, and was hyperphosphatemic at 22. She underwent radiographic, biochemical and genetic testing, and medical treatment. Results Serum phosphorus was 7.3 mg/dl (2.5-4.8), TmP/GFR 6.99 mg/100 ml (2.97-4.45), 1,25-D3 35 pg/ml (22-67). Radiographs revealed tooth anomalies, thyroid cartilage calcification, calcific masses in vertebral spaces, calcification of the interstitial septae of the soft tissue in the lower extremities, and cortical thickening of the long bones. Her total hip Z-Score was 1.9. C-terminus serum FGF23 was 1210 RU/ml (20-108), but intact FGF23 was 7.4 pg/ml (10-50). DNA sequencing determined she was a compound heterozygote for mutations in GALNT3. Treatment with niacinamide and acetazolamide decreased TmP/GFR and serum phosphate, which was paralleled by a decrease in serum C-terminus FGF23. Conclusions This case broadens the spectrum of phenotypic and genotypic features of FTC/HHS, and suggests treatments to decrease renal phosphate reabsorption in the setting of a low intact FGF23. PMID:18982401

  12. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  13. Micro Surface Defect Detection Method for Silicon Steel Strip Based on Saliency Convex Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechen Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of surface defect is an indispensable section in steel surface inspection system. In order to detect the micro surface defect of silicon steel strip, a new detection method based on saliency convex active contour model is proposed. In the proposed method, visual saliency extraction is employed to suppress the clutter background for the purpose of highlighting the potential objects. The extracted saliency map is then exploited as a feature, which is fused into a convex energy minimization function of local-based active contour. Meanwhile, a numerical minimization algorithm is introduced to separate the micro surface defects from cluttered background. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method presents good performance for detecting micro surface defects including spot-defect and steel-pit-defect. Even in the cluttered background, the proposed method detects almost all of the microdefects without any false objects.

  14. Distinctive radiological features of small hand joints in rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative spondyloarthritis demonstrated by contrast-enhanced (Gd-DTPA) magnetic resnance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.; Watt, I.; Rozman, B.; Kos-Golja, M.; Demsar, F.; Jarh, O.

    1995-01-01

    A series of patients with clinically early inflammatory joint disease due to rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's syndrome were examined by plain film radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The spin echo T1-weighted precontrast, T2-weighted, and, especially, T1-weighted postcontrast images demonstrated distinct differences in the distribution of inflamatory changes, both within and adjacent to involved small hand joints. Two major subtypes of inflammatory arthritis were shown, thus providing a specific differential diagnosis between rheumatoid arthritis and some patients with seronegative spondyloarthritis. In particular, all the patients with Reiter's syndrome who were studied, and half of those with psoriatic arthritis, had a distinctive pattern of extra-articular desease involvement. The need for a new classification of clinical subsets in psoriatic arthritis has been recently suggested. The present findings suggest that magnetic resonance imaging could be useful in such a reclassification of seronegative spondyloarthritis, as well as offering considerable potential for a reappraisal of pathogenesis and therapy. In this series, it was also noted that juxta-articular osteoporosis on plain film did not correlate with bone marrow oedema on MRI. Hence the aetiology of this common radiographic finding also merits further consideration. (orig.)

  15. Comparative experimental investigations on the demonstration by X-ray of defects of the apices of teeth in individual intraoral pictures and panorama layer pictures (orthopantomograph 3 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poralla, B.

    1981-01-01

    The present work was to show by means of experimentally applied bone defects in the spongiosa and cortical substance in how far such bone losses near the apex of a tooth can be detected by X-ray in individual pictures taken using the right-angle technique and in orthopantomograms. In 12 macerated human lower jaws a total of 120 defects restricted to the corticalis with diameters of 1-2 mm, as well as 166 lesions located at the apex with diameters of 1.6-2.9 mm were applied in different positions with regard to the apex. The teeth belonged to different dental groups. In each case identical individual pictures according to the right-angle technique described by Hielscher and pictures with an orthopantomograph 3 were taken. As a result, the probability of detecting defects in caudal, lingual and vestibular position to the apex with diameters of 1.6-2.9 mm was found to be of 41% with individual pictures taken and of 23% with pictures taken using an orthopantomograph 3. The probility of detecting such defects by X-ray was found to increase along with their diameter for both methods. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Electronic structure of point defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneval, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    This 'Habilitation a diriger des Recherches' memoir presents most of my scientific activities during the past 7 years, in the field of electronic structure calculations of defects in solids. Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, impurities) in functional materials are a key parameter to determine if these materials will actually fill the role they have been assigned or not. Indeed, the presence of defects cannot be avoided when the temperature is increased or when the material is subjected to external stresses, such as irradiation in the nuclear reactors and in artificial satellites with solar radiations. However, in many cases, defects are introduced in the materials on purpose to tune the electronic transport, optical or even magnetic properties. This procedure is called the doping of semiconductors, which is the foundation technique for transistors, diodes, or photovoltaic cells. However, doping is not always straightforward and unexpected features may occur, such as doping asymmetry or Fermi level pinning, which can only be explained by complex phenomena involving different types of defects or complexes of defects. In this context, the calculations of electronic structure ab initio is an ideal tool to complement the experimental observations, to gain the understanding of phenomena at the atomic level, and even to predict the properties of defects. The power of the ab initio calculations comes from their ability to describe any system of electrons and nuclei without any specific adjustment. But although there is a strong need for numerical simulations in this field, the ab initio calculations for defects are still under development as of today. The work presented in this memoir summarizes my contributions to methodological developments on this subject. These developments have followed two main tracks. The first topic is the better understanding of the unavoidable finite size effects. Indeed, defects in semiconductors or insulators are generally present in

  17. BAMUD Features Demonstration by System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocur

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA is afrequently used wireless technology in DS-CDMA communications. Theconventional DS-CDMA detector follows a single-user detection strategyin which each user is detected separately without regard for the otherusers. The better strategy is multi-user detection (MUD, whereinformation about multiple users is used to improve detection of eachindividual user. This paper presents an adaptive multi-user detectorconverging (for any initialization to the minimum mean square error(MMSE detector without requiring training sequences. This blindmulti-user detector (BAMUD requires no more knowledge than does theconventional single-user detector. The structure of adaptive blinddetector is simulated by the system design tool SystemView. The aimfocus is to verify theoretical knowledge of BAMUD structure usinghardware-oriented PC-based model in SystemView.

  18. A novel malformation complex of bilateral and symmetric preaxial radial ray-thumb aplasia and lower limb defects with minimal facial dysmorphic features: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Klaushofer, Klaus; Krebs, Alexander; Grill, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Radial hemimelia is a congenital abnormality characterised by the partial or complete absence of the radius. The longitudinal hemimelia indicates the absence of one or more bones along the preaxial (medial) or postaxial (lateral) side of the limb. Preaxial limb defects occurred more frequently with a combination of microtia, esophageal atresia, anorectal atresia, heart defects, unilateral kidney dysgenesis, and some axial skeletal defects. Postaxial acrofacial dysostoses are char...

  19. Defects in flexoelectric solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.

    2015-11-01

    A solid is said to be flexoelectric when it polarizes in proportion to strain gradients. Since strain gradients are large near defects, we expect the flexoelectric effect to be prominent there and decay away at distances much larger than a flexoelectric length scale. Here, we quantify this expectation by computing displacement, stress and polarization fields near defects in flexoelectric solids. For point defects we recover some well known results from strain gradient elasticity and non-local piezoelectric theories, but with different length scales in the final expressions. For edge dislocations we show that the electric potential is a maximum in the vicinity of the dislocation core. We also estimate the polarized line charge density of an edge dislocation in an isotropic flexoelectric solid which is in agreement with some measurements in ice. We perform an asymptotic analysis of the crack tip fields in flexoelectric solids and show that our results share some features from solutions in strain gradient elasticity and piezoelectricity. We also compute the energy release rate for cracks using simple crack face boundary conditions and use them in classical criteria for crack growth to make predictions. Our analysis can serve as a starting point for more sophisticated analytic and computational treatments of defects in flexoelectric solids which are gaining increasing prominence in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  20. Charged Semiconductor Defects Structure, Thermodynamics and Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Seebauer, Edmund G

    2009-01-01

    The technologically useful properties of a solid often depend upon the types and concentrations of the defects it contains. Not surprisingly, defects in semiconductors have been studied for many years, in many cases with a view towards controlling their behavior through various forms of "defect engineering." For example, in the bulk, charging significantly affects the total concentration of defects that are available to mediate phenomena such as solid-state diffusion. Surface defects play an important role in mediating surface mass transport during high temperature processing steps such as epitaxial film deposition, diffusional smoothing in reflow, and nanostructure formation in memory device fabrication. Charged Semiconductor Defects details the current state of knowledge regarding the properties of the ionized defects that can affect the behavior of advanced transistors, photo-active devices, catalysts, and sensors. Features: Group IV, III-V, and oxide semiconductors; Intrinsic and extrinsic defects; and, P...

  1. Effect of synthetic cell-binding peptide on the healing of cortical segmental bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, G.; Bolukbasi, S.; Simsek, A.; Senkoylu, A.; Erdem, O.; Yilmaz, G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of inorganic bone matric/Pepgen P-15 (ABM/P-15) on the healing of a critical sized segmental defect in a rat radius using a radiological and histological grading system. We carried out this study at the Research Laboratories, Gazi University School of Medicine in 2004. Critical sized segmental defects were created in the radius of 36 Wistar rats. Thirteen defects were filled with ABM/P-15 Flow (gel form), 12 defects were filled with ABM/P-15, and 11 defects were used as a control group. The rats were sacrified at the tenth week, and healing of the defects was evaluated radiographically and histologically. The usage of ABM/P-15 and ABM/P-15 Flow were demonstrated to improve healing of segmental bone defects compared with the control group. Statistical evaluation showed that there were significant differences between control sites, and the sites treated with P-15 and P-15 Flow (p=0.011). The highest radiological and histological grades were achieved by P-15. Segmental cortical bone defects may be treated with ABM/P-15 instead of bone allografts, and autografts. According to the radiological and histological parameters measured in this study, the implantation of ABM/P-15 resulted in optimum healing of the segmental cortical bone defects. Pepgen P-15 has a positive effect on bone healing, without any immunogenic features and disease transmission risk. Therefore, ABM/P-15 can also be used for orthopedic surgery. (author)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  4. Value of selective spleen scintigraphy when liver/spleen image shows equivocal spleen defects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Corley, J.H.; Kyle, R.W.; Stotler, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine the utility of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) in the evaluation of equivocal defects on liver/splen (LS) image. Six of seven questionable features on LS image were classified on SSS to be definite defects in three, and normal in three. Three of seven patients had defects on SSS that were not seen on LS image. The inability of the LS image to exclude or delineate an abnormality in the spleen was attributed to an overlying left lobe of the liver in five, and to technique in one. The SSS is a valuable diagnostic tool in the further evaluation of equivocal spleen defects on LS image, and SSS may demonstrate abnormalities not demonstrated on LS image

  5. Angio- and echocardiography: viewing heart defects in more detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, J.K.; Lombard, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Angio- and echocardiography can help to confirm the diagnosis or evaluate the severity of a heart defect. Angiograms of dogs with pulmonic stenosis and tetralogy of Fallot are shown. Echocardiographic features of common congenital heart defects are summarized

  6. Coagulation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Doreen E; Broadman, Lynn M

    2006-09-01

    The present understanding of the coagulation process emphasizes the final common pathway and the proteolytic systems that result in the degradation of formed clots and the prevention of unwanted clot formations, as well as a variety of defense systems that include tissue repair, autoimmune processes, arteriosclerosis, tumor growth, the spread of metastases, and defense systems against micro-organisms. This article discusses diagnosis and management of some of the most common bleeding disorders. The goals are to provide a simple guide on how best to manage patients afflicted with congenital or acquired clotting abnormalities during the perioperative period, present a brief overview of the methods of testing and monitoring the coagulation defects, and discuss the appropriate pharmacologic or blood component therapies for each disease.

  7. Inspecting rapidly moving surfaces for small defects using CNN cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blug, Andreas; Carl, Daniel; Höfler, Heinrich

    2013-04-01

    A continuous increase in production speed and manufacturing precision raises a demand for the automated detection of small image features on rapidly moving surfaces. An example are wire drawing processes where kilometers of cylindrical metal surfaces moving with 10 m/s have to be inspected for defects such as scratches, dents, grooves, or chatter marks with a lateral size of 100 μm in real time. Up to now, complex eddy current systems are used for quality control instead of line cameras, because the ratio between lateral feature size and surface speed is limited by the data transport between camera and computer. This bottleneck is avoided by "cellular neural network" (CNN) cameras which enable image processing directly on the camera chip. This article reports results achieved with a demonstrator based on this novel analogue camera - computer system. The results show that computational speed and accuracy of the analogue computer system are sufficient to detect and discriminate the different types of defects. Area images with 176 x 144 pixels are acquired and evaluated in real time with frame rates of 4 to 10 kHz - depending on the number of defects to be detected. These frame rates correspond to equivalent line rates on line cameras between 360 and 880 kHz, a number far beyond the available features. Using the relation between lateral feature size and surface speed as a figure of merit, the CNN based system outperforms conventional image processing systems by an order of magnitude.

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  9. Interventricular communication in complete atrioventricular septal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, K.; Ho, S. Y.; Anderson, R. H.; Becker, A. E.; Neches, W. H.; Tatsuno, K.; Mimori, S.

    1998-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether the interventricular communication in complete atrioventricular septal defect is different beneath the superior and inferior bridging leaflets, a feature of obvious surgical significance. We searched for a defect under the bridging leaflets and examined the

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  11. Defect Detection in Tire X-Ray Images Using Weighted Texture Dissimilarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defect detection is an important and challenging problem in industrial quality inspection. This paper proposes an efficient defect detection method for tire quality assurance, which takes advantage of the feature similarity of tire images to capture the anomalies. The proposed detection algorithm mainly consists of three steps. Firstly, the local kernel regression descriptor is exploited to derive a set of feature vectors of an inspected tire image. These feature vectors are used to evaluate the feature dissimilarity of pixels. Next, the texture distortion degree of each pixel is estimated by weighted averaging of the dissimilarity between one pixel and its neighbors, which results in an anomaly map of the inspected image. Finally, the defects are located by segmenting this anomaly map with a simple thresholding process. Different from some existing detection algorithms that fail to work for tire tread images, the proposed detection algorithm works well not only for sidewall images but also for tread images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can accurately locate the defects of tire images and outperforms the traditional defect detection algorithms in terms of various quantitative metrics.

  12. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  13. Demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of some of the projects in Canada planned to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of processes using waste heat. Most of the studies are in the planning stage; few field demonstrations are yet in operation in any of the three arbitrary categories of waste heat - high-grade heat (100-200 deg C), medium-grade heat (30-100 deg C), and low-grade heat (below 30 deg C). The survey indicates that, while there is long-term potential in several of the approaches, the time has arrived to start finding some hard facts. (author)

  14. Defect Detection and Segmentation Framework for Remote Field Eddy Current Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Falque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote-Field Eddy-Current (RFEC technology is often used as a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE method to prevent water pipe failures. By analyzing the RFEC data, it is possible to quantify the corrosion present in pipes. Quantifying the corrosion involves detecting defects and extracting their depth and shape. For large sections of pipelines, this can be extremely time-consuming if performed manually. Automated approaches are therefore well motivated. In this article, we propose an automated framework to locate and segment defects in individual pipe segments, starting from raw RFEC measurements taken over large pipelines. The framework relies on a novel feature to robustly detect these defects and a segmentation algorithm applied to the deconvolved RFEC signal. The framework is evaluated using both simulated and real datasets, demonstrating its ability to efficiently segment the shape of corrosion defects.

  15. Automatic classification of defects in weld pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar Mikdad Muad; Mohd Ashhar Hj Khalid; Abdul Aziz Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2000-01-01

    With the advancement of computer imaging technology, the image on hard radiographic film can be digitized and stored in a computer and the manual process of defect recognition and classification may be replace by the computer. In this paper a computerized method for automatic detection and classification of common defects in film radiography of weld pipe is described. The detection and classification processes consist of automatic selection of interest area on the image and then classify common defects using image processing and special algorithms. Analysis of the attributes of each defect such as area, size, shape and orientation are carried out by the feature analysis process. These attributes reveal the type of each defect. These methods of defect classification result in high success rate. Our experience showed that sharp film images produced better results

  16. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    , formulating a research problem as well as writing techniques as deeply integrated elements of the academic work process. The importance of creating an engaging and supportive learning environment: When teaching subjects such as plagiarism and study skills, the student can easily be constructed as a cheater...... and a poor student by discourse that emphasizes rule-breaking or which highlights poor study skills rather than focusing on knowledge building. This view of the student as “untrustworthy” (McGregor, 1960) can be communicated not only through explicit discourse; it can be implicit in the design of learning......In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning...

  17. Selecting the best defect reduction methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barkan, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Defect rates less than 10 parts per million, unimaginable a few years ago, have become the standard of world-class quality. To reduce defects, companies are aggressively implementing various quality methodologies, such as Statistical Quality Control Motorola`s Six Sigma, or Shingo`s poka-yok. Although each quality methodology reduces defects, selection has been based on an intuitive sense without understanding their relative effectiveness in each application. A missing link in developing superior defect reduction strategies has been a lack of a general defect model that clarifies the unique focus of each method. Toward the goal of efficient defect reduction, we have developed an event tree which addresses a broad spectrum of quality factors and two defect sources, namely, error and variation. The Quality Control Tree (QCT) predictions are more consistent with production experience than obtained by the other methodologies considered independently. The QCT demonstrates that world-class defect rates cannot be achieved through focusing on a single defect source or quality control factor, a common weakness of many methodologies. We have shown that the most efficient defect reduction strategy depend on the relative strengths and weaknesses of each organization. The QCT can help each organization identify the most promising defect reduction opportunities for achieving its goals.

  18. Features of defect formation during the growth of double heterostructures for injection lasers based on AlxGa1−xAsySb1−y/GaSb materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of lattice defects and, in particular, a lack of dislocations in the active layer in complex multilayer heteroepitaxial systems is the basic condition for the efficient and reliable operation of optoelectronic microdevices. Minimum elastic stresses in multilayer heteroepitaxial systems and their lack in the active layer at that elevated temperature that occurs in an efficiently operating electronic device is the second necessary condition for its long-term operation

  19. Stoichiometric Defects in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Ting; Bedoya-Martinez, O. N.; Roma, G.; Liao, Ting; Liao, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Defect structures showing odd-membered rings are known features of several tetrahedral semiconductors as well as carbon nano-structures; examples of them are bond defects in crystalline and amorphous silicon, Stone Wales defects in fullerenes and carbon nano-tubes, and the core structure of partial dislocations in some tetrahedral semiconductors. We investigate, using Density Functional Theory, two types of stoichiometry-conserving defects, which we call SCD and anti-SCD and which are metastable structures presenting five- and seven-membered rings, both in the cubic and in the hexagonal 4H-SiC polytypes. We also investigate the annealing properties of the two mentioned variants and find that one of them (SCD) easily disappears, turning back to a normal site, while the other (anti-SCD) transforms to an antisite pair, overcoming a barrier of 0. 21 eV. The very short lifetimes at ambient conditions explain why those defects have not been observed up to now, but they suggest they should be observable at very low temperature, and we provide local vibrational modes to facilitate their identification. (authors)

  20. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  1. Flexoelectric control of defect formation in ferroelectric epitaxial thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daesu; Jeon, Byung Chul; Yoon, Aram; Shin, Yeong Jae; Lee, Myang Hwan; Song, Tae Kwon; Bu, Sang Don; Kim, Miyoung; Chung, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Noh, Tae Won

    2014-08-06

    Flexoelectric control of defect formation and associated electronic function is demonstrated in ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films. An intriguing, so far never demonstrated, effect of internal electric field (Eint ) on defect formation is explored by a means of flexoelectricity. Our study provides novel insight into defect engineering, as well as allows a pathway to design defect configuration and associated electronic function. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feature extraction of multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. B.; Crimmins, T.; Reyer, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for feature extraction of multispectral scanner data. Non-training data is used to demonstrate the reduction in processing time that can be obtained by using feature extraction rather than feature selection.

  4. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  5. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  6. Walker-Warburg Syndrome: A Case with multiple uncommon features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Hibba A; Mustafa, Babiker M; Jadallah, Yosif M

    2011-01-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disorder, caused by defective glycosylation of α-dystroglycan that is important for muscle integrity and neuronal migration. Mutations in six genes involved in the glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, FCMD, FKRP and LARGE) have been identified in WWS patients, and others remain under study. Prenatal diagnosis may be possible by means of prenatal ultrasonography, or magnetic resonance imaging. We report a patient demonstrating the typical clinical features of lissencephaly, congenital muscular dystrophy and ocular abnormalities, in addition to other features including hydrocephalus, occipital encephalocele, agenesis of the corpus collosum, microphthalmia, ventricular septal defect, and rocker bottom feet deformity.

  7. Structural defect induced peak splitting in gold-copper bimetallic nanorods during growth by single particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Sravan; Chen, Shutang; Zhou, Yadong; Zhang, Yong; Zou, Shengli; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-21

    A single particle level study of bimetallic nanoparticle growth provides valuable information that is usually hidden in ensemble measurements, helping to improve the understanding of a reaction mechanism and overcome the synthetic challenges. In this study, we use single particle spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the scattering spectra of Au-Cu alloy nanorods during growth. We found that the unique features of the single particle scattering spectra were due to atomic level geometric defects in the nanorods. Electrodynamics simulations have demonstrated that small structural defects of a few atomic layers split the scattering peaks, giving rise to higher order modes, which do not exist in defect-free rods of similar geometry. The study shows that single particle scattering technique is as sensitive as high-resolution electron microscopy in revealing atomic level structural defects.

  8. Strip Steel Surface Defects Recognition Based on SOCP Optimized Multiple Kernel RVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jingzhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Strip steel surface defect recognition is a pattern recognition problem with wide applications. Previous works on strip surface defect recognition mainly focus on feature selection and dimension reduction. There are also approaches on real-time systems that mainly exploit the autocorrection within some given picture. However, the instances cannot be used in practical applications because of a bad recognition rate and low efficiency. In this paper, we study the intelligent algorithm of strip steel surface defect recognition, where the goal is to improve the accuracy and save running time. This problem is very important in various applications, especially the process testing of steel manufacturing. We propose an approach called the second-order cone programming (SOCP optimized multiple kernel relevance vector machine (MKRVM, which can recognize strip surface defects much better than other methods. The method includes the model parameter estimation, training, and optimization of the model based on SOCP and the classification test. We compare our approach with existing methods on strip surface defect recognition. The results demonstrate that our proposed approach can improve the recognition accuracy and reduce the time costs of the strip surface defect.

  9. Fermi level dependent native defect formation: Consequences for metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1988-02-01

    The amphoteric native defect model of the Schottky barrier formation is used to analyze the Fermi level pinning at metal/semiconductor interfaces for submonolayer metal coverages. It is assumed that the energy required for defect generation is released in the process of surface back-relaxation. Model calculations for metal/GaAs interfaces show a weak dependence of the Fermi level pinning on the thickness of metal deposited at room temperature. This weak dependence indicates a strong dependence of the defect formation energy on the Fermi level, a unique feature of amphoteric native defects. This result is in very good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that a very distinct asymmetry in the Fermi level pinning on p- and n-type GaAs observed at liquid nitrogen temperatures can be understood in terms of much different recombination rates for amphoteric native defects in those two types of materials. Also, it is demonstrated that the Fermi level stabilization energy, a central concept of the amphoteric defect system, plays a fundamental role in other phenomena in semiconductors such as semiconductor/semiconductor heterointerface intermixing and saturation of free carrier concentration. 33 refs., 6 figs

  10. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  11. Multiscale simulations of defect dipole-enhanced electromechanical coupling at dilute defect concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    The role of defects in solids of mixed ionic-covalent bonds such as ferroelectric oxides is complex. Current understanding of defects on ferroelectric properties at the single-defect level remains mostly at the empirical level, and the detailed atomistic mechanisms for many defect-mediated polarization-switching processes have not been convincingly revealed quantum mechanically. We simulate the polarization-electric field (P-E) and strain-electric field (ɛ-E) hysteresis loops for BaTiO3 in the presence of generic defect dipoles with large-scale molecular dynamics and provide a detailed atomistic picture of the defect dipole-enhanced electromechanical coupling. We develop a general first-principles-based atomistic model, enabling a quantitative understanding of the relationship between macroscopic ferroelectric properties and dipolar impurities of different orientations, concentrations, and dipole moments. We find that the collective orientation of dipolar defects relative to the external field is the key microscopic structure feature that strongly affects materials hardening/softening and electromechanical coupling. We show that a small concentration (≈0.1 at. %) of defect dipoles dramatically improves electromechanical responses. This offers the opportunity to improve the performance of inexpensive polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics through defect dipole engineering for a range of applications including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers.

  12. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  13. Implementation of Chaotic Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimize Learning-to-Rank Software Defect Prediction Model Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchari, M. A.; Mardiyanto, S.; Hendradjaya, B.

    2018-03-01

    Finding the existence of software defect as early as possible is the purpose of research about software defect prediction. Software defect prediction activity is required to not only state the existence of defects, but also to be able to give a list of priorities which modules require a more intensive test. Therefore, the allocation of test resources can be managed efficiently. Learning to rank is one of the approach that can provide defect module ranking data for the purposes of software testing. In this study, we propose a meta-heuristic chaotic Gaussian particle swarm optimization to improve the accuracy of learning to rank software defect prediction approach. We have used 11 public benchmark data sets as experimental data. Our overall results has demonstrated that the prediction models construct using Chaotic Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization gets better accuracy on 5 data sets, ties in 5 data sets and gets worse in 1 data sets. Thus, we conclude that the application of Chaotic Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization in Learning-to-Rank approach can improve the accuracy of the defect module ranking in data sets that have high-dimensional features.

  14. Obtaining strong ferromagnetism in diluted Gd-doped ZnO thin films through controlled Gd-defect complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2015-02-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of reproducible long-range ferromagnetism (FM) in highly crystalline GdxZn1-xO thin films by controlling the defects. Films are grown on lattice-matched substrates by pulsed laser deposition at low oxygen pressures (≤25 mTorr) and low Gd concentrations (x ≤ 0.009). These films feature strong FM (10 μB per Gd atom) at room temperature. While films deposited at higher oxygen pressure do not exhibit FM, FM is recovered by post-annealing these films under vacuum. These findings reveal the contribution of oxygen deficiency defects to the long-range FM. We demonstrate the possible FM mechanisms, which are confirmed by density functional theory study, and show that Gd dopants are essential for establishing FM that is induced by intrinsic defects in these films.

  15. Defects in hardwood timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  16. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... with cosmetic deformity of fore head (Figure 1), and he claimed that he could not get job because of ... 1: Pre-operative forontal view of patient. Figure 2: Intra operative photography of defect (A) reconstructed defect (B) ... with a cosmetic deformity of forehead on left side. (4nA and B). He was a candidate for.

  17. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  18. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  19. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  20. Dorsal defect on a multi-partite patella: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Salvado, E.; Ramos, A.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Centre de Ressonancia Magnetica, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Coincidence of dorsal defect on a multipartite patella constitutes a rare cause of anterior knee pain in the first decades of life. Imaging findings of this uncommon symptomatic skeletal variant are discussed, with emphasis on MR features. (orig.)

  1. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  2. Thermo-kinetic mechanisms for grain boundary structure multiplicity, thermal instability and defect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbery, N.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Das, R., E-mail: r.das@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Ferguson, W.G. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-08-15

    Grain boundaries (GBs) provide a source and/or a sink for crystal defects and store elastic energy due to the non-uniform atomic bonding structure of the GB core. GB structures are thermodynamically driven to transition to the lowest energy configuration possible; however to date there has been little evidence to explain why specific GB structures have a low energy state. Furthermore, there is little quantitative demonstration of the significance of physical and GB structure characteristics on the GB energy, thermal stability, and the effect of temporary local GB structure transformations on defect interactions. This paper evaluates the defect interactions and structure stability of multiple Σ5(310) GB structures in bi-crystals of pure aluminium, and systematically investigates the features at 0 K to characterise multiple metastable structures. Structure stability is evaluated by utilising unstable vacancy defects to initiate GB transformations, and using nudged elastic band simulations to quantify this with the activation energy. The emission of stable vacancy defects from the ‘stable’ and metastable grain boundaries is also evaluated in the same manner. A detailed analysis of dislocation nucleation at the atomistic scale demonstrates that local transformations of GB structure between stable and metastable intermediates can provide a mechanism to accommodate the generation of crystal defects. Kinetic (time-dependent) effects that compete with energetic driving forces for structural transformations of GBs are shown to cause a significant effect on the activation properties that may exceed the influence of GB potential energy. The results demonstrate that GB structural multiplicity can be associated with the generation and absorption of dislocations and vacancies. This paper demonstrates the suitability of atomistic simulations coupled with nudged elastic band simulations to evaluate fundamental thermodynamic properties of pure FCC metals. Overall, this paper

  3. Anatomy of a wrong diagnosis: false Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montresor Graziano

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In contrast with transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography provides a sure way to make the diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect; on the other hand this abnormality is more complex than that seen with the secundum atrial septal defect, and inexperienced operators may fail to recognize properly the defect. In front of a high reported sensitivity using transesophageal echocardiography, specificity is difficult to assess, due to possible underreporting of diagnostic errors. We describe a false positive diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect, in the setting of enlarged right chambers of the heart because of pressure overload. Modified anatomy of the heart, together with the presence of a prominent linear structure(probably Eustachian Valve and an incomplete examination in this case made image interpretation very prone to misinterpretation. In this anatomical setting transesophageal longitudinal "bicaval" view may be sub-optimal for examining the atrial septum, potentially showing false images that need to be known for correct image interpretation. Nonetheless, a scan plane taken more accurately at the superior level would have demonstrated/excluded the pathognomonic feature of sinus venosus atrial septal defect in the high atrial septum, between the fatty limbus and the inferior aspect of the right pulmonary artery; moreover TEE allows morphological information about the posterior structures of the heart that need to be investigated in detail for a complete diagnosis.

  4. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  5. Computational mask defect review for contamination and haze inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram; Wolf, Yulian; Shah, Pinkesh

    2013-09-01

    the mask manufacturing process. The latter characterization qualifies real defect signatures, such as pin-dots or pin-holes, extrusions or intrusions, assist-feature or dummy-fill defects, writeerrors or un-repairable defects, chrome-on-shifter or missing chrome-from-shifter defects, particles, etc., and also false defect signatures, such as those due to inspection tool registration or image alignment, interlace artifacts, CCD camera artifacts, optical shimmer, focus errors, etc. Such qualitative characterization of defects has enabled better inspection tool SPC and process defect control in the mask shop. In this paper, the same computational approach to defect review has been extended to contamination style defect inspections, including Die-to-Die reflected, and non Die-to-Die or single-die inspections. In addition to the computational methods used for transmitted aerial images, defects detected in die-to-die reflected light mode are analyzed based on special defect and background coloring in reflected-light, and other characteristics to determine the exact type and severity. For those detected in the non Die-to-Die mode, only defect images are available from the inspection tool. Without a reference, i.e., defect-free image, it is often difficult to determine the true nature or impact of the defect in question. Using a combination of inspection-tool modeling and image inversion techniques, Luminescent's LAIPHTM system generates an accurate reference image, and then proceeds with automated defect characterization as if the images were simply from a die-to-die inspection. The disposition of contamination style defects this way, filters out >90% of false and nuisance defects that otherwise would have been manually reviewed or measured on AIMSTM. Such computational defect review, unifying defect disposition across all available inspection modes, has been imperative to ensuring no yield losses due to errors in operator defect classification on one hand, and on the other

  6. Curvature-Controlled Topological Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Mesarec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effectively, two-dimensional (2D closed films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering (ordered shells might be instrumental for the realization of scaled crystals. In them, ordered shells are expected to play the role of atoms. Furthermore, topological defects (TDs within them would determine their valence. Namely, bonding among shells within an isotropic liquid matrix could be established via appropriate nano-binders (i.e., linkers which tend to be attached to the cores of TDs exploiting the defect core replacement mechanism. Consequently, by varying configurations of TDs one could nucleate growth of scaled crystals displaying different symmetries. For this purpose, it is of interest to develop a simple and robust mechanism via which one could control the position and number of TDs in such atoms. In this paper, we use a minimal mesoscopic model, where variational parameters are the 2D curvature tensor and the 2D orientational tensor order parameter. We demonstrate numerically the efficiency of the effective topological defect cancellation mechanism to predict positional assembling of TDs in ordered films characterized by spatially nonhomogeneous Gaussian curvature. Furthermore, we show how one could efficiently switch among qualitatively different structures by using a relative volume v of ordered shells, which represents a relatively simple naturally accessible control parameter.

  7. Single Ventricle Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects along with pulmonary atresia. (Children with tetralogy of Fallot who also have pulmonary atresia may have treatment similar to others with tetralogy of Fallot.) How does it affect the heart? An opening ...

  8. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  9. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  10. Imaging features of thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Dincol, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of {beta}-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  11. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructures....... With the help of density functional theory calculations we develop a complete structural model for the entire strand and demonstrate these adstructures to be more stable than an equivalent amount of bulk defects such as Ti interstitials. We argue that strands can form particularly easy on stepped surfaces...

  12. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  13. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  14. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  15. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  16. Local and nonlocal defect-mediated electroweak baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.; Davis, A.; Prokopec, T.; Trodden, M.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the effects of particle transport in topological defect-mediated electroweak baryogenesis scenarios. We analyze the cases of both thin and thick defects and demonstrate an enhancement of the original mechanism in both cases due to an increased effective volume in which baryogenesis occurs. This phenomenon is a result of an imperfect cancellation between the baryons and antibaryons produced on opposite faces of the defect. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská

    2009-01-01

    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  18. Demonstration of passive safety features in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, H.P. Jr.; Golden, G.H.; Sackett, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Two tests of great importance to the design of future commercial nuclear power plants were carried out in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II on April 3, 1986. These tests, (viewed by about 60 visitors, including 13 foreign LMR specialists) were a loss of flow without scram and a loss of heat sink without scram, both from 100% initial power. In these tests, inherent feedback shut the reactor down without damage to the fuel or other reactor components. This resulted primarily from advantageous characteristics of the metal driver fuel used in EBR-II. Work is currently underway at EBR-II to develop a control strategy that promotes inherent safety characteristics, including survivability of transient overpower accidents. In parallel, work is underway at EBR-II on the development of state-of-the-art plant diagnostic techniques

  19. Automatic Detection of Welding Defects using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenhui; Wei, Ye; Guo, Jie; Jin, Yi; Zhu, Chang’an

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic detection schema including three stages for weld defects in x-ray images. Firstly, the preprocessing procedure for the image is implemented to locate the weld region; Then a classification model which is trained and tested by the patches cropped from x-ray images is constructed based on deep neural network. And this model can learn the intrinsic feature of images without extra calculation; Finally, the sliding-window approach is utilized to detect the whole images based on the trained model. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, we carry out several experiments. The results demonstrate that the classification model we proposed is effective in the detection of welded joints quality.

  20. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  1. Structure defects in cementite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    After a presentation of experimental techniques (elaboration principles, elaboration techniques, and investigation techniques for cementite thin layers and iron-carbon massive alloys), the author of this research thesis reports the study of cementite structure (interatomic distance, description and representation), reports the study of iron-carbon thin layers (structure, influence of silicon, defects), reports the study of perfect and imperfect dislocations and of plane defects in cementite. The author also reports hardness measurements, and discusses the relationships between cementite and other iron carbides

  2. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  3. Point defects in group IV semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzini, S

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this book is to focus on the properties of defects in semiconductors of the fourth group under a physico-chemical approach, capable to demonstrate whether the full acknowledgement of their chemical nature could account for several problems encountered in practice or would suggest further experimental or theoretical accomplishments.

  4. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  5. Generation of optical vorticity from topological defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeron, Sébastien [Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Pereira, Erms [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Escola Politécnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco, Rua Benfíca, 455, 50720-001 Recife, PE (Brazil); Moraes, Fernando, E-mail: moraes@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física and Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Física, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    The propagation of an electromagnetic wave along a chiral string (or screw dislocation) is studied. Adopting the formalism of differential forms, it is shown that the singular torsion of the defect is responsible for quantized modes. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the modes thus obtained have well defined orbital angular momentum, opening the possibility for applications relevant both for cosmology and for optics.

  6. Evaluation of a biodegradable graft substitute in rabbit bone defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoBo Yang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the novel biodegradable copolymers can repair large areas of cancellous bone defects. With its controllable degradation rate, it suggests that CS/PAA may be a series of useful therapeutic substitute for bone defects.

  7. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  8. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sizes were less than 100 Si atoms due to computational limitations. An interesting parallel is that current first principles calculations alluded to in §5 are size ham- pered for similar reasons. These 'defect molecule' calculations were probably the first studies in SN. We believe that a perusal of this 'ancient' scientific literature.

  9. Production of point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1975-01-01

    Vacancies at thermodynamic equilibrium and the annealing of these defects are studied first, after which electron irradiations are dealt with. The displacement threshold energy concept is introduced. Part three concerns heavy ion and neutron irradiations. Displacement cascades and the thermal spike concept are discussed [fr

  10. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Semiconductor Nanowires: Defects Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2008-05-01

    Structural defects commonly observed in semiconducting nanowires by electron microscopy will be reviewed and their origins discussed. Their effects on electrical and optical properties will be illustrated with examples from GaSb, InAs, and ZnSe nanowires grown by MOCVD and MBE.

  12. Transient fatty cortical defects following fractures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malghem, J.; Maldague, B.

    1986-01-01

    Self-regressing subperiosteal defects appearing during consolidation of fractures were observed in two children aged 6 and 10 years, in the tibia and the radious respectively. These transient defects appeared several weeks after fracture, at a distance from the fracture site. They involved the newly formed subperiosteal bone, did not enlarge, and were replaced progressively by normal-appearing bone. A computed tomography (CT) study performed on one of these defects demonstrated a density consistent with a fatty content. It is suggested that these transient post-traumatic defect could result from the inclusion of medulary fat drops within the subperiosteal heamtoma near the fracture site. (orig.)

  13. CT appearance of congenital defect resembling the Hangman's fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.P. III; Baker, D.H.; Miller, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. Congenital defects of C2 are rare and can be confused with Hangman's fractures. CT has been advocated as aiding in differentiation between an acute fracture and congenital defects. Methods. We present a case of a 2-year-old recent accident victim, who was erroneously diagnosed by plain film and CT as having a Hangman's fracture. Results. The CT demonstrated an atypical appearance of a congenital defect. Conclusion. This case shows that the radiographic differentiation between a Hangman's fracture and a congenital defect is more difficult than previously described. (orig.)

  14. Tunable defect mode realized by graphene-based photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan, E-mail: dhtyyobdc@126.com; Lv, Bo

    2016-04-29

    In this literature, we propose an active terahertz 1D photonic crystal, which consists of silicon layers and air layers. A graphene sheet is embedded at the interface between dielectric and air. Tunable photonic band gap is realized by changing the Fermi level of graphene. Transmission Matrix Method is utilized to explain the influence of the graphene layer. We also demonstrate that a dielectric slab attached with a thin sheet made of single-negative metamaterial acts like a pure dielectric slab with a thinner thickness. A tunable blue shift of the band gap can be realized by simply applying different chemical potentials on the graphene sheet. This feature can be utilized for the design of tunable high-gain antenna array and force generator in terahertz band. - Highlights: • A novel PhC embedded with grapheme sheets is presented, tunable defect is realized. • The mechanism of the tunable defect is explained using the change of equivalent thickness. • The electromagnetic force of a slab is calculated, which indicates the structure can serve as a tunable force generator.

  15. Analysis of the defect clusters in congruent lithium tantalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalikh, Anastasia; Zschornak, Matthias; Köhler, Thomas; Nentwich, Melanie; Weigel, Tina; Hanzig, Juliane; Zaripov, Ruslan; Vavilova, Evgenia; Gemming, Sibylle; Brendler, Erica; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2018-01-01

    A wide range of technological applications of lithium tantalate (LT) is closely related to the defect chemistry. In literature, several intrinsic defect models have been proposed. Here, using a combinational approach based on DFT and solid-state NMR, we demonstrate that distribution of electric field gradients (EFGs) can be employed as a fingerprint of a specific defect configuration. Analyzing the distribution of 7Li EFGs, the FT-IR and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, and the 7Li spin-lattice relaxation behavior, we have found that the congruent LT samples provided by two manufacturers show rather different defect concentrations and distributions although both were grown by the Czochralski method. After thermal treatment hydrogen out-diffusion and homogeneous distribution of other defects have been observed by ESR, NMR, and FT-IR. The defect structure in one of two congruent LT crystals after annealing has been identified and proved by defect formation energy considerations, whereas the more complex defect configuration, including the presence of extrinsic defects, has been suggested for the other LT sample. The approach of searching the EFG fingerprints from DFT calculations in NMR spectra can be applied for identifying the defect clusters in other complex oxides.

  16. Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keller, Jonas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm Univ., Ulm, (Germany):Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ulm Univ.,Ulm, (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech Hubert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); del Campo, Adolfo [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-11-19

    We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.

  17. Internal defect inspection in magnetic tile by using acoustic resonance technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luofeng; Yin, Ming; Huang, Qinyuan; Zhao, Yue; Deng, Zhenbo; Xiang, Zhaowei; Yin, Guofu

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on the validity of a nondestructive methodology for magnetic tile internal defect inspection based on acoustic resonance. The principle of this methodology is to analyze the acoustic signal collected from the collision of magnetic tile with a metal block. To accomplish the detection process, the separating part of the detection system is designed and discussed in detail in this paper. A simplified mathematical model is constructed to analyze the characteristics of the impact of magnetic tile with a metal block. The results demonstrate that calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) can diagnose the internal defect of magnetic tile. Two different data-driven multivariate algorithms are adopted to obtain the feature set, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical nonlinear principal component analysis (h-NLPCA). Three different classifiers are then performed to deal with magnetic tile classification problem based on features extracted by PCA or h-NLPCA. The classifiers adopted in this paper are fuzzy neural networks (FNN), variable predictive model based class discrimination (VPMCD) method and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results show that all six methods are successful in identifying the magnetic tile internal defect. In this paper, the effect of environmental noise is also considered, and the classification results show that all the methods have high immunity to background noise, especially PCA-SVM and h-NLPCA-SVM. Considering the accuracy rate, computation cost problem and the ease of implementation, PCA-SVM turns out to be the best method for this purpose.

  18. Defective cerebrovascular autoregulation after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid endartere......Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid...... (130-332)% of the preoperative value (p reduced in symptomatic patients with labetalol, ipsilateral Vmean decreased from 92 (69-124) to 56 (32-93) cm s-1 (p ... that ipsilateral middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity was pressure dependent. This substantiates the hypothesis of defective autoregulation in the ipsilateral hemisphere after carotid endarterectomy, and in turn demonstrates an immediate cessation of symptoms with reduction of arterial pressure even...

  19. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a heart defect should avoid getting body piercings. Piercing increases the possibility that bacteria can get into ... damage heart valves. If you're considering a piercing and you have a heart defect, talk to ...

  20. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed until the teen years — or even adulthood. Newborn Screening Newborns in the U.S. are screened at ... Has a Heart Defect Coarctation of the Aorta Arrhythmias Mitral Valve Prolapse Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal ...

  1. Defects in Quantum Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H; Zwolak, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The shift of interest from general purpose quantum computers to adiabatic quantum computing or quantum annealing calls for a broadly applicable and easy to implement test to assess how quantum or adiabatic is a specific hardware. Here we propose such a test based on an exactly solvable many body system-the quantum Ising chain in transverse field-and implement it on the D-Wave machine. An ideal adiabatic quench of the quantum Ising chain should lead to an ordered broken symmetry ground state with all spins aligned in the same direction. An actual quench can be imperfect due to decoherence, noise, flaws in the implemented Hamiltonian, or simply too fast to be adiabatic. Imperfections result in topological defects: Spins change orientation, kinks punctuating ordered sections of the chain. The number of such defects quantifies the extent by which the quantum computer misses the ground state, and is, therefore, imperfect.

  2. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  3. Optical properties and defect structure of crystalline bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gindin, I.A.; Chirkina, L.A.; Metolidi, Eh.N.

    1989-01-01

    The main features of optical characteristics of ion, semiconductor and metal crystals have been analysed. It is shown that various types of defects resulting from mechanical and thermal action have significant effect on optical properties of materials with various types of interatomic interaction. The main regularities and differences in defect structure effect on optical properties of ion, semiconductor and metal crystal are detected. 52 refs.; 17 figs

  4. Fetal Valproate Syndrome with Limb Defects: An Indian Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common disorder and exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy increases the risk of teratogenicity. Older AEDs such as valproate and phenobarbital are associated with a higher risk of major malformations in the fetus than newer AEDs like lamotrigine and levetiracetam. Exposure to valproic acid during first trimester can result in fetal valproate syndrome (FVS, comprising typical facial features, developmental delay, and a variety of malformations such as neural tube defects, cardiac and genitourinary malformations, and limb defects. We are presenting an Indian case of FVS with major limb defects.

  5. Defect detection in textured materials using optimized filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Pang, G H

    2002-01-01

    The problem of automated defect detection in textured materials is investigated. A new approach for defect detection using linear FIR filters with optimized energy separation is proposed. The performance of different feature separation criteria with reference to fabric defects has been evaluated. The issues relating to the design of optimal filters for supervised and unsupervised web inspection are addressed. A general web inspection system based on the optimal filters is proposed. The experiments on this new approach have yielded excellent results. The low computational requirement confirms the usefulness of the approach for industrial inspection.

  6. Induced Magnetic Moment in Defected Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong

    2006-01-01

    The existence of a large induced magnetic moment in defect single-walled carbon nanotube(SWNT) is predicted using the Green's function method. Specific to this magnetic moment of defect SWNT is its magnitude which is several orders of magnitude larger than that of perfect SWNT. The induced magnetic moment also shows certain remarkable features. Therefore, we suggest that two pair-defect orientations in SWNT can be distinguished in experiment through the direction of the induced magnetic moment at some Specific energy points

  7. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  8. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  9. Electronic structure of defects in semiconductor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussy, Bernard; Ganghoffer, Jean Francois

    2002-01-01

    Full text.heterojunctions and semiconductors and superlattices are well known and well used by people interested in optoelectronics communications. Components based on the use of heterojunctions are interesting for confinement of light and increase of quantum efficiency. An heterojunction is the contact zone between two different semiconductors, for example GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As. Superlattices are a succession of heterojunctions (up to 10 or 20). These systems have been the subjects of many experiments ao analyse the contact between semiconductors. They also have been theoretically studied by different types of approach. The main result of those studies is the prediciton of band discontinuities. Defects in heterojunctions are real traps for charge carriers; they can affect the efficiency of the component decreasing the currents and the fluxes in it. the knowledge of their electronic structure is important, a great density of defects deeply modifies the electronic structure of the whole material creating real new bands of energy in the band structure of the component. in the first part of this work, we will describe the heterostructure and the defect in terms of quantum wells and discrete levels. This approach allows us to show the role of the width of the quantum well describing the structure but induces specific behaviours due to the one dimensional modelling. Then a perturbative treatment is proposed using the Green's functions formalism. We build atomic chains with different types of atoms featuring the heterostructure and the defect. Densities of states of a structure with a defect and levels associated to the defect are obtained. Results are comparable with the free electrons work, but the modelling do not induce problems due to a one dimensional approach. To extend our modelling, a three dimensions approach, based on a cavity model, is investigated. The influence of the defect, - of hydrogenoid type - introduced in the structure, is described by a cavity

  10. Thermal properties of defective fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defective fullerene (C60) by using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of C60 with one defect is lower than the thermal conductivity of perfect C60. However, double defects in C60 have either positive or negative influence on the thermal conductivity, which depends on the positions of the defects. The phonon spectra of perfect and defective C60 are also provided to give corresponding supports. Our results can be extended to long C60 chains, which is helpful for the thermal management of C60.

  11. INTERSTELLAR ANALOGS FROM DEFECTIVE CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES ACCOUNT FOR INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhenquan; Abe, Hiroya; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Ohara, Satoshi; Chihara, Hiroki; Koike, Chiyoe; Kaneko, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Because interstellar dust is closely related to the evolution of matter in the galactic environment and many other astrophysical phenomena, the laboratory synthesis of interstellar dust analogs has received significant attention over the past decade. To simulate the ultraviolet (UV) interstellar extinction feature at 217.5 nm originating from carbonaceous interstellar dust, many reports focused on the UV absorption properties of laboratory-synthesized interstellar dust analogs. However, no general relation has been established between UV interstellar extinction and artificial interstellar dust analogs. Here, we show that defective carbon nanostructures prepared by high-energy collisions exhibit a UV absorption feature at 220 nm which we suggest accounts for the UV interstellar extinction at 217.5 nm. The morphology of some carbon nanostructures is similar to that of nanocarbons discovered in the Allende meteorite. The similarity between the absorption feature of the defective carbon nanostructures and UV interstellar extinction indicates a strong correlation between the defective carbon nanostructures and interstellar dust.

  12. A graphical automated detection system to locate hardwood log surface defects using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liya Thomas; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an automated defect detection system and a state-of-the-art Graphic User Interface (GUI) for hardwood logs. The algorithm identifies defects at least 0.5 inch high and at least 3 inches in diameter on barked hardwood log and stem surfaces. To summarize defect features and to build a knowledge base, hundreds of defects were measured, photographed, and...

  13. The Kinetics of Dislocation Loop Formation in Ferritic Alloys Through the Aggregation of Irradiation Induced Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Aaron Anthony

    The mechanical properties of materials are often degraded over time by exposure to irradiation environments, a phenomenon that has hindered the development of multiple nuclear reactor design concepts. Such property changes are the result of microstructural changes induced by the collision of high energy particles with the atoms in a material. The lattice defects generated in these recoil events migrate and interact to form extended damage structures. This study has used theoretical models based on the mean field chemical reaction rate theory to analyze the aggregation of isolated lattice defects into larger microstructural features that are responsible for long term property changes, focusing on the development of black dot damage in ferritic iron based alloys. The purpose of such endeavors is two-fold. Primarily, such models explain and quantify the processes through which these microstructures form. Additionally, models provide insight into the behavior and properties of the point defects and defect clusters which drive general microstructural evolution processes. The modeling effort presented in this work has focused on physical fidelity, drawing from a variety of sources of information to characterize the unobservable defect generation and agglomeration processes that give rise to the observable features reported in experimental data. As such, the models are based not solely on isolated point defect creation, as is the case with many older rate theory approaches, but instead on realistic estimates of the defect cluster population produced in high energy cascade damage events. Experimental assessments of the microstructural changes evident in transmission electron microscopy studies provide a means to measure the efficacy of the kinetic models. Using common assumptions of the mobility of defect clusters generated in cascade damage conditions, an unphysically high density of damage features develops at the temperatures of interest with a temperature dependence

  14. Point defects in lines in single crystalline phosphorene: directional migration and tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Ma, Liang; Wang, Dayong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-10-20

    Extended line defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can play an important role in modulating their electronic properties. During the experimental synthesis of 2D materials, line defects are commonly generated at grain boundaries between domains of different orientations. In this work, twelve types of line-defect structures in single crystalline phosphorene are examined by using first-principles calculations. These line defects are typically formed via migration and aggregation of intrinsic point defects, including the Stone-Wales (SW), single or double vacancy (SV or DV) defects. Our calculated results demonstrate that the migration of point defects in phosphorene is anisotropic, for instance, the lowest migration energy barriers are 1.39 (or 0.40) and 2.58 (or 0.49) eV for SW (or SV) defects in zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The aggregation of point defects into lines is energetically favorable compared with the separated point defects in phosphorene. In particular, the axis of line defects in phosphorene is direction-selective, depending on the composed point defects. The presence of line defects effectively modulates the electronic properties of phosphorene, rendering the defect-containing phosphorene either metallic or semiconducting with a tunable band gap. Of particular interest is the fact that the SV-based line defect can behave as a metallic wire, suggesting a possibility to fabricate a circuit with subnanometer widths in the semiconducting phosphorene for nanoscale electronic application.

  15. High Defect Tolerance in Lead Halide Perovskite CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-01-19

    The formation energies and charge-transition levels of intrinsic point defects in lead halide perovskite CsPbBr 3 are studied from first-principles calculations. It is shown that the formation energy of dominant defect under Br-rich growth condition is much lower than that under moderate or Br-poor conditions. Thus avoiding the Br-rich condition can help to reduce the defect concentration. Interestingly, CsPbBr 3 is found to be highly defect-tolerant in terms of its electronic structure. Most of the intrinsic defects induce shallow transition levels. Only a few defects with high formation energies can create deep transition levels. Therefore, CsPbBr 3 can maintain its good electronic quality despite the presence of defects. Such defect tolerance feature can be attributed to the lacking of bonding-antibonding interaction between the conduction bands and valence bands.

  16. Use of self-organizing maps for classification of defects in the tubes from the steam generator of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Roberto Navarro de

    2002-01-01

    This thesis obtains a new classification method for different steam generator tube defects in nuclear power plants using Eddy Current Test signals. The method uses self-organizing maps to compare different signal characteristics efficiency to identify and classify these defects. A multiple inference system is proposed which composes the different extracted characteristic trained maps classification to infer the final defect type. The feature extraction methods used are the Wavelet zero-crossings representation, the linear predictive coding (LPC), and other basic signal representations on time like module and phase. Many characteristic vectors are obtained with combinations of these extracted characteristics. These vectors are tested to classify the defects and the best ones are applied to the multiple inference system. A systematic study of pre-processing, calibration and analysis methods for the steam generator tube defect signals in nuclear power plants is done. The method efficiency is demonstrated and characteristic maps with the main prototypes are obtained for each steam generator tube defect type. (author)

  17. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  18. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  19. Electron damage and defects in organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    The nature of the defects discernable from and the radiation damage that is induced by high resolution electron microscopy is reported. The structural aspects of the radiation damage process can be correlated to the expected radiochemical decomposition of these materials and these effects identified. The types of local defect formed by radiation damage are often clearly distinguishable, in high resolution images, from those inherent in the microstructure. Techniques used in this type of electron microscopy and the limitations imposed by radiation damage are described as are the relevant radiochemical characteristics of these processes. In copper pthalocyanine, microstructural features distinct from those induced by radiation damage were identified which are consistent with those predicted and described by other workers in similar materials. The high resolution studies indicate that some of the microstructures observed are caused by structural rearrangements that can account, to some extent, for additional crystallographic forms that have been identified in this material and the photochemical behaviour of related structures

  20. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  1. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  2. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Lovesey, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  3. The effect of defect cluster size and interpolation on radiographic image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpfer, Karin; Yip, Kwok L.

    2011-03-01

    For digital X-ray detectors, the need to control factory yield and cost invariably leads to the presence of some defective pixels. Recently, a standard procedure was developed to identify such pixels for industrial applications. However, no quality standards exist in medical or industrial imaging regarding the maximum allowable number and size of detector defects. While the answer may be application specific, the minimum requirement for any defect specification is that the diagnostic quality of the images be maintained. A more stringent criterion is to keep any changes in the images due to defects below the visual threshold. Two highly sensitive image simulation and evaluation methods were employed to specify the fraction of allowable defects as a function of defect cluster size in general radiography. First, the most critical situation of the defect being located in the center of the disease feature was explored using image simulation tools and a previously verified human observer model, incorporating a channelized Hotelling observer. Detectability index d' was obtained as a function of defect cluster size for three different disease features on clinical lung and extremity backgrounds. Second, four concentrations of defects of four different sizes were added to clinical images with subtle disease features and then interpolated. Twenty observers evaluated the images against the original on a single display using a 2-AFC method, which was highly sensitive to small changes in image detail. Based on a 50% just-noticeable difference, the fraction of allowed defects was specified vs. cluster size.

  4. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  5. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  6. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  7. One step automated unpatterned wafer defect detection and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Lie; Kesler, Daniel; Bruno, William; Monjak, Charles; Hunt, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Automated detection and classification of crystalline defects on micro-grade silicon wafers is extremely important for integrated circuit (IC) device yield. High training cost, limited capability of classifying defects, increasing possibility of contamination, and unexpected human mistakes necessitate the need to replace the human visual inspection with automated defect inspection. The Laser Scanning Surface Inspection Systems (SSISs) equipped with the Reconvergent Specular Detection (RSD) apparatus are widely used for final wafer inspection. RSD, more commonly known as light channel detection (LC), is capable of detecting and classifying material defects by analyzing information from two independent phenomena, light scattering and reflecting. This paper presents a new technique including a new type of light channel detector to detect and classify wafer surface defects such as slipline dislocation, Epi spikes, Pits, and dimples. The optical system to study this technique consists of a particle scanner to detect and quantify light scattering events from contaminants on the wafer surface and a RSD apparatus (silicon photo detector). Compared with the light channel detector presently used in the wafer fabs, this new light channel technique provides higher sensitivity for small defect detection and more defect scattering signatures for defect classification. Epi protrusions (mounds and spikes), slip dislocations, voids, dimples, and some other common defect features and contamination on silicon wafers are studied using this equipment. The results are compared quantitatively with that of human visual inspection and confirmed by microscope or AFM. This new light channel technology could provide the real future solution to the wafer manufacturing industry for fully automated wafer inspection and defect characterization

  8. Defective pyrite (100) surface: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andras; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of sulfur monomeric defects at the FeS 2 (100) surface have been studied by periodic density-functional calculations. We have shown that for a monomeric sulfur bound to an originally fivefold coordinated surface Fe site, the defect core features a triplet electronic ground state with unpaired spins localized on the exposed Fe-S unit. At this site, the iron and sulfur ions have oxidation states +4 and -2, respectively. This defect can be seen as produced via heterolytic bond breaking of the S-S sulfur dimer followed by a Fe-S redox reaction. The calculated sulfur 2p core-level shifts of the monomeric defects are in good agreement with experimental photoemission spectra, which allow a compelling assignment of the different spectroscopic features. The effect of water on the stability of the defective surface has also been studied, and it has been shown that the triplet state is stable against the wetting of the surface. The most important implications of the presence of the monomeric sulfur defect on the reactivity are also discussed

  9. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  10. Diaphragmatic defect in trisomy 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Reinwein, H.; Back, E.

    1986-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic defect is often combined with other malformations that are severe or fatal. The rare finding of a congenital diaphragmatic defect in a newborn with trisomy 13 is reported. The newborn died within 2 days. Postmortem examination showed typical malformations due to trisomy 13 besides a diaphragmatic defect of left retrosternal position. Karyotype revealed a 13/14 translocation of trisomy 13. (orig.) [de

  11. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  12. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  14. Who named the quantum defect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, A.R.P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Inokuti, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-08-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term quantum defect does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. The authors present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments.

  15. Classical diagnostic radiological features of Von Recklinghausen's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and appropriately guiding management decisions. The patient presented is a 29- year old female who had presented with right orbital and periorbital masses, lisch nodules, multiple scalp and body nodules, cranial bony defect and complex kyphoscoliosis. She had three of the seven classical diagnostic features of NF-1 ...

  16. [Biological downsizing : Acetabular defect reconstruction in revision total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, S; Scheidt, S; Randau, T M; Gathen, M; Wimmer, M D; Wirtz, D C; Gravius, S

    2017-02-01

    Periacetabular bony defects remain a great challenge in revision total hip arthroplasty. After assessment and classification of the defect and selection of a suitable implant the primary stable fixation and sufficient biological reconstitution of a sustainable bone stock are essential for long term success in acetabular revision surgery. Biological defect reconstruction aims for the down-sizing of periacetabular defects for later revision surgeries. In the field of biological augmentation several methods are currently available. Autologous transplants feature a profound osseointegrative capacity. However, limitations such as volume restrictions and secondary complications at the donor site have to be considered. Structural allografts show little weight bearing potential in the long term and high failure rates. In clinical practice, the usage of spongious chips implanted via impaction bone grafting technique in combination with antiprotrusio cages for the management of contained defects have shown promising long time results. Nevertheless, when dealing with craniolateral acetabular and dorsal column defects, the additional implantation of macroporous metal implants or augments should be considered since biological augmentation has shown little clinical success in these particular cases. This article provides an overview of the current clinically available biological augmentation methods of peri-acetabular defects. Due to the limitations of autologous and allogeneic bone transplants in terms of size and availability, the emerging field of innovative implantable tissue engineering constructs gains interest and will also be discussed in this article.

  17. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...

  18. The article presents the analysis results of the production processes aimed at service production. The main features of service production are described and the terms of service production are formulated. It has been demonstrated, that airports can be considered as a service production enterprise. The specific features of the production peculiar to airports are noted. The production process at the airport is associated with the need to fulfill certain processes in real time, the presenceof random factors affecting the process (weather conditions, schedule changes, etc., special safety requirements, which lead to increase of the role of production informatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis results of the production processes aimed at service production. The main features of service production are described and the terms of service production are formulated. It has been demonstrated, that air- ports can be considered as a service production enterprise. The specific features of the production peculiar to airports are noted. The production process at the airport is associated with the need to fulfill certain processes in real time, the presenceof random factors affecting the process (weather conditions, schedule changes, etc., special safety requirements, which lead to increase of the role of production informatization.

  19. Detection of electrical defects with SEMVision in semiconductor production mode manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Travis; Tillotson, Brock; Pearl, Haim; Miller, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In the semiconductor manufacturing process, defects often occur due to a marginal process window that affects the lithography and etch processes. These defects can result in bridging patterns and overlay issues, which consequently cause electrical shorts and partially etched vias producing electrical opens. SEM tools are used to find electrical failures through voltage contrast techniques. Manufacturers who fabricate with older process technology nodes often need to use their tool set more efficiently. This paper demonstrates an application of conventional SEM review with image to golden reference image inspection capabilities in Automatic Process Inspection (API ) mode to perform electrical inspections of die features. This paper details how to use a SEM review tool to detect systematic electrical defects. This methodology can prove beneficial while monitoring and developing patterning techniques for a specific design rule by catching electrical shorts and opens that are more visible at a lower resolution inspection used in process monitoring. Outcomes of this effort show that conventional review SEM techniques, using known areas prone to process inconsistencies derived from features pushing the design rule, have the capability to effectively and efficiently monitor fabrication process while implemented in a production setting at process nodes between 100 to 200 nm. Using e-beam review tools offers several advantages and disadvantages. This paper demonstrates that by using a SEM review tool and selecting die locations for imaging that are more likely to fail electrically, manufacturers can use SEM automatic review capabilities more effectively and efficiently. The application developed may also be applied in fabrication facilities that have limited yield monitoring capacity. This paper is a result of collaboration between Applied Materials and Microchip Technology Inc.

  20. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  1. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  2. Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Shen; Kyu Jang, Sung; Jae Song, Young; Lee, Sungjoo

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality

  3. In Situ Observation of Antisite Defect Formation during Crystal Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, R. E.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to quantify antisite defect trapping during crystallization. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data revealed a marked lattice distortion which involves an a axis expansion and a c axis contraction of the stable C11b phase. The observed lattice response is proportional in magnitude to the growth rate, suggesting that the behavior is associated with the kinetic trapping of lattice defects. MD simulations demonstrate that this lattice response is due to incorporation of 1% to 2% antisite defects during growth.

  4. Defects in middle ear cavitation cause conductive hearing loss in the Tcof1 mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Carol A; Amin, Susan; Linden, Jennifer; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Tucker, Abigail S

    2010-04-15

    Conductive hearing loss (CHL) is one of the most common forms of human deafness. Despite this observation, a surprising gap in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying CHL remains, particularly with respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying middle ear development and disease. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of facial development that results from mutations in the gene TCOF1. CHL is a common feature of TCS but the causes of the hearing defect have not been studied. In this study, we have utilized Tcof1 mutant mice to dissect the developmental mechanisms underlying CHL. Our results demonstrate that effective cavitation of the middle ear is intimately linked to growth of the auditory bulla, the neural crest cell-derived structure that encapsulates all middle ear components, and that defects in these processes have a profoundly detrimental effect on hearing. This research provides important insights into a poorly characterized cause of human deafness, and provides the first mouse model for the study of middle ear cavity defects, while also being of direct relevance to a human genetic disorder.

  5. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  7. Ocular Defects in Photosensitive Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with photosensitive epilepsy are susceptible to seizures due to photoparoxysmal response (PPR. This response adversely precipitates factors that modify the functional status of the visual system. Such factors may or may not be evident superficially, but may lead to ocular defects due to trauma, hormonal imbalance, abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP, or any other reflex-inducing stimuli. The extent to which photosensitive epileptic patients suffer from PPR-related ocular defects has not been documented fully. In this investigation, ocular defects in patients with photosensitive epilepsy are studied using visual-evoked response (VER. A total of 212 photosensitive epileptic patients were studied to ascertain the magnitude and distribution of ocular defects using the changes in EEG and visual-evoked potential (VEP; 51% of the patients were female, the age range was 1–46 years. The major ocular defects and complications found were visual field defects, optic nerve abnormalities, nystagmus, cataracts, amblyopia, and migraine. These findings were analyzed according to age and sex. The relationship between the ocular abnormalities and the interpretations of the changes in the characteristics of the VEP indicated that optic-related atrophies, visual defects, optic neuritis, chiasmal compression, nystagmus, migraine headache, cataracts, and amblyopia were prevalent in photosensitive epileptic patients at varying degrees. The results showed that although ocular defects in photosensitive epilepsy may not be obvious differentially, VEP can be used in their diagnosis, contrary to earlier studies reporting that VEP is not of much value in epilepsy diagnosis.

  8. Space mapping and defect correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. Then, space-mapping algorithms can be seen as special cases of defect correction iteration. In order to analyze the properties of space mapping and the space-mapping function, we introduce

  9. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  10. Atypical meningioma and extensive calvarium defects in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Enver [Department of Paediatrics, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Yavuz, Cevdet [Department of Neurosurgery, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Ustundag, Nil [Department of Pathology, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey)

    2003-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with a massive atypical meningioma and calvarial defect. Skull radiographs and cranial CT showed an extensive lytic bone lesion at the vertex. MRI demonstrated a large mass invading the calvarium and sagittal sinus. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of the resected mass was atypical meningioma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with atypical meningioma and massive calvarial defect in a child. (orig.)

  11. Computed tomography of lambdoid calvarial defect in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, H.; Kozic, Z.; Medinilla, O.R.

    1983-01-01

    A patient with neurofibromatosis is reported in whom cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed a calvarial defect with an associated soft-tissue mass in the region of the left lambdoid suture. This defect has been the subject of several previous reports, having been demonstrated by means of conventional skull radiography. It should be included in the differential diagnosis when a lytic calvarial lesion is found on CT. (orig.)

  12. Atypical meningioma and extensive calvarium defects in neurofibromatosis type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Enver; Yavuz, Cevdet; Ustundag, Nil

    2003-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with a massive atypical meningioma and calvarial defect. Skull radiographs and cranial CT showed an extensive lytic bone lesion at the vertex. MRI demonstrated a large mass invading the calvarium and sagittal sinus. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of the resected mass was atypical meningioma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with atypical meningioma and massive calvarial defect in a child. (orig.)

  13. Corpus callosum defect with dilated lateral ventricles and an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by anemia that usually presents before the first birthday or in early childhood, is associated with birth defects and an increased risk of cancer. Although anemia is the most prominent feature of DBA, the disease is also characterized ...

  14. Improving reticle defect disposition via fully automated lithography simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Raunak; Goodman, Eliot; Lao, Keith; Ha, Steven; Vacca, Anthony; Fiekowsky, Peter; Fiekowsky, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Most advanced wafer fabs have embraced complex pattern decoration, which creates numerous challenges during in-fab reticle qualification. These optical proximity correction (OPC) techniques create assist features that tend to be very close in size and shape to the main patterns as seen in Figure 1. A small defect on an assist feature will most likely have little or no impact on the fidelity of the wafer image, whereas the same defect on a main feature could significantly decrease device functionality. In order to properly disposition these defects, reticle inspection technicians need an efficient method that automatically separates main from assist features and predicts the resulting defect impact on the wafer image. Analysis System (ADAS) defect simulation system[1]. Up until now, using ADAS simulation was limited to engineers due to the complexity of the settings that need to be manually entered in order to create an accurate result. A single error in entering one of these values can cause erroneous results, therefore full automation is necessary. In this study, we propose a new method where all needed simulation parameters are automatically loaded into ADAS. This is accomplished in two parts. First we have created a scanner parameter database that is automatically identified from mask product and level names. Second, we automatically determine the appropriate simulation printability threshold by using a new reference image (provided by the inspection tool) that contains a known measured value of the reticle critical dimension (CD). This new method automatically loads the correct scanner conditions, sets the appropriate simulation threshold, and automatically measures the percentage of CD change caused by the defect. This streamlines qualification and reduces the number of reticles being put on hold, waiting for engineer review. We also present data showing the consistency and reliability of the new method, along with the impact on the efficiency of in

  15. A surface defects inspection method based on multidirectional gray-level fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision inspection technology provides an efficient tool for surface defects inspection. However, because of the multiformity of surface defects, the existing machine vision methods for surface defects inspection are limited by application scenarios. In order to improve the versatility of algorithms, and to process various kinds of images more accurately, we propose a new adaptive method for surface defect detection, named neighborhood gray-level difference method using the multidirectional gray-level fluctuation. This method changes thresholds and step values by extracting gray-level-fluctuating condition of images, and then it uses the neighborhood gray-level difference to segment defects from background. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for inspecting different surface defects. Compared with other methods, the proposed method can be applied to inspect various surface defects, and it can provide more accurate defect segmentation results.

  16. My Most Annoying Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Joseph M.

    2006-12-01

    After demonstrating various wave phenemona of pulses and continuous wavetrains in elastic media (slinky, springs, tuning forks etc.) students are still struggling with the concepts of standing waves, reflection and transmission at free and fixed boundaries, interference at nodes and antinodes, and the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves. In this simple demonstration we will overcome any misconceptions concerning these topics.

  17. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  18. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky,Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Melby-Thompson, Charles M. [Department of Physics, Fudan University,220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Meyer, René [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Sugimoto, Shigeki [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-06-28

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  19. Toward Intelligent Software Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2011-01-01

    Source code level software defect detection has gone from state of the art to a software engineering best practice. Automated code analysis tools streamline many of the aspects of formal code inspections but have the drawback of being difficult to construct and either prone to false positives or severely limited in the set of defects that can be detected. Machine learning technology provides the promise of learning software defects by example, easing construction of detectors and broadening the range of defects that can be found. Pinpointing software defects with the same level of granularity as prominent source code analysis tools distinguishes this research from past efforts, which focused on analyzing software engineering metrics data with granularity limited to that of a particular function rather than a line of code.

  20. [Diagnosis of atrial septal defect using magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, M; Kobayashi, S; Imai, H; Watanabe, S; Masuda, Y; Inagaki, Y

    1987-12-01

    We studied the morphological features of defects of the interatrial septum using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the sizes of defects and other abnormalities. MR images were obtained in 28 patients with atrial septal defect, including five cases with complicated anomalies (two with Ebstein's anomaly, one pentalogy of Fallot, and one anomalous pulmonary vein connection and azygos continuation). Images were also obtained in the control subjects including seven normal volunteers and 142 patients with various acquired heart diseases. The diagnosis of atrial septal defect was established by cardiac catheterization, angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography prior to the MRI studies, and in 14 patients, the diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The MRI unit had a superconducting magnet and operated at 0.25 or 0.50 Tesla. A spin echo pulse sequence was used with an echo time of 40 or 60 msec. At the beginning of this study, non-gated MRI images were obtained in the 28 controls and in three patients with atrial septal defect. Nongated MRI could not image the anatomical structure of the interatrial septa of 12 of the 28 controls, or any of the three patients with atrial septal defect. Nongated MRI was, therefore, inadequate for visualizing cardiac anatomy. Gated MRI images were obtained in 141 controls and in 25 patients with atrial septal defect. Gated MRI revealed the interatrial septum, interventricular septum, atrioventricular septum, mitral valve, tricuspid valve and other intracardiac structures in most subjects. In 17 control subjects (12%), however, there was a very faint signal from the central portion of the interatrial septum. In these instances, there was a gradual fading of the signal of the interatrial septum, so that they could be distinguished from the atrial septal defect. The sudden disappearance of the signal from the interatrial septum was observed by gated MRI in all 25 patients with atrial septal defect. The sizes of the defects by

  1. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  2. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming, E-mail: heavenlzm@126.com; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  3. Remote monitoring of bond line defects between a composite panel and a stiffener using distributed piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xudong; Fan, Zheng; Puliyakote, Sreedhar; Castaings, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) using ultrasonic guided waves has proven to be attractive for the identification of damage in composite plate-like structures, due to its realization of both significant propagation distances and reasonable sensitivity to defects. However, topographical features such as bends, lap joints, and bonded stiffeners are often encountered in these structures, and they are susceptible to various types of defects as a consequence of stress concentration and cyclic loading during the service life. Therefore, the health condition of such features has to be assessed effectively to ensure the safe operation of the entire structure. This paper proposes a novel feature guided wave (FGW) based SHM strategy, in which proper FGWs are exploited as a screening tool to rapidly interrogate the representative stiffener-adhesive bond-composite skin assembly. An array of sensors permanently attached to the vicinity of the feature is used to capture scattered waves from the localized damage occurring in the bond line. This technique is combined with an imaging approach, and the damage reconstruction is achieved by the synthetic focusing algorithm using these scattered signals. The proposed SHM scheme is implemented in both the 3D finite element simulation and the experiment, and the results are in good agreement, demonstrating the feasibility of such SHM strategy.

  4. Defect forces, defect couples and path integrals in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the path integrals can be introduced without any reference to the material behavior. The method is based on the definition in a continuous medium of a set of vectors and couples having the dimension of a force or a moment. More precisely, definitions are given of volume defect forces, surface defect forces, volume defect couples, and surface defect couples. This is done with the help of the stress working variation of a particule moving through the solid. The most important result is: the resultant of all the defect forces included in a volume V is the J integral on the surface surrounding V and the moment resultant is the L integral. So these integrals are defined without any assumption on the material constitutive equation. Another result is the material form of the virtual work principle - defect forces are acting like conventional forces in the conventional principles of virtual work. This lead to the introduction of the energy momentum tensor and of the associated couple stress. Application of this method is made to fracture mechanics in studying the defect forces distribution around a crack [fr

  5. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  6. Improved tensile and buckling behavior of defected carbon nanotubes utilizing boron nitride coating – A molecular dynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badjian, H.; Setoodeh, A.R., E-mail: setoodeh@sutech.ac.ir

    2017-02-15

    Synthesizing inorganic nanostructures such as boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have led to immense studies due to their many interesting functional features such as piezoelectricity, high temperature resistance to oxygen, electrical insulation, high thermal conductivity and very long lengths as physical features. In order to utilize the superior properties of pristine and defected carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a hybrid nanotube is proposed in this study by forming BNNTs surface coating on the CNTs. The benefits of such coating on the tensile and buckling behavior of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are illustrated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the resulted nanostructures during the deformation. The AIREBO and Tersoff-Brenner potentials are employed to model the interatomic forces between the carbon and boron nitride atoms, respectively. The effects of chiral indices, aspect ratio, presence of mono-vacancy defects and coating dimension on coated/non-coated CNTs are examined. It is demonstrated that the coated defective CNTs exhibit remarkably enhanced ultimate strength, buckling load capacity and Young's modulus. The proposed coating not only enhances the mechanical properties of the resulted nanostructure, but also conceals it from few external factors impacting the behavior of the CNT such as humidity and high temperature.

  7. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nt'. The following sub-sections discuss the categories of demonstratives in the various languages in more detail. 3.1. Akan ...... languages: a classification and description of Africa s largest family,. 216-245. Lanham: University Press of America.

  8. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  9. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  10. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  11. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  12. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  14. Density driven placement of sub-DSA resolution assistant features (SDRAFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daifeng; Tung, Maryann; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Wong, Martin D. F.

    2017-03-01

    In the pursuit of alternatives to traditional optical lithography, block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput option. However, issues of defectivity have hampered DSA's viability for large-scale patterning. Recent studies have shown copolymer fill level to be a crucial factor in defectivity, as template overfill can result in malformed DSA structures and poor LCDU after etching. For this reason, it is previously demonstrated the use of sub-DSA resolution assist features (SDRAFs) as a method of evening out template density. In this work, we propose an algorithm to place SDRAFs in random logic contact/via layouts. By adopting this SDRAF placement scheme, we can significantly improve the density unevenness and the resources used are also optimized. This is the first work to investigate the placement of SDRAFs in order to mitigate the DSA density variation problem, and it can be adopted for the mass deployment of DSA.

  15. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  17. Mechanical behavior enhancement of defective graphene sheet employing boron nitride coating via atomistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoodeh, A. R.; Badjian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The most stable form of boron nitride polymorph naming hexagonal boron nitride sheet has recently been widely concerned like graphite due to its interesting features such as electrical insulation and high thermal conductivity. In this study, the molecular dynamic simulations are implemented to investigate the mechanical properties of single-layer graphene sheets under tensile and compressive loadings in the absence and presence of boron–nitride coating layers. In this introduced hybrid nanostructure, the benefit of combining both individual interesting features of graphene and boron–nitride sheets such as exceptional mechanical and electrical properties can be simultaneously achieved for future potential application in nano devices. The influences of chiral indices, boundary conditions and presence of mono-atomic vacancy defects as well as coating dimension on the mechanical behavior of the resulted hybrid structure are reported. The interatomic forces between the atoms are modeled by employing the AIREBO and Tersoff–Brenner potentials for carbon–carbon and boron–nitrogen atoms in each layer, respectively. Furthermore, the van der Waal interlayer forces of carbon–boron and carbon–nitrogen are estimated by the Lennard–Jones potential field. Besides the potential improvement in electrical and physical properties of the nanostructure, it is demonstrated that the buckling load capacity of the fully coated graphene sheet with 3% concentration of mono-atomic vacancy defects noticeably enhances by amounts of 24.1%.

  18. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  19. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  20. Feature analysis and classification of manufacturing signatures based on semiconductor wafermaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W.; Gleason, S.S.; Karnowski, T.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cohen, S.L. [SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Automated tools for semiconductor wafer defect analysis are becoming more necessary as device densities and wafer sizes continue to increase. Trends towards larger wafer formats and smaller critical dimensions have caused an exponential increase in the volume of defect data which must be analyzed and stored. To accommodate these changing factors, automatic analysis tools are required that can efficiently and robustly process the increasing amounts of data, and thus quickly characterize manufacturing processes and accelerate yield learning. During the first year of this cooperative research project between SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a robust methodology for segmenting signature events prior to feature analysis and classification was developed. Based on the results of this segmentation procedure, a feature measurement strategy has been designed based on interviews with process engineers coupled with the analysis of approximately 1500 electronic wafermap files. In this paper, the authors represent an automated procedure to rank and select relevant features for use with a fuzzy pair-wise classifier and give examples of the efficacy of the approach taken. Results of the feature selection process are given for two uniquely different types of class data to demonstrate a general improvement in classifier performance.

  1. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  2. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Clinical and risk factor analysis of cloacal defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Conway, Kristin M; Shen, Dereck; Rhoads, Anthony J; Carey, John C; Romitti, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty-three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28. We compared selected child and maternal characteristics between 11,829 non-malformed controls and CE and PC cases using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Compared to controls, CE and PC cases were statistically more likely (p < 0.05) to be preterm; CE cases were more likely to be multiple births. We conducted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for any CD, CE, and PC with selected self-reported maternal prepregnancy and periconceptional (one month prior to 3 months following conception) exposures. In crude and adjusted analyses, we observed significant positive associations for any CD, CE, and PC with use of any fertility medication or assisted reproductive technology procedure. Significant positive associations observed only in crude analyses were any CD with maternal obesity or use of progesterone, any CD and CE with any x-ray, and any CD and PC with use of folate antagonist medications. Our findings provide some of the first insights into potential differing etiologies for CE and PC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Defect detection based on extreme edge of defective region histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhir Wakaf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thresholding has been used by many applications in image processing and pattern recognition systems. Specific attention was given during inspection for quality control purposes in various industries like steel processing and textile manufacturing. Automatic thresholding problem has been addressed well by the commonly used Otsu method, which provides suitable results for thresholding images based on a histogram of bimodal distribution. However, the Otsu method fails when the histogram is unimodal or close to unimodal. Defects have different shapes and sizes, ranging from very small to large. The gray-level distributions of the image histogram can vary between unimodal and multimodal. Furthermore, Otsu-revised methods, like the valley-emphasis method and the background histogram mode extents, which overcome the drawbacks of the Otsu method, require preprocessing steps and fail to use the general threshold for multimodal defects. This study proposes a new automatic thresholding algorithm based on the acquisition of the defective region histogram and the selection of its extreme edge as the threshold value to segment all defective objects in the foreground from the image background. To evaluate the proposed defect-detection method, common standard images for experimentation were used. Experimental results of the proposed method show that the proposed method outperforms the current methods in terms of defect detection.

  5. Deciphering caudal embryonic defects: embryological analysis and reviewing literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Athavale, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    A number of syndromes÷associations involving the caudal region have been described in the literature. Each of them is characterized by a set of morphological features. Reports on difficulties in delineation and an ever-increasing constellation of defects in recent past call for a comprehensive study into the morphologic presentations and pathogenesis of caudal embryonic defects. The present article describes a case of the OEIS complex--a combination of omphalocele, exstrophy of bladder, imperforate anus and spinal defects. Literature search was performed and morphologic presentations, as described in literature, of all syndromes and associations affecting the caudal region of the embryo have been compared. Morphologic presentations were analyzed embryologically. A remarkable overlap of symptom complex was observed. Embryological analysis of the phenotypic presentations of all these syndromes points towards a common pathogenesis, early in the embryonic life. The embryologic analysis suggests that these defects are a result of defects in proliferation, migration or subsequent differentiation of any of the three subdivisions of intra-embryonic mesoderm. Based on the analysis a new hypothesis for the causation of caudal defects is proposed. This hypothesis suggests that a local internal environmental imbalance, at the site of implantation, can cause nutritional insult to the embryo during gastrulation, during the third and the early fourth week of embryonic life.

  6. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  7. TRUEX hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility

  8. Inspection quality demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses an inspection demonstration process that was initiated in late 1982 and is still functioning. In 1982, the Nine Mile Point-1 boiling water reactor completed the required inspection governed by rules established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The inspection results indicated there were no cracks when the results were evaluated against the established criteria. Later, while performing the system hydro-test prior to returning to power, one of the joints leaked, indicating a through-wall crack. The demonstration process, including a training program recognized by the NRC, are described in the paper. The final answer on how good the demonstration and field inspection are can only be determined by comparison of the inspection results with direct observation of the flaws. This is currently in progress

  9. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  10. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  11. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  12. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  13. Communication: The electronic entropy of charged defect formation and its impact on thermochemical redox cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA

    2018-02-21

    The ideal material for solar thermochemical water splitting, which has yet to be discovered, must satisfy stringent conditions for the free energy of reduction, including, in particular, a sufficiently large positive contribution from the solid-state entropy. By inverting the commonly used relationship between defect formation energy and defect concentration, it is shown here that charged defect formation causes a large electronic entropy contribution manifesting itself as the temperature dependence of the Fermi level. This result is a general feature of charged defect formation and motivates new materials design principles for solar thermochemical hydrogen production.

  14. Communication: The electronic entropy of charged defect formation and its impact on thermochemical redox cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2018-02-01

    The ideal material for solar thermochemical water splitting, which has yet to be discovered, must satisfy stringent conditions for the free energy of reduction, including, in particular, a sufficiently large positive contribution from the solid-state entropy. By inverting the commonly used relationship between defect formation energy and defect concentration, it is shown here that charged defect formation causes a large electronic entropy contribution manifesting itself as the temperature dependence of the Fermi level. This result is a general feature of charged defect formation and motivates new materials design principles for solar thermochemical hydrogen production.

  15. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  16. What Are Congenital Heart Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a Normal Heart and a Heart With Tetralogy of Fallot Figure A shows the structure and blood flow ... shows a heart with the four defects of tetralogy of Fallot. Babies and children who have tetralogy of Fallot ...

  17. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...

  18. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  19. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  20. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  1. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic

  2. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  3. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.

    1993-04-01

    In this thesis, experimental results of the transition metals Ti, V, Nb, Mo, and W as impurity centres in silicon are presented. Transition metal doping was accomplished by ion implantation. Emphasis is put on energy level position, electrical and optical properties of the encountered defect levels. Junction space charge methods (JSCM) such as DLTS, photocapacitance and photocurrent techniques are employed. Three energy levels are found for the 3d-transition metals Ti(E c -0.06eV, E c -0.30eV, E v +0.26) and V(E c -0.21eV, E c -0,48e, E v +0.36eV), and for the 4d-element Nb(E c -0.29eV, E c -0.58eV, E v +0.163eV) in Silicon, whereas only one transition metal induced level is found for Mo(E v +0.30eV) and W(E v +0.38eV) respectively. Electrical and optical characteristics of Si 1-x Ge x ,0.7 7 cm -2 . The solvent Bi, used in the LPE-process, is found to be the dominant impurity element. Furthermore, liquid phase epitaxy of high purity In 0.53 Ga 0.57 As on InP, together with the properties of the Cu-induced acceptor in this material are examined. Free electron concentrations of n=5x10 14 cm -3 and electron Hall-mobilities of μ 77K = 44000 cm 2 /Vs are achieved. The energy level position of the Cu-acceptor is found to be E v +0.025eV. Photoluminescence and Hall-effect measurements, together with JSCM are the main characterization methods used. The band linups of In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As with GaAs and with InP are determined according to the Cu-acceptor energy level position in these materials. Additionally, the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the Cu-acceptor energy level position in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As is examined. (103 refs.)

  4. Surface defect indices and 2d-4d BPS states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Clay; Gaiotto, Davide; Shao, Shu-Heng

    2017-12-01

    We conjecture a formula for the Schur index of four-dimensional N=2 theories coupled to (2, 2) surface defects in terms of the 2 d-4 d BPS spectrum in the Coulomb phase of the theory. The key ingredient in our conjecture is a refined 2 d-4 d wall-crossing invariant, which we also formulate. Our result intertwines recent conjectures expressing the four-dimensional Schur index in terms of infrared BPS particles, with the Cecotti-Vafa formula for limits of the elliptic genus in terms of two-dimensional BPS solitons. We extend our discussion to framed 2 d-4 d BPS states, and use this to demonstrate a general relationship between surface defect indices and line defect indices. We illustrate our results in the example of su(2) super Yang-Mills coupled to the ℂℙ1 sigma model defect.

  5. Defect Engineering toward Atomic Co-Nx-C in Hierarchical Graphene for Rechargeable Flexible Solid Zn-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Rechargeable flexible solid Zn-air battery, with a high theoretical energy density of 1086 Wh kg -1 , is among the most attractive energy technologies for future flexible and wearable electronics; nevertheless, the practical application is greatly hindered by the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) kinetics on the air electrode. Precious metal-free functionalized carbon materials are widely demonstrated as the most promising candidates, while it still lacks effective synthetic methodology to controllably synthesize carbocatalysts with targeted active sites. This work demonstrates the direct utilization of the intrinsic structural defects in nanocarbon to generate atomically dispersed Co-N x -C active sites via defect engineering. As-fabricated Co/N/O tri-doped graphene catalysts with highly active sites and hierarchical porous scaffolds exhibit superior ORR/OER bifunctional activities and impressive applications in rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Specifically, when integrated into a rechargeable and flexible solid Zn-air battery, a high open-circuit voltage of 1.44 V, a stable discharge voltage of 1.19 V, and a high energy efficiency of 63% at 1.0 mA cm -2 are achieved even under bending. The defect engineering strategy provides a new concept and effective methodology for the full utilization of nanocarbon materials with various structural features and further development of advanced energy materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  7. Evaluating Printability of Buried Native EUV Mask Phase Defects through a Modeling and Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Jindal, Vibhu; Basavalingappa, Adarsh; Herbol, Henry; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Jang, Il-Yong; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Marokkey, Sajan; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Pistor, Thomas V.; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2015-03-16

    The availability of defect-free masks is considered to be a critical issue for enabling extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as the next generation technology. Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of the native EUV mask defects. In this work, we performed a systematic study of native mask defects to understand the defect printability caused by them. The multilayer growth over native substrate mask blank defects was correlated to the multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects having similar profiles in terms of their width and height. To model the multilayer growth over the defects, a novel level-set multilayer growth model was used that took into account the tool deposition conditions of the Veeco Nexus ion beam deposition tool. The same tool was used for performing the actual deposition of the multilayer stack over the characterized native defects, thus ensuring a fair comparison between the actual multilayer growth over native defects, and modeled multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects. Further, the printability of the characterized native defects was studied with the SEMATECH-Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV mask-imaging microscope at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Printability of the modeled regular-shaped defects, which were propagated up the multilayer stack using level-set growth model was studied using defect printability simulations implementing the waveguide algorithm. Good comparison was observed between AIT and the simulation results, thus demonstrating that multilayer growth over a defect is primarily a function of a defect’s width and height, irrespective of its shape. This would allow us to predict printability of the arbitrarily-shaped native EUV mask defects in a systematic and robust manner.

  8. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garriga, Jaume, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu, E-mail: josejuan.blanco@ehu.es, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  9. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  10. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  11. Hair defects in Hoxc13 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, A R; Capecchi, M R

    1999-12-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that are important during normal embryonic development of diverse organisms including vertebrates. In mammals, Hox genes are responsible for conferring regional identity in embryonic tissues, including the limb bud, the neural tube, the presomitic mesoderm and the intestinal tract. Recent studies have demonstrated expression of Hox genes in skin and hair follicles, suggesting potential functions for these genes in epidermal appendages. These studies are reviewed here with emphasis on Hoxc13, as Hoxc13 mutants are the first Hox mutants to demonstrate overt hair defects. In addition, because Hoxc13 does not show regionally restricted expression in the skin, as demonstrated for other Hox genes, the potentially different roles of Hoxc13 versus other Hox genes in the skin are discussed.

  12. Defect reduction progress in step and flash imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenidis, K.; Maltabes, J.; McMackin, I.; Perez, J.; Martin, W.; Resnick, D. J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective method for the replication of nanometer-scale structures from a template mold. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is unique in its ability to address both resolution and alignment. Recently overlay across a 200 mm wafer of less than 20nm, 3σ has been demonstrated. Current S-FIL resolution and alignment performance motivates the consideration of nano-imprint lithography as Next Generation Lithography (NGL) solution for IC production. During the S-FIL process, a transferable image, an imprint, is produced by mechanically molding a liquid UV-curable resist on a wafer. The novelty of this process immediately raises questions about the overall defectivity level of S-FIL. Acceptance of imprint lithography for CMOS manufacturing will require demonstration that it can attain defect levels commensurate with the requirements of cost-effective device production. This report specifically focuses on this challenge and presents the current status of defect reduction in S-FIL technology and will summarize the result of defect inspections of wafers patterned using S-FIL. Wafer inspections were performed with a KLA Tencor- 2132 (KT-2132) automated patterned wafer inspection tool. Recent results show wafer defectivity to be less 5 cm -2. Mask fabrication and inspection techniques used to obtain low defect template will be described. The templates used to imprint wafers for this study were designed specifically to facilitate automated defect inspection and were made by employing CMOS industry standard materials and exposure tools. A KT-576 tool was used for template defect inspection.

  13. Topological defects in epithelia govern cell death and extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Thuan Beng; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Nier, Vincent; Kocgozlu, Leyla; Thampi, Sumesh; Toyama, Yusuke; Marcq, Philippe; Lim, Chwee Teck; Yeomans, Julia M.; Ladoux, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Epithelial tissues (epithelia) remove excess cells through extrusion, preventing the accumulation of unnecessary or pathological cells. The extrusion process can be triggered by apoptotic signalling, oncogenic transformation and overcrowding of cells. Despite the important linkage of cell extrusion to developmental, homeostatic and pathological processes such as cancer metastasis, its underlying mechanism and connections to the intrinsic mechanics of the epithelium are largely unexplored. We approach this problem by modelling the epithelium as an active nematic liquid crystal (that has a long range directional order), and comparing numerical simulations to strain rate and stress measurements within monolayers of MDCK (Madin Darby canine kidney) cells. Here we show that apoptotic cell extrusion is provoked by singularities in cell alignments in the form of comet-shaped topological defects. We find a universal correlation between extrusion sites and positions of nematic defects in the cell orientation field in different epithelium types. The results confirm the active nematic nature of epithelia, and demonstrate that defect-induced isotropic stresses are the primary precursors of mechanotransductive responses in cells, including YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription factor activity, caspase-3-mediated cell death, and extrusions. Importantly, the defect-driven extrusion mechanism depends on intercellular junctions, because the weakening of cell-cell interactions in an α-catenin knockdown monolayer reduces the defect size and increases both the number of defects and extrusion rates, as is also predicted by our model. We further demonstrate the ability to control extrusion hotspots by geometrically inducing defects through microcontact printing of patterned monolayers. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism for apoptotic cell extrusion: spontaneously formed topological defects in epithelia govern cell fate. This will be important in predicting

  14. Energetics of defects on graphene through fluorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Hu, Jianzhi; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Suree; Adcock, Jamie L; Deng, Zhiqun; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L; Aksay, Ilhan A; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-05-01

    Functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) comprise a unique member of the carbon family, demonstrating excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical strength. However, the detailed chemical composition of this material is still unclear. Herein, we take advantage of the fluorination process to semiquantitatively probe the defects and functional groups on graphene surface. Functionalized graphene sheets are used as substrate for low-temperature (DFT) and quantified experimentally by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The electrochemical properties of fluorinated graphene are also discussed extending the use of graphene from fundamental research to practical applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tunable single photonic defect-mode in cholesteric liquid crystals with laser-induced local modifications of helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a tunable single photonic defect-mode in a single cholesteric liquid crystal material based on a structural defect introduced by local modification of the helix. An unpolymerized region of cholesteric liquid crystal acting as the defect was left between two polymerized regions via a two-photon excitation laser-lithography process. Upon polymerization, the cholesteric liquid crystal helix elongated and became thermally stable, and a single photonic defect mode was exhibited due to the contrast in the helix pitch at the defect. The defect mode showed tunability upon heating, and a 36 nm redshift was seen over a temperature range of 30 deg. C

  16. Electronic states localized at surface defects on Cu(755) studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, K; Namba, H

    2003-01-01

    'Regularly stepped' and 'defective' surfaces of Cu(755) were prepared by low- and high-temperature annealing, respectively, of a clean specimen. Electronic states on both surfaces were studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. On the defective Cu(755), we found a new photoelectron peak due to surface defects just below the Fermi level. The dispersion profile of the defect state is derived to be almost flat, which demonstrates the localized nature of the defects. High activity to oxygen adsorption of the defect state was revealed. (author)

  17. Classification of white maize defects with multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendin, Kate; Manley, Marena; Williams, Paul J

    2018-03-15

    Multispectral imaging with object-wise multivariate image analysis was evaluated for its potential to grade whole white maize kernels. The types of defective materials regarded in grading legislation were divided into 13 classes, and were imaged with a multispectral imaging instrument spanning the UV, visible and NIR regions (19 wavelengths ranging from 375 to 970nm). Object-wise partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed and validated with an independent data set. Results demonstrated good performance in distinguishing between sound maize and undesirable materials, with cross-validated coefficients of determination (Q 2 ) and classification accuracies ranging from 0.35 to 0.99 and 83 to 100%, respectively. Wavelengths related to absorbance of green, yellow and orange colour indicated the presence of lycopene and anthocyanin (505, 525, 570 and 590 nm). NIR wavelengths 890, 940 nm (associated with fat) and 970 nm (associated with water) were generally identified as important features throughout the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-18

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials.

  19. Use of self-organizing maps for classification of defects in the tubes from the steam generator of nuclear power plants; Classificacao de defeitos em tubos de gerador de vapor de plantas nucleares utilizando mapas auto-organizaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Roberto Navarro de

    2002-07-01

    This thesis obtains a new classification method for different steam generator tube defects in nuclear power plants using Eddy Current Test signals. The method uses self-organizing maps to compare different signal characteristics efficiency to identify and classify these defects. A multiple inference system is proposed which composes the different extracted characteristic trained maps classification to infer the final defect type. The feature extraction methods used are the Wavelet zero-crossings representation, the linear predictive coding (LPC), and other basic signal representations on time like module and phase. Many characteristic vectors are obtained with combinations of these extracted characteristics. These vectors are tested to classify the defects and the best ones are applied to the multiple inference system. A systematic study of pre-processing, calibration and analysis methods for the steam generator tube defect signals in nuclear power plants is done. The method efficiency is demonstrated and characteristic maps with the main prototypes are obtained for each steam generator tube defect type. (author)

  20. Influence of point defects on the near edge structure of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Nicholas L.; Partridge, Jim G.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Russo, Salvy P.; McCulloch, Dougal G.

    2017-10-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with applications including gate insulation layers in graphene transistors, far-ultraviolet light emitting devices and as hydrogen storage media. Due to its complex microstructure, defects in hBN are challenging to identify. Here, we combine x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with ab initio theoretical modeling to identify energetically favorable defects. Following annealing of hBN samples in vacuum and oxygen, the B and N K edges exhibited angular-dependent peak modifications consistent with in-plane defects. Theoretical calculations showed that the energetically favorable defects all produce signature features in XANES. Comparing these calculations with experiments, the principle defects were attributed to substitutional oxygen at the nitrogen site, substitutional carbon at the boron site, and hydrogen passivated boron vacancies. Hydrogen passivation of defects was found to significantly affect the formation energies, electronic states, and XANES. In the B K edge, multiple peaks above the major 1 s to π* peak occur as a result of these defects and the hydrogen passivated boron vacancy produces the frequently observed doublet in the 1 s to σ* transition. While the N K edge is less sensitive to defects, features attributable to substitutional C at the B site were observed. This defect was also calculated to have mid-gap states in its band structure that may be responsible for the 4.1-eV ultraviolet emission frequently observed from this material.

  1. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  2. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  3. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  5. Observation of 3D defect mediated dust acoustic wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and amplitude hole filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct observation of defect mediated wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and low amplitude hole filaments, from a 3D self-excited plane dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma by reducing dissipation. The waveform undulation is found to be the origin for the amplitude and the phase modulations of the local dust density oscillation, the broadening of the sharp peaks in the frequency spectrum, and the fluctuating defects. The corrugated wave crest surface also causes the observed high and low density patches in the transverse (xy) plane. Low oscillation amplitude spots (holes) share the same positions with the defects. Their trajectories in the xyt space appear in the form of chaotic filaments without long term predictability, through uncertain pair generation, propagation, and pair annihilation

  6. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  7. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  8. SAMSON Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    escrow service in the operational environment. For the SAMSON TD, two key escrow systems were demonstrated: StrongAuth SKLES; a 3rd party key... escrow appliance; and A custom database-based key escrow system created for the SAMSON TD. The external label that is placed on file objects that...the key that was used to protect the file. When a SAMSON component presents a token to the KMS, the associated key is retrieved from the escrow and

  9. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  10. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings. This ...... prevailed over realizing a good indoor climate, which included sufficient heating. Project management must be able to handle quantitative complexity where simple issues add up to major challenges.......Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...

  11. Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping

    dynamic stall, leading edge defect imposes a greater influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil than steady conditions. By increasing in defect length, it is found that the separated area becomes more intense and moves forward along the suction surface. Leading edge defect has significant influence on the aerodynamic and flow characteristics of the airfoil, which will reach a stable status with enough large defect size. The leading edge separation bubble, circulation in the defect cavity and intense tailing edge vortex are the main features of flow around defective airfoils.

  12. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  13. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  14. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  15. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

  16. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    In ubiquitous computing, as more and more devices are embedded into the environment, there is a risk that the user loses the understanding of the system. In normal use this is not always a problem, but when breakdowns occur it is crucial that the user understands the system to be able to handle...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  17. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  18. Final Demonstrator Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    understanding the spatial relations that obtain between the landscape architects and their materials, their work settings and their work sites.  This report should be read as an introduction and orientation to the various project  prototypes and demonstrators – it will make only limited sense taken in isolation.  ......The WorkSPACE project aims to create an integrated environment for collaborative  work activities that can be distributed over a variety of spaces and that mixes digital  and physical materials. We have termed this ‘spatial computing’ because much of the  functionality is provided through...

  19. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  20. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    the situation. The concept of palpable computing, introduced by the PalCom project, denotes systems which support such understandability. In PalCom, a set of prototype scenarios provide input for an open software architecture and a conceptual framework for palpable computing. One of these prototype scenarios...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  1. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  2. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  3. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  4. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  5. The IBL BOC Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Ancu, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Falchieri, D; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Heim, T; Joseph, J; Krieger, N; Kugel, A; Morettini, P; Neumann, M; Polini, A; Schneider, B; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The IBL is a new pixel detector layer to be installed at the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN in 2013. It will be integrated into the general pixel readout and software framework, hence the off-detector readout electronics has to support the new front-end electronics whilst maintaining a high degree of interoperability to the components of the existing system. The off-detector readout is realised using a number of VME card pairs – ROD and BOC – plus a VME crate controller and a custom timing distribution system. The main elements of the new BOC design comprise optical interfaces towards the detector, signal conditioning and data recovery logic. We present the demonstrator used to verify the design approach. The demonstrator is based on a XILINX SP605 FPGA evaluation board and uses a Microblaze processor inside the FPGA to provide easy and flexible access to all essential BOC functions and the corresponding emulator modules, which enable full test of the entire BOC functionality even without any external ...

  6. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  7. Coronene and Pyrene (5,7)-member Ring Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Huber, Stefan E.

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be one of the carriers of the omnipresent aromatic infrared bands that are frequently observed in different astrophysical environments (e.g., Peeters et al. 2004, Draine & Li 2007, Tielens 2008, Bauschlicher et al. 2009, Peeters 2011). Although PAH features are identified in a wide variety of environments, the characteristics of the individual molecules is not clear so far. Several emission features are observed, but cannot be explained. Therefore a sophisticated understanding of all possible types and subtypes is required. We present an investigation of the IR spectra of PAHs containing (5, 7)-member ring defects. Using density functional theory, the influence of those defects on the IR spectra of coronene (C24H12)and pyrene (C16H10) and their cations and anions were examined in detail. Additionally, the potential energy surface of the neutral species is explored and an alternative formation pathway is taken into account.The addition of the pentagons and heptagons instead of some of the hexagons usually constituting PAHs result in a change of the IR spectra: coronene and pyrene lose both their typical spectroscopic signature. We find different additional features and shifts in the positions of the band. Also the intensities differ. Both molecules are among the smallest PAHs that can exhibit such a ring defect. The minimum activation barriers for the transformation from ground to defected state can be found via investigating the minimum energy pathway. This leads to a result of 8.21 eV for pyrene and 8.41 eV for coronene. Pyrene retains some of its symmetry due to the symmetry exhibited by the Stone-Wales defect itself. However, coronene loses much more of its symmetry. The formation of these (5, 7)-member ring defects in PAHs may be well supported in asymptotic giant branch stars or planetary nebulae. These environments strongly enable the transition from the ground to the defected state. Therefore, the

  8. Determination of defect content and defect profile in semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiaga, A [Laboratory of Physics, HUT, PO Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Espoo (Finland); Garcia, J A; Plazaola, F [Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unbertsitatea, P. K. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain); Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V, E-mail: fernando.plazaola@ehu.es [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-10

    In this article we present an overview of the technique to obtain the defects depth profile and width of a deposited layer and multilayer based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. In particular we apply the method to ZnO and ZnO/ZnCdO layers deposited on sapphire substrates. After introducing some terminology we first calculate the trend that the W/S parameters of the Doppler broadening measurements must follow, both in a qualitative and quantitative way. From this point we extend the results to calculate the width and defect profiles in deposited layer samples.

  9. Embedded feature ranking for ensemble MLP classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeatt, Terry; Duangsoithong, Rakkrit; Smith, Raymond

    2011-06-01

    A feature ranking scheme for multilayer perceptron (MLP) ensembles is proposed, along with a stopping criterion based upon the out-of-bootstrap estimate. To solve multi-class problems feature ranking is combined with modified error-correcting output coding. Experimental results on benchmark data demonstrate the versatility of the MLP base classifier in removing irrelevant features.

  10. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  11. Roentgenologic features of the Meckel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaenen, U.; Herva, R.

    1983-09-21

    The Meckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive lethal malformation syndrome. The main features are multicystic dysplastic kidneys, microcephaly with occipital encephalocele and polydactyly. This paper describes 6 new cases, with special reference to skeletal findings in postmortem total body radiographs Microcephaly with an occipital bone defect and encephalocele or hydrocephaly (1/6), short upper extremities, bell-shaped thorax with abdominal distension and postaxial polydactyly in the hands and feet were constant findings in these cases.

  12. Roentgenologic features of the Meckel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, U.; Herva, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Meckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive lethal malformation syndrome. The main features are multicystic dysplastic kidneys, microcephaly with occipital encephalocele and polydactyly. This paper describes 6 new cases, with special reference to skeletal findings in postmortem total body radiographs Microcephaly with an occipital bone defect and encephalocele or hydrocephaly [1/6], short upper extremities, bell-shaped thorax with abdominal distension and postaxial polydactyly in the hands and feet were constant findings in these cases. (orig.)

  13. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  14. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  15. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  16. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  17. Tunable hybrid optical modes in a bounded cholesteric liquid crystal with a twist defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatnov, Maxim V.; Vetrov, Stepan Ya.; Timofeev, Ivan V.

    2018-03-01

    Coupling between the defect mode of a cholesteric liquid crystal and the localized mode of a cholesteric liquid crystal-phase plate-metal structure is theoretically demonstrated. It is shown that the transmittance spectrum can be tuned by changing the twist-defect angle and helix pitch, which are governed by external factors. The spectra for different circular polarizations of the incident light are different; specifically, at the nondiffracting polarization, there is no defect-mode transmittance peak.

  18. Metastable defect response in CZTSSe from admittance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeper, Mark J.; Hages, Charles J.; Li, Jian V.; Levi, Dean; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2017-10-02

    Admittance spectroscopy is a useful tool used to study defects in semiconductor materials. However, metastable defect responses in non-ideal semiconductors can greatly impact the measurement and therefore the interpretation of results. Here, admittance spectroscopy was performed on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 where metastable defect response is illustrated due to the trapping of injected carriers into a deep defect state. To investigate the metastable response, admittance measurements were performed under electrically and optically relaxed conditions in comparison to a device following a low level carrier-injection pretreatment. The relaxed measurement demonstrates a single capacitance signature while two capacitance signatures are observed for the device measured following carrier-injection. The deeper level signature, typically reported for kesterites, is activated by charge trapping following carrier injection. Both signatures are attributed to bulk level defects. The significant metastable response observed on kesterites due to charge trapping obscures accurate interpretation of defect levels from admittance spectroscopy and indicates that great care must be taken when performing and interpreting this measurement on non-ideal devices.

  19. The role of defects and doping in 2D graphene sheets and 1D nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones, Humberto; Lv, Ruitao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-06-01

    Defects are usually seen as imperfections in materials that could significantly degrade their performance. However, at the nanoscale, defects could be extremely useful since they could be exploited to generate novel, innovative and useful materials and devices. Graphene and graphene nanoribbons are no exception. This review therefore tries to categorize defects, emphasize their importance, introduce the common routes to study and identify them and to propose new ways to construct novel devices based on 'defective' graphene-like materials. In particular, we will discuss defects in graphene-like systems including (a) structural (sp(2)-like) defects, (b) topological (sp(2)-like) defects, (c) doping or functionalization (sp(2)- and sp(3)-like) defects and (d) vacancies/edge type defects (non-sp(2)-like). It will be demonstrated that defects play a key role in graphene physicochemical properties and could even be critical to generate biocompatible materials. There are numerous challenges in this emerging field, and we intend to provide a stimulating account which could trigger new science and technological developments based on defective graphene-like materials that could be introduced into other atomic layered materials, such as BN, MoS(2) and WS(2), not discussed in this review.

  20. Curvature-driven stability of defects in nematic textures over spherical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiuqing; Yao, Zhenwei

    2017-06-01

    Stabilizing defects in liquid-crystal systems is crucial for many physical processes and applications ranging from functionalizing liquid-crystal textures to recently reported command of chaotic behaviors of active matters. In this work, we perform analytical calculations to study the curvature-driven stability mechanism of defects based on the isotropic nematic disk model that is free of any topological constraint. We show that in a growing spherical disk covering a sphere the accumulation of curvature effect can prevent typical +1 and +1/2 defects from forming boojum textures where the defects are repelled to the boundary of the disk. Our calculations reveal that the movement of the equilibrium position of the +1 defect from the boundary to the center of the spherical disk occurs in a very narrow window of the disk area, exhibiting the first-order phase-transition-like behavior. For the pair of +1/2 defects by splitting a +1 defect, we find the curvature-driven alternating repulsive and attractive interactions between the two defects. With the growth of the spherical disk these two defects tend to approach and finally recombine towards a +1 defect texture. The sensitive response of defects to curvature and the curvature-driven stability mechanism demonstrated in this work in nematic disk systems may have implications towards versatile control and engineering of liquid-crystal textures in various applications.

  1. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  2. Phosphorus doped and defects engineered graphene for improved electrochemical sensing: synergistic effect of dopants and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Tian, Ye; Wei, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials emerged as promising metal-free catalysts have recently attracted a growing interest in electrochemical sensing applications. However, their catalytic activity and sensing performances still need to be further improved. Herein, we reported the development of unique phosphorus (P)-doped and plasma-etched graphene (denoted as PG-E) as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for dopamine (DA) sensing. It was demonstrated that introducing both P-dopants and plasma-engineered defects in graphene could synergistically improve the activity toward electrocatalytic oxidation of DA by increasing the accessible active sites and promoting the electron transport capability. The resulting PG-E modified electrode showed exceptional DA sensing performances with low detection limit, high selectivity and good stability. These results suggested that the synergistic effect of dopants and defects might be an important factor for developing the advanced graphene-based metal-free catalysts for electrochemical sensing.

  3. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiol, Bartomeu, E-mail: bfiol@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  4. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Daniel L; Lipton, Jeffrey I; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Lipson, Hod

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8 ± 2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated ∼75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6 ± 2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques.

  5. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R.; Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

  6. Defect dynamics in wave ripples (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, T.; Myrow, P.; Southard, J. B.; Huppert, K. L.; Szulczewski, M.

    2010-12-01

    Symmetric sand ripples generated by wave-driven oscillatory flow are common in modern sedimentary systems and in the rock record, yet the processes by which fields of wave ripples are established and respond to changes in wave conditions are unclear. Geometric defects in ripple crests are common, but it is unknown whether these defects are long-lived or transient features, and what role, if any, they play in accommodating changes in evolving ripple fields. To investigate these processes, we performed two sets of experiments in a laboratory wave tank. First, a bed initially covered with small perturbations was subjected to constant wave forcing until an equilibrium ripple field formed. Second, equilibrium ripple fields were subjected to sudden changes in wave conditions that would produce a different ripple wavelength. We observed several kinds of defects that facilitate both the establishment of an equilibrium ripple field and shifts from one equilibrium to another. Secondary crests that develop in troughs can grow to become main crests, and conversely, main crests can shrink until they disappear. Small, sharp-rimmed depressions emerge and propagate along or between ripple crests, accommodating discrete jumps in ripple position. Even without these small depressions, crests can propagate edge dislocations following the development of pronounced crest curvature. After creation or elimination of a few crests, gradual lateral crest migration creates uniform crest spacing. A poorly understood pattern involving bulging and necking of crests was also noted. Bulges are offset between adjacent ripple crests, and align in diagonal patterns. It has been suggested, based on recent experimental results, that established ripple fields are insensitive to small changes in wave conditions, only adjusting once conditions change by a sufficient amount. If this is true, the empirical relationship between wave conditions and ripple wavelength should display much more scatter than has

  7. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  8. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  9. Adding Feminist Therapy to Videotape Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Jennifer L.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2000-01-01

    Provides directions for presenting a 32-minute series of four videotape segments that highlights the fundamental features of four approaches to psychotherapy, extending its reach to include a feminist perspective. Describes the approaches and included segments. Reports that students' comments demonstrate that the video sequence provided a helpful…

  10. Technology Tips: Building Interactive Demonstrations with Sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maura

    2013-01-01

    Sage is an open-source software package that can be used in many different areas of mathematics, ranging from algebra to calculus and beyond. One of the most exciting pedagogical features of Sage (http://www.sagemath.org) is its ability to create interacts--interactive examples that can be used in a classroom demonstration or by students in a…

  11. CT demonstration of extrapleural pedunculated thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Song, Ho Yong; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul

    1992-01-01

    A case of extrapleural pedunculated thymoma is presented and its CT features are described. A large ovoid extrapleural pedunculated thymoma in the right lower lung field clearly demonstrated focal tapered pedicle at the level of inferior border of right main bronchus on CT scan, thus establish in the mediastinal origin of the mass in a 61-year-old man

  12. CT demonstration of extrapleural pedunculated thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Min; Song, Ho Yong; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chunju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    A case of extrapleural pedunculated thymoma is presented and its CT features are described. A large ovoid extrapleural pedunculated thymoma in the right lower lung field clearly demonstrated focal tapered pedicle at the level of inferior border of right main bronchus on CT scan, thus establish in the mediastinal origin of the mass in a 61-year-old man.

  13. Phenotypic Spectrum in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Due to Mutations in TMEM38B: Unraveling a Complex Cellular Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A; Balasubramanian, Meena; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Cabral, Wayne A; Titheradge, Hannah; Alsaedi, Atif; Saraff, Vrinda; Vogt, Julie; Cole, Trevor; Stewart, Susan; Crabtree, Nicola J; Sargent, Brandi M; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Shaw, Nick J; Marini, Joan C; Högler, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Recessive mutations in TMEM38B cause type XIV osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by dysregulating intracellular calcium flux. Clinical and bone material phenotype description and osteoblast differentiation studies. Natural history study in pediatric research centers. Eight patients with type XIV OI. Clinical examinations included bone mineral density, radiographs, echocardiography, and muscle biopsy. Bone biopsy samples (n = 3) were analyzed using histomorphometry, quantitative backscattered electron microscopy, and Raman microspectroscopy. Cellular differentiation studies were performed on proband and control osteoblasts and normal murine osteoclasts. Type XIV OI clinical phenotype ranges from asymptomatic to severe. Previously unreported features include vertebral fractures, periosteal cloaking, coxa vara, and extraskeletal features (muscular hypotonia, cardiac abnormalities). Proband lumbar spine bone density z score was reduced [median -3.3 (range -4.77 to +0.1; n = 7)] and increased by +1.7 (1.17 to 3.0; n = 3) following bisphosphonate therapy. TMEM38B mutant bone has reduced trabecular bone volume, osteoblast, and particularly osteoclast numbers, with >80% reduction in bone resorption. Bone matrix mineralization is normal and nanoporosity low. We demonstrate a complex osteoblast differentiation defect with decreased expression of early markers and increased expression of late and mineralization-related markers. Predominance of trimeric intracellular cation channel type B over type A expression in murine osteoclasts supports an intrinsic osteoclast defect underlying low bone turnover. OI type XIV has a bone histology, matrix mineralization, and osteoblast differentiation pattern that is distinct from OI with collagen defects. Probands are responsive to bisphosphonates and some show muscular and cardiovascular features possibly related to intracellular calcium flux abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. Temporal feature integration for music genre classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    , but they capture neither the temporal dynamics nor dependencies among the individual feature dimensions. Here, a multivariate autoregressive feature model is proposed to solve this problem for music genre classification. This model gives two different feature sets, the diagonal autoregressive (DAR......) and multivariate autoregressive (MAR) features which are compared against the baseline mean-variance as well as two other temporal feature integration techniques. Reproducibility in performance ranking of temporal feature integration methods were demonstrated using two data sets with five and eleven music genres...

  15. Advanced metrology of surface defects measurement for aluminum die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific objective of the research is to develop a strategy to build computer based vision systems for inspection of surface defects inproducts, especially discontinuities which appear in castings after machining. In addition to the proposed vision inspection method theauthors demonstrates the development of the advanced computer techniques based on the methods of scanning to measure topography ofsurface defect in offline process control. This method allow to identify a mechanism responsible for the formation of casting defects. Also,the method allow investigating if the, developed vision inspection system for identification of surface defects have been correctlyimplemented for an online inspection. Finally, in order to make casting samples with gas and shrinkage porosity defects type, the LGT gas meter was used . For this task a special camera for a semi-quantitative assessment of the gas content in aluminum alloy melts, using a Straube-Pfeiffer method was used. The results demonstrate that applied solution is excellent tool in preparing for various aluminum alloysthe reference porosity samples, identified next by the computer inspection system.

  16. A new approach for detecting local features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Local features up to now are often mentioned in the meaning of interest points. A patch around each point is formed to compute descriptors or feature vectors. Therefore, in order to satisfy different invariant imaging conditions such as scales and viewpoints, an input image is often represented i...... triangle. In this paper, we demonstrate that the triangular representation of images provide invariant features of the image. Experiments using these features show higher retrieval performance over existing methods....

  17. Effective Feature Preprocessing for Time Series Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhaoyang; Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Time series forecasting is an important area in data mining research. Feature preprocessing techniques have significant influence on forecasting accuracy, therefore are essential in a forecasting model. Although several feature preprocessing techniques have been applied in time series forecasting...... performance in time series forecasting. It is demonstrated in our experiment that, effective feature preprocessing can significantly enhance forecasting accuracy. This research can be a useful guidance for researchers on effectively selecting feature preprocessing techniques and integrating them with time...

  18. Dual-probe spectroscopic fingerprints of defects in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    (e.g., an extended graphene sheet). Applying this method, we study the transport anisotropies in pristine graphene sheets, and analyze the spectroscopic fingerprints arising from quantum interference around single-site defects, such as vacancies and adatoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the dual...

  19. A fast button surface defects detection method based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhe; Cao, Danhua; Wu, Songlin; Wu, Yubin; Wei, Taoran

    2018-01-01

    Considering the complexity of the button surface texture and the variety of buttons and defects, we propose a fast visual method for button surface defect detection, based on convolutional neural network (CNN). CNN has the ability to extract the essential features by training, avoiding designing complex feature operators adapted to different kinds of buttons, textures and defects. Firstly, we obtain the normalized button region and then use HOG-SVM method to identify the front and back side of the button. Finally, a convolutional neural network is developed to recognize the defects. Aiming at detecting the subtle defects, we propose a network structure with multiple feature channels input. To deal with the defects of different scales, we take a strategy of multi-scale image block detection. The experimental results show that our method is valid for a variety of buttons and able to recognize all kinds of defects that have occurred, including dent, crack, stain, hole, wrong paint and uneven. The detection rate exceeds 96%, which is much better than traditional methods based on SVM and methods based on template match. Our method can reach the speed of 5 fps on DSP based smart camera with 600 MHz frequency.

  20. Defect branes as Alice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Takashi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2015-01-01

    There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.

  1. Space Mapping and Defect Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P.W. Hemker (Piet); W.H.A. Schilders (Wil); H.A. van der Vorst (Henk); J. Rommes

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter we present the principles of the space-mapping iteration techniques for the efficient solution of optimization problems. We also show how space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. We observe the difference between the solution

  2. Space mapping and defect correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Lahaye, D.; Hemker, P.W.; Schilders, W.H.A.; van der Vorst, H.A.; Rommes, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we present the principles of the space-mapping iteration techniques for the efficient solution of optimization problems. We also show how space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. We observe the difference between the solution of the

  3. Grassman defectivity à la Terracini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Dionisi

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a modern rivisitation of a classical paper by nA. Terracini, going back to 1915, which suggests an elementary but powerful method for studying Grassmann defective varieties. In particular, the case of Veronese surfaces is completely understood, giving a positive answer to the so-called Waring problem for pairs of homogeneous polynomials in three variables.

  4. Defects and an unusual superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.; Kalugin, P.A.

    1985-03-10

    If the superconducting gap in a pure material has zeros on an entire line along the Fermi surface, the state density is finite at epsilon = 0, beginning with the lowest defect concentrations. The splitting of the superconducting transition by impurities, U/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/ is discussed.

  5. Delamination initiated by a defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials in wind turbines are mainly joined with adhesives. Adhesive joining is preferable since it distributes the stresses over a larger area. This study shows how a defect can influence the fracture behaviour of adhesively joined composite. Repeated experiments are performed using d...

  6. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  7. Importance of doping, dopant distribution, and defects on electronic band structure alteration of metal oxide nanoparticles: Implications for reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Navid B.; Milliron, Delia J.; Aich, Nirupam; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are considered to have the potency to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), one of the key mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity. However, the nanotoxicology literature demonstrates a lack of consensus on the dominant toxicity mechanism(s) for a particular MONP. Moreover, recent literature has studied the correlation between band structure of pristine MONPs to their ability to introduce ROS and thus has downplayed the ROS-mediated toxicological relevance of a number of such materials. On the other hand, material science can control the band structure of these materials to engineer their electronic and optical properties and thereby is constantly modulating the pristine electronic structure. Since band structure is the fundamental material property that controls ROS-producing ability, band tuning via introduction of dopants and defects needs careful consideration in toxicity assessments. This commentary critically evaluates the existing material science and nanotoxicity literature and identifies the gap in our understanding of the role of important crystal structure features (i.e., dopants and defects) on MONPs' electronic structure alteration as well as their ROS-generation capability. Furthermore, this commentary provides suggestions on characterization techniques to evaluate dopants and defects on the crystal structure and identifies research needs for advanced theoretical predictions of their electronic band structures and ROS-generation abilities. Correlation of electronic band structure and ROS will not only aid in better mechanistic assessment of nanotoxicity but will be impactful in designing and developing ROS-based applications ranging from water disinfection to next-generation antibiotics and even cancer therapeutics. - Highlights: • Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) • Band structure of pristine MONPs is different than those with dopants/defects • Dopants/defects modulate

  8. Importance of doping, dopant distribution, and defects on electronic band structure alteration of metal oxide nanoparticles: Implications for reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Navid B., E-mail: navid.saleh@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milliron, Delia J. [McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Aich, Nirupam [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, 14260 (United States); Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.; Kirisits, Mary Jo [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are considered to have the potency to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), one of the key mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity. However, the nanotoxicology literature demonstrates a lack of consensus on the dominant toxicity mechanism(s) for a particular MONP. Moreover, recent literature has studied the correlation between band structure of pristine MONPs to their ability to introduce ROS and thus has downplayed the ROS-mediated toxicological relevance of a number of such materials. On the other hand, material science can control the band structure of these materials to engineer their electronic and optical properties and thereby is constantly modulating the pristine electronic structure. Since band structure is the fundamental material property that controls ROS-producing ability, band tuning via introduction of dopants and defects needs careful consideration in toxicity assessments. This commentary critically evaluates the existing material science and nanotoxicity literature and identifies the gap in our understanding of the role of important crystal structure features (i.e., dopants and defects) on MONPs' electronic structure alteration as well as their ROS-generation capability. Furthermore, this commentary provides suggestions on characterization techniques to evaluate dopants and defects on the crystal structure and identifies research needs for advanced theoretical predictions of their electronic band structures and ROS-generation abilities. Correlation of electronic band structure and ROS will not only aid in better mechanistic assessment of nanotoxicity but will be impactful in designing and developing ROS-based applications ranging from water disinfection to next-generation antibiotics and even cancer therapeutics. - Highlights: • Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) • Band structure of pristine MONPs is different than those with dopants/defects • Dopants/defects modulate

  9. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nemani, Lalita; Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Mishra, Ramesh C; Rao, Amaresh M; Kapur, Pragati

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD), subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right vent...

  10. Nanocarbon: Defect Architectures and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Amanda

    The allotropes of carbon make its solid phases amongst the most diverse of any element. It can occur naturally as graphite and diamond, which have very different properties that make them suitable for a wide range of technological and commercial purposes. Recent developments in synthetic carbon include Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) and nano-carbons, such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. The main industrial application of bulk graphite is as an electrode material in steel production, but in purified nuclear graphite form, it is also used as a moderator in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors across the United Kingdom. Both graphene and graphite are damaged over time when subjected to bombardment by electrons, neutrons or ions, and these have a wide range of effects on their physical and electrical properties, depending on the radiation flux and temperature. This research focuses on intrinsic defects in graphene and dimensional change in nuclear graphite. The method used here is computational chemistry, which complements physical experiments. Techniques used comprise of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD), which are discussed in chapter 2 and chapter 3, respectively. The succeeding chapters describe the results of simulations performed to model defects in graphene and graphite. Chapter 4 presents the results of ab initio DFT calculations performed to investigate vacancy complexes that are formed in AA stacked bilayer graphene. In AB stacking, carbon atoms surrounding the lattice vacancies can form interlayer structures with sp2 bonding that are lower in energy compared to in-plane reconstructions. From the investigation of AA stacking, sp2 interlayer bonding of adjacent multivacancy defects in registry creates a type of stable sp2 bonded wormhole between the layers. Also, a new class of mezzanine structure characterised by sp3 interlayer bonding, resembling a prismatic vacancy loop has also been identified. The mezzanine, which is a

  11. Defects and Rearrangements in Disordered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtmans, Sven

    In this thesis, I will investigate the properties of disordered materials under strain. Disordered materials encompass a large variety of materials, including glasses, polymers, granular matter, dense colloids, and gels. There is currently no constitutive equation based on microscopic observables that describes these materials. Given the prevalence and usefulness of these materials, we derive tools to aid our understanding of them. We develop a new method to isolate localized defects from extended vibrational modes in disordered solids. This method augments particle interactions with an artificial potential that acts as a high-pass filter: it preserves small-scale structures while pushing extended vibrational modes to higher frequencies. The low-frequency modes that remain are ``bare" defects; they are exponentially localized without the quadrupolar tails associated with elastic interactions. We demonstrate that these localized excitations are excellent predictors of plastic rearrangements in the solid. We characterize several of the properties of these defects that appear in mesoscopic theories of plasticity, including their distribution of energy barriers, number density, and size, which is a first step in testing and revising continuum models for plasticity in disordered solids. We additionally study the properties of rearrangement types in 2D disordered packings of particles with a harmonic potential at a range of packing fractions above jamming. We develop a generalizable procedure that classifies events by stress drop, energy drop, and reversibility under two protocols. Somewhat surprisingly, we find a large population of contact change events that have no associated stress drop. Reversible events become more common at high pressures above a packing fraction of phi=0.865, at which point line reversible events are more common than loop reversible events. At low pressures, irreversible events are associated with spatially extended events, while at high

  12. Mathematical simulation of point defect interaction with grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Published works, where the interaction of point defects and grain boundaries was studied by mathematical simulation methods, have been analysed. Energetics of the vacancy formation both in nuclei of large-angle special grain boundaries and in lattice regions adjoining them has been considered. The data obtained permit to explain specific features of grain-boundary diffusion processes. Results of mathematical simulation of the interaction of impurity atoms and boundaries have been considered. Specific features of the helium atom interaction with large-angle grain boundaries are analysed as well

  13. Defective planar cell polarity in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Evelyne; Legue, Emilie; Doyen, Antonia; Nato, Faridabano; Nicolas, Jean-François; Torres, Vicente; Yaniv, Moshe; Pontoglio, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Morphogenesis involves coordinated proliferation, differentiation and spatial distribution of cells. We show that lengthening of renal tubules is associated with mitotic orientation of cells along the tubule axis, demonstrating intrinsic planar cell polarization, and we demonstrate that mitotic orientations are significantly distorted in rodent polycystic kidney models. These results suggest that oriented cell division dictates the maintenance of constant tubule diameter during tubular lengthening and that defects in this process trigger renal tubular enlargement and cyst formation.

  14. Defect-induced infrared electroluminescence from radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array light- emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Laiq; Karimi, Mohammad; Berg, Alexander; Jain, Vishal; Borgström, Magnus T.; Gustafsson, Anders; Samuelson, Lars; Pettersson, Håkan

    2017-12-01

    Radial GaInP/AlGaInP nanowire array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are promising candidates for novel high-efficiency solid state lighting due to their potentially large strain-free active emission volumes compared to planar LEDs. Moreover, by proper tuning of the diameter of the nanowires, the fraction of emitted light extracted can be significantly enhanced compared to that of planar LEDs. Reports so far on radial growth of nanowire LED structures, however, still point to significant challenges related to obtaining defect-free radial heterostructures. In this work, we present evidence of optically active growth-induced defects in a fairly broad energy range in vertically processed radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array LEDs using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. In particular, we demonstrate strong infrared electroluminescence in a spectral range centred around 1 eV (1.2 μm) in addition to the expected red light emission from the quantum well. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence studies reveal a patchy red light emission with clear spectral features along the NWs, most likely induced by variations in QW thickness, composition and barriers. Dark areas are attributed to infrared emission generated by competing defect-assisted radiative transitions, or to trapping mechanisms involving non-radiative recombination processes. Possible origins of the defects are discussed.

  15. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  16. Holographic Fabrication of Designed Functional Defect Lines in Photonic Crystal Lattice Using a Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lutkenhaus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the holographic fabrication of designed defect lines in photonic crystal lattices through phase engineering using a spatial light modulator (SLM. The diffracted beams from the SLM not only carry the defect’s content but also the defect related phase-shifting information. The phase-shifting induced lattice shifting in photonic lattices around the defects in three-beam interference is less than the one produced by five-beam interference due to the alternating shifting in lattice in three beam interference. By designing the defect line at a 45 degree orientation and using three-beam interference, the defect orientation can be aligned with the background photonic lattice, and the shifting is only in one side of the defect line, in agreement with the theory. Finally, a new design for the integration of functional defect lines in a background phase pattern reduces the relative phase shift of the defect and utilizes the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and background phase pattern. We demonstrate that the desired and functional defect lattice can be registered into the background lattice through the direct imaging of designed phase patterns.

  17. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency

  18. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu

    2014-02-01

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  19. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  20. Magnetic signature of surface defects at nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmers, Nora Jenny; Gerstmann, Uwe; Schmidt, Wolf Gero [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The n-type doping of diamond has been a long-standing issue, which recently gained attention in the context of nanodiamonds. Attempts of doping with nitrogen failed to result in the Electron paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) fingerprints expected from bulk material. Instead, the nanodiamond signals show a much larger deviation from the free-electron g-value and are believed to be related to intrinsic, carbon inherited defects. However, the absence of the bulk-like EPR spectra does not mean that nitrogen is not incorporated at all. The N atoms could be built in predominantly at or at least close to the surfaces yielding EPR spectra, very different from those measured in the bulk. In this work, we elucidate the situation by investigating the magnetic signature of paramagnetic defects in the nanodiamonds. We use the gauge-including projector augmented plane wave (GI-PAW) approach to calculate the hyperfine splittings and the elements of the electronic g-tensor. Taking the C(100) surface as a first model system, a possible contribution of nitrogen is discussed by comparing EPR parameters for different N incorporation depths: Incorporated directly at the surface, N gives rise to surface states similar to intrinsic carbon dangling bond-like states. Otherwise N is able to introduce surface conductivity as demonstrated by calculated effective mass tensors.

  1. Online Surface Defect Identification of Cold Rolled Strips Based on Local Binary Pattern and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface. Features are then extracted from the images and are used as inputs of a pre-trained classifier to identify the type of defect. New types of defect often appear in production. At this point the pre-trained classifier needs to be quickly retrained and deployed in seconds to meet the requirement of the online identification of all defects in the environment of a continuous production line. Therefore, the method for extracting the image features and the training for the classification model should be automated and fast enough, normally within seconds. This paper presents our findings in investigating the computational and classification performance of various feature extraction methods and classification models for the strip surface defect identification. The methods include Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF and Local Binary Patterns (LBP. The classifiers we have assessed include Back Propagation (BP neural network, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. By comparing various combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods, our experiments show that the hybrid method of LBP for feature extraction and ELM for defect classification results in less training and identification time with higher classification accuracy, which satisfied online real-time identification.

  2. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-15

    exhibits a bistability, as does the leakage current. In oxygen rich material the defect transforms (V{sub 3} activation energy for migration E{sub a} = 1.77 {+-} 0.08 eV) to the L defect, which can be assigned to the V{sub 3}O defect. In the second part of this work, it is demonstrated that the radiation induced effective doping concentration can be attributed to the generation of three deep acceptors (H(116K), H(140K), H(151K)), two donors (BD defect and E(30K)) and the vacancyphosphorus defect VP. The reverse annealing of the effective doping concentration is presented for samples irradiated with neutrons for fluences up to {phi}=10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. From defect concentrations it is possible to reproduce the effective doping concentration as extracted from capacitance-voltage characteristics. The last part of this work deals with the characterisation of Float Zone pad sensors in the frame of the CMS tracker upgrade programme. Due to a new production process, several material defects were introduced in the sensors. They explain unexpected electrical properties in thin sensors. (orig.)

  3. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-01

    rich material the defect transforms (V 3 activation energy for migration E a = 1.77 ± 0.08 eV) to the L defect, which can be assigned to the V 3 O defect. In the second part of this work, it is demonstrated that the radiation induced effective doping concentration can be attributed to the generation of three deep acceptors (H(116K), H(140K), H(151K)), two donors (BD defect and E(30K)) and the vacancyphosphorus defect VP. The reverse annealing of the effective doping concentration is presented for samples irradiated with neutrons for fluences up to Φ=10 15 cm -2 . From defect concentrations it is possible to reproduce the effective doping concentration as extracted from capacitance-voltage characteristics. The last part of this work deals with the characterisation of Float Zone pad sensors in the frame of the CMS tracker upgrade programme. Due to a new production process, several material defects were introduced in the sensors. They explain unexpected electrical properties in thin sensors. (orig.)

  4. Appositional bone formation in marginal defects at implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, Daniele; Berglundh, Tord; Buser, Daniel; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-02-01

    In a previous experiment, it was demonstrated that a wide marginal defect around an implant can heal with a high degree of osseointegration. The present experiment was performed to evaluate the degree and quality of de novo bone formation and osseointegration in marginal defects adjacent to submerged titanium implants. All mandibular premolars and 1st molars were extracted in four Labrador dogs. Four experimental sites were identified in the right side of the mandible. In two sites, custom-made implants with a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface were installed without further ostectomy (control sites). In the two remaining sites (test sites), a specially designed step drill was used to widen the marginal 5 mm of the canal. A barrier membrane was used to cover the implants in the defect sites. All implants were submerged. One month later, an identical procedure, including site preparation and implant installation, was performed in the left side of the mandible. Two months following the first implant installation procedure, biopsies were collected and prepared for sectioning. Ostectomy and implant installation in the control location resulted in a series of bone tissue alterations which eventually allowed newly formed bone to establish contact with the SLA surface. The marginal defect lateral to the implant in the test locations gradually became filled with newly formed bone. De novo bone formation started within the walls of the surgically prepared defect. Bone-to-implant contact was first established in the apical portion of the gap. This new bone tissue was in the coronal direction continuous with a dense, non-mineralized 'implant attached' soft tissue which, over time, also became mineralized to increase the height of the zone of bone-to-implant contact. The results suggest that healing of a wide marginal defect around an implant is characterized by appositional bone growth from the lateral and apical bone walls of the defect.

  5. Cascade Defect Evolution Processes: Comparison of Atomistic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haixuan [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Determining the defect evolution beyond the molecular dynamics (MD) time scale is critical in bridging the gap between atomistic simulations and experiments. The recently developed self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method provides new opportunities to simulate long-term defect evolution with MD-like fidelity. In this study, SEAKMC is applied to investigate the cascade defect evolution in bcc iron. First, the evolution of a vacancy rich region is simulated and compared with results obtained using autonomous basin climbing (ABC) +KMC and kinetic activation-relaxation technique (kART) simulations. Previously, it is found the results from kART are orders of magnitude faster than ABC+KMC. The results obtained from SEAKMC are similar to kART but the time predicted is about one order of magnitude faster than kART. The fidelity of SEAKMC is confirmed by statistically relevant MD simulations at multiple higher temperatures, which proves that the saddle point sampling is close to complete in SEAKMC. The second is the irradiation-induced formation of C15 Laves phase nano-size defect clusters. In contrast to previous studies, which claim the defects can grow by capturing self-interstitials, we found these highly stable clusters can transform to <111> glissile configuration on a much longer time scale. Finally, cascade-annealing simulations using SEAKMC is compared with traditional object KMC (OKMC) method. SEAKMC predicts substantially fewer surviving defects compared with OKMC. The possible origin of this difference is discussed and a possible way to improve the accuracy of OKMC based on SEAKMC results is outlined. These studies demonstrate the atomistic fidelity of SEAKMC in comparison with other on-the-fly KMC methods and provide new information on long-term defect evolution in iron.

  6. Compact Models for Defect Diffusivity in Semiconductor Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics Department; Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics Department; Lee, Stephen R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Sciences Department; Foiles, Stephen M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Materials and Data Science Department

    2017-09-01

    Predicting transient effects caused by short - pulse neutron irradiation of electronic devices is an important part of Sandia's mission. For example , predicting the diffusion of radiation - induced point defects is needed with in Sandia's Qualification Alternative to the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (QASPR) pro gram since defect diffusion mediates transient gain recovery in QASPR electronic devices. Recently, the semiconductors used to fabricate radiation - hard electronic devices have begun to shift from silicon to III - V compounds such as GaAs, InAs , GaP and InP . An advantage of this shift is that it allows engineers to optimize the radiation hardness of electronic devices by using alloy s such as InGaAs and InGaP . However, the computer codes currently being used to simulate transient radiation effects in QASP R devices will need to be modified since they presume that defect properties (charge states, energy levels, and diffusivities) in these alloys do not change with time. This is not realistic since the energy and properties of a defect depend on the types of atoms near it and , therefore, on its location in the alloy. In particular, radiation - induced defects are created at nearly random locations in an alloy and the distribution of their local environments - and thus their energies and properties - evolves with time as the defects diffuse through the alloy . To incorporate these consequential effects into computer codes used to simulate transient radiation effects, we have developed procedures to accurately compute the time dependence of defect energies and properties and then formulate them within compact models that can be employed in these computer codes. In this document, we demonstrate these procedures for the case of the highly mobile P interstitial (I P ) in an InGaP alloy. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE

  7. Comparison of Planar Fractal Filters on Defected Ground Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kufa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses approaches to the reduction of dimensions of planar filters (microstrip ones and coplanar ones. Filter dimensions are reduced by applying the fractal theory to the geometry of a filter, and by the defecting of the ground plane of a filter. An optimum combination of both approaches enables us to reach smaller dimensions of planar filters and protect other parameters. In order to demonstrate advantages of the fractal defected ground approach, we review the designs of existing low-pass filters with defected ground structures (DGS. Results produced by simulations of these filters are compared with results of simulations of a novel fractal DGS filter. The investigated filters are manufactured and measured.

  8. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    on the experimental method of optical microscopy and the image analysis algorithms of the seeded region growing method and Otsu’s method. The use of the protocol is demonstrated by examining two types of differently processed flax fibres to give mean defect contents of 6.9 and 3.9%, a difference which is tested......Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...... to be statistically significant. The protocol is evaluated with respect to the selection of image analysis algorithms, and Otsu’s method is found to be a more appropriate method than the alternative coefficient of variation method. The traditional way of defining defect size by area is compared to the definition...

  9. Possible mechanism for d0 ferromagnetism mediated by intrinsic defects

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenkui

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of several intrinsic defects on the magnetic behavior of ZnS nanostructures using hybrid density functional theory to gain insights into d0 ferromagnetism. Previous studies have predicted that the magnetism is due to a coupling between partially filled defect states. By taking into account the electronic correlations, we find an additional splitting of the defect states in Zn vacancies and thus the possibility of gaining energy by preferential filling of hole states, establishing ferromagnetism between spin polarized S 3p holes. We demonstrate a crucial role of neutral S vacancies in promoting ferromagnetism between positively charged S vacancies. S dangling bonds on the nanoparticle surface also induce ferromagnetism. This journal is

  10. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  11. Defect and Magnetic Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide Prepared from Old Coconut Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasari; Maulana, A.; Nugraheni, A. Y.; Jayanti, D. N.; Mustofa, S.; Baqiya, M. A.; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    Defect state may be created on the grafitic bonding of carbon atoms as the dangling bonds of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) compound. In this study, the rGO sample has been prepared by burning the coconut shell in air. The resulted burnt samples were then heated at varying temperatures (400, 700, and 1000°C) for 5 hours in air. Further, a mechanical exfoliation process using ultrasonic vibrator was added to the samples for 5 hours. Characterization using Raman spectroscopy exhibited that the intensity ratio of defect (ID) and graphene (IG) increases, implying the increase of defect number, with respect to the increasing heating temperature. According to the magnetic property measurement using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), it is shown that the magnetization enhances with incerasing number of defects, featuring an occurrence of defect-induced magnetism in rGO.

  12. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors optical and photothermal characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer after high temperature annealing. The editors of this volume and Volume 45 focus on the physics of the annealing kinetics of the damaged layer. An overview of characterization tehniques and a critical comparison of the information on annealing kinetics is also presented. Key Features * Provides basic knowledge of ion implantation-induced defects * Focuses on physical mechanisms of defect annealing * Utilizes electrical, physical, and optical characterization tools for processed semiconductors * Provides the basis for understanding the problems caused by the defects g...

  13. A magnetically tunable non-Bragg defect mode in a corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Fan, Ya-Xian; Liu, Huan; Han, Xu; Lu, Wen-Qiang; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2018-04-01

    A magnetically tunable, non-Bragg defect mode (NBDM) was created in the terahertz frequency range by inserting a defect in the middle of a periodically corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals (LCs). In the periodic waveguide, non-Bragg gaps beyond the Bragg ones, which appear in the transmission spectra, are created by different transverse mode resonances. The transmission spectra of the waveguide containing a defect showed that a defect mode was present inside the non-Bragg gap. The NBDM has quite different features compared to the Bragg defect mode, which includes more complex, high-order guided wave modes. In our study, we filled the corrugated waveguide with LCs to realize the tunability of the NBDM. The simulated results showed that the NBDM in a corrugated waveguide filled with LCs can be used in filters, sensors, switches, and other terahertz integrated devices.

  14. Modeling defect trends for iterative development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Spanguolo, J. N.

    2003-01-01

    The Employment of Defects (EoD) approach to measuring and analyzing defects seeks to identify and capture trends and phenomena that are critical to managing software quality in the iterative software development lifecycle at JPL.

  15. EPG5-related Vici syndrome: a paradigm of neurodevelopmental disorders with defective autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Susan; Jansen, Lara; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Siddiqui, Ata; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Bodi, Istvan; Smith, Luke; Mein, Rachael; Cullup, Thomas; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Bruwer, Zandre; Al Thihli, Khalid; El-Garhy, Rana; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Zmuda, Erik; Banks, Wesley; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Mandel, Hanna; Dagan, Efrat; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Barash, Hila; Filloux, Francis; Creel, Donnell; Harris, Michael; Hamosh, Ada; Kölker, Stefan; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Manchester, David; Boyer, Philip J.; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Pilz, Daniela T.; Kamath, Arveen; Prabhakar, Prab; Rao, Vamshi K.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Ryan, Monique M.; Brown, Natasha J.; McLean, Catriona A.; Said, Edith; Schara, Ulrike; Stein, Anja; Sewry, Caroline; Travan, Laura; Wijburg, Frits A.; Zenker, Martin; Mohammed, Shehla; Fanto, Manolis; Gautel, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Vici syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental multisystem disorder due to recessive mutations in the key autophagy gene EPG5. We report genetic, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropathological features of 50 children from 30 families, as well as the neuronal phenotype of EPG5 knock-down in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified 39 different EPG5 mutations, most of them truncating and predicted to result in reduced EPG5 protein. Most mutations were private, but three recurrent mutations (p.Met2242Cysfs*5, p.Arg417*, and p.Gln336Arg) indicated possible founder effects. Presentation was mainly neonatal, with marked hypotonia and feeding difficulties. In addition to the five principal features (callosal agenesis, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, and immune dysfunction), we identified three equally consistent features (profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and failure to thrive). The manifestation of all eight of these features has a specificity of 97%, and a sensitivity of 89% for the presence of an EPG5 mutation and will allow informed decisions about genetic testing. Clinical progression was relentless and many children died in infancy. Survival analysis demonstrated a median survival time of 24 months (95% confidence interval 0–49 months), with only a 10th of patients surviving to 5 years of age. Survival outcomes were significantly better in patients with compound heterozygous mutations (P = 0.046), as well as in patients with the recurrent p.Gln336Arg mutation. Acquired microcephaly and regression of skills in long-term survivors suggests a neurodegenerative component superimposed on the principal neurodevelopmental defect. Two-thirds of patients had a severe seizure disorder, placing EPG5 within the rapidly expanding group of genes associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. Consistent neuroradiological features comprised structural abnormalities, in particular callosal agenesis and pontine hypoplasia, delayed

  16. Double trisomy (48,XXX,+18) with features of Roberts syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descartes, M.; Longshore, J.W.; Crawford, E. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report an infant with double trisomy 48,XXX,+18, who also displayed features of Roberts syndrome. All previously published cases with similar double trisomy have presented with features of trisomy 18 syndrome. The chromosome analysis done at birth revealed the double trisomy; parental chromosomes were normal. The proband presented with microbrachycephaly, unilateral cleft lip and palate, choanal atresia, midfacial capillary hemanioma, thin nares, shallow orbits, malformed ears, sparse hair, hypomelia of the upper limbs, rocker-bottom feet, auricular septal defect and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Characteristic features of Roberts syndrome included hypomelia, midfacial defects, and severe growth deficiency. Among the many different features reported in the literature for patients with trisomy 18 syndrome, the most consistent were growth deficiency, clenched fingers and congenital heart defects (e.g. VSD, ASD, PDA). Although some of our patient`s features such as cleft lip and cleft palate, low-set malformed ears, ASD, defects of the corpus callosum, choanal atresia, radial aplasia could also be seen in trisomy 18 syndrome (in 10-50% of the cases), her phenotype was more typical of Roberts syndrome because of symmetrical hypomelia and midfacial defects. Our patient`s chromosomes did not show premature separation of centromeric heterochromatin, a feature reported to occur in approximately one-half of individuals with Roberts syndrome. Sporadic aneuploidy involving different chromosomes has been found in lymphocyte cultures from some Roberts syndrome patients and is considered by some authors as a mitotic mutant. This aneuploidy is most likely to be chromosome gain. The simultaneous occurrence of trisomy X and 18 is extremely rare with only 11 cases having been reported in the literature. Our patient is unique since she has the double trisomy in addition to the characteristic features of Roberts syndrome.

  17. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  18. Defects of mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase γ in concert with accessory proteins such as the mitochondrial DNA helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein, topoisomerase, and initiating factors. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism can cause mitochondrial genetic diseases due to mitochondrial DNA deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These genetic diseases include mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes such as Alpers or early infantile hepatocerebral syndromes, and mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. This review focuses on our current knowledge of genetic defects of mitochondrial DNA replication (POLG, POLG2, C10orf2, and MGME1) that cause instability of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  20. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Scott Hale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development.Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development.Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  1. Radiation defect dynamics studied by pulsed ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. B.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Shao, L.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2017-10-01

    The formation of stable radiation damage in solids often proceeds via complex dynamic annealing processes, involving migration and interaction of ballistically-generated point defects. Our current understanding of the underlying physics is still not sufficient for predicting radiation damage even for Si, which is arguably the simplest and most extensively studied material. The complexity of radiation damage is closely related to radiation defect dynamics. Here, we demonstrate how defect interaction dynamics can be studied by pulsed beam irradiation when the total ion fluence is split into a train of equal square pulses. By varying the passive portion of the beam duty cycle, we measure a characteristic time constant of dynamic annealing and, hence, the defect relaxation rate. Measurements of stable lattice disorder as a function of the active portion of the beam duty cycle give an effective defect diffusion length. We illustrate the pulsed beam method with examples for Si bombarded at 100 °C with 500 keV Ar ions.

  2. Obtaining global equations for the Young’s modulus of perfect and defective carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Dehghan Pir, Mohammad; Rahmandoust, Moones; Öchsner, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    There are limited studies which have extracted global equations for calculation of Young’s modulus (E) in both pristine and defective carbon nanotubes (CNT), especially when a combination of different defects such as atom-vacancy and-misplacement exist simultaneously in the studied CNT. In this study, the finite element method was used to investigate E for a large set of perfect and defective single walled carbon nanotubes (2440 finite element models), including armchair, zigzag and chiral tubes. The obtained results were then employed as the basis for achieving accurate global equations for calculation of E in perfect and defective carbon nanotubes at various defect percentages. Despite most previous studies, which were based on the tube’s diameter, the chiral indices (n, m) have been considered here as variables to predict the stiffness of carbon nanotubes. The achieved equations showed to be accurate, with maximum errors below 2% and 10% for perfect and defective tubes, respectively, compared to FE results. Based on the obtained equations, a computer execution file was developed which is capable of calculating E when different percentages of defects are introduced to the structure. The results show that unlike single defect states, the existence of any combination of atom vacancy and atom misplacement defects causes dramatic reduction in the stiffness of carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, the role of vacancy defects in the reduction of tube’s elastic properties revealed to be more significant than misplacement defects. The results not only demonstrate that edge defects influence Young’s modulus more noticeably, but also confirm previous works showing that armchair edged structures are less vulnerable to defects, as compared to zigzag.

  3. Extrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Erhart, Paul; Åberg, Daniel; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate thermodynamic and electronic properties of group IV (C, Si, Ge, Sn) and group VI (O, S, Se, Te) impurities as well as P and H in aluminum antimonide (AlSb) using first-principles calculations. To this end, we compute the formation energies of a broad range of possible defect configurations including defect complexes with the most important intrinsic defects. We also obtain relative scattering cross strengths for these defects to determine their impact on charge carrier mobility...

  4. Iatrogenic Urethral Defect Repairment: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Fidan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available    Iatrogenic urethral defect is a complication that occurs after vaginal surgical procedures. Many surgical methods according to place of defect are described in case of injury of urethra. In this article, we reported the repairment of distal urethral defect with the help of greft taken from labia minor. This defect is made by the excision of the granulation tissue that occurred after chronic paraurethral  gland infection.

  5. Defect relaxation in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandell, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Using an exponential distribution of activation barriers, annealing data for metastable effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a-Si:H, are quantitatively explained. This includes the stretched exponential time dependence of annealing and a Meyer-Neldel rule for the annealing time constant. An exponential distribution of annealing energies arises because defects are frozen in during growth at high temperature. Mechanisms that lead to an exponential distribution of annealing energies are weak bond-breaking and charge trapping

  6. Neonatal septum transversum diaphragmatic defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesselhoeft, C.W. Jr.; DeLuca, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Over 10 years, 8 infants required surgery for central diaphragmatic herniation. Contrast peritoneography and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid radionuclide scanning were the most definitive diagnostic aids. Associated anomalies included variations of the pentalogy of Cantrell. A midline gastroduodenal loop was found in two infants. Six infants are alive and well 6 months to 3 years postoperatively. An abdominal approach is preferred if there is an intestinal hernia, associated gastrointestinal anomalies, or if a bilateral defect is present

  7. Neonatal septum transversum diaphragmatic defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesselhoeft, C.W. Jr.; DeLuca, F.G.

    1984-04-01

    Over 10 years, 8 infants required surgery for central diaphragmatic herniation. Contrast peritoneography and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid radionuclide scanning were the most definitive diagnostic aids. Associated anomalies included variations of the pentalogy of Cantrell. A midline gastroduodenal loop was found in two infants. Six infants are alive and well 6 months to 3 years postoperatively. An abdominal approach is preferred if there is an intestinal hernia, associated gastrointestinal anomalies, or if a bilateral defect is present.

  8. The dark side of EGFP: defective polyubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs Baens

    Full Text Available Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP is the most commonly used live cell reporter despite a number of conflicting reports that it can affect cell physiology. Thus far, the precise mechanism of GFP-associated defects remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that EGFP and EGFP fusion proteins inhibit polyubiquitination, a posttranslational modification that controls a wide variety of cellular processes, like activation of kinase signalling or protein degradation by the proteasome. As a consequence, the NF-kappaB and JNK signalling pathways are less responsive to activation, and the stability of the p53 tumour suppressor is enhanced in cell lines and in vivo. In view of the emerging role of polyubiquitination in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, the use of EGFP as a live cell reporter should be carefully considered.

  9. Reflection and transmission for conformal defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quella, T.; Runkel, I.; Watts, G.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their

  10. Metastable and bistable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, Bulat N; Abdullin, Kh A; Gorelkinskii, Yurii V

    2000-01-01

    Existing data on the properties and structure of metastable and bistable defects in silicon are analyzed. Primary radiation-induced defects (vacancies, self-interstitial atoms, and Frenkel pairs), complexes of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and other impurity atoms and defects with negative correlation energy are considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. How to operate safely steam generators with multiple tube through-wall defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernalsteen, P.

    1993-01-01

    For a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type, the Steam Generator (SG) tube bundle represents the major but also the thinnest part of the primary pressure boundary. To the extent that no tube material has yet been identified to be immune to corrosion, defects may initiate in service and easily propagate through wall. While not a desirable feature, a Through Wall Deep (TWD) defect does not necessarily pose a threat to either the structural integrity or leaktightness and this paper shows how SG can (and indeed, do) operate safely and reliably while having many tubes affected by deep and even TWD defects

  13. Study on Track to Earth Insulation Defect Fault Location Method in Urban Mass Transit

    OpenAIRE

    LIAO Hong-mei; WU Yu-ling; ZHANG Dong-liang; LI Guo-xin

    2012-01-01

    With the urban mass transit operating, due to the impact of natural and human factors, track to earth insulation defect will occur. Keeping track to earth resistance is an effective method of preventing stray current. When track to earth insulation defect occurs, the track to earth potential of the point will be nearly changed to zero.  We present the track to earth insulation defect fault location method based on the feature. And the method was simulated and analyzed, the results show the fa...

  14. Rectus Abdominis Muscle Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Causing a Large Abdominal Wall Defect: Reconstruction with Biological Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh.

  15. An optimization method for defects reduction in fiber laser keyhole welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen; Mi, Gaoyang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Laser welding has been widely used in automotive, power, chemical, nuclear and aerospace industries. The quality of welded joints is closely related to the existing defects which are primarily determined by the welding process parameters. This paper proposes a defects optimization method that takes the formation mechanism of welding defects and weld geometric features into consideration. The analysis of welding defects formation mechanism aims to investigate the relationship between welding defects and process parameters, and weld features are considered to identify the optimal process parameters for the desired welded joints with minimum defects. The improved back-propagation neural network possessing good modeling for nonlinear problems is adopted to establish the mathematical model and the obtained model is solved by genetic algorithm. The proposed method is validated by macroweld profile, microstructure and microhardness in the confirmation tests. The results show that the proposed method is effective at reducing welding defects and obtaining high-quality joints for fiber laser keyhole welding in practical production.

  16. Increased body mass in infancy and early toddlerhood in Angelman syndrome patients with uniparental disomy and imprinting center defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marie-Luise; Adam, Margaret P; Seaver, Laurie H; Myers, Angela; Schelley, Susan; Zadeh, Neda; Hudgins, Louanne; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Angelman syndrome (AS) is based on clinical features and genetic testing. Developmental delay, severe speech impairment, ataxia, atypical behavior and microcephaly by two years of age are typical. Feeding difficulties in young infants and obesity in late childhood can also be seen. The NIH Angelman-Rett-Prader-Willi Consortium and others have documented genotype-phenotype associations including an increased body mass index in children with uniparental disomy (UPD) or imprinting center (IC) defects. We recently encountered four cases of infantile obesity in non-deletion AS cases, and therefore examined body mass measures in a cohort of non-deletion AS cases. We report on 16 infants and toddlers (ages 6 to 44 months; 6 female, and 10 male) with severe developmental delay. Birth weights were appropriate for gestational age in most cases, >97th% in one case and not available in four cases. The molecular subclass case distribution consisted of: UPD (n = 2), IC defect (n = 3), UPD or IC defect (n = 3), and UBE3A mutation (n = 8). Almost all (7 out of 8) UPD, IC and UPD/IC cases went on to exhibit >90th% age- and gender-appropriate weight for height or BMI within the first 44 months. In contrast, no UBE3A mutation cases exhibited obesity or pre-obesity measures (percentiles ranged from <3% to 55%). These findings demonstrate that increased body mass may be evident as early as the first year of life and highlight the utility of considering the diagnosis of AS in the obese infant or toddler with developmental delay, especially when severe. Although a mechanism explaining the association of UPD, and IC defects with obesity has not been identified, recognition of this correlation may inform investigation of imprinting at the PWS/AS locus and obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Recombination models for defects in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steingrube, Silke

    2011-07-06

    ;'shunted'' I-V curves are observed for most solar cells, but the reason for their behavior cannot be explained satisfactorily up to date. Motivated by spatially resolved measurements, these shunts are modeled by recombination currents in highly defective, localized regions of the p-n junction. The high defect density in these regions requires a concept that takes the coupling between defect levels into account, and thus, goes beyond the assumptions made in the SRH theory. The approach made here explains both the SRH-limit for decoupled levels at low defect densities (n{sub D} {<=} 2), and the case n{sub D} < 2 for coupled defects at high defect densities. This allows, possibly for the first time, to reproduce the I-V curves of cells with nonlinear shunts in dependence of the severeness of the disturbance, for both forward and reverse bias. Finally, the developed models for interface defects are applied to various solar cells by means of SENTAURUS-DEVICE simulations. Thereby, we demonstrate the suitability of these models for device simulators and analyze the influence of the investigated defects on the I-V characteristics. (orig.)

  19. Dragging two-dimensional discrete solitons by moving linear defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A; Malomed, Boris A

    2011-07-01

    We study the mobility of small-amplitude solitons attached to moving defects which drag the solitons across a two-dimensional (2D) discrete nonlinear Schrödinger lattice. Findings are compared to the situation when a free small-amplitude 2D discrete soliton is kicked in a uniform lattice. In agreement with previously known results, after a period of transient motion the free soliton transforms into a localized mode pinned by the Peierls-Nabarro potential, irrespective of the initial velocity. However, the soliton attached to the moving defect can be dragged over an indefinitely long distance (including routes with abrupt turns and circular trajectories) virtually without losses, provided that the dragging velocity is smaller than a certain critical value. Collisions between solitons dragged by two defects in opposite directions are studied too. If the velocity is small enough, the collision leads to a spontaneous symmetry breaking, featuring fusion of two solitons into a single one, which remains attached to either of the two defects.

  20. Porosity Defect Remodeling and Tensile Analysis of Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile test standard, matrix and defect specimens were machined into two categories by two types of height. After applying radiographic inspection, defect morphologies were mapped to the mid-sections of the finite element models and the porosity fraction fields had been generated with interpolation method. ABAQUS input parameters were confirmed by trial simulations to the matrix specimen and comparison with experimental outcomes. Fine agreements of the result curves between simulations and experiments could be observed, and predicted positions of the tensile fracture were found to be in accordance with the tests. Chord modulus was used to obtain the equivalent elastic stiffness because of the non-linear features. The results showed that elongation was the most influenced term to the defect cast steel, compared with elastic stiffness and yield stress. Additional visual explanations on the tensile fracture caused by void propagation were also given by the result contours at different mechanical stages, including distributions of Mises stress and plastic strain.

  1. The Featurization of Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Steensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Feature journalism has developed from being an insignificant supplement to news journalism to a family of genres that today dominates newspapers. The present article explores the growing importance of feature journalism and attempts to understand its social function, how it has changed and why it has become so important. Based on an analysis of influential textbooks on feature journalism, the paper argues that feature journalism has traditionally been dominated by a literary d...

  2. Intersection of Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for the construction of the intersection of two feature models. The feature models are allowed to have "requires" and "excludes" constraints, and should be parent-compatible. The algorithm is applied to the problem of combining feature models from stakeholders

  3. Merging Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of merging feature models which consist of trees with "requires" and "excludes" constraints. For any two such feature models which are parent-compatible, their merge is defined to be the smallest parent-compatible feature model which has all products of the

  4. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Nemani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD, subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right ventricular infundibular resection, subaortic membrane resection, closure of atrial and ventricular septal defect, rerouting left superior vena cava to left pulmonary artery and aortic valve replacement.

  5. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Lalita; Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Mishra, Ramesh C; Rao, Amaresh M; Kapur, Pragati

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD), subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right ventricular infundibular resection, subaortic membrane resection, closure of atrial and ventricular septal defect, rerouting left superior vena cava to left pulmonary artery and aortic valve replacement.

  6. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  7. Pharmacological features of osthole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jarząb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are a group of naturally occurring compounds common in the plant world. These substances and their derivatives exhibit a broad range of biological activities.One of the naturally occurring coumarins is osthole, which can most frequently be found in plants of the Apiaceae family. Cnidium monnieri (L. Cusson ex Juss. Angelica pubescens Maxim. and Peucedanum ostruthium (L.. It has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and antiallergic properties; apart from that, inhibition of platelet aggregation has also been proved. The impact of osthole on bone metabolism has been demonstrated; also its hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties have been confirmed. The inhibitory effect of this metokcompound on the development of neurodegenerative diseases has been proved in experimental models. Anticancer features of osthole have been also demonstrated both in vitro on different cell lines, and in vivo using animals xenografts. Osthole inhibited proliferation, motility and invasiveness of tumor cells, which may be associated with the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle slowdown. The exact molecular mechanism of osthole anti-cancer mode of action has not been fully elucidated. A synergistic effect of osthole with other anti-tumor substances has been also reported. Modification of its chemical structure led to the synthesis of many derivatives with significant anticancer effects.To sum up, osthole is an interesting therapeutic option, due to both its direct effect on tumor cells, as well as its neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, there is a chance to use osthole or its synthetic derivatives in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Fundamental Feature Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Eddy Current Data (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knopp, Jeremy S; Aldrin, John C

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore features in eddy current data that are sensitive to defects in airframe structures while invariant to other noise factors commonly encountered in nondestructive evaluation (NDE...

  9. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak Maneklal; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    , these results demonstrate that some degree of stability can be regained for combined bony Bankart and Hill-Sachs defects with a Latarjet procedure. However, for humeral defects larger than 30%, the rotational effect of the HSD led to persistent instability. Thus, directly addressing the humeral defect to restore the articular surface should be considered in these cases. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Latarjet procedure can restore the stability for combined defects, however for humeral defects greater than 31% may need attention.

  10. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Analysis of the relationship of DNA mismatch repair with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiong; Ying, Jianming; Lyu, Ning; Guo, Lei; Zhi, Wenxue; Zhou, Aiping; Wang, Jinwan

    2015-08-01

    To explore the relationship between DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and clinicopathologic features and prognosis in patients with stages II and III colon cancers. The clinical and pathological data of 440 patients with stage II/III colon cancer after radical resection were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of MMR proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2), and the correlation between DNA MMR and clinicopathological features and prognosis of colon cancers was analyzed. Of the 440 tumor samples tested for DNA mismatch repair status, 90 (20.5%) demonstrated defective DNA mismatch repair and 350 (79.5%) had proficient DNA mismatch repair. Defective DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) was associated with young patients (≤ 60), proximal colon cancer, stage II, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma (Pmismatch repair (dMMR) is associated with patients with proximal colon cancer, stage II and poorly defferentiated adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma. The prognosis for patients with dMMR is better than those with pMMR. dMMR may be a useful biomarker for the prognosis of colon cancer.

  12. Computed tomography features and predictive findings of ruptured gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Sil; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the CT features of ruptured GISTs and factors that might be predictive of rupture through comparison with CTs taken prior to rupture and CTs of non-ruptured GIST. Forty-nine patients with ruptured GIST and forty-nine patients with non-ruptured GIST matched by age, gender and location were included. Clinical data including pharmacotherapy were reviewed. The imaging features were analyzed. Prior CT obtained before rupture were evaluated. The most common location of ruptured GIST was small bowel with mean size of 12.1 cm. Ruptured GIST commonly showed wall defects, >40 % eccentric necrosis, lobulated shaped, air density in mass, pneumoperitoneum, peritonitis, hemoperitoneum and ascites (p < 0.001-0.030). Twenty-seven of 30 patients with follow up imaging received targeted therapy. During follow-up, thickness of the tumour wall decreased. Increase in size and progression of necrosis were common during targeted therapy (p = 0.017). Newly developed ascites, peritonitis and hemoperitoneum was more common (p < 0.001-0.036). Ruptured GISTs commonly demonstrate large size, >40 % eccentric necrosis, wall defects and lobulated shape. The progression of necrosis with increase in size and decreased wall thickness during targeted therapy may increase the risk of rupture. Rupture should be considered when newly developed peritonitis, hemoperitoneum, or ascites are noted during the follow-up. (orig.)

  13. Point defects and atomic transport in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1981-02-01

    There are two principle aspects to the theory of atomic transport in crystals as caused by the action of point defects, namely (1) the calculation of relevant properties of the point defects (energies and other thermodynamic characteristics of the different possible defects, activation energies and other mobility parameters) and (2) the statistical mechanics of assemblies of defects, both equilibrium and non-equilibrium assemblies. In the five lectures given here both these aspects are touched on. The first two lectures are concerned with the calculation of relevant point defect properties, particularly in ionic crystals. The first lecture is more general, the second is concerned particularly with some recent calculations of the free volumes of formation of defects in various ionic solids; these solve a rather long-standing problem in this area. The remaining three lectures are concerned with the kinetic theory of defects mainly in relaxation, drift and diffusion situations

  14. Intelligence Package Development for UT Signal Pattern Recognition and Application to Classification of Defects in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Yong; Kim, Joon Seob

    1996-01-01

    The research for the classification of the artificial defects in welding parts is performed using the pattern recognition technology of ultrasonic signal. The signal pattern recognition package including the user defined function is developed to perform the digital signal processing, feature extraction, feature selection and classifier selection. The neural network classifier and the statistical classifiers such as the linear discriminant function classifier and the empirical Bayesian classifier are compared and discussed. The pattern recognition technique is applied to the classification of artificial defects such as notches and a hole. If appropriately learned, the neural network classifier is concluded to be better than the statistical classifiers in the classification of the artificial defects

  15. Yield impacting systematic defects search and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that

  16. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV F on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author)

  17. A novel approach to secondary defect reduction in separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingboe, S.L.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1993-12-31

    The formation of a buried SiO{sub 2} layer in Si for increased radiation hardness, dielectric isolation, and/or higher operating speeds in Si devices has been studied extensively. In the present report, a novel method for improving the final defect structure of SIMOX material is demonstrated for the first time. The concept of ion-beam defect-engineering (IBDE) introduced by Wang et al has been utilised. If defects are introduced at a depth R{sub 1} by irradiation with energetic ions into samples which were previously damaged at a depth R{sub 2}, it is possible to alter the properties of the defects at R{sub 2}, reduce or eliminate damage at R{sub 2}, and/or create gettering sites for defects at R{sub 1} . To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the secondary defect reduction in annealed SIMOX material, unannealed samples were implanted with Si ions at various energies, while keeping the nuclear energy deposition constant at two depths. It was observed that after annealing, even greater changes in the defect structure are evident. It has been demonstrated that pre-anneal Si irradiation in O-implanted Si can reduce secondary defect formation. Both the depth and amount of damage created are crucial to the success of the Si implantation. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  19. If Your Child Has a Heart Defect (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventricular septal defect , truncus arteriosus, atrioventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot , and transposition of the great arteries) can be ... Care and Your Newborn Coarctation of the Aorta Tetralogy of Fallot Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect When Your ...

  20. Problems of Software Detection of Periodic Features in a Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems arise when attempts are made to extract automatically, visually obvious periodic features indicative of defects in a vibration time series for diagnosis using computers. Such problems may be interpretational in nature arising either from insufficient knowledge of the mechanism, or the convolution of the source signal ...

  1. Prenatal Sonographic Features of Fetuses in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool for detecting structural abnormalities in fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic features of trisomy 13 in the second and third trimesters, including holoprosencephaly, brachycephaly, microcephaly, Dandy-Walker complex and posterior fossa abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, neural tube defects, facial cleft, and micrognathia.

  2. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich K. Trefz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin C (cblC defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect.

  3. Bispectrum for welds defects detection from radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Sara; Selim, Gamal I.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a proposed method for the detection of welds defects from radiographic images. Firstly, the radiographic images were enhanced using Adaptive Histogram Equalization and were filtered using Mean and Wiener filters. Secondly, the welding area was selected from the radiography image. Thirdly, the images were converted to signals then the features were extracted from the Bispectrum of these signals. Finally, neural networks were used for training and testing the proposed method. The proposed model was tested on 100 radiography images in the presence of noise and image blurring. Results show that the proposed model yields best results for the detection of weld defects in radiography images when using the Bispectrum method estimated by Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) method.

  4. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

  5. Optical manipulation of photonic defect-modes in cholesteric liquid crystals induced by direct laser-lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Miura, Yusuke; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of photonic defect-modes in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs), which are one-dimensional pseudo photonic band-gap materials have been demonstrated by an external optical field. A structural defect in which the pitch length of the ChLC in the bulk and the defect are different was introduced by inducing local polymerization in a photo-polymerizable ChLC material by a direct laser-lithography process, and infiltrating a different ChLC material as the defect medium. When an azobenzene dye-doped ChLC was infiltrated in the defect, the trans-cis isomerization of the dye upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure caused the pitch to shorten, changing the contrast in the pitch lengths at the bulk and the defect, leading to a consequent shifting of the defect-mode. The all-optical manipulation was reversible and had high reproducibility

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  7. Unsupervised defect segmentation of patterned materials under NIR illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Maria S; Escofet, Jaume; Rallo, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    An unsupervised detection method for automatic flaw segmentation in patterned materials (textile, non-woven, paper) that has no need of any defect-free references or a training stage is presented in this paper. Printed materials having a pattern of colored squares, bands, etc. superimposed to the background texture can be advantageously analyzed using NIR illumination and a camera with enough sensitivity to this region of the spectrum. The contrast reduction of the pattern in the NIR image facilitates material inspection and defect segmentation. Underdetection and misdetection errors can be reduced in comparison with the inspection performed under visible illumination. For woven fabrics, with periodic structure, the algorithm is based on the structural feature extraction of the weave repeat from the Fourier transform of the sample image. These features are used to define a set of multiresolution bandpass filters adapted to the fabric structure that operate in the Fourier domain. Inverse Fourier transformation, binarization and merging of the information obtained at different scales lead to the output image that contains flaws segmented from the fabric background. For non-woven and random textured materials, the algorithm combines the multiresolution Gabor analysis of the sample image with a statistical analysis of the wavelet coefficients corresponding to each detail. The information of all the channels is merged in a single binary output image where the defect appears segmented from the background. The method is applicable to random, non-periodic, and periodic textures. Since all the information to inspect a sample is obtained from the sample itself, the method is proof against heterogeneities between different samples of the material, in-plane positioning errors, scale variations and lack of homogeneous illumination. Experimental results are presented for a variety of materials and defects.

  8. Discordant Anomalies with Combined Features of Pentalogy of Cantrell and OEIS Complex: A Case Report in Monochorionic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunapinun, Nique; Treetipsatit, Jitsupa

    2017-10-01

    Ventral body wall defects have various manifestations. Among others, pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) and omphalocele exstrophy imperforate anus spinal abnormalities (OEIS) complex are defects that involve upper and lower anterior midline of body wall, respectively. Although both entities are in a spectrum of ventral body wall defects, the combination of PC and OEIS complex has not been described. In this report, we describe an unusual case of congenital ventral body wall defect with combined features of PC and OEIS complex, which discordantly occurred in monochorionic monoamniotic twins. PC and OEIS complex may be related regarding their embryologic origins. The combination may represent the most severe manifestation of ventral body wall defects.

  9. Magnetoencephalography signals are influenced by skull defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S; Flemming, L; Haueisen, J

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals had previously been hypothesized to have negligible sensitivity to skull defects. The objective is to experimentally investigate the influence of conducting skull defects on MEG and EEG signals. A miniaturized electric dipole was implanted in vivo into rabbit brains. Simultaneous recording using 64-channel EEG and 16-channel MEG was conducted, first above the intact skull and then above a skull defect. Skull defects were filled with agar gels, which had been formulated to have tissue-like homogeneous conductivities. The dipole was moved beneath the skull defects, and measurements were taken at regularly spaced points. The EEG signal amplitude increased 2-10 times, whereas the MEG signal amplitude reduced by as much as 20%. The EEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was under the edge of the defect, whereas the MEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was central under the defect. The change in MEG field-map topography (relative difference measure, RDM(∗)=0.15) was geometrically related to the skull defect edge. MEG and EEG signals can be substantially affected by skull defects. MEG source modeling requires realistic volume conductor head models that incorporate skull defects. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dopants and defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    McCluskey, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    "The book goes beyond the usual textbook in that it provides more specific examples of real-world defect physics … The book will be most useful for beginning graduate students in materials science. … an easy reading, broad introductory overview of the field …"-Materials Today, July-August 2012"… well written, with clear, lucid explanations …"-Chemistry World"The scientific development towards the method of controllable doping transformed the erratic and not reproducible family of semiconductor materials into the truly wonderful basis of modern microelectronics. This book tells the remarkable success story and I recommend it!"-Hans J. Queisser, Max-Planck-Institute, Stuttgart, Germany"McCluskey and Haller have written an outstanding modern guide to this field that will be useful to newcomers, and also to active researchers who want to broaden their horizons, as a means to learn the capabilities and limitations of the many techniques that are used in semiconductor-defect science."-Professor Michael J....

  11. Regional Odontodysplasia with Generalised Enamel Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al-Mullahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (ROD is uncommon developmental anomaly, which tends to be localised and involves the ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components. A five-year-old female was referred to Department of Child Dental Health at the Leeds Dental Institute regarding malformed primary teeth. On examination 64, 74, and 72 had localised hypomineralized enamel defect. The crown of 55 was broken down with only the root remaining below the gingival level. 54 has a yellowish brown discolouration with rough irregular surface. The upper anterior teeth show mild enamel opacity. Radiographically, 55 and 54 had thin radioopaque contour, showing poor distinction between the enamel and dentine and the classic feature of a wide pulp chamber. 15, 16, and 17 were developmentally delayed and were displaying the characteristic “ghost appearance.” Comprehensive dental care was done under local anaesthesia and it included extraction of the primary molars affected by ROD, stainless steel crown on 64, and caries prevention program. Fifteen months following the initial assessment the patient’s oral condition remains stable and she is under regular follow-up at the department. Paediatric dentists should be aware of this anomaly as it involves both dentitions and usually requires multidisciplinary care.

  12. MR appearance of autologous chondrocyte implantation in the knee: correlation with the knee features and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomoki; Tins, Bernhard; McCall, Iain W.; Ashton, Karen; Richardson, James B.; Takagi, Katsumasa

    2006-01-01

    To relate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in the knee in the 1st postoperative year with other knee features on MRI and with clinical outcome. Forty-nine examinations were performed in 49 patients at 1 year after ACI in the knee. Forty-one preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were also available. The grafts were assessed for smoothness, thickness in comparison with that of adjacent cartilage, signal intensity, integration to underlying bone and adjacent cartilage, and congruity of subchondral bone. Presence of overgrowth and bone marrow appearance beneath the graft were also assessed. Presence of osteophyte formation, further cartilage defects, appearance of the cruciate ligaments and the menisci were also recorded. An overall graft score was constructed, using the graft appearances. This was correlated with the knee features and the Lysholm score, a clinical self-assessment score. The data were analysed by a Kruskal-Wallis H test followed by a Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction as post-hoc test. Of 49 grafts, 32 (65%) demonstrated complete defect filling 1 year postoperatively. General overgrowth was seen in eight grafts (16%), and partial overgrowth in 13 grafts (26%). Bone marrow change underneath the graft was seen; oedema was seen in 23 grafts (47%), cysts in six grafts (12%) and sclerosis in two grafts (4%). Mean graft score was 8.7 (of maximal 12) (95% CI 8.0-9.5). Knees without osteophyte formation or additional other cartilage defects (other than the graft site) had a significantly higher graft score than knees with multiple osteophytes (P=0.0057) or multiple further cartilage defects (P=0.014). At 1 year follow-up improvement in the clinical scores was not significantly different for any subgroup. (orig.)

  13. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  14. Decontaminate feature for tracking: adaptive tracking via evolutionary feature subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoyuan; Wang, Yuru; Yin, Minghao; Ren, Jinchang; Li, Ruizhi

    2017-11-01

    Although various visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the last 2-3 decades, it remains a challenging problem for effective tracking with fast motion, deformation, occlusion, etc. Under complex tracking conditions, most tracking models are not discriminative and adaptive enough. When the combined feature vectors are inputted to the visual models, this may lead to redundancy causing low efficiency and ambiguity causing poor performance. An effective tracking algorithm is proposed to decontaminate features for each video sequence adaptively, where the visual modeling is treated as an optimization problem from the perspective of evolution. Every feature vector is compared to a biological individual and then decontaminated via classical evolutionary algorithms. With the optimized subsets of features, the "curse of dimensionality" has been avoided while the accuracy of the visual model has been improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several publicly available datasets with various tracking challenges and benchmarked with a number of state-of-the-art approaches. The comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  15. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  16. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  17. Radiation defects in α-iron: Structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudarev, S.L.; Fitzgerald, S.P.; Lavrentiev, M.Y.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Gilbert, M.R.; Yao, Z.; Jenkins, M.L.; Arakawa, K.; Mori, H.

    2009-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of materials under neutron irradiation is driven by the generation of defects in collision cascades and by their subsequent interaction, resulting in the agglomeration of defects and formation of mesoscopic defect structures, for example large dislocation loops and voids. The notion of dislocation bias, a concept central to the Rate Theory model, is a relatively simple means for including the effect of long-range elastic interactions between defects and dislocations in the treatment of microstructural evolution. The recently developed kinetic Monte-Carlo models, including the synchronous parallel implementations of the kinetic Monte-Carlo method, focus on the investigation of diffusive migration of defects, and treat interactions as short-range events occurring only if two defects get within a certain 'interaction radius' derived from either semi-phenomenological arguments or experimental observations. Observing interaction between single self-interstitial atom defects is still beyond the capability of modern electron microscopes. However, recent in-situ work showed that it is possible to observe, in real time, the effects of thermally activated, as well as electron beam stimulated, migration of small dislocation loops formed by the agglomeration of several self-interstitial defects. Furthermore, in-situ observations demonstrate that migrating dislocation loops interact. Depending on the orientation of their Burgers vectors the loops either repel or attract, in the latter case forming complexes where loops with the same Burgers vector line-up along a particular direction and then move coherently along their glide cylinders, held together over long period of time by the elastic forces. Observations show that this bound group-motion of loops generally occurs as a pre-cursor to the eventual coalescence of the loops resulting in the formation of extended dislocation lines. We investigate the formation of groups of 1/2 interstitial dislocation

  18. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  19. Guided Wave Scattering and Mixed Mode Conversions from 3-Dimensional Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Rose, J. L.

    2005-04-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have shown great potential for long range inspections of structures with large areas, such as pipes, vessels, rails, etc. The possibility of finding defects depends on whether scattered waves from a defect are detectable. For example, for a liquid-filled pipeline inspection using torsional waves, the incident waves may be converted to longitudinal waves, which could then leak into the liquid and become undetectable. Therefore, the wave mode conversion study of a defect, especially a 3-dimensional defect, becomes an interesting and valuable topic. The wave scattering and mode conversion of a through-wall hole in a plate was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Mixed mode conversions from SH modes to Lamb modes were demonstrated utilizing electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) guided wave techniques and a hybrid 3-D boundary element method. This mixed mode study could provide very useful guidance for guided wave inspection methodology. It is also very helpful in algorithm development for defect discrimination and sizing.

  20. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  1. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  2. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  3. Altering graphene line defect properties using chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Smitha; White, Carter; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    First-principles calculations are presented of a fundamental topological line defect in graphene that was observed and reported in Nature Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010). These calculations show that atoms and smaller molecules can bind covalently to the surface in the vicinity of the graphene line defect. It is also shown that the chemistry at the line defect has a strong effect on its electronic and magnetic properties, e.g. the ferromagnetically aligned moments along the line defect can be quenched by some adsorbates. The strong effect of the adsorbates on the line defect properties can be understood by examining how these adsorbates affect the boundary-localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level. We also expect that the line defect chemistry will significantly affect the scattering properties of incident low-energy particles approaching it from graphene.

  4. Computed tomography angiography intraluminal filling defect is predictive of internal carotid artery free-floating thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaberi, A.; Lum, C.; Stefanski, P.; Iancu, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thornhill, R. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Petrcich, W. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Momoli, F. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Torres, C.; Dowlatshahi, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Filling defects at the internal carotid artery (ICA) origin in the work-up of stroke or transient ischemic attack may be an ulcerated plaque or free-floating thrombus (FFT). This may be challenging to distinguish, as they can appear morphologically similar. This is an important distinction as FFT can potentially embolize distally, and its management differs. We describe a series of patients with suspected FFT and evaluate its imaging appearance, clinical features, and evolution with therapy. Between 2008 and 2013, we prospectively collected consecutive patients with proximal ICA filling defects in the axial plane surrounded by contrast on CT/MR angiography. We defined FFT as a filling defect that resolved on follow-up imaging. We assessed the cranial-caudal dimension of the filling defect and receiver operating characteristics to identify clinical and radiological variables that distinguished FFT from complex ulcerated plaque. Intraluminal filling defects were identified in 32 patients. Filling defects and resolved or decreased in 25 patients (78 %) and felt to be FFT; there was no change in 7 (22 %). Resolved defects and those that decreased in size extended more cranially than those that remained unchanged: 7.3 mm (4.2-15.9) versus 3.1 mm (2.7-3.7; p = 0.0038). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established a threshold of 3.8 mm (filling defect length), sensitivity of 88 %, specificity of 86 %, and area under the curve of 0.86 (p < 0.0001) for distinguishing FFT from plaque. Filling defects in the proximal ICA extending cranially >3.8 mm were more likely to be FFT than complex ulcerated plaque. Further studies evaluating filling defect length as a predictor for FFT are warranted. (orig.)

  5. Integrating image processing and classification technology into automated polarizing film defect inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Lai, Chun-Yu; Kao, Chih-Hsiang; Chiu, Chin-Hsun

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the current manual inspection and classification process for polarizing film on production lines, this study proposes a high precision automated inspection and classification system for polarizing film, which is used for recognition and classification of four common defects: dent, foreign material, bright spot, and scratch. First, the median filter is used to remove the impulse noise in the defect image of polarizing film. The random noise in the background is smoothed by the improved anisotropic diffusion, while the edge detail of the defect region is sharpened. Next, the defect image is transformed by Fourier transform to the frequency domain, combined with a Butterworth high pass filter to sharpen the edge detail of the defect region, and brought back by inverse Fourier transform to the spatial domain to complete the image enhancement process. For image segmentation, the edge of the defect region is found by Canny edge detector, and then the complete defect region is obtained by two-stage morphology processing. For defect classification, the feature values, including maximum gray level, eccentricity, the contrast, and homogeneity of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) extracted from the images, are used as the input of the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) classifier, 96 defect images are then used as training samples, and 84 defect images are used as testing samples to validate the classification effect. The result shows that the classification accuracy by using RBFNN is 98.9%. Thus, our proposed system can be used by manufacturing companies for a higher yield rate and lower cost. The processing time of one single image is 2.57 seconds, thus meeting the practical application requirement of an industrial production line.

  6. Wafer Defect Detection Using Directional Morphological Gradient Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongyuan Qu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection and classification of wafer defects constitute an important component of the IC production process because together they can immediately improve the yield and also provide information needed for future process improvements. One class of inspection procedures involves analyzing surface images. Because of the characteristics of the design patterns and the irregular size and shape of the defects, linear processing methods, such as Fourier transform domain filtering or Sobel edge detection, are not as well suited as morphological methods for detecting these defects. In this paper, a newly developed morphological gradient technique using directional components is applied to the detection and isolation of wafer defects. The new methods are computationally efficient and do not rely on a priori knowledge of the specific design pattern to detect particles, scratches, stains, or missing pattern areas. The directional components of the morphological gradient technique allow direction specific edge suppression and reduce the noise sensitivity. Theoretical analysis and several examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the directional morphological gradient methods.

  7. Molecular pathways for defect annihilation in directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Su-Mi; Thapar, Vikram; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; Khaira, Gurdaman; Segal-Peretz, Tamar; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Li, Weihua; Müller, Marcus; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the directed self-assembly of block copolymers by surface patterns has transitioned from academic curiosity to viable contender for commercial fabrication of next-generation nanocircuits by lithography. Recently, it has become apparent that kinetics, and not only thermodynamics, plays a key role for the ability of a polymeric material to self-assemble into a perfect, defect-free ordered state. Perfection, in this context, implies not more than one defect, with characteristic dimensions on the order of 5 nm, over a sample area as large as 100 cm2. In this work, we identify the key pathways and the corresponding free energy barriers for eliminating defects, and we demonstrate that an extraordinarily large thermodynamic driving force is not necessarily sufficient for their removal. By adopting a concerted computational and experimental approach, we explain the molecular origins of these barriers and how they depend on material characteristics, and we propose strategies designed to overcome them. The validity of our conclusions for industrially relevant patterning processes is established by relying on instruments and assembly lines that are only available at state-of-the-art fabrication facilities, and, through this confluence of fundamental and applied research, we are able to discern the evolution of morphology at the smallest relevant length scales—a handful of nanometers—and present a view of defect annihilation in directed self-assembly at an unprecedented level of detail. PMID:26515095

  8. Intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Williamson, Andrew J.; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Calculations within density functional theory on the basis of the local density approximation are carried out to study the properties of intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide. Special care is taken to address finite-size effects, band gap error, and symmetry reduction in the defect structures. The correction of the band gap is based on a set of GW calculations. The most important defects are identified to be the aluminum interstitial $Al_{i,Al}^{1+}$, the antimony antisites $Sb_{Al}^...

  9. Diffusional changes of defect structure in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubov, B.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Some problems of the theory of vacancy and impurity atoms diffusion in structure heterogeneous solidsi connected with changes in their defect structure, are reviewed. Two aspects of changes in the defect structure are discussed: an unconcervative movement of dislocations and a growth of damage of material continuity. Analytical solution methods in the theory of diffusional changes of defect structure in solids are illustrated as applied to hydrogen corrosion in steels, sintering kinetics, thermal conductivity theory [ru

  10. Phosphorous–vacancy–oxygen defects in silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2013-07-30

    Electronic structure calculations employing the hybrid functional approach are used to gain fundamental insight in the interaction of phosphorous with oxygen interstitials and vacancies in silicon. It recently has been proposed, based on a binding energy analysis, that phosphorous–vacancy–oxygen defects may form. In the present study we investigate the stability of this defect as a function of the Fermi energy for the possible charge states. Spin polarization is found to be essential for the charge neutral defect.

  11. Effects of mass defect in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (such as gravitational and quadratic Doppler shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect, i.e., without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions..

  12. Efficient Generation and Selection of Combined Features for Improved Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Shono, Ahmad N.

    2014-05-01

    This study contributes a methodology and associated toolkit developed to allow users to experiment with the use of combined features in classification problems. Methods are provided for efficiently generating combined features from an original feature set, for efficiently selecting the most discriminating of these generated combined features, and for efficiently performing a preliminary comparison of the classification results when using the original features exclusively against the results when using the selected combined features. The potential benefit of considering combined features in classification problems is demonstrated by applying the developed methodology and toolkit to three sample data sets where the discovery of combined features containing new discriminating information led to improved classification results.

  13. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  14. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.

  15. Impact of facial defect reconstruction on attractiveness and negative facial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Masaru; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick; Ishii, Lisa E

    2015-06-01

    Measure the impact of facial defect reconstruction on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception. Prospective, randomized, controlled experiment. One hundred twenty casual observers viewed images of faces with defects of varying sizes and locations before and after reconstruction as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated attractiveness, defect severity, and how disfiguring, bothersome, and important to repair they considered each face. Facial defects decreased attractiveness -2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.45, -2.08) on a 10-point scale. Mixed effects linear regression showed this attractiveness penalty varied with defect size and location, with large and central defects generating the greatest penalty. Reconstructive surgery increased attractiveness 1.33 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.47), an improvement dependent upon size and location, restoring some defect categories to near normal ranges of attractiveness. Iterated principal factor analysis indicated the disfiguring, important to repair, bothersome, and severity variables were highly correlated and measured a common domain; thus, they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score, representing negative facial perception. The DIBS regression showed defect faces have a 1.5 standard deviation increase in negative perception (DIBS: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.77) compared to normal faces, which decreased by a similar magnitude after surgery (DIBS: -1.44, 95% CI: -1.49, -1.38). These findings varied with defect size and location. Surgical reconstruction of facial defects increased attractiveness and decreased negative social facial perception, an impact that varied with defect size and location. These new social perception data add to the evidence base demonstrating the value of high-quality reconstructive surgery. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Defect-Tolerant Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Kuhar, Korina

    2016-01-01

    -principles investigation of defect tolerance in 29 monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) of interest for nanoscale optoelectronics. We find that the TMDs based on group VI and X metals form deep gap states upon creation of a chalcogen (S, Se, Te) vacancy, while the TMDs based on group IV metals form only...... shallow defect levels and are thus predicted to be defect-tolerant. Interestingly, all the defect sensitive TMDs have valence and conduction bands with a very similar orbital composition. This indicates a bonding/antibonding nature of the gap, which in turn suggests that dangling bonds will fall inside...

  17. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  18. Defect reduction through Lean methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Kathleen; Kindt, Louis; Densmore, Jim; Benson, Craig; Zhou, Nancy; Leonard, John; Whiteside, Cynthia; Nolan, Robert; Shanks, David

    2010-09-01

    Lean manufacturing is a systematic method of identifying and eliminating waste. Use of Lean manufacturing techniques at the IBM photomask manufacturing facility has increased efficiency and productivity of the photomask process. Tools, such as, value stream mapping, 5S and structured problem solving are widely used today. In this paper we describe a step-by-step Lean technique used to systematically decrease defects resulting in reduced material costs, inspection costs and cycle time. The method used consists of an 8-step approach commonly referred to as the 8D problem solving process. This process allowed us to identify both prominent issues as well as more subtle problems requiring in depth investigation. The methodology used is flexible and can be applied to numerous situations. Advantages to Lean methodology are also discussed.

  19. Yarn-dyed fabric defect classification based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Junfeng; Dong, Amei; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Kaibing

    2017-09-01

    Considering that manual inspection of the yarn-dyed fabric can be time consuming and inefficient, we propose a yarn-dyed fabric defect classification method by using a convolutional neural network (CNN) based on a modified AlexNet. CNN shows powerful ability in performing feature extraction and fusion by simulating the learning mechanism of human brain. The local response normalization layers in AlexNet are replaced by the batch normalization layers, which can enhance both the computational efficiency and classification accuracy. In the training process of the network, the characteristics of the defect are extracted step by step and the essential features of the image can be obtained from the fusion of the edge details with several convolution operations. Then the max-pooling layers, the dropout layers, and the fully connected layers are employed in the classification model to reduce the computation cost and extract more precise features of the defective fabric. Finally, the results of the defect classification are predicted by the softmax function. The experimental results show promising performance with an acceptable average classification rate and strong robustness on yarn-dyed fabric defect classification.

  20. Postinfective physeal bars - MRI features and choice of management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predominantly meningococcal) demonstrating the typical MRI features of this entity and an explanation of how these features affect the choice of management. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 11 (3) 2007: pp. 44-48 ...

  1. OEIS complex (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects): a review of 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, K M

    2001-04-01

    OEIS complex refers to a combination of defects consisting of omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. Possible embryologic mechanisms proposed for these findings have included: a single defect of early blastogenesis or a defect of mesodermal migration during the primitive streak period. Fourteen cases with OEIS complex and related malformations were reviewed for demographic features, prenatal and family histories, and clinical, radiological and pathological findings including the frequency and types of associated anomalies. The pathogenetic mechanisms causing OEIS complex and related malformations, such as anorectal and spinal defects, are discussed. The findings in these cases illustrate the spectrum of defects that can occur in the embryologic development of the cloaca and the urorectal septum. Differences in the timing and extent of mesenchymal ingrowth as well as cloacal membrane rupture may account for these variable findings. A developmental field defect involving the intraembryonic mesoderm suggests a possible etiologic role for homeobox genes, such as HLXB9 with mutations, resulting in anorectal and spine abnormalities, or retinoic acid receptors. OEIS complex with its mostly sporadic occurrence suggests etiologic heterogeneity with a possible role for environmental and genetic causes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Neuroradiologic findings in children with mitochondrial disorder: correlation with mitochondrial respiratory chain defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinna; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eung Yeop; Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting energy metabolism that can present at any age with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We investigated brain magnetic resonance (MR) findings in 40 children with defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex and correlated them with the type of MRC defects. Enrolled were 40 children with MRC defects in biochemical enzyme assay of the muscle specimen. Twenty-one children were found to have classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorders and 19 children presented nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Their brain MR imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the biochemical defect in the MRC complex. Children with MRC defects showed various neuroradiologic features on brain MR imaging that resulted from a complex genetic background and a heterogeneous phenotype. Rapid progression of atrophy involving all structures of the brain with variable involvement of deep gray and white matter are the most frequent MR findings in children with MRC defects in both classical syndromes of mitochondrial disorder and nonspecific mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The type of biochemical defect in the MRC complex enzyme did not correlate with brain MR findings in child patients. (orig.)

  3. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  4. Developmental defects of enamel and dentine: challenges for basic science research and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K

    2014-06-01

    Abnormalities of enamel and dentine are caused by a variety of interacting factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental insults. The genetic changes associated with some types of enamel and dentine defects have been mapped, and many environmental influences, including medical illnesses that can damage enamel and dentine have been identified. Developmental enamel defects may present as enamel hypoplasia or hypomineralization while dentine defects frequently demonstrate aberrant calcifications and abnormalities of the dentine-pulp complex. Clinically, developmental enamel defects often present with problems of discolouration and aesthetics, tooth sensitivity, and susceptibility to caries, wear and erosion. In contrast, dentine defects are a risk for endodontic complications resulting from dentine hypomineralization and pulpal abnormalities. The main goals of managing developmental abnormalities of enamel and dentine are early diagnosis and improvement of appearance and function by preserving the dentition and preventing complications. However, despite major advances in scientific knowledge regarding the causes of enamel and dentine defects, further research is required in order to translate the knowledge gained in the basic sciences research to accurate clinical diagnosis and successful treatment of the defects. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Barrier controlled carrier trapping of extended defects in CdZnTe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rongrong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Jie, Wanqi, E-mail: jwq@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Xu, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yu, Hui; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao; Ren, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2015-09-11

    Transient current techniques using alpha particle source were utilized to study the influence of extended defects on the electron drift time and the detector performance of CdZnTe crystals. Different from the case of trapping through isolated point defect, a barrier controlled trapping model was used to explain the mechanism of carrier trapping at the extended defects. The effect of extended defects on the photoconductance was studied by laser beam induced transient current (LBIC) measurement. The results demonstrate that the Schottky-type depletion space charge region is induced at the vicinity of the extended defects, which further distorts the internal electric field distribution and affects the carrier trajectory in CdZnTe crystals. The relationship between the electron drift time and detector performance has been established. - Highlights: • The barrier controlled trapping model was developed around extended defects. • Electron mobility and E-field distribution were distorted by space charge depletion region. • Extended defects act as a recombination-activated region. • The relationships between extended defects and detector performance were established.

  6. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  7. Defining defect specifications to optimize photomask production and requalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiekowsky, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Reducing defect repairs and accelerating defect analysis is becoming more important as the total cost of defect repairs on advanced masks increases. Photomask defect specs based on printability, as measured on AIMS microscopes has been used for years, but the fundamental defect spec is still the defect size, as measured on the photomask, requiring the repair of many unprintable defects. ADAS, the Automated Defect Analysis System from AVI is now available in most advanced mask shops. It makes the use of pure printability specs, or "Optimal Defect Specs" practical. This software uses advanced algorithms to eliminate false defects caused by approximations in the inspection algorithm, classify each defect, simulate each defect and disposition each defect based on its printability and location. This paper defines "optimal defect specs", explains why they are now practical and economic, gives a method of determining them and provides accuracy data.

  8. Defect-Engineered Heat Transport in Graphene: A Route to High Efficient Thermal Rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wang, Yanlei; Wu, Zhangting; Wang, Wenhui; Bi, Kedong; Liang, Zheng; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei; Xu, Zhiping; Ni, Zhenhua

    2015-07-01

    Low-dimensional materials such as graphene provide an ideal platform to probe the correlation between thermal transport and lattice defects, which could be engineered at the molecular level. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics simulations and non-contact optothermal Raman measurements to study this correlation. We find that oxygen plasma treatment could reduce the thermal conductivity of graphene significantly even at extremely low defect concentration (˜83% reduction for ˜0.1% defects), which could be attributed mainly to the creation of carbonyl pair defects. Other types of defects such as hydroxyl, epoxy groups and nano-holes demonstrate much weaker effects on the reduction where the sp2 nature of graphene is better preserved. With the capability of selectively functionalizing graphene, we propose an asymmetric junction between graphene and defective graphene with a high thermal rectification ratio of ˜46%, as demonstrated by our molecular dynamics simulation results. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the physics of thermal transport in defective graphene, and two-dimensional materials in general, which could help on the future design of functional applications such as optothermal and electrothermal devices.

  9. Substrate and coating defect planarization strategies for high-laser-fluence multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Wolfe, Justin E.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Folta, James A.; Adams, John J.; Menor, Marlon G.; Teslich, Nick E.; Soufli, Regina; Menoni, Carmen S.; Patel, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Planarizing or smoothing over nodular defects in multilayer mirrors can be accomplished by a discrete deposit-and-etch process that exploits the angle-dependent etching rate of optical materials. Typically, nodular defects limit the fluence on mirrors irradiated at 1064 nm with 10 ns pulse lengths due to geometrically- and interference-induced light intensification. Planarized hafina/silica multilayer mirrors have demonstrated > 125 J/cm 2 laser resistance for single-shot testing and 50 J/cm 2 for multi-shot testing for nodular defects originating on the substrate surface. Two planarization methods were explored: thick planarization layers on the substrate surface and planarized silica layers throughout the multilayer in which only the silica layers that are below one half of the incoming electric field value are etched. This paper also describes the impact of planarized defects that are buried within the multilayer structure compared to planarized substrate particulate defects. - Highlights: • Defect planarization significantly improves multilayer mirror laser resistance • Substrate and coating defects have both been effectively planarized • Single and multishot laser resistance improvement was demonstrated

  10. Ab initio phonon point defect scattering and thermal transport in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos A.; Lindsay, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    We study the scattering of phonons from point defects and their effect on lattice thermal conductivity κ using a parameter-free ab initio Green's function methodology. Specifically, we focus on the scattering of phonons by boron (B), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus substitutions as well as single- and double-carbon vacancies in graphene. We show that changes of the atomic structure and harmonic interatomic force constants locally near defects govern the strength and frequency trends of the scattering of out-of-plane acoustic (ZA) phonons, the dominant heat carriers in graphene. ZA scattering rates due to N substitutions are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than those for B defects despite having similar mass perturbations. Furthermore, ZA phonon scattering rates from N defects decrease with increasing frequency in the lower-frequency spectrum in stark contrast to expected trends from simple models. ZA phonon-vacancy scattering rates are found to have a significantly softer frequency dependence (˜ω0 ) in graphene than typically employed in phenomenological models. The rigorous Green's function calculations demonstrate that typical mass-defect models do not adequately describe ZA phonon-defect scattering rates. Our ab initio calculations capture well the trend of κ vs vacancy density from experiments, though not the magnitudes. This work elucidates important insights into phonon-defect scattering and thermal transport in graphene, and demonstrates the applicability of first-principles methods toward describing these properties in imperfect materials.

  11. Classification and Methods of Shrinkage Defect Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Larichev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to put forward a proposal to divide the internal shrinkage defects into the dimensional levels according to defects of certain size and shape.The paper presents the terminology used to describe the internal shrinkage defects in the casting and shows its flaws. These include the lack of well-defined threshold size values and shape of defects. It is shown that in describing defects their sizes and shape are defined qualitatively rather than quantitatively. And it is noted that division of defects into pores and shells is based on the morphological characters.The paper notes that a distinct difference between defects is necessary because of different methods of their elimination from the casting body.The paper presents an overview of control methods to determine the defects of the shrinkage nature in castings. These are methods of destructive and non-destructive testing, such as Xrays, tomography, and metallography. The paper also shows advantages and disadvantages of the considered methods of control. Based on the control method capacities it offers to divide the shrinkage defects into the three dimensional levels.To estimate the shape of defects the paper suggests a new option, that is a shape criterion. By the example of the typical defects of each dimensional level are defined the threshold values of the shape criterion.The paper discusses the basic techniques to estimate the porosity and offers a relationship between the defects of different dimensional levels and a porosity score and percent. It shows that the transition from a dimensional level to another one is in line with not only increasing pore size, but also with a significant deterioration of the mechanical properties of castings.The main conclusions are as follows:1. At present, there is no single unambiguous classification of casting shrinkage defects in the technical literature.2. As follows from the analysis of the classifications of shrinkage defects, their

  12. Modeling Defects, Shape Evolution, and Programmed Auto-origami in Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eKonya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal elastomers represent a novel class of programmable shape-transforming materials whose shape change trajectory is encoded in the material’s nematic director field. Using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element elastodynamics simulation, we model a variety of different actuation geometries and device designs: thin films containing topological defects, patterns that induce formation of folds and twists, and a bas-relief structure. The inclusion of finite bending energy in the simulation model reveals features of actuation trajectory that may be absent when bending energy is neglected. We examine geometries with a director pattern uniform through the film thickness encoding multiple regions of positive Gaussian curvature. Simulations indicate that heating such a system uniformly produces a disordered state with curved regions emerging randomly in both directions due to the film’s up/down symmetry. By contrast, applying a thermal gradient by heating the material first on one side breaks up/down symmetry and results in a deterministic trajectory producing a more ordered final shape. We demonstrate that a folding zone design containing cut-out areas accommodates transverse displacements without warping or buckling; and demonstrate that bas-relief and more complex bent/twisted structures can be assembled by combining simple design motifs.

  13. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard

    1999-12-01

    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  14. New features in MEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use

  15. Influence of moulding conditions and mould characteristics on the contraction defects appearance in ductile iron castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sertucha, J.; Suarez, R.; Legazpi, J.; Gacetabeitia, P.

    2007-01-01

    Shrinkage defects appearance in cast iron has traditionally been related to the solidification processes of the metal and the feedings ability among the different sections of castings. Recent studies have demonstrated that sand moulds properties and their thermal behaviour after pouring step have an important influence on these defects formation too. The influence of the moulding process parameters and the mould characteristics on the contraction defects is analysed in this work using test casting designed specifically for this purpose. Additionally the most important parameters are determined in order to control the manufacturing process and minimise the shrinkage appearance in the castings. (Author) 14 refs

  16. Observation of zone folding induced acoustic topological insulators and the role of spin-mixing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchen; Ge, Hao; Tian, Yuan; Lu, Minghui; Jing, Yun

    2017-11-01

    This article reports on the experimental realization of a flow-free, pseudospin-based acoustic topological insulator designed using the strategy of zone folding. Robust sound one-way propagation is demonstrated with the presence of non-spin-mixing defects. On the other hand, it is shown that spin-mixing defects, which break the geometric symmetry and therefore the pseudo-time-reversal symmetry, can open up nontrivial band gaps within the edge state frequency band, and their width can be tailored by the extent of the defect. This provides a possible route for realizing tunable acoustic topological insulators.

  17. Warped Wigner-Hough Transform for Defect Reflection Enhancement in Ultrasonic Guided Wave Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca De Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the defect detectability of Lamb wave inspection systems, the application of nonlinear signal processing was investigated. The approach is based on a Warped Frequency Transform (WFT to compensate the dispersive behavior of ultrasonic guided waves, followed by a Wigner-Ville time-frequency analysis and the Hough Transform to further improve localization accuracy. As a result, an automatic detection procedure to locate defect-induced reflections was demonstrated and successfully tested by analyzing numerically simulated Lamb waves propagating in an aluminum plate. The proposed method is suitable for defect detection and can be easily implemented for real-world structural health monitoring applications.

  18. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  19. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO 2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  20. Simultaneous fabrication of line defects-embedded periodic lattice by topographically assisted holographic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ki Seok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have demonstrated simultaneous fabrication of designed defects within a periodic structure. For rapid fabrication of periodic structures incorporating nanoscale line-defects at large area, topographically assisted holographic lithography (TAHL technique, combining the strength of hologram lithography and phase-shift interference, was proposed. Hot-embossing method generated the photoresist patterns with vertical side walls which enabled phase-shift mask effect at the edge of patterns. Embossing temperature and relief height were crucial parameters for the successful TAHL process. Periodic holes with a diameter of 600 nm at a 1 μm-pitch incorporating 250 nm wide line-defects were obtained simultaneously.

  1. Ripple Tank Demonstration of Gaussian Beam Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, Kathy J.; Wilson, Thomas E.

    1997-10-01

    We have reproduced a ripple tank experimentfootnote 'Ripple Tank Studies of Wave Motion' by W. Llowarch (Oxford University Press, 1961) in order to illustrate the effects of focusing and diffraction of a capillary planewave by a bi-convex carbon tetrachloride 'lens'. We compare the experimental results, captured by a video camera, to the theoretical results obtained using the ABCD matrix method for the gaussian beam propagation through this paraxial 'optical' systemfootnote 'Lasers' by Anthony Siegman (University Science Book, Mill Valley, CA, 1986). The diffraction-limited focusing of the propagating wave is clearly visible; this is a feature not easily demonstrable in optics.

  2. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in

  3. Disruption of the folate pathway in zebrafish causes developmental defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Marina S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and congenital heart defects. The biological mechanisms through which folate prevents birth defects are not well understood. We explore the use of zebrafish as a model system to investigate the role of folate metabolism during development. Results We first identified zebrafish orthologs of 12 human folate metabolic genes. RT-PCR and in situ analysis indicated maternal transcripts supply the embryo with mRNA so that the embryo has an intact folate pathway. To perturb folate metabolism we exposed zebrafish embryos to methotrexate (MTX, a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (Dhfr an essential enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. Embryos exposed to high doses of MTX exhibited developmental arrest prior to early segmentation. Lower doses of MTX resulted in embryos with a shortened anterior-posterior axis and cardiac defects: linear heart tubes or incomplete cardiac looping. Inhibition of dhfr mRNA with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in embryonic lethality. One function of the folate pathway is to provide essential one-carbon units for dTMP synthesis, a rate-limiting step of DNA synthesis. After 24 hours of exposure to high levels of MTX, mutant embryos continue to incorporate the thymidine analog BrdU. However, additional experiments indicate that these embryos have fewer mitotic cells, as assayed with phospho-histone H3 antibodies, and that treated embryos have perturbed cell cycles. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that human and zebrafish utilize similar one-carbon pathways. Our data indicate that folate metabolism is essential for early zebrafish development. Zebrafish studies of the folate pathway and its deficiencies could provide insight into the underlying etiology of human birth defects and the natural role of folate in development.

  4. Particle Swarm Optimization approach to defect detection in armour ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharaju, Manasa; Nagarajah, Romesh

    2017-03-01

    In this research, various extracted features were used in the development of an automated ultrasonic sensor based inspection system that enables defect classification in each ceramic component prior to despatch to the field. Classification is an important task and large number of irrelevant, redundant features commonly introduced to a dataset reduces the classifiers performance. Feature selection aims to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset while improving the performance of a classification system. In the context of a multi-criteria optimization problem (i.e. to minimize classification error rate and reduce number of features) such as one discussed in this research, the literature suggests that evolutionary algorithms offer good results. Besides, it is noted that Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has not been explored especially in the field of classification of high frequency ultrasonic signals. Hence, a binary coded Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) technique is investigated in the implementation of feature subset selection and to optimize the classification error rate. In the proposed method, the population data is used as input to an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based classification system to obtain the error rate, as ANN serves as an evaluator of PSO fitness function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. SARS – clinical features

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – clinical features. Fever - > 38C; Respiratory symptoms, eg cough, difficulty in breathing; OR; Unexplained respiratory distress leading to death; AND; Close contact or travel to Asia within 10 days of onset of illness.

  6. Volcanic features of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. 49 CFR 213.337 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., due to incomplete penetration of the weld metal between the rail ends, lack of fusion between weld and... cracking. Weld defects may originate in the rail head, web, or base, and in some cases, cracks may progress... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective rails. 213.337 Section 213.337...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3761 - Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defects. 52.3761 Section 52.3761 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... to olives pitted along an axis other than the stem-flower axis. A defect is a unit where the angle of...

  9. 16 CFR 1115.4 - Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... defect exists. At a minimum, defect includes the dictionary or commonly accepted meaning of the word... appliance presents a shock hazard because, through a manufacturing error, its casing can be electrically... for home garages is advertised as activating when carbon monoxide fumes reach a dangerous level but...

  10. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  11. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  12. Encephalocele and associated skull defects | Komolafe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Encephalocele is a common congenital problem in the practice of Neurosurgery worldwide, with varying sizes of the underlying skull defects. This study was carried out to determine the size of the problem; to assess whether the skull defects are being under-managed or not; and also to determine those patients that will ...

  13. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  14. 9 CFR 91.30 - Defective fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defective fittings. 91.30 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.30 Defective fittings. If previously used fittings aboard an ocean vessel are employed, any portion thereof found by the inspector to be...

  15. Failures and Defects in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed...

  16. Indicators for Building Process without Final Defects -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the preliminary data analysis, as well as the underlying theories and methods for identifying the indicators for building process without final defects. Since 2004, the Benchmark Centre for the Danish Construction Sector (BEC) has collected information about legal defects...

  17. Discrimination of defects in III-V semiconductors by positron lifetime distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Z Q; Wang, S J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical Laplace inversion technique and maximum entropy method are utilized to extract continuous positron lifetime distribution in semiconductors. The result is used to discriminate the native vacancy-type defects in as-grown GaAs and In P with different conduction type. Direct evidence of shallow positron traps were also observed in ion-implanted p-In P. It is demonstrated that the lifetime distribution can give us more detailed information on the native defects.

  18. MerTK receptor cleavage promotes plaque necrosis and defective resolution in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Bishuang; Thorp, Edward B.; Doran, Amanda C.; Sansbury, Brian E.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Spite, Matthew; Fredman, Gabrielle; Tabas, Ira

    2017-01-01

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is often triggered by a distinct type of atherosclerotic lesion that displays features of impaired inflammation resolution, notably a necrotic core and thinning of a protective fibrous cap that overlies the core. A key cause of plaque necrosis is defective clearance

  19. Mismatch repair defective breast cancer in the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Birk; Sunde, Lone; Timshel, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not breast cancer can be a feature of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome has been debated. In order to clarify if defective mismatch repair (MMR) may indeed play a role in breast cancer, we used the Danish HNPCC register to identify all breast cancers that o...

  20. Defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Katherine M.; Murray, Alexandra J.; Pollack, Ross A.; Soliman, Mary G.; Laskey, Sarah B.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Lai, Jun; Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Hoh, Rebecca; Ho, Ya-Chi; Richman, Douglas D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication to clinically undetectable levels, HIV-1 persists in CD4+ T cells in a latent form not targeted by the immune system or ART1–5. This latent reservoir is a major barrier to cure. Many individuals initiate ART during chronic infection, and in this setting, most proviruses are defective6. However, the dynamics of the accumulation and persistence of defective proviruses during acute HIV-1 infection are largely unknown. Here we show that defective proviruses accumulate rapidly within the first few weeks of infection to make up over 93% of all proviruses, regardless of how early ART is initiated. Using an unbiased method to amplify near full-length proviral genomes from HIV-1 infected adults treated at different stages of infection, we demonstrate that early ART initiation limits the size of the reservoir but does not profoundly impact the proviral landscape. This analysis allows us to revise our understanding of the composition of proviral populations and estimate the true reservoir size in individuals treated early vs. late in infection. Additionally, we demonstrate that common assays for measuring the reservoir do not correlate with reservoir size. These findings reveal hurdles that must be overcome to successfully analyze future HIV-1 cure strategies. PMID:27500724