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  1. Heavy fermion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Cooke, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The heavy-fermion ground state occurs in a few select metallic compounds as a result of interactions between f-electron and conduction-electron spins. A characteristically large electronic heat capacity at low temperature indicates that the effective electron mass of these materials is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that expected for a free-electron metal. This heavy-fermion ground state can become superconducting or antiferromagnetic, exhibiting very unusual properties. These materials and the role of muon spin rotation in their study are briefly discussed

  2. Heavy fermion and actinide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During this period, 1/N expansions have been systematically applied to the calculation of the properties of highly correlated electron systems. These studies include examinations of (a) the class of materials known as heavy fermion semi-conductors, (b) the high energy spectra of heavy fermion systems, and (c) the doped oxide superconductors

  3. Actinides and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The actinide series of elements begins with f-shell electrons forming energy bands, contributing to the bonding, and possessing no magnetic moments. At americium the series switches over to localized f electrons with magnetic moments. In metallic compounds this crossover of behavior can be modified and studied. In this continuum of behavior a few compounds on the very edge of localized f-electron behavior exhibit enormous electronic heat capacities at low temperatures. This is associated with an enhanced thermal mass of the conduction electrons, which is well over a hundred times the free electron mass, and is what led to the label heavy fermion for such compounds. A few of these become superconducting at even lower temperatures. The excitement in this field comes from attempting to understand how this heaviness arises and from the likelihood that the superconductivity is different from that of previously known superconductors. The effects of thorium impurities in UBe 13 were studied as a representative system for studying the nature of the superconductivity

  4. Muon studies of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies have been particularly effective in revealing important properties of the unusual magnetism and superconductivity found in heavy fermion (HF) systems. In this paper μSR experiments elucidating the symmetry of superconducting order parameter in UPt 3 and UBe 13 doped with thorium and reviewed. Also discussed is the correlation between the enhanced superconducting specific heat jump and the reduced Kondo temperature in B-doped UBe 13 , indicating possible direct experimental evidence for a magnetic pairing mechanism in HF superconductors. 23 refs., 3 figs

  5. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  6. The physics and chemistry of heavy Fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The heavy Fermions are a subset of the f-element intermetallics straddling the magnetic/non-magnetic boundary. Their low temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1--10 K. Among the low temperature ground states observed in heavy Fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems

  7. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  8. On the magnetoresistance of heavy fermion compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chengchung; Chen Chung

    1992-09-01

    Starting from two-conduction-band Anderson lattice model, the magneto-transport properties of heavy fermion systems are studied in the slave boson mean field theory. The residual magnetoresistivity induced by different kinds of impurities is calculated, and the experimentally detected positive maximum structure in the residual magnetoresistance of heavy fermion systems is reproduced. The transition of field-dependent resistivity from nonmonotonic to monotonic behaviour with increasing temperature can be explained naturally by including the charge fluctuation effect. The influence of applied pressure is also investigated. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  9. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.D. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Thompson, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maple, M.B., E-mail: mbmaple@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Quasiparticles in heavy-fermion compounds are much heavier than free electrons. • Superconductivity involves pairing of these massive quasiparticles. • Quasiparticle pairing mediated by magnetic or quadrupolar fluctuations. • We review the properties of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds. - Abstract: Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.

  10. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the. Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence ...

  11. Magnetic properties of heavy-fermion superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauchschwalbe, U.

    1986-01-01

    In the present thesis the magnetic properties of heavy-fermion superconductors are investigated. The magnetoresistance and the critical magnetic fields show a variety of anomalous phenomena. The Kondo lattices CeCu 2 Si and CeAl 3 are analysed by magnetoresistance and the field dependence of the resistivitis of UBe 13 , UPt 3 , URu 2 Si 2 and CeRu 3 Si are measured for temperatures < or approx. 1 K. (BHO)

  12. Magnetic fluctuations in heavy-fermion metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Petersen, T.; Aeppli, G.

    1995-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering have been used to study the antiferromagnetic ordering and magnetic excitations of the U heavy-fermion superconductors UPd2Al3 and URu2Si2 above and below T-N. While both materials exhibit the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order......, the nature of the antiferromagnetic order and magnetic fluctuations is qualitatively quite different. UPd2Al3 resembles a rare earth magnetic system with coupling of the 4f electrons to the conduction electrons manifested in a broadening of otherwise conventional spin wave excitations. This is in marked...

  13. A possible model of heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liyuan.

    1986-08-01

    We have used the periodic Anderson Hamiltonian to study the behaviour of heavy fermion systems. It has been argued that the properly large mixing between f and the conduction electrons, the strong Coulomb correlation between f electrons and the related renormalization effect are the main causes of the large effective mass of the quasiparticle. Further, we have introduced phenomenologically the BCS attractive interaction between the heavy quasiparticles and explained that the value of ΔC/γT c and T c may be quite different from that of the BCS theory as a result of the interaction between two branches of the quasiparticles. (author)

  14. Magnetic fluctuations in heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broholm, C.L.

    1989-06-01

    Magnetic order and fluctuations in the heavy Fermion systems UPt 3 , U 2 Zn 17 and URu 2 Si 2 have been studied by neutron scattering. Single crystalline samples and triple-axis neutron-scattering techniques with energy transfers between 0 and 40 meV and energy resolutions between 0.1 meV and 4 meV have been employed. UPt 3 develops an antiferromagnetically ordered moment of (0.02±0.005) μ B below T N = 5 K which doubles the unit cell in the basal plane and coexists with superconductivity below T c = 0.5 K. The magnetic fluctuations are relaxational, and enhanced at the antiferromagnetic zone center in a low-energy regime. The characteristic zone-center relaxation energy is 0.3 meV. The temperature- and field-dependence of the antiferromagnetic order in the superconducting phase suggest a close relation between these two properties in UPt 3 . U 2 Zn 17 has a broad spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, even below T N = 9.7 K, of which the transverse part below 10 meV is strongly enhanced at the antiferromagnetic zone center. The system has an anomalously extended critical region and the antiferromagnetic phase transition seems to be driven by the temperature-dependence of an effective RKKY interaction, as anticipated theoretically. URu 2 Si 2 , a strongly anisotropic heavy Fermion system, has a high-energy regime of antiferromagnetically-correlated overdamped magnetic fluctuations. Below T N = 17.5 K weak antiferromagnetic order, μ = (0.04±0.01)μ B , with finite correlations along the tetragonal c axis, develops along with a low-energy regime of strongly dispersive singlet-singlet excitations. Below T c = 1 K antiferromagnetism coexists with superconductivity. A phenomenological model describing the exchange-enhanced overdamped magnetic fluctuations of heavy Fermion systems is proposed. Our experimental results are compared to the anomalous bulk properties of heavy Fermion systems, and to magnetic fluctuations in other metallic magnets. (orig.)

  15. Heavy-fermion quasiparticles in UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillefer, L.; Lonzarich, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    The quasiparticle band structure of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt 3 has been investigated by means of angle-resolved measurements of the de Haas--van Alphen effect. Most of the results are consistent with a model of five quasiparticle bands at the Fermi level corresponding to Fermi surfaces similar to those calculated by band theory. However, as inferred from the extremely high cyclotron masses, the quasiparticle bands are much flatter than the calculated ones. The nature of the observed quasiparticles and their relationship to thermodynamic properties are briefly considered

  16. UPt3, heavy fermions and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A. de.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis an experimental study is presented of one of the heavy-fermion superconductors: UPt 3 (T c =0.5 K). The normal-state properties of this material are governed by pronounced spin-fluctuation effects. The unusual coexistence of spin-fluctuations and superconductivity is strongly suggestive for an unconventional type of superconductivity, mediated by spin-fluctuations instead of phonons, with the condensate formed out of odd-parity electron states. In the first chapter a general introduction is given to the field of the heavy-fermions. In the second chapter a theoretical background for the properties of UPt 3 is presented. Chapter 3 deals with the sample preparation and measuring techniques. In chapter 4 a series of experiments is presented on the normal-phase of UPt 3 , among which are studies of the specific heat, thermal expansion, sound velocity, magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity and magnetostriction. Also the influence of high-magnetic fields (35 T) and high-pressures (5 kbar) has been studied. The superconducting phase of UPt 3 has been discussed in chapter 5. In chapter 6 a series of pseudobinary U(Pt 1-x Pd x ) 3 compounds (x≤0.30) are studied. In the last chapter some final remarks and conclusions are presented. (Auth.)

  17. Physics of heavy fermions heavy fermions and strongly correlated electrons systems

    CERN Document Server

    Onuki, Yoshichika

    2018-01-01

    A large variety of materials prove to be fascinating in solid state and condensed matter physics. New materials create new physics, which is spearheaded by the international experimental expert, Prof Yoshichika Onuki. Among them, the f electrons of rare earth and actinide compounds typically exhibit a variety of characteristic properties, including spin and charge orderings, spin and valence fluctuations, heavy fermions, and anisotropic superconductivity. These are mainly manifestations of better competitive phenomena between the RKKY interaction and the Kondo effect. The present text is written so as to understand these phenomena and the research they prompt. For example, superconductivity was once regarded as one of the more well-understood many-body problems. However, it is, in fact, still an exciting phenomenon in new materials. Additionally, magnetism and superconductivity interplay strongly in heavy fermion superconductors. The understanding of anisotropic superconductivity and magnetism is a challengin...

  18. Electron spectroscopy studies in heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    Photoemission experiments (whereby an electron absorbs a packet of light energy and is able to escape from the host material due to its increased energy) can measure directly the energy distribution of electrons in various materials. Our measurements on a recently-discovered class of metallic materials called ''heavy fermions'' show that the electrons that actually carry the electric current in these metals exist only within an extremely narrow range of energies. This range, which we will call the bandwidth, is narrower than that found in ordinary metals like copper by at least a factor of 10. Indeed it is surprising that they can carry electric current at all since such narrow energy ranges (or band widths) are characteristic of electrons confined to their host atoms, as in a non-metal, rather than of electrons that are free to wander through a metal. 8 refs

  19. Actinides: from heavy fermions to plutonium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Hecker, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The actinide elements mark the emergence of 5f electrons. The f electrons possess sufficiently unusual characteristics that their participation in atomic binding often result in dramatic changes in properties. This provides an excellent opportunity to study the question of localization of electrons; a question that is paramount in predicting the physical and chemical properties of d and f electron transition metals. The transition region between localized (magnetic) and itinerant (often superconducting) behavior provides for many interesting phenomena such as structural instabilities (polymorphism), spin fluctuations, mixed valences, charge density waves, exceptional catalytic activity and hydrogen storage. This region offers most interesting behavior such as that exhibited by the actinide compounds UBe 13 and UPt 3 . Both compounds are heavy-fermion superconductors in which both magnetic and superconducting behavior exist in the same electrons. The consequences of f-electron bonding (which appears greatest at Plutonium) show dramatic effects on phase stability, alloying behavior, phase transformations and mechanical behavior

  20. Scaling behavior of heavy fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a, Chernova str. Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are fundamental systems in physics that are best studied experimentally, which until very recently have lacked theoretical explanations. This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as heavy-fermion (HF) metals and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the scaling behavior of HF metals can be described within the framework of a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) and an extended quasiparticle paradigm that allow us to explain the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in strongly correlated Fermi systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Having analyzed the collected facts on strongly correlated Fermi systems with quite a different microscopic nature, we find these to exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior at FCQPT. We show both analytically and using arguments based entirely on the experimental grounds that the data collected on very different strongly correlated Fermi systems have a universal scaling behavior, and materials with strongly correlated fermions can unexpectedly be uniform in their diversity. Our analysis of strongly correlated systems such as HF metals and 2D Fermi systems is in the context of salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales and thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties are in good agreement with experimental facts.

  1. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Ojha, M.S.; Behera, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    The heavy fermion system (HFS) is described by the periodic Anderson model (PAM), treating the Coulomb correlation between the f-electrons in the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation. Superconductivity is introduced by a BCS-type pairing term among the conduction electrons. Within this approximation the equation for the superconducting gap is derived, which depends on the effective position of the energy level of the f-electrons relative to the Fermi level. The latter in turn depends on the occupation probability n f of the f-electrons. The gap equation is solved self-consistently with the equation for n f ; and their temperature dependences are studied for different positions of the bare f-electron energy level, with respect to the Fermi level. The dependence of the superconducting gap on the hybridization leads to a re-entrant behaviour with increasing strength. The induced pairing between the f-electrons and the pairing of mixed conduction and f-electrons due to hybridization are also determined. The temperature dependence of the hybridization parameter, which characterizes the number of electrons with mixed character and represents the number of heavy electrons is studied. This number is shown to be small. The quasi-particle density of states (DOS) shows the existence of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. (author)

  2. Neutron scattering studies of the heavy Fermion superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Recent neutron scattering measurements of the heavy Fermion superconductors are described. Those materials offer an exciting opportunity for neutron scattering since the f-electrons, which couple directly to magnetic scattering measurements, seem to be the same electrons which form the superconducting state below T/sub c/. In addition, studies of the magnetic fluctuations in these, and other heavy Fermion systems, by inelastic magnetic neutron scattering can provide information about the nature of the low temperature Fermi liquid character of these novel compounds

  3. Heavy fermions and superconductivity in doped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, S.; Zevin, V.; Zwicknagl, G.

    1996-01-01

    We present a Fermi liquid description for the low-energy excitations in rare Earth cuprates Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4 . The strongly renormalized heavy quasiparticles which appear in the doped samples originate from the coherent decoupling of rare earth spins and correlated conduction electrons. The correlations among the conduction electrons are simulated by assuming a spin density wave ground state. We discuss results for the thermodynamic properties in the insulating, normal metallic and superconducting phases which are in fair agreement with experimental data. In addition, the model predicts interesting behaviour for the superconducting state of samples with low transition temperature T c which may help to assess the validity of the underlying assumptions. (orig.)

  4. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy fermionic and high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovik, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Splitting of the superconducting transition and glass spectrum in heavy fermion companies and oxide superconductors are discussed. The multicomponent order parameter leads to splitting of transition due to magnetic field, impurities, orthorhombic distortion, etc... Linear specific heat in oxide superconductors may be explained in terms of the Fermi-surface arising in superconducting state if interband is pairing strong enough

  5. First-principle Simulations of Heavy Fermion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruanchen

    Heavy fermion materials, one of the most challenging topics in condensed matter physics, pose a variety of interesting properties and have attracted extensive studies for decades. Although there has been great success in explaining many ground- state properties of solids, the well-known theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) in its popular local density approximation (LDA) fail to describe heavy fermion materials due to improper treatment of many-body correlation effects. Here with the implementations of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) and the Gutzwiller variational method, the computational simulation of the heavy fermion materials is explored further and better compared with experimental data. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical background of DMFT and LDA+G methods is described in detail. The rest is the application of these techniques and is basically divided into two parts. First, the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method combined with DMFT is used to calculate and compare both the periodic Anderson model (PAM) and the Kondo lattice model (KLM). Different parameter sets of both models are connected by the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation. For spin and orbital degeneracy N = 2 case, a special particle-hole symmetric case of PAM at half-filling which always fixes one electron per impurity site is compared with the results of the KLM. We find a good mapping between PAM and KLM in the limit of large on-site Hubbard interaction U for different properties like self-energy, quasiparticle residue and susceptibility. This allows us to extract quasiparticle mass renormalizations for the f-electrons directly from KLM. The method is further applied to higher degenerate cases and to the realistic heavy fermion system CeRhIn5 in which the estimate of the Sommerfeld coefficient is proven to be close to the experimental value. Second, a series of Cerium based heavy fermion materials is studied using a combination of local

  6. Heavy Fermion Materials and Quantum Phase Transitions Workshop on Frontiers of the Kondo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The contemporary studies of the Kondo effect and heavy -fermion materials occur at the intersection of some of the most...magnetism. Electronic systems in this intermediate regime are particularly tunable. Correspondingly, heavy fermions have emerged as a promising setting...materials. Second, heavy -fermion materials typically contain heavy elements, and there is an increasing 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND

  7. Heavy fermions and other highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper I given a brief summary of the achievements grouped under three main headings, namely (1) heavy-fermion, mixed-valence and Kondo systems, (2) the n-channel Kondo problem and applications, and (3) one-dimensional conductors and antiferromagnets. The list of published papers and preprints is attached to the report, as well as a list of abstracts submitted to Conferences. All these papers are new in the sense that none of them was listed in the final technical report of grant DE-FG02-87ER45333

  8. Impurities in the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe13 (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Willis, J.O.; Batlogg, B.; Ott, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Small amounts of Sc, Lu, Gd, Np, Ce, Th, La, and Ba have been substituted for uranium in UBe 13 to observe their effects on the superconducting and normal state properties. The thorium, which was the most complete study, resulted in an extremely unusual nonmonotonic depression of the transition temperature for a nonmagnetic impurity. This comes from an interplay that exists between the lowest temperature resistivity peak and the transition temperature, as the peak is depressed. These results suggest that heavy Fermion superconductivity is only one of the possible ground states for heavy mass electron systems. All of the impurities tested resulted in a transition temperature depression

  9. Is YbAs a heavy Fermion system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, R.; Degiorgi, L.; Delley, B.; Koelling, D.D.

    1989-08-01

    Using parameters extracted from a tight binding fit to an ab initio band structure, the specific heat anomaly observed in YbAs around 5 K is computed within the infinite U limit of the degenerate Anderson impurity model. Applying the renormalization procedure derived in variational treatments of the periodic Anderson model, a quasiparticle Fermi surface with strong nesting features and small mass enhancements is obtained. The results suggest that YbAs is not a ''classical'' heavy Fermion system. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Muon spin relaxation studies of heavy fermion superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This talk will focus recent developments in our understanding of heavy fermion (HF) superconductors and the role that positive muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies have played in helping to elucidate their properties. As illustrations two systems will be discussed: (1) UPd 2 Al 3 , one of the most recently discovered HF superconductors, which also displays coexisting magnetic order and (2) UBe 3 doped with small quantities Of Th substituted for U, which displays an interplay between its superconducting and magnetic ground states, leading to multiple superconducting states

  11. Theory of temperature dependent photoemission spectrum of heavy fermion semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy fermion semiconductors are a class of strongly correlated materials, that at high temperatures show properties similar to those of heavy fermion materials, but at low temperatures show a cross-over into a semi-conducting state. The low temperature insulating state is characterized by an anomalously small energy gap, varying between 10 and 100 K. The smallness of the gap is attributed to the result of a many-body renormalization, and is temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of the electronic spectral density of states is calculated, using the Anderson lattice model at half filling. The spectrum is calculated to second order in 1/N, where N is the degeneracy of the 'f' orbitals, using a slave boson technique. The system is an indirect gap semi-conductor, with an extremely temperature dependent electronic spectral density A(k, ω). The indirect gap is subject to a temperature dependent many-body renormalization, and leads to a sharp temperature dependent structure in the angle resolved photo-emission spectrum at the indirect threshold. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental observations on FeSi. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  12. Quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) of Kondo lattice heavy fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L. H.; Narasiwodeyar, S. M.; Banerjee, P.; Park, W. K.; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Baumbach, R. E.; Ronning, F.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.

    2013-03-01

    Point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) is a powerful technique to study electronic properties via measurements of non-linear current-voltage characteristic across a ballistic junction. It has been frequently adopted to investigate novel and/or unconventional superconductors by detecting the energy-dependent Andreev scattering. PCS of non-superconducting materials has been much rarely reported. From our recent studies on heavy fermions, we have frequently observed strongly bias-dependent and asymmetric conductance behaviors. Based on a Fano resonance model in a Kondo lattice, we attribute them to energy-dependent quasiparticle scattering off hybridized renormalized electronic states, dubbing it QPS. We will present our QPS results on several heavy-fermion systems and discuss QPS as a novel technique to probe the bulk spectroscopic properties of the electronic structure. For instance, it reveals that the hybridization gap in URu2Si2 opens well above the hidden order transition. The work at UIUC is supported by the U.S. DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and the NSF DMR 12-06766, and the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.

  13. RKKY interaction in mixed valence system and heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusui Liu; Gao Lin; Lin Zonghan

    1985-11-01

    The 1-D RKKY interaction of mixed valence system is given by using the thermodynamic perturbation theory. The numerical comparisons of 1-D and 3-D RKKY interaction between systems with localized magnetic moments of mixed valence and non-mixed valence show that the former is much stronger than the latter. From some analyses we propose that the heavy Fermion superconductivity comes from the RKKY interaction between two local f electrons which hop off the impurity site to become two continuum electrons. The source of the two impurity electrons hopping is the Coulomb interaction. It is also emphasized that the RKKY interaction does not disappear for the Kondo lattice, when the temperature is less than the Kondo temperature. (author)

  14. High-temperature superconductors learn from heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.

    1998-01-01

    Physicists have been intrigued by the nature of high-temperature superconductors since they were discovered 12 years ago. Superconducting materials lose their electrical resistance below a transition temperature, T c , and certain copper-oxide compounds remain superconducting at temperatures up to 160 K. Research into these materials has been driven by fundamental, yet intractable, questions about the basic concepts of condensed-matter physics and the mechanisms of superconductivity. A key question is how the electrons come together to form the Cooper pairs responsible for superconductivity. Physicists at Cambridge University have now studied two heavy-fermion compounds experimentally, and have found that the electron pairing is caused by magnetic effects (N Mathur et al. 1998 Nature 394 39). In this article the author describes their research. (UK)

  15. Phonon response of some heavy Fermion systems in dynamic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jitendra; Shadangi, Namita; Nayak, Pratibindhya

    2017-05-01

    The phonon excitation spectrum of some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems in the presence of electron-phonon interaction is studied in the dynamic limit (ω≠0). The renormalized excitation phonon frequencies (ω˜ = ω/ω0) are evaluated through Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction using Zubarev-type double time temperature-dependent Green function. The calculated renormalized phonon energy is analyzed through the plots of (ω˜ = ω/ω0) against temperature for different system parameters like effective coupling strength ‘g’ and the position of f-level ‘d’. The observed behavior is analyzed and found to agree with the general features of HF systems found in experiments. Further, it is observed that in finite but small q-values the propagating phonons harden and change to localized peaks.

  16. Studies of heavy fermion systems: Progress report, July 1, 1986-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1987-08-01

    Studies of the resistivity, susceptibility, and specific heat of the new heavy fermion system UPt/sub 5-x/Au/sub x/ have shown: (1) the high effective mass, m*, can be varied by almost an order of magnitude by varying x near x = 1; and (2) the occurrence of high m* in this system and (presumably) in heavy fermion systems in general is typified by a nearness to magnetic instability. High field (24 T) specific heat studies of CeCu 6 show a total suppression of the low temperature heavy fermion ground state by magnetic field, in direct contradiction of present non-interacting ''Kondo lattice'' theory

  17. On the validity of the Migdal's theorem in heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    The interaction between phonons and electrons in strongly correlated electron systems is investigated in the context of the electron-phonon vertex correction. We preserve characteristic features of heavy fermion systems assuming a high density of states near the Fermi level and a very large effective mass m * . We have calculated the lowest-order vertex correction to the quasi particle-phonon interaction and shown that there is no Migdal's theorem for heavy fermion systems. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  18. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on heavy-fermion systems; Rastertunnelspektroskopie an Schwere-Fermionen-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Stefan

    2011-06-24

    in the framework of this thesis different heavy-fermion systems were studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. In the experiment two main topics existed. On the one hand the heavy-fermion superconductivity in the compounds CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, CeCoIn{sub 5}, and on the other hand the Kondo effect in the Kondo-lattice system YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  19. Studies of heavy fermion systems: Progress report, July 1, 1986-December 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Major projects put forward in the original proposal were: radiation damage studies of the heavy fermion superconductors UBe 13 and UPt 3 ; chemical substitution experiments, including CeCu/sub 6-x/M/sub x/; high magnetic field specific heat measurements; search for new heavy fermion systems (HFS). A summary of results on these projects will be discussed first, followed by additional work done during the contract period - some of which is still in progress

  20. A modified BCS theory of heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, P.C.; Rout, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive an expression for the superconducting gap equation for U and Ce based heavy fermion (HF) systems within a modified weak coupling theory of superconductivity. The calculated gap equation presents a mixture of pairing amplitudes of two different quasi-particle bands α and β. These two gap equations are solved numerically and self-consistently within the cut-off energy which arises due to the Kondo energy. It is found that the energy dependence of the enhanced density of states for the HF systems clearly manifests itself in the theory and the Kondo energy naturally takes the role of cut-off energy (ω c ), as long as the effective cut-off energy is large in comparison with the Kondo energy. The numerical analysis confirms this result and shows that superconducting transition temperature is independent of effective cut-off energy employed within this approach. The temperature dependence of gap equations are studied by varying the model parameters like positions of f-level, hybridization and coupling constants of the HF systems. (author)

  1. Spin gap in heavy fermion compound UBe13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchak, V. G.; Brewer, J. H.; Eshchenko, D. G.; Mengyan, P. W.; Parfenov, O. E.; Tokmachev, A. M.; Dosanjh, P.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    Heavy fermion (HF) compounds are well known for their unique properties, such as narrow bandwidths, loss of coherence in a metal, non-Fermi-liquid behaviour, unconventional superconductivity, huge magnetoresistance etc. While these materials have been known since the 1970s, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the fundamental mechanisms responsible for some of these features. Here we report transverse-field muon spin rotation (μ +SR) experiments on the canonical HF compound UBe13 in the temperature range from 0.025 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 7 T. The μ +SR spectra exhibit a sharp anomaly at 180 K. We present a simple explanation of the experimental findings identifying this anomaly with a gap in the spin excitation spectrum of f-electrons opening near 180 K. It is consistent with anomalies discovered in heat capacity, NMR and optical conductivity measurements of UBe13, as well as with the new resistivity data presented here. The proposed physical picture may explain several long-standing mysteries of UBe13 (as well as other HF systems).

  2. Photoemission and the electronic properties of heavy fermions -- limitations of the Kondo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.J.; Arko, A.J.; Andrews, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic properties of Yb-based heavy fermions have been investigated by means of high resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission and compared with predictions of the Kondo model. The Yb heavy fermion photoemission spectra show massive disagreement with the Kondo model predictions (as calculated within the Gunnarsson-Schonhammer computational method). Moreover, the Yb heavy fermion photoemission spectra give very strong indications of core-like characteristics and compare favorable to purely divalent Yb metal and core-like Lu 4f levels. The heavy fermions YbCu 2 Si 2 , YbAgCu 4 and YbAl 3 were measured and shown to have lineshapes much broader and deeper in binding energy than predicted by the Kondo model. The lineshape of the bulk component of the 4f emission for these three heavy fermion materials was compared with that from Yb metal and the Lu 4f levels in LuAl 3 , the heavy fermion materials show no substantive spectroscopic differences from simple 4f levels observed in Yb metal and LuAl 3 . Also, the variation with temperature of the 4f fineshape was measured for Yb metal and clearly demonstrates that phonon broadening plays a major role in 4f level lineshape analysis and must be accounted for before considerations of correlated electron resonance effects are presumed to be at work

  3. Quasiparticle relaxation in Heavy Fermions studied using Inverse Fourier Transform of optical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordevic, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Inverse Fourier Transform of optical conductivity is used for studies of quasiparticle relaxation in Heavy Fermions in time domain. We demonstrate the usefulness of the procedure on model spectra and then use it to study quasiparticle relaxation in two Heavy Fermions YbFe 4 Sb 12 and CeRu 4 Sb 12 . Optical conductivity in time domain reveals details of quasiparticle relaxation close to the Fermi level, not readily accessible from the spectra in the frequency domain. In particular, we find that the relaxation of heavy quasiparticles does not start instantaneously, but typically after a few hundred femto-seconds.

  4. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-91ER45443: Heavy fermions and other highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1998-01-01

    Properties of highly correlated electrons, such as heavy fermion compounds, metal-insulator transitions, one-dimensional conductors and systems of restricted dimensionality are studied theoretically. The main focus is on Kondo insulators and impurity bands due to Kondo holes, the low-temperature magnetoresistivity of heavy fermion alloys, the n-channel Kondo problem, mesoscopic systems and one-dimensional conductors

  5. Thermal expansion of the heavy-fermion compound CeInCu2 at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagayama, Tomoko; Oomi, Gendo; Onuki, Yoshichika; Komatsubara, Takemi

    1994-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient α of the heavy-fermion compound CeInCu 2 has been measured at high pressure up to 2 GPa in the temperature range from 6 to 300 K. It is found that the linear term in α(T) at low temperature decreases by the application of pressure. ((orig.))

  6. Neutron diffraction from the vortex lattice in the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleiman, R.N.; Broholm, C.; Aeppli, G.

    1992-01-01

    We have used neutron diffraction to observe the vortex lattice of UPt3. This is the first such measurement in a heavy-fermion system, a superconductor below 1 K, or in a system with such a long magnetic penetration depth (6000 +/- 75 angstrom). It also provides the first value for the pair...

  7. Magnetic excitations in the heavy-Fermion superconductor URu2Si2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, C.; Lin, H.; Matthews, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic order and fluctuations in the heavy-fermion superconductor URu2Si2 have been studied by magnetic neutron scattering. Below T(N) = 17.5 K, URu2Si2 is a type-I antiferromagnet with an anomalously small ordered moment of (0.04 +/- 0.01)mu-B polarized along the tetragonal c axis...

  8. Magnetic fluctuations and the superconducting transition in the heavy-fermion material UPd2Al3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T.; Mason, T.E.; Aeppli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering has been performed on single crystals of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPd2Al3. The antiferromagnetically ordered state is characterized by an acoustic spin wave mode with no gap. The low-frequency magnitude excitations are unaffected by the transition to a superco...... to a superconducting state despite coupling to the conduction electrons as evidenced by the significant damping....

  9. Multiple quantum phase transitions and superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z F; Smidman, M; Jiao, L; Lu, Xin; Yuan, H Q

    2016-09-01

    Heavy fermions have served as prototype examples of strongly-correlated electron systems. The occurrence of unconventional superconductivity in close proximity to the electronic instabilities associated with various degrees of freedom points to an intricate relationship between superconductivity and other electronic states, which is unique but also shares some common features with high temperature superconductivity. The magnetic order in heavy fermion compounds can be continuously suppressed by tuning external parameters to a quantum critical point, and the role of quantum criticality in determining the properties of heavy fermion systems is an important unresolved issue. Here we review the recent progress of studies on Ce based heavy fermion superconductors, with an emphasis on the superconductivity emerging on the edge of magnetic and charge instabilities as well as the quantum phase transitions which occur by tuning different parameters, such as pressure, magnetic field and doping. We discuss systems where multiple quantum critical points occur and whether they can be classified in a unified manner, in particular in terms of the evolution of the Fermi surface topology.

  10. Test of s-wave pairing in heavy-fermion systems due to Kondo volume collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svozil, K.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to utilize resonant Raman scattering on heavy-fermion superconductors as a test for Cooper pairing via an effective phonon-mediated attraction due to the Kondo volume collapse. The suggested experiment might help to discriminate between singlet and triplet pairing

  11. Electronic structure of heavy fermion system CePt2In7 from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bing; Yu Li; Lyu Shou-Peng; Jia Xiao-Wen; Zhang Yan; Wang Chen-Lu; Hu Cheng; Ding Ying; Sun Xuan; Hu Yong; Liu Jing; Gao Qiang; Zhao Lin; Liu Guo-Dong; Liu Kai; Lu Zhong-Yi; Bauer, E D; Thompson, J D; Xu Zu-Yan; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the Ce-based heavy fermion compound CePt 2 In 7 that exhibits stronger two-dimensional character than the prototypical heavy fermion system CeCoIn 5 . Multiple Fermi surface sheets and a complex band structure are clearly resolved. We have also performed detailed band structure calculations on CePt 2 In 7 . The good agreement found between our measurements and the calculations suggests that the band renormalization effect is rather weak in CePt 2 In 7 . A comparison of the common features of the electronic structure of CePt 2 In 7 and CeCoIn 5 indicates that CeCoIn 5 shows a much stronger band renormalization effect than CePt 2 In 7 . These results provide new information for understanding the heavy fermion behaviors and unconventional superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermion systems. (paper)

  12. Theory of heavy-fermion compounds theory of strongly correlated Fermi-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, Miron Ya; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Stephanovich, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    This book explains modern and interesting physics in heavy-fermion (HF) compounds to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics. It presents a theory of heavy-fermion (HF) compounds such as HF metals, quantum spin liquids, quasicrystals and two-dimensional Fermi systems. The basic low-temperature properties and the scaling behavior of the compounds are described within the framework of the theory of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). Upon reading the book, the reader finds that HF compounds with quite different microscopic nature exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior, while the data collected on very different HF systems have a universal scaling behavior, and these compounds are unexpectedly uniform despite their diversity. For the reader's convenience, the analysis of compounds is carried out in the context of salient experimental results. The numerous calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties, being in good...

  13. Quasiparticles and order parameter near quantum phase transition in heavy fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation) and CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)]. E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-02

    It is shown that the Landau paradigm based upon both the quasiparticle concept and the notion of the order parameter is valid and can be used to explain the anomalous behavior of the heavy fermion metals near quantum critical points. The understanding of this phenomenon has been problematic largely because of the absence of theoretical guidance. Exploiting this paradigm and the fermion condensation quantum phase transition, we investigate the anomalous behavior of the heavy electron liquid near its critical point at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields. We show that this anomalous behavior is universal and can be used to capture the essential aspects of recent experiments on heavy-fermion metals at low temperatures.

  14. The evidence of unconventional pairing in heavy fermion superconductors and high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, C.; Wur, C.S.; Jiang, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of interest in two classes of superconductors, heavy fermion superconductors and high T c copper oxide superconductors. The behavior and nature of superconductivity in these two classes of materials are very similar. The temperature dependences of spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) and spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 ) of 9 Be in UBe 13 are quite similar to those of 63 Cu and 89 Y in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . The Knight shift of UBe 13 is unchanged during the superconducting phase transition. The Knight shift of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ changes from the value in the normal state K n /K s = 1 at T ≥ T c to K n /K s = 0.5 at T = 6 K. Both do not approach zero as expected in BCS theory. The acoustic attenuation is enhanced just below T c instead of rapid drop near T c for these two superconducting system. Neither the enhancement, the temperature variation, nor any other anomalous behaviors appear to be mirrored in EPR data for heavy Fermion superconductors and high T c superconductors. This strongly suggests that the unconventional pairing mechanism which induces superconductivity in heavy fermion materials might also involve in high T c superconductors

  15. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemm, E.R., E-mail: eschemm@alumni.stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Levenson-Falk, E.M. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute of Energy and Materials Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Polar Kerr effect (PKE) probes broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in superconductors. • Absence of PKE below Tc in CeCoIn{sub 5} is consistent with dx2-y2 order parameter symmetry. • PKE in the B phase of the multiphase superconductor UPt3 agrees with an E2u model. • Data on URu2Si2 show broken TRS and additional structure in the superconducting state. - Abstract: The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of {sup 3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  16. Virtual hadronic and heavy-fermion O({alpha}{sup 2}) corrections to Bhabha scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, Stefano [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Czakon, Michal [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik]|[Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics and Chemistry of Metals; Gluza, Janusz [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics and Chemistry of Metals; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Effects of vacuum polarization by hadronic and heavy-fermion insertions were the last unknown two-loop QED corrections to high-energy Bhabha scattering. Here we describe the corrections in detail and explore their numerical influence. The hadronic contributions to the virtual O({alpha}{sup 2}) QED corrections to the Bhabha-scattering cross-section are evaluated using dispersion relations and computing the convolution of hadronic data with perturbatively calculated kernel functions. The technique of dispersion integrals is also employed to derive the virtual O({alpha}{sup 2}) corrections generated by muon-, tau- and top-quark loops in the small electron-mass limit for arbitrary values of the internal-fermion masses. At a meson factory with 1 GeV center-of-mass energy the complete effect of hadronic and heavy-fermion corrections amounts to less than 0.5 per mille and reaches, at 10 GeV, up to about 2 per mille. At the Z resonance it amounts to 2.3 per mille at 3 degrees; overall, hadronic corrections are less than 4 per mille. For ILC energies (500 GeV or above), the combined effect of hadrons and heavy fermions becomes 6 per mille at 3 degrees; hadrons contribute less than 20 per mille in the whole angular region. (orig.)

  17. Pressure dependence of the specific heat of heavy-fermion YbCu4.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.; Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E.; Jaccard, D.; Walker, E.

    1990-03-01

    The specific heat of a polycrystalline sample of YbCu 4.5 has been measured between 0.3 and 20K at pressures to 8.2 kbar. Unlike cerium-based heavy-fermion compounds, an increase of C/T is observed with increasing pressure, with the linear term enhanced by about 16% at 8.2 kbar. Above 7K, (∂C/∂P) T is negative. The nuclear contribution observed at P = 0 is increased by roughly a factor of two at 8.2 kbar. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Anomalous magnetic torque in the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedeshoff, G.M.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic torque acting upon a single crystal of the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe 13 have been made at temperatures from 0.5 K to 30.0 K and in magnetic fields to 23 T using a capacitive magnetometer. We find that a large, anomalous contribution to the magnetic torque appears in at low temperatures and in high fields. The anomalous torque coexists with the superconducting state at low temperature. We propose that the anomalous torque reflects the existence of a field-induced magnetic phase transition. (orig.)

  19. The path integral model of D-pairing for HTSC, heavy fermion superconductors, and superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, P.N.; Brusova, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    A model of d-pairing for superconducting and superfluid Fermi-systems has been formulated within the path integration technique. By path integration over open-quote fastclose quotes and open-quotes slowclose quotes Fermi-fields, the action functional (which determines all properties of model system) has been obtained. This functional could be used for the determination of different superconducting (superfluid) states, for calculation of the transition temperatures for these states, and for the calculation of the collective mode spectrum for HTSC, as well as for heavy fermion superconductors

  20. Single crystal study of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CePt2In7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobash, Paul H; Ronning, F; Thompson, J D; Scott, B L; Bauer, E D; Moll, P J W; Batlogg, B

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis, structure, and physical properties of single crystals of CePt 2 In 7 . Single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis confirms the tetragonal I4/mmm structure of CePt 2 In 7 with unit cell parameters a = 4.5886(6) Å, c = 21.530(6) Å and V = 453.32(14) Å 3 . The magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, Hall effect and electrical resistivity measurements are all consistent with CePt 2 In 7 undergoing an antiferromagnetic order transition at T N = 5.5 K, which is field independent up to 9 T. Above T N , the Sommerfeld coefficient of specific heat is γ ≈ 300 mJ mol -1 K -2 , which is characteristic of an enhanced effective mass of itinerant charge carriers. The electrical resistivity is typical of heavy-fermion behavior and gives a residual resistivity ρ 0 ∼ 0.2 µΩ cm, indicating good crystal quality. CePt 2 In 7 also shows moderate anisotropy of the physical properties that is comparable to structurally related CeMIn 5 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) heavy-fermion superconductors. (paper)

  1. Correlation effects in high-Tc superconductors and heavy fermion compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemsky, A.L.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes certain aspects of Highly Correlated Systems (HCS) such as high Tc superconductors (HTSC) and some new class of Heavy Fermion (HF) systems which have been studied recently. The problem is discussed on how the charge and spin degrees of freedom participate in the specific character of superconductivity in the copper oxides and competition of the magnetism and Kondo screening in heavy fermions. The electronic structure and possible superconducting mechanisms of HTSC compounds are discussed. The similarity and dissimilarity with HF compounds is pointed out. It is shown that the spins and carriers in the copper oxides are coupled in a very nontrivial way in order to introduce the discussion and the comparison of the Emery model, the t - J-model and the Kondo-Heisenberg model. It concerns attempts to derive from fundamental multi-band Hamiltonian the reduced effective Hamiltonians to extract and separate the relevant low-energy physics. A short review of the arguments which seem to support the spin-polaron pairing mechanism in HTSC are presented. Many other topics like the idea of mixed valence states in oxides, the role of charge transfer (CT) excitations, phase separation, self-consistent nonperturbative technique, etc. are also discussed. (author). 161 refs

  2. Quantum criticality in He3 bi-layers and heavy fermion compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlagra, A.

    2009-11-01

    Despite intense experimental as well as theoretical efforts the understanding of physical phenomena peculiar to heavy fermion compounds remains one of the major problems in condensed matter physics; this research thesis considers the recently proposed theoretical approaches to describe the critical regime properties. This approach is based on the following idea: critical modes which are responsible for this regime are non-magnetic and are associated to the destruction of the Kondo effect between localized magnetic impurities and travelling conduction electrons at the quantum critical point. The author derives an analytic expression for the free energy within this model by using the Luttinger-Ward functional approach within the frame of the Eliashberg theory. The obtained expressions are transparently including the effect of critical fluctuations, integrated in a self-coherent way. The behaviour of different thermodynamic quantities is then deduced from these expressions. The result is compared with recent experiments on heavy fermion compounds as well as on a Helium-3 bilayer system adsorbed on graphite substrate in order to test the validity of such a model. Strengths and drawbacks of the model are outlined

  3. Mixed-valent and heavy fermions and related systems: Technical progress report, October 1, 1987-September 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses Ce-impurities in LaB 6 and LaAL 2 , critical behavior of ferromagnetic Heisenberg chains; integrable SU(2)---invariant model; soluble narrow-band model with possible relevance to heavy-fermions and resonating valence bonds, soluble variant of the two-impurity Anderson model; De Haas-van Alphen effect in the Anderson lattice for large orbital degeneracy; interactions mediated by spin-fluctuations in He 3 ; mixed-valence and heavy-fermion systems and high-temperature superconductivity

  4. Structural aspects of the new quasi-2-D heavy fermion materials CeIrIns and CeRhIns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshopoulou, E.G.; Moshopoulou, E.G.; Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.; Fisk, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The title compounds are new heavy fermion materials. They adopt a quasi two-dimensional crystal structure and exhibit unusual (for a heavy fermion system) low temperature properties. Although the study of their physical and structural behaviour at low temperatures and/or high pressures is still in progress, we present here some results concerning their average crystal structure, and we discuss very briefly their similarities and differences with the compounds CeIn3 and UTGa 5 (T: Co, Ni, Ir, Pd, Cu, Ru). (authors)

  5. Calculation of point-contact spectra for a simple heavy-fermion Hamiltonian by two approaches. Comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, M.; Farkasovsky, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Point-contact spectra have been calculated for normal metal -heavy-fermion metal system (described by means of a simplified model Hamiltonian). Two approaches are used: one of them states that the differential conductance reflects an energy-dependent quasi-particle density of states, and 2. one drives the differential conductance are compared

  6. Magnetism and unconventional superconductivity in CenMmIn3n+2m heavy-fermion crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.; Nicklas, M.; Bianchi, A.; Movshovich, R.; Llobet, A.; Bao, W.; Malinowski, A.; Hundley, M.F.; Moreno, N.O.; Pagliuso, P.G.; Sarrao, J.L.; Nakatsuji, S.; Fisk, Z.; Borth, R.; Lengyel, E.; Oeschler, N.; Sparn, G.; Steglich, F.

    2003-01-01

    We review magnetic, superconducting and non-Fermi-liquid properties of the structurally layered heavy-fermion compounds Ce n M m In 3n+2m (M=Co,Rh,Ir). These properties suggest d-wave superconductivity and proximity to an antiferromagetic quantum-critical point

  7. Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the heavy-fermion superconductor Ce2PdIn8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V. H.; Hillier, A. D.; Adroja, D. T.; Kaczorowski, D.

    2012-09-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering and muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) measurements were performed on the heavy-fermion superconductor Ce2PdIn8. The observed scaling of the imaginary part of the dynamical susceptibility χ''Tα∝f(ℏω/kBT) with α=3/2 revealed a non-Fermi liquid character of the normal state, being due to critical antiferromagnetic fluctuations near a T=0 quantum phase transition. The longitudinal-field μSR measurements indicated that superconductivity and antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist in Ce2PdIn8 on a microscopic scale. The observed power-law temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth λ∝T3/2, deduced from the transverse-field μSR data, strongly confirms an unconventional superconductivity in this compound.

  8. Quasiparticle interference in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Alireza; Thalmeier, Peter; Eremin, Ilya

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the quasiparticle interference in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 as a direct method to confirm the d-wave gap symmetry. The ambiguity between dxy and dx2-y2 symmetry remaining from earlier specific heat and thermal transport investigations has been resolved in favor of the latter by the observation of a spin resonance that can occur only in dx2-y2 symmetry. However, these methods are all indirect and depend considerably on theoretical interpretation. Here we propose that quasiparticle interference (QPI) spectroscopy by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can give a direct fingerprint of the superconducting gap in real space that may lead to a definite conclusion on its symmetry for CeCoIn5 and related 115 compounds. The QPI pattern for both magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities is calculated for the possible d-wave symmetries and characteristic differences are found that may be identified by use of the STM method.

  9. Magnetism and superconductivity driven by identical 4f states in a heavy-fermion metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Joe E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nair, S [MAX PLANCK INST.; Stockert, O [MAX PLANCK INST.; Witte, U [INST. FUR FESTKORPERPHYSIK; Nicklas, M [MAX PLANCK INST.; Schedler, R [HELMHOLTZ - ZENTRUM; Bianchi, A [UC, IRVINE; Fisk, Z [UC, IRVINE; Wirth, S [MAX PLANCK INST.; Steglich, K [HELMHOLTZ - ZENTRUM

    2009-01-01

    The apparently inimical relationship between magnetism and superconductivity has come under increasing scrutiny in a wide range of material classes, where the free energy landscape conspires to bring them in close proximity to each other. Particularly enigmatic is the case when these phases microscopically interpenetrate, though the manner in which this can be accomplished remains to be fully comprehended. Here, we present combined measurements of elastic neutron scattering, magnetotransport, and heat capacity on a prototypical heavy fermion system, in which antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are observed. Monitoring the response of these states to the presence of the other, as well as to external thermal and magnetic perturbations, points to the possibility that they emerge from different parts of the Fermi surface. Therefore, a single 4f state could be both localized and itinerant, thus accounting for the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity.

  10. Quasiparticle interference in heavy fermion superconductors. Role of the slab geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Fabian [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Akbari, Alireza [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, and Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Thalmeier, Peter [Max Planck Institute for the Chemical Physics of Solids, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Eremin, Ilya [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Institute of Physics, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    We analyze theoretically the quasiparticle interference in the heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn{sub 5} and UPt{sub 3} as a direct method to investigate the gap symmetry. In contrast to the prior attempts that computed QPI patterns for some effective two-dimensional models or by performing calculations for various k{sub z} cuts and then averaging the final result, we perfom the calculations for the three-dimensional models in the slab geometry and investigate possible effects of the finite sample size, topology, and surface termination. Comparing with the results of prior analysis of the bulk system we can conclude on the importance of the possible surface states for determining the QPI pattern.

  11. Progress in heavy-fermion superconductivity. Ce115 and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Joe D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Ce115 and related Ce compounds are particularly suited to detailed studies of the interplay of antiferromagnetic order, unconventional superconductivity and quantum criticality due to their availability as high quality single crystals and their tunability by chemistry, pressure and magnetic field. Neutron-scattering, NMR and angle-resolved thermodynamic measurements have deepened the understanding of this interplay. Very low temperature experiments in pure and lightly doped CeCoIn 5 have elaborated the FFLO-like magnetic state near the field-induced quantum-critical point. New, related superconducting materials have broadened the phase space for discovering underlying principles of heavy-fermion superconductivity and its relationship to nearby states. (author)

  12. Magnetism and superconductivity in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CePt3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T; Hashimoto, S; Yasuda, T; Shishido, H; Ueda, T; Yamada, M; Obiraki, Y; Shiimoto, M; Kohara, H; Yamamoto, T; Sugiyama, K; Kindo, K; Matsuda, T D; Haga, Y; Aoki, Y; Sato, H; Settai, R; Onuki, Y

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic and thermal properties of a single crystal of CePt 3 Si, which is a recently reported heavy-fermion superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature T c = 0.75 K and a Neel temperature T N = 2.2 K. The overall experimental data are principally explained on the basis of the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Even in the antiferromagnetic state, the CEF model applies well to the characteristic features in the magnetization curve. These results indicate the existence of a localized magnetic moment at the Ce site, with a considerably reduced ordered moment of 0.16 μ B /Ce, and the strongly correlated conduction electrons are condensed into the superconducting state. We have also constructed the magnetic phase diagram including the superconducting phase for H parallel [110] and [001]. (letter to the editor)

  13. Fermi-surface topology of the heavy-fermion system Ce2PtIn8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J.; Götze, K.; Green, E. L.; Demuer, A.; Shishido, H.; Ishida, T.; Harima, H.; Wosnitza, J.; Sheikin, I.

    2018-04-01

    Ce2PtIn8 is a recently discovered heavy-fermion system structurally related to the well-studied superconductor CeCoIn5. Here we report on low-temperature de Haas-van Alphen-effect measurements in high magnetic fields in Ce2PtIn8 and Pr2PtIn8 . In addition, we performed band-structure calculations for localized and itinerant Ce-4 f electrons in Ce2PtIn8 . Comparison with the experimental data of Ce2PtIn8 and of the 4 f -localized Pr2PtIn8 suggests the itinerant character of the Ce-4 f electrons. This conclusion is further supported by the observation of effective masses in Ce2PtIn8 , which are strongly enhanced with up to 26 bare electron masses.

  14. Magnetic properties of nearly stoichiometric CeAuBi2 heavy fermion compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, C.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Grant, T.; Fisk, Z.; Garcia, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the interesting magnetic anisotropy found in the heavy fermion family CeTX 2 (T = transition metal and X = pnictogen), here, we study the novel parent compound CeAu 1−x Bi 2−y by combining magnetization, pressure dependent electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements. The magnetic properties of our nearly stoichiometric single crystal sample of CeAu 1−x Bi 2−y (x = 0.92 and y = 1.6) revealed an antiferromagnetic ordering at T N  = 12 K with an easy axis along the c-direction. The field dependent magnetization data at low temperatures reveal the existence of a spin-flop transition when the field is applied along the c-axis (H c  ∼ 7.5 T and T = 5 K). The heat capacity and pressure dependent resistivity data suggest that CeAu 0.92 Bi 1.6 exhibits a weak heavy fermion behavior with strongly localized Ce 3+ 4f electrons. Furthermore, the systematic analysis using a mean field model including anisotropic nearest-neighbors interactions and the tetragonal crystalline electric field (CEF) Hamiltonian allows us to extract a CEF scheme and two different values for the anisotropic J RKKY exchange parameters between the Ce 3+ ions in this compound. Thus, we discuss a scenario, considering both the anisotropic magnetic interactions and the tetragonal CEF effects, in the CeAu 1−x Bi 2−y compounds, and we compare our results with the isostructural compound CeCuBi 2

  15. Heavy fermion Ce3Co4Sn13 compound under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collave, J. R.; Borges, H. A.; Ramos, S. M.; Hering, E. N.; Fontes, M. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Bittar, E. M.; Mendonça-Ferreira, L.; Pagliuso, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    The non-magnetic heavy fermion compound Ce 3 Co 4 Sn 13 was studied under pressure. We report single crystalline measurements of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature ρ(T) under pressure. Some characteristic features related to a structural transition (T S ), crystalline field effects (T CEF ), and a low temperature maximum (T max ), possibly connected simultaneously to the onset of Kondo lattice coherence and short range magnetic correlations, were identified in the ρ(T) data. A pressure-temperature phase diagram with T S and T max was constructed by mapping these features. Like for most Ce-based heavy fermion compounds, T max moves to higher temperatures with pressure, indicating that it is related to the Kondo energy scale, due to the increase of hybridization induced by pressure. On the other hand, T S , associated to a superlattice distortion and probably combined with a charge density wave transition, decreases as a function of pressure. However, differently from the Sr 3−x Ca x Ir 4 Sn 13 system, where a superlattice quantum phase transition is observed [L. E. Klintberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237 008 (2012)], in Ce 3 Co 4 Sn 13 T S  ∼ 154 K, at ambient pressure (P = 0), seems to stabilize at around 143 K for P ≥ 19 kilobars. We also investigated ρ(T) in external magnetic fields, at P = 0. Negative magnetoresistance and increase of T max are observed, suggesting suppression of low temperature short range magnetic correlations

  16. Photoemission of heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12 and other Pr compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, S.; Yamasaki, A.; Sekiyama, A.; Settai, R.; Onuki, Y.; Suga, S.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.; Ochiai, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Strongly correlated electronic states due to Pr 4f electrons found in several Pr compounds have recently been attracting much attention. The Pr 4f electrons are much more localized than in Ce due to the lanthanoid contraction. Therefore, the number of the Pr systems that show strong electron correlation is much smaller than Ce systems. We will present a comparative study of Pr 4f electronic states in such systems as the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 , the Kondo system PrSn 3 and the localized 4f systems Pr 4 X 3 (X = Sb and Bi). The Pr 4f electronic state was probed by means of the Pr 3d → 4f resonant photoemission (RPES). Because the kinetic energy (E K ) of the photoelectrons is as high as ∼ 900 eV, this method is much more bulk sensitive than the 4d → 4f RPES with E K ∼ 100 eV. The energy resolution could be set to about 100 meV by utilizing the soft X-rays from BL25SU in SPring-8 and the SCIENTA SES-200 analyzer. The Pr 4f excitation spectrum of PrSn 3 was found to show a very strong intensity at the Fermi level (E F ). This can be interpreted as the Kondo resonance which has been observed in the Kondo Ce and Yb compounds. In the Pr 4f spectrum of the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 , the intensity at E F was smaller than in PrSn 3 . This clearly shows that the Kondo temperature (T K ) is much lower in PrOs 4 Sb 12 than in PrSn 3 . We have further found a strong excitation energy dependence in the RPES line shape. In the case of Pr 4 X 3 (X = Sb and Bi), the intensity at E B was much smaller than PrSn 3 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 , which is consistent with the localized character of Pr 4f electrons in Pr 4 X 3 . The Pr 4f spectra of these localized systems are qualitatively well reproduced by a cluster model calculation that takes into account the hybridization between the Pr 4f orbital and the conduction and valence bands made up by the X p and Pr 5d states

  17. LiV2O4: A heavy fermion transition metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinichiro, Kondo

    1999-01-01

    The format of this dissertation is as follows. In the remainder of Chapter 1, brief introductions and reviews are given to the topics of frustration, heavy fermions and spinels including the precedent work of LiV 2 O 4 . In Chapter 2, as a general overview of this work the important publication in Physical Review Letters by the author of this dissertation and collaborators regarding the discovery of the heavy fermion behavior in LiV 2 O 4 is introduced [removed for separate processing]. The preparation methods employed by the author for nine LiV 2 O 4 and two Li 1+x Ti 2-x O 4 (x = 0 and 1/3) polycrystalline samples are introduced in Chapter 3. The subsequent structural characterization of the LiV 2 O 4 and Li 1+x Ti 2-x O 4 samples was done by the author using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction measurements and their structural refinements by the Rietveld analysis. The results of the characterization are detailed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 magnetization measurements carried out by the author are detailed. In Chapter 5, after briefly discussing the resistivity measurement results including the single-crystal work by Rogers et al., for the purpose of clear characterization of LiV 2 O 4 it is of great importance to introduce in the following chapters the experiments and subsequent data analyses done by his collaborators. Heat capacity measurements (Chapter 6) were carried out and analyzed by Dr. C.A. Swenson, and modeled theoretically by Dr. D.C. Johnston. In Chapter 7 a thermal expansion study using neutron diffraction by Dr. O. Chmaissem et al. and capacitance dilatometry measurements by Dr. C.A. Swenson are introduced. The data analyses for the thermal expansion study were mainly done by Dr. O. Chmaissem (for neutron diffraction) and Dr. C.A. Swendon (for dilatometry), with assistances by Dr. J.D. Jorgensen, Dr. D.C. Johnston, and S. Kondo the author of this dissertation. Chapter 8 describes nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements and

  18. Role of zero modes in the canonical quantization of heavy-fermion QED in light-cone coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Jun, J.W.; Shvartsman, S.M.; Taylor, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional heavy-fermion QED is studied in light-cone coordinates with (anti)periodic field boundary conditions. We carry out a consistent light-cone canonical quantization of this model using the Dirac algorithm for a system with first- and second-class constraints. To examine the role of the zero modes, we consider the quantization procedure in the zero-mode and the nonzero-mode sectors separately. In both sectors we obtain the physical variables and their canonical commutation relations. The physical Hamiltonian is constructed via a step-by-step exclusion of the unphysical degrees of freedom. An example using this Hamiltonian in which the zero modes play a role is the verification of the correct Coulomb potential between two heavy fermions

  19. Effect of c-f hybridization on electric and magnetic properties of some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, J., E-mail: jitendrasahoo2008@gmail.com [Regional Office of Vocational Education, Sambalpur, Odisha -768 004 (India); Nayak, P. [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha - 768 019 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Representing the heavy fermion systems by the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM), we have used Zubarev technique to see the effect of c-f hybridization on the temperature dependence of resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The calculated resistivity and magnetic susceptibility show the general features observed in these materials experimentally. Further, we have shown how the strength of hybridization as well as the position of the f-level affects both the properties and the Kondo temperature of these systems.

  20. Uniaxial Pressure Effect on the SdH Oscillations in Heavy-Fermion Semimetal CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S. R.; Kobayashi, M.; Sugawara, H.; Namiki, T.; Abe, K.; Aoki, Y.; Sato, H.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first successful Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) experiment under uniaxial pressure in the anomalous heavy-fermion semimetal CeRu 4 Sb 12 . The nature of the quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance is found to be significantly sensitive to uniaxial pressure. The results reveal that the nearly spherical Fermi surface elongates along the direction of the uniaxial pressure. (author)

  1. Heavy fermion behaviour in the high pressure structure of CeSb{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, Vitaly; Feng, Zhuo; Zou, Yang; Grosche, F. Malte [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Giles, Terence; Niklowitz, Philipp [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Wilhelm, Heribert [Beamline I15, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lampronti, Giulio [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The Kondo lattice system CeSb{sub 2} crystallises in the orthorhombic SmSb{sub 2} structure and exhibits a series of magnetic phase transitions at low temperature. It has been reported to become ferromagnetic below 15 K, with the ordered moment oriented within the basal plane, and to undergo two further transitions at 9K and 12K. These transition are suppressed above a hydrostatic pressure p{sub c} ≅ 16 kbar. We present high pressure transport and x-ray diffraction results, which examine the high pressure state of CeSb{sub 2}. Our findings suggest that CeSb{sub 2} undergoes a drastic structural change at p{sub c} into a new and now fully resolved crystal structure. Whereas in the low pressure structure, CeSb{sub 2} is a local moment magnet, in the high pressure structure it exhibits transport properties characteristic of a heavy fermion material with a low Kondo temperature scale of the order of 10 K.

  2. Hybridization in Kondo lattice heavy fermions via quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasiwodeyar, Sanjay; Dwyer, Matt; Greene, Laura; Park, Wan Kyu; Bauer, Eric; Tobash, Paul; Baumbach, Ryan; Ronning, Filip; Sarrao, John; Thompson, Joe; Canfield, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Band renormalization in a Kondo lattice via hybridization of the conduction band with localized states has been a hot topic over the last several years. In part, this has to do with recently reignited interest in the hidden order problem in URu2Si2. Despite recent developments regarding the electronic structure in this compound, it remains to be resolved whether the hidden order phase transition is related to the opening of a hybridization gap. Our quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) has shown they are not related directly. This can be understood naturally since in principle band renormalization does not involve symmetry breaking. To deepen our understanding, we extend to other Kondo lattice compounds. For instance, when applied to YbAl3, a vegetable heavy-fermion system, QPS reveals conductance signatures for hybridization in a Kondo lattice such as asymmetric Fano background along with characteristic energy scales. Presenting new results on these materials, we will discuss a broader picture. The work at UIUC is supported by the NSF DMR 12-06766, the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, and the work done at Ames Lab. was supported under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  3. Itinerant spin dynamics in iron-based superconductors and cerium-based heavy-fermion antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friemel, Gerd

    2014-05-26

    This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the spin excitations by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in two different correlated electron systems: the alkali-metal iron selenide superconductors (FeSe122) A{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} (A=K, Rb, Cs) and the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeB6. Both systems exhibit intense modes in their spin-fluctuation spectrum below their respective transition temperatures that can be derived from the spin dynamics of the itinerant quasiparticles. However, the implications of these observations, presented here, are different for each particular compound. The A{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} superconductors, with a uniform T{sub c} of 32 K, belong to a qualitative new family of superconductors. They possess a distinctly different Fermi surface compared to the iron-arsenide-based analogues XFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (X=Ca, Sr, Ba). Instead of the central hole pockets at Γ and the electron pockets at X((1)/(2) 0), which are nested by the Q{sub AFM} = ((1)/(2) 0) vector, there exist only large electron pockets at the X point. Therefore, the magnetic instability along Q{sub AFM} that presumably provides the pairing glue for the superconductivity in the shape of spin fluctuations is absent in the FeSe122. The search for spin fluctuations by INS was motivated by a theoretical analysis that predicted their presence at an incommensurate wave vector near Q = (0.5 δ), δ = 0.3125 which results from a quasinesting by Q between the flat parts of the electron pockets. Two samples, namely Rb{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1.6}Se{sub 2} and K{sub 0.77}Fe{sub 1.85}Se{sub 2}, were prepared and both showed a sizable anisotropic magnetic response at Q{sub sf} = ((1)/(2) (1)/(4)) in the normal state. Furthermore, upon entering the superconducting (SC) state a strong excitation appears at ℎω{sub res} = 14 meV in the spectrum at Q{sub sf}, which is referred to as magnetic resonant mode. This mode is interpreted as a bound spin-1 exciton below the SC charge gap. Its presence

  4. Dynamics of impurity modes and electron–phonon interaction in Heavy Fermion (HF) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadangi, N.; Sahoo, J.; Mohanty, S.; Nayak, P.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical explanation is provided to understand the effect of small concentration of impurities characterized by change in mass and nearest neighbor force constants on the phonon spectrum as well as on the electron–phonon interaction in some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems in the normal state within theoretical framework of the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM). Three different mechanisms of the electron–phonon interactions, namely, the usual interaction between the phonons with the electrons in the f-bands, electrons arising from that of hybridization term of PAM and the local electron–phonon coupling at the impurity sites are considered. Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA) is used to evaluate the configuration averaged self–energy and the total Green function. For simplicity of calculation the CPA self–energy is evaluated in Average t -matrix Approximation (ATA). The analytical analysis is carried out for finite T in the long wavelength limit. The influence of impurity mass parameter λ and other system parameters such as d, the position of f-level, the effective coupling strength g on the calculated re-normalized phonon frequency and the excitation spectrum through the spectral function is studied. The numerical analysis of the results does show the influence of impurities as evident from different plots in this paper.

  5. Microscopic theoretical study of frequency dependent dielectric constant of heavy fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadangi, Keshab Chandra; Rout, G. C.

    2017-05-01

    The dielectric polarization and the dielectric constant plays a vital role in the deciding the properties of the Heavy Fermion Systems. In the present communication we consider the periodic Anderson's Model which consists of conduction electron kinetic energy, localized f-electron kinetic energy and the hybridization between the conduction and localized electrons, besides the Coulomb correlation energy. We calculate dielectric polarization which involves two particle Green's functions which are calculated by using Zubarev's Green's function technique. Using the equations of motion of the fermion electron operators. Finally, the temperature and frequency dependent dielectric constant is calculated from the dielectric polarization function. The charge susceptibility and dielectric constant are computed numerically for different physical parameters like the position (Ef) of the f-electron level with respect to fermi level, the strength of the hybridization (V) between the conduction and localized f-electrons, Coulomb correlation potential temperature and optical phonon wave vector (q). The results will be discussed in a reference to the experimental observations of the dielectric constants.

  6. Quasi-particle interference of heavy fermions in resonant x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenis, András; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E; Thompson, Joe D; Bauer, Eric D; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor

    2016-10-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound Ce M In 5 ( M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce- M 4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f -electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique.

  7. Search for heavy fermions with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00359999; Santiago, José; Onofre, António

    In the present thesis a search for new heavy fermions using LHC data collected in 2012 by the ATLAS experiment is presented. In particular, a search for pair and single production of vector-like quarks with electric charge 2/3 ($T$) and -1/3 ($B$) decaying to a $Z$ boson is discussed. For this search the analysis was divided in two channels, depending on the lepton multiplicity, and both channels were combined at the end for the final results. Since no evidence for signal was found, limits on the mass of the vector-like quarks were evaluated. The observed (expected) limit on the mass of an $SU(2)$ singlet $T$ quark is 655~GeV (625~GeV), while the observed (expected) limit on the mass of a $T$ quark in a $(T,B)$ doublet is 735~GeV (720~GeV). The observed (expected) limit on the mass of an $SU(2)$ singlet $B$ quark is 685~GeV (670~GeV), while the observed (expected) limit on the mass of a $B$ quark in a $(B,Y)$ doublet is 755~GeV (755~GeV). The impact of a heavy gluon in the searches for pair production of vect...

  8. Competition between heavy fermion and Kondo interaction in isoelectronic A-site-ordered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, D.; Middey, S.; Cheng, J. -G.; Mukherjee, Swarnakamal; Gray, B. A.; Cao, Yanwei; Zhou, J. -S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Choi, Yongseong; Haskel, D.; Freeland, J. W.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Chakhalian, J.

    2014-12-17

    With current research efforts shifting towards the 4d and 5d transition metal oxides, understanding the evolution of the electronic and magnetic structure as one moves away from 3d materials is of critical importance. Here we perform X-ray spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations on A-site-ordered perovskites with Cu in the A-site and the B-sites descending along the ninth group of the periodic table to elucidate the emerging properties as d-orbitals change from partially filled 3d to 4d to 5d. The results show that when descending from Co to Ir, the charge transfers from the cuprate-like Zhang-Rice state on Cu to the t2g orbital of the B site. As the Cu d-orbital occupation approaches the Cu2þ limit, a mixed valence state in CaCu3Rh4O12 and heavy fermion state in CaCu3Ir4O12 are obtained. The investigated d-electron compounds are mapped onto the Doniach phase diagram of the competing RKKY and Kondo interactions developed for the f-electron systems.

  9. Specific heat of heavy-fermion CePd2Si2 in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikin, I.; Wang, Y.; Bouquet, F.; Junod, A.; Lejay, P.

    2002-01-01

    We report specific heat measurements on the heavy-fermion compound CePd 2 Si 2 in magnetic fields up to 16 T and in the temperature range 1.4-16 K. A sharp peak in the specific heat signals the antiferromagnetic transition at T N ∼ 9.3 K in zero field. The transition is found to shift to lower temperatures when a magnetic field is applied along the crystallographic a-axis, while a field applied parallel to the tetragonal c-axis does not affect the transition. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat below T N is well described by a sum of a linear electronic term and an antiferromagnetic spin-wave contribution. Just below T N , an additional positive curvature, especially at high fields, arises most probably due to thermal fluctuations. The field dependence of the coefficient of the low-temperature linear term, γ 0 , extracted from the fits shows a maximum at about 6 T, at the point where an anomaly was detected in susceptibility measurements. The relative field dependences of both T N and the magnetic entropy at T N scale as [1-(B/B 0 ) 2 ] for B parallel a, suggesting the disappearance of antiferromagnetism at B 0 ∼42 T. The expected suppression of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature to zero makes the existence of a magnetic quantum critical point possible. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  10. Itinerant spin dynamics in iron-based superconductors and cerium-based heavy-fermion antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friemel, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the spin excitations by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in two different correlated electron systems: the alkali-metal iron selenide superconductors (FeSe122) A x Fe 2-y Se 2 (A=K, Rb, Cs) and the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeB6. Both systems exhibit intense modes in their spin-fluctuation spectrum below their respective transition temperatures that can be derived from the spin dynamics of the itinerant quasiparticles. However, the implications of these observations, presented here, are different for each particular compound. The A x Fe 2-y Se 2 superconductors, with a uniform T c of 32 K, belong to a qualitative new family of superconductors. They possess a distinctly different Fermi surface compared to the iron-arsenide-based analogues XFe 2 As 2 (X=Ca, Sr, Ba). Instead of the central hole pockets at Γ and the electron pockets at X((1)/(2) 0), which are nested by the Q AFM = ((1)/(2) 0) vector, there exist only large electron pockets at the X point. Therefore, the magnetic instability along Q AFM that presumably provides the pairing glue for the superconductivity in the shape of spin fluctuations is absent in the FeSe122. The search for spin fluctuations by INS was motivated by a theoretical analysis that predicted their presence at an incommensurate wave vector near Q = (0.5 δ), δ = 0.3125 which results from a quasinesting by Q between the flat parts of the electron pockets. Two samples, namely Rb 0.8 Fe 1.6 Se 2 and K 0.77 Fe 1.85 Se 2 , were prepared and both showed a sizable anisotropic magnetic response at Q sf = ((1)/(2) (1)/(4)) in the normal state. Furthermore, upon entering the superconducting (SC) state a strong excitation appears at ℎω res = 14 meV in the spectrum at Q sf , which is referred to as magnetic resonant mode. This mode is interpreted as a bound spin-1 exciton below the SC charge gap. Its presence implies an unconventional order parameter, which changes the sign between the electron

  11. Neutron scattering investigation of Ce based heavy fermion systems. From magnetism to unconventional phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geselbracht, Philipp

    2016-12-05

    In Ce based heavy fermion systems the hybridization of the 4f orbital of the Ce ion and the conduction band lead to unconventional phenomena such as quantum critical points or superconductivity. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and compare the magnetism on a microscopic scale within the heavy fermion families CeT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X=Si,Ge) and CeTIn{sub 5}. To do so neutron scattering was used as the experimental method. For CeCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, the antiferromagnetic order AF1 (vector τ=(0.285 0.285 0.544)) is well described as a spin density wave with reduced ordered moments in [1 anti 10] direction. The phase diagram with magnetic field applied along [1 anti 10] direction was investigated. Two new phases were observed: the elliptical helix phase AF2 with modified propagation vector vector τ=(0.34 0.27 0.55) and the C-phase with a yet unknown magnetic order. Above T{sub N}, in zero field, short range order was observed, hinting competition of AF1 and AF2. It is assumed that both structures are due to different nesting properties of the Fermi surface. The RKKY character of the electronic system leads to effective Lande factors in the AF1 (g{sup eff}=0.36) and AF2 (g{sup eff}=0.525) phases. From the zero field dispersion the strength of the next nearest neighbor RKKY interactions was extracted, yielding 2SJ{sub 1}=(-0.042±0.007) meV (basal plane) and 2SJ{sub 2}=(-0.18±0.01) meV (body diagonal). Comparing the RKKY interaction to CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} reveals a strong enhancement of the interaction in the basal plane going from antiferromagnetism (CeCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}) to superconductivity (CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}) and finally paramagnetism (CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}). This new finding appears to be an important puzzle piece for the understanding of the CeT{sub 2}X{sub 2} family as it suggests a dependence of the anisotropy of the RKKY interaction from the hybridization strength of the 4f orbital and the conduction band. The obtained phase

  12. Heavy-fermion behaviour and superconductivity of UPt3-based compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprang, M. van.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the low-temperature properties of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt 3 and some related compounds, by measuring new properties or extending the variation of external parameters. In ch. 1 detailed information on the crystallographic structure of UPt 3 is presented. In ch. 2 the theory of the single-impurity Kondo effect is described, including the predictions for the physical properties and the parameters involved with it. The theoretical implications are extended to the case where the amount of magnetic impurities is so large that one cannot speak anymore of single-impurity (non-interacting) systems. The interactions lead to a state with quite different properties and can eventually lead to a coherent state when the magnetic moment distribution has the lattice periodicity. This is believed to be the case for UPt 3 , since the magnetic moments are present in very unit cell. Ch. 3 offers basic information on the experiments: sample preparation, characterization and measuring techniques are discussed. Ch. 4 deals with the thermal properties. The results of specific heat and thermal expansion experiments on UPt 3 , U(Pt 1-x Pd x ) 3 and UPt 3 B x are presented. With the use of the results the Grueneisen analysis is applied. The consequences for the interpretation in terms of the Kondo model are discussed. Ch. 5 discusses the transport and magnetic properties of the normal state. Results for UPt 3 as well as for the alloyed systems are presented and are, if possible, compared with the results obtained in the Kondo model. Ch. 6 deals with the superconducting state. Resistivity experiments are used to obtain the superconducting transition temperature; the influence of added impurities is investigated. Pd atoms (replacing Pt) are used as impurity, but also boron and carbon are interstitially alloyed. (author). 136 refs.; 105 figs.; 15 tabs

  13. Thin film fabrication and transport properties of the heavy Fermion oxide LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Ulrike [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Hirai, Daigorou [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takagi, Hidenori [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Institute for Functional Matter and Quantum Technologies, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The spinel compound LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is well-known for its heavy fermion behaviour, although it contains no f-electron bands. This unexpected behaviour has been a subject of several studies, but the origin of it is still not fully understood. In this study, we successfully fabricated single crystalline epitaxial thin film of LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} on SrTiO{sub 3}, LSAT and MgO substrates, using a pulsed laser deposition technique. By changing film thickness and substrate materials, dimensionality and epitaxial strain was controlled. The formation of an epitaxially grown LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} films on MgO were found to be strained, due to the small lattice mismatch, in contrast to fully relaxed films on SrTiO{sub 3}.The heavy fermion behaviour of bulk LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} at low temperatures is well reproduced in thick enough (∼ 7 nm) films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. In contrast, an insulating phase was found in strained LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films on MgO substrates, revealing the key role of the lattice in stabilising the metallic ground state. In this presentation, we discuss the thin film fabrication and the effect of epitaxial strain on heavy fermion behaviour in LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  14. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetic correlations in the heavy fermion compound CeCu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnault, L.P.; Rossat-Mignod, J.; Jacoud, J.L.; Erkelens, W.A.C.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on the heavy fermion compound CeCu 6 at very low temperatures (T > 20 mK) and under magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. The analysis of the data shows that the magnetic scattering is the superposition of a single site contribution of Lorentzian type and of a broadened inelastic contribution associated with AF correlations. These correlations saturate below 1.5 - 2 K and are completely destroyed above 40 kOe

  15. The Role of Zero-Modes in the Canonical Quantization of Heavy-Fermion QED in Light-Cone Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert W.; Jun, Jin Woo; Shvartsman, Shmaryu M.; Taylor, Cyrus C.

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional heavy-fermion QED is studied in light-cone coordinates with (anti-)periodic field boundary conditions. We carry out a consistent light-cone canonical quantization of this model using the Dirac algorithm for a system with first- and second-class constraints. To examine the role of the zero modes, we consider the quantization procedure in {the }zero-mode {and the non-zero-mode} sectors separately. In both sectors we obtain the physical variables and their canonical commutation ...

  16. Unconventional superconductivity of the heavy fermion compound UNi2Al3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The heavy fermion compound UNi 2 Al 3 exhibits the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order at low temperatures, stimulating speculations about possible exotic Cooper-pairing interaction in this superconductor. However, the preparation of good quality bulk single crystals of UNi 2 Al 3 has proven to be a non-trivial task due to metallurgical problems, which result in the formation of an UAl 2 impurity phase and hence a strongly reduced sample purity. The present work concentrates on the preparation, characterization and electronic properties investigation of UNi 2 Al 3 single crystalline thin film samples. The preparation of thin films was accomplished in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. (100)-oriented epitaxial thin films of UNi 2 Al 3 were grown on single crystalline YAlO 3 substrates cut in (010)- or (112)-direction. The high crystallographic quality of the samples was proved by several characterisation methods, such as X-ray analysis, RHEED and TEM. To study the magnetic structure of epitaxial thin films resonant magnetic X-ray scattering was employed. The magnetic order of thin the film samples, the formation of magnetic domains with different moment directions, and the magnetic correlation length were discussed. The electronic properties of the UNi 2 Al 3 thin films in the normal and superconducting states were investigated by means of transport measurements. A pronounced anisotropy of the temperature dependent resistivity ρ(T) was observed. Moreover, it was found that the temperature of the resistive superconducting transition depends on the current direction, providing evidence for multiband superconductivity in UNi 2 Al 3 . The initial slope of the upper critical field H' c2 (T) of the thin film samples suggests an unconventional spin-singlet superconducting state, as opposed to bulk single crystal data. To probe the superconducting gap of UNi 2 Al 3 directly by means of tunnelling spectroscopy many planar junctions of different design

  17. Numerical simulations of heavy fermion systems. From He-3 bilayers to topological Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of model calculations based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion. By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential μ and inverse temperature β=1/T. The method is a cluster extension to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correlations beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green's function and other observables of interest. As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale T coh . While the density is rather high for small filling, for larger filling T coh is increasingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z∝T coh and an enhanced mass renormalization m * /m∝T coh -1 . Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the coherence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers. Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size N c =2 and 3. Furthermore a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single Kramer's doublet coupled to

  18. Yb-based heavy fermion compounds and field tuned quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Eundeok [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The motivation of this dissertation was to advance the study of Yb-based heavy fermion (HF) compounds especially ones related to quantum phase transitions. One of the topics of this work was the investigation of the interaction between the Kondo and crystalline electric field (CEF) energy scales in Yb-based HF systems by means of thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements. In these systems, the Kondo interaction and CEF excitations generally give rise to large anomalies such as maxima in ρ(T) and as minima in S(T). The TEP data were use to determine the evolution of Kondo and CEF energy scales upon varying transition metals for YbT2Zn20 (T = Fe, Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, and Co) compounds and applying magnetic fields for YbAgGe and YbPtBi. For YbT2Zn20 and YbPtBi, the Kondo and CEF energy scales could not be well separated in S(T), presumably because of small CEF level splittings. A similar effect was observed for the magnetic contribution to the resistivity. For YbAgGe, S(T) has been successfully applied to determine the Kondo and CEF energy scales due to the clear separation between the ground state and thermally excited CEF states. The Kondo temperature, TK, inferred from the local maximum in S(T), remains finite as magnetic field increases up to 140 kOe. In this dissertation we have examined the heavy quasi-particle behavior, found near the field tuned AFM quantum critical point (QCP), with YbAgGe and YbPtBi. Although the observed nFL behaviors in the vicinity of the QCP are different between YbAgGe and YbPtBi, the constructed H-T phase diagram including the two crossovers are similar. For both YbAgGe and YbPtBi, the details of the quantum criticality turn out to be complicated. We expect that YbPtBi will provide an additional example of field tuned quantum criticality, but clearly there are further experimental investigations left and more ideas needed to understand the basic physics of field-induced quantum

  19. Multi-pole orders and Kondo screening: Implications for quantum phase transitions in multipolar heavy-fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Hua; Nica, Emilian; Si, Qimiao

    Motivated by the properties of the heavy-fermion Ce3Pd20Si6 compound which exhibits both antiferro-magnetic (AFM) and antiferro-quadrupolar (AFQ) orders, we study a simplified quantum non-linear sigma model for spin-1 systems, with generalized multi-pole Kondo couplings to conduction electrons. We first consider the case when an SU(3) symmetry relates the spin and quadrupolar channels. We then analyze the effect of breaking the SU(3) symmetry, so that the interaction parameters in the spin and quadrupolar sectors are no longer equivalent, and different stages of Kondo screenings are allowed. A renormalization group analysis is used to analyze the interplay between the Kondo effect and the AFM/AFQ orders. Our work paves the way for understanding the global phase diagram in settings beyond the prototypical spin-1/2 cases. We also discuss similar considerations in the non-Kramers systems such as the heavy fermion compound PrV2Al20

  20. Evidence for momentum-dependent heavy-fermionic electronic structures: Soft x-ray ARPES for the superconductor CeNi2Ge2 in the normal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y.; Aratani, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Mori, T.; Tsuruta, A.; Tachibana, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kiss, T.; Yamasaki, A.; Yasui, A.; Yamagami, H.; Miyawaki, J.; Ebihara, T.; Saitoh, Y.; Sekiyama, A.

    2018-03-01

    We present clear experimental evidence for the momentum-dependent heavy fermionic electronic structures of the 4 f -based strongly correlated system CeNi2Ge2 by soft x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A comparison between the experimental three-dimensional quasiparticle dispersion of LaNi2Ge2 and CeNi2Ge2 has revealed that heavy fermionic electronic structures are seen in the region surrounding a specific momentum. Furthermore, the wave vectors between the observed "heavy spots" are consistent with a result of neutron scattering reflecting magnetic correlations, which could be a trigger for the superconductivity in CeNi2Ge2 .

  1. Numerical simulations of heavy fermion systems. From He-3 bilayers to topological Kondo insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Jan

    2015-03-27

    In this thesis the results of model calculations based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion. By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential μ and inverse temperature β=1/T. The method is a cluster extension to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correlations beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green's function and other observables of interest. As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale T{sub coh}. While the density is rather high for small filling, for larger filling T{sub coh} is increasingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z∝T{sub coh} and an enhanced mass renormalization m{sup *}/m∝T{sub coh}{sup -1}. Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the coherence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers. Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size N{sub c}=2 and 3. Furthermore a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single

  2. Unconventional superconductivity of the heavy fermion compound UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Andrey

    2008-07-01

    The heavy fermion compound UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} exhibits the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order at low temperatures, stimulating speculations about possible exotic Cooper-pairing interaction in this superconductor. However, the preparation of good quality bulk single crystals of UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} has proven to be a non-trivial task due to metallurgical problems, which result in the formation of an UAl{sub 2} impurity phase and hence a strongly reduced sample purity. The present work concentrates on the preparation, characterization and electronic properties investigation of UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} single crystalline thin film samples. The preparation of thin films was accomplished in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. (100)-oriented epitaxial thin films of UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} were grown on single crystalline YAlO{sub 3} substrates cut in (010)- or (112)-direction. The high crystallographic quality of the samples was proved by several characterisation methods, such as X-ray analysis, RHEED and TEM. To study the magnetic structure of epitaxial thin films resonant magnetic X-ray scattering was employed. The magnetic order of thin the film samples, the formation of magnetic domains with different moment directions, and the magnetic correlation length were discussed. The electronic properties of the UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} thin films in the normal and superconducting states were investigated by means of transport measurements. A pronounced anisotropy of the temperature dependent resistivity {rho}(T) was observed. Moreover, it was found that the temperature of the resistive superconducting transition depends on the current direction, providing evidence for multiband superconductivity in UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3}. The initial slope of the upper critical field H'{sub c2}(T) of the thin film samples suggests an unconventional spin-singlet superconducting state, as opposed to bulk single crystal data. To probe the superconducting gap of UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3

  3. Main: FEA6 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FEA6 Study on chemical biology of the deacetylase SIRT3 involved in the regulation of an energy...chondrial matrix regulates the activities of several enzymes involved in energy m...trix and found that SIRT3 regulates the activities of several enzymes involved in energy metabolism, suggest...reveal its physiology, especially biological functions of SIRT3 in the regulation of energy metabolism. FEA6.csml ... ...T3 in the regulation of energy metabolism is in progress using mouse models Acetylation and deacetylation of

  4. Coexistence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion cerium compound Ce.sub.3./sub.PdIn.sub.11./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, M.; Prokleška, J.; Uhlířová, K.; Tkáč, V.; Dušek, Michal; Sechovský, V.; Custers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, Oct (2015), s. 15904 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * magnetic transition * heavy fermion compounds * antiferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  5. Main: FEA5 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al or an anti-cancer drug, is the main cause of hospital-acquired infection - Dru...e will elucidate the entire structure of the transport machinery in action to understand its functions in detail. FEA5.csml ...

  6. Protein: FEA3 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FEA3 AREB pathway: Signaling proteins At4g11890/T26M18_100 At4g11890, Protein kinase family pr...otein, Putative uncharacterized protein At4g11890/T26M18_100 3702 Arabidopsis thaliana 826796 Q8GY82 22225700 ...

  7. Ultrasonic dispersion and off-center rattling in heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yuichi; Ueno, Takafumi; Takeda, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Goto, Terutaka; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have been firstly performed for a large single crystal of PrOs 4 Sb 12 with the dimensions of 5.97x0.6x0.6mm 3 . Remarkable frequency dependence around 20-40K has been observed in the elastic constant and attenuation coefficient of the longitudinal C 11 mode associated with E g symmetry strain in part, which results from a thermally activated off-center rattling with E g symmetry of a Pr ion inside a Sb icosahedron cage. Parameters of a characteristic time τ 0 =3.1x10 -11 s and an activation energy E=225K were obtained. This E g rattling involving a local charge fluctuation inside a Sb cage periodically arranged may couple to the conduction electrons. As a result, the electron-phonon coupling would lead to heavy fermion and its superconductivity in PrOs 4 Sb 12

  8. Fermi surface instability at 0.4K in a heavy-fermion YbBiPt: SDW?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movshovich, R.; Lacerda, A.; Canfield, P.C.; Thompson, J.D.; Fisk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report results of resistivity measurements of heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt at ambient and hydrostatic pressures of up to ∼ 6kbars and in magnetic field up to 1 Tesla. They interpret the rise of resistivity below 0.4K as partial gaping of the Fermi surface. From the temperature dependence of resistivity they obtain the value of the weak coupling energy gap of Δ 0 /k B T c = 1.65 ± 0.15. Magnetic field -- transition temperature phase diagram follows the weak coupling BCS expression remarkably well from T c to T c /4. These results support identification of 0.4K transition as a Spin Density Wave formation

  9. The novel heavy-fermion system Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, N [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Loewenhaupt, M [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany); Metz, A [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments are reported in the heavy fermion state of Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. A complex magnetic response has been observed in zero field that can be divided into contributions from correlated Nd spins (inelastic, q-dependent; reminiscent of the spin waves in Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}) and from independent, slowly relaxing Nd spins (quasi-elastic, q-independent). An applied magnetic field of H > 3 Tesla gives rise to different correlations in Q - {omega} space than in zero field. Field dependent specific heat and {mu}SR experiments can be better understood in the light of these INS results. The experiments were performed on a single crystal at T {<=} 0.1 K with applied magnetic fields of H = 0 - 6 Tesla at the IN14 spectrometer. (author). 6 refs.

  10. High pressure transport and micro-calorimetry studies on quantum phase transitions in Yb heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, E; Braithwaite, D; Lapertot, G; Salce, B; Knebel, G; Flouquet, J

    2008-01-01

    We present ac microcalorimetry and resistivity measurements under high pressure on new very pure single crystals of YbCu 2 Si 2 having residual resistivity ratios of up to 130 and residual resistivities of less than 1 μΩcm. The onset of magnetic order at high pressure has been detected by ac micro-calorimetry in a diamond anvil cell, and the phase diagram has been established showing magnetic order appearing at 7.6 GPa and 0.95K, and suggesting a possible quantum critical point at a pressure of about 6.5 GPa. The resistivity has been measured under pressure in hydrostatic conditions, but no sign of superconductivity is found close to the expected critical pressure down to T=0.05 K. We discuss these results in comparison with results on cerium based heavy fermion systems

  11. Heavy fermion Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} compound under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collave, J. R.; Borges, H. A. [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos, S. M.; Hering, E. N. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); SPSMS, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 38054, Grenoble (France); Fontes, M. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Bittar, E. M., E-mail: bittar@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendonça-Ferreira, L. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Pagliuso, P. G. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil)

    2015-05-07

    The non-magnetic heavy fermion compound Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} was studied under pressure. We report single crystalline measurements of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature ρ(T) under pressure. Some characteristic features related to a structural transition (T{sub S}), crystalline field effects (T{sub CEF}), and a low temperature maximum (T{sub max}), possibly connected simultaneously to the onset of Kondo lattice coherence and short range magnetic correlations, were identified in the ρ(T) data. A pressure-temperature phase diagram with T{sub S} and T{sub max} was constructed by mapping these features. Like for most Ce-based heavy fermion compounds, T{sub max} moves to higher temperatures with pressure, indicating that it is related to the Kondo energy scale, due to the increase of hybridization induced by pressure. On the other hand, T{sub S}, associated to a superlattice distortion and probably combined with a charge density wave transition, decreases as a function of pressure. However, differently from the Sr{sub 3−x}Ca{sub x}Ir{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} system, where a superlattice quantum phase transition is observed [L. E. Klintberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237 008 (2012)], in Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} T{sub S} ∼ 154 K, at ambient pressure (P = 0), seems to stabilize at around 143 K for P ≥ 19 kilobars. We also investigated ρ(T) in external magnetic fields, at P = 0. Negative magnetoresistance and increase of T{sub max} are observed, suggesting suppression of low temperature short range magnetic correlations.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the heavy fermion system Ce2CoAl7Ge4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioguardi, A. P.; Guzman, P.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Ghimire, N. J.; Eley, S.; Brown, S. E.; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.

    2017-12-01

    We present nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements performed on single crystalline Ce2CoAl7Ge4 , a member of a recently discovered family of heavy fermion materials Ce2M Al7Ge4 (M =Co , Ir, Ni, or Pd). Previous measurements indicated a strong Kondo interaction as well as magnetic order below TM=1.8 K . Our NMR spectral measurements show that the Knight shift K is proportional to the bulk magnetic susceptibility χ at high temperatures. A clear Knight shift anomaly (K ¬∝χ ) is observed at coherence temperatures T*˜17.5 K for H0∥c ̂ and 10 K for H0∥a ̂ at the 59Co site, and T*˜12.5 K at the 27Al(3) site for H0∥a ̂ characteristic of the heavy fermion nature of this compound. At high temperatures, the 59Co NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 is dominated by spin fluctuations of the 4 f local moments with a weak metallic background. The spin fluctuations probed by 59Co NMR are anisotropic and larger in the basal plane than in the c direction. Furthermore, we find (T1T K ) -1∝T-1 /2 at the 59Co site as expected for a Kondo system for T >T* and T >TK . 59Co NQR T1-1 measurements at low temperatures indicate slowing down of spin fluctuations above the magnetic ordering temperature TM˜1.8 K . A weak ferromagnetic character of fluctuations around q =0 is evidenced by an increase of χ T versus T above the magnetic ordering temperature. We also find good agreement between the observed and calculated electric field gradients at all observed sites.

  13. LiV2O4: A heavy fermion transition metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Shinichiro [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The format of this dissertation is as follows. In the remainder of Chapter 1, brief introductions and reviews are given to the topics of frustration, heavy fermions and spinels including the precedent work of LiV2O4. In Chapter 2, as a general overview of this work the important publication in Physical Review Letters by the author of this dissertation and collaborators regarding the discovery of the heavy fermion behavior in LiV2O4 is introduced [removed for separate processing]. The preparation methods employed by the author for nine LiV2O4 and two Li1+xTi2-xO4 (x = 0 and 1/3) polycrystalline samples are introduced in Chapter 3. The subsequent structural characterization of the LiV2O4 and Li1+xT2-xO4 samples was done by the author using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction measurements and their structural refinements by the Rietveld analysis. The results of the characterization are detailed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 magnetization measurements carried out by the author are detailed. In Chapter 5, after briefly discussing the resistivity measurement results including the single-crystal work by Rogers et al., for the purpose of clear characterization of LiV2O4 it is of great importance to introduce in the following chapters the experiments and subsequent data analyses done by his collaborators. Heat capacity measurements (Chapter 6) were carried out and analyzed by Dr. C.A. Swenson, and modeled theoretically by Dr. D.C. Johnston. In Chapter 7 a thermal expansion study using neutron diffraction by Dr. O. Chmaissem et al. and capacitance dilatometry measurements by Dr. C.A. Swenson are introduced. The data analyses for the thermal expansion study were mainly done by Dr. O. Chmaissem (for neutron diffraction) and Dr. C.A. Swendon (for dilatometry), with assistances by Dr. J

  14. Pressure and magnetic field effects in heavy-fermion UCu.sub.3.5./sub.Al.sub.1.5./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nasreen, F.; Kothapalli, K.; Nakotte, H.; Alsmadi, A.M.; Zapf, V.; Fabris, F.; Lacerda, A.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2009), 07E112/1-07E112/3 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : aluminium alloys * copper alloys * crystallisation * heavy fermion systems * high-pressure effects * long-range order * magnetic field effects * magnetoresis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.072, year: 2009

  15. Geometrically frustrated magnetic structures of the heavy-fermion compound CePdAl studied by powder neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doenni, A.; Fischer, P.; Zolliker, M. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ehlers, G.; Maletta, H. [Hahn Meitner Institute Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14092 Berlin (Germany); Kitazawa, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    1996-12-09

    The heavy-fermion compound CePdAl with ZrNiAl-type crystal structure (hexagonal space group P6-bar2m) was investigated by powder neutron diffraction. The triangular coordination symmetry of magnetic Ce atoms on site 3f gives rise to geometrical frustration. CePdAl orders below T{sub N} = 2.7 K with an incommensurate antiferromagnetic propagation vector k=[1/2, 0, {tau}], {tau} approx. 0.35, and a longitudinal sine-wave (LSW) modulated spin arrangement. Magnetically ordered moments at Ce(1) and Ce(3) coexist with frustrated disordered moments at Ce(2). The experimentally determined magnetic structure is in agreement with group theoretical symmetry analysis considerations, calculated by the program MODY, which confirm that for Ce(2) an ordered magnetic moment parallel to the magnetically easy c-axis is forbidden by symmetry. Further low-temperature experiments give evidence for a second magnetic phase transition in CePdAl between 0.6 and 1.3 K. Magnetic structures of CePdAl are compared with those of the isostructural compound TbNiAl, where a non-zero ordered magnetic moment for the geometrically frustrated Tb(2) atoms is allowed by symmetry. (author)

  16. Unconventional superconductivity in the strong-coupling limit for the heavy fermion system CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Y.; Szabó, P.; Kačmarčík, J.; Pribulová, Z.; Pedrazzini, P.; Samuely, P.; Correa, V. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the local quasiparticles' excitation spectra of the heavy fermion CeCoIn5 between 440 mK and 3 K in samples with a bulk Tc = 2.25 K . The spectral shape of our low-temperature tunneling data, quite textbook nodal- Δ conductance, allow us to confidently fit the spectra with a d-wave density of states considering also a shortening of quasiparticles' lifetime term Γ. The Δ (0) value obtained from the fits yields a BCS ratio 2 Δ /kTc = 7.73 suggesting that CeCoIn5 is an unconventional superconductor in the strong coupling limit. The fits also reveal that the height of coherence peaks in CeCoIn5 is reduced with respect to a pure BCS spectra and therefore the coupling of quasiparticles with spin excitations should play a relevant role. The tunneling conductance shows a depletion at energies smaller than Δ for temperatures larger than the bulk Tc, giving further support to the existence of a pseudogap phase that in our samples span up to T* ∼ 1.2Tc . The phenomenological scaling of the pseudogap temperature observed in various families of cuprates, 2 Δ /kT* ∼ 4.3 , is not fulfilled in our measurements. This suggests that in CeCoIn5 the strong magnetic fluctuations might conspire to close the local superconducting gap at a smaller pesudogap temperature-scale than in cuprates.

  17. Transport and magnetic properties of new heavy-fermion antiferromagnet YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, S; Yamashita, T; Mori, Y; Sakamoto, I, E-mail: ohara.shigeo@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    We have synthesized a new Yb-based Kondo-lattice compound YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9}. This compound crystallizes in a trigonal ErNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9}-type structure (space group R32), in which the Yb-ion is arranged in a two-dimensional honey-comb lattice perpendicular to the c-axis. We report the first measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetization for single-crystalline samples of YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9}. The electrical resistivity of YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9} is characteristic of the typical properties of heavy-fermion antiferromagnets with a Neel temperature of T{sub N} = 3.4 K. The transport and magnetic properties exhibit large anisotropy in the low-temperature region owing to an interplay among the crystalline-electric-field effect, the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida interaction, and the Kondo effect. Below T{sub N}, the metamagnetic transition is observed at a very low magnetic field of around 1 kOe with the field applied along the a-axis. The magnetic structure of YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9} is highly sensitive to the applied magnetic field.

  18. Nodal quasiparticle dynamics in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn₅ revealed by precision microwave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truncik, C J S; Huttema, W A; Turner, P J; Ozcan, S; Murphy, N C; Carrière, P R; Thewalt, E; Morse, K J; Koenig, A J; Sarrao, J L; Broun, D M

    2013-01-01

    CeCoIn₅ is a heavy fermion superconductor with strong similarities to the high-Tc cuprates, including quasi-two-dimensionality, proximity to antiferromagnetism and probable d-wave pairing arising from a non-Fermi-liquid normal state. Experiments allowing detailed comparisons of their electronic properties are of particular interest, but in most cases are difficult to realize, due to their very different transition temperatures. Here we use low-temperature microwave spectroscopy to study the charge dynamics of the CeCoIn₅ superconducting state. The similarities to cuprates, in particular to ultra-clean YBa₂Cu₃O(y), are striking: the frequency and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle conductivity are instantly recognizable, a consequence of rapid suppression of quasiparticle scattering below T(c); and penetration-depth data, when properly treated, reveal a clean, linear temperature dependence of the quasiparticle contribution to superfluid density. The measurements also expose key differences, including prominent multiband effects and a temperature-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle mass.

  19. High-resolution x-ray diffraction study of the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, B. G.; Saunders, S. M.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.

    YbBiPt is a heavy-fermion compound possessing significant short-range antiferromagnetic correlations below T* = 0 . 7 K, fragile antiferromagnetic order below TN = 0 . 4 K, a Kondo temperature of TK ~ 1 K, and crystalline-electric-field splitting (CEF) on the order of E /kB = 1 - 10 K. Its lattice is face-centered cubic at ambient temperature, but certain data, particularly those from studies aimed at determining the CEF level scheme, suggest that the lattice distorts at lower temperature. Here, we present results from high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments which show that, within our experimental resolution of ~ 6 - 10 ×10-5 Å, no structural phase transition occurs between 1 . 5 and 50 K. Despite this result, we demonstrate that the compound's thermal expansion may be modeled using CEF level schemes appropriate for Yb3+ residing on a site with either cubic or less than cubic point symmetry. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the US DOE, BES, DMSE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358. Work at Occidental College was supported by the NSF under DMR-1408598. This research used resources at the Advanced Photon Source a US DOE, Office of Science, User Facility.

  20. Dehybridization of f and d states in the heavy-fermion system YbRh2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, D.; Sobota, J. A.; Yang, S.-L.; Pfau, H.; Kim, D.-J.; Mo, S.-K.; Fisk, Z.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2018-04-01

    We report an optically induced reduction of the f -d hybridization in the prototypical heavy-fermion compound YbRh2Si2 . We use femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to monitor changes of spectral weight and binding energies of the Yb 4 f and Rh 4 d states before the lattice temperature increases after pumping. Overall, the f -d hybridization decreases smoothly with increasing electronic temperature up to ˜250 K but changes slope at ˜100 K . This temperature scale coincides with the onset of coherent Kondo scattering and with thermally populating the first excited crystal electrical field level. Extending previous photoemission studies, we observe a persistent f -d hybridization up to at least ˜250 K , which is far larger than the coherence temperature defined by transport but in agreement with the temperature dependence of the noninteger Yb valence. Our data underlines the distinction of probes accessing spin and charge degrees of freedom in strongly correlated systems.

  1. Pairing symmetries of several iron-based superconductor families and some similarities with cuprates and heavy-fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Tanmoy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that, by using the unit-cell transformation between 1 Fe per unit cell to 2 Fe per unit cell, one can qualitatively understand the pairing symmetry of several families of iron-based superconductors. In iron-pnictides and iron-chalcogenides, the nodeless s±-pairing and the resulting magnetic resonance mode transform nicely between the two unit cells, while retaining all physical properties unchanged. However, when the electron-pocket disappears from the Fermi surface with complete doping in KFe2As2, we find that the unit-cell invariant requirement prohibits the occurrence of s±-pairing symmetry (caused by inter-hole-pocket nesting. However, the intra-pocket nesting is compatible here, which leads to a nodal d-wave pairing. The corresponding Fermi surface topology and the pairing symmetry are similar to Ce-based heavy-fermion superconductors. Furthermore, when the Fermi surface hosts only electron-pockets in KyFe2-xSe2, the inter-electron-pocket nesting induces a nodeless and isotropic d-wave pairing. This situation is analogous to the electron-doped cuprates, where the strong antiferromagnetic order creates similar disconnected electron-pocket Fermi surface, and hence nodeless d-wave pairing appears. The unit-cell transformation in KyFe2-xSe2 exhibits that the d-wave pairing breaks the translational symmetry of the 2 Fe unit cell, and thus cannot be realized unless a vacancy ordering forms to compensate for it. These results are consistent with the coexistence picture of a competing order and nodeless d-wave superconductivity in both cuprates and KyFe1.6Se2.

  2. Specific heat of heavy-fermion CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikin, I. [University of Geneva, DPMC, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Ilya.Sheikin@physics.unige.ch; Wang, Y.; Bouquet, F.; Junod, A. [University of Geneva, DPMC, Geneva (Switzerland); Lejay, P. [CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-22

    We report specific heat measurements on the heavy-fermion compound CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in magnetic fields up to 16 T and in the temperature range 1.4-16 K. A sharp peak in the specific heat signals the antiferromagnetic transition at T{sub N} {approx} 9.3 K in zero field. The transition is found to shift to lower temperatures when a magnetic field is applied along the crystallographic a-axis, while a field applied parallel to the tetragonal c-axis does not affect the transition. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat below T{sub N} is well described by a sum of a linear electronic term and an antiferromagnetic spin-wave contribution. Just below T{sub N}, an additional positive curvature, especially at high fields, arises most probably due to thermal fluctuations. The field dependence of the coefficient of the low-temperature linear term, {gamma}{sub 0}, extracted from the fits shows a maximum at about 6 T, at the point where an anomaly was detected in susceptibility measurements. The relative field dependences of both T{sub N} and the magnetic entropy at T{sub N} scale as [1-(B/B{sub 0}){sup 2}] for B parallel a, suggesting the disappearance of antiferromagnetism at B{sub 0}{approx}42 T. The expected suppression of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature to zero makes the existence of a magnetic quantum critical point possible. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  3. Novel superconductivity at the magnetic critical point in heavy-fermion systems: a systematic study of NQR under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Y; Kawasaki, S; Kawasaki, Y; Mito, T; Zheng, G-q

    2007-01-01

    We report on the discovery of exotic superconductivity (SC) and novel magnetism in heavy-fermion (HF) compounds, CeCu 2 Si 2 , CeRhIn 5 and CeIn 3 , on the verge of antiferromagnetism (AFM) through nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR) measurements under pressure (P). The exotic SC in a homogeneous CeCu 2 Si 2 (T c = 0.7 K) revealed antiferromagnetic critical fluctuations at the border to AFM or a marginal AFM. Remarkably, it has been found that the application of magnetic field induces a spin-density-wave (SDW) transition by suppressing the SC near the upper critical field. Furthermore, the uniform mixed phase of SC and AFM in CeCu 2 (Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 emerges on a microscopic level, once a tiny amount of 1% Ge (x = 0.01) is substituted for Si to expand its lattice. The application of minute pressure (P∼0.19 GPa) suppresses the sudden emergence of the AFM caused by doping Ge. The persistence of the low-lying magnetic excitations at temperatures lower than T c and T N is ascribed to the uniform mixed phase of SC and AFM. Likewise, the P-induced HF superconductor CeRhIn 5 coexists with AFM on a microscopic level in P = 1.5-1.9 GPa. It is demonstrated that SC does not yield any trace of gap opening in low-lying excitations below the onset temperature, presumably associated with an amplitude fluctuation of superconducting order parameter. The unconventional gapless nature of SC in the low-lying excitation spectrum emerges due to the uniform mixed phase of AFM and SC. By contrast, in CeIn 3 , the P-induced phase separation of AFM and paramagnetism (PM) takes place without any trace for a quantum phase transition. The outstanding finding is that SC sets in at both the phases magnetically separated into AFM and PM in P = 2.28-2.5 GPa. A new type of SC forms the uniform mixed phase with AFM and the HF SC occurs in PM. We propose that the magnetic excitations such as spin-density fluctuations induced by the first-order phase transition from AFM to PM might mediate attractive

  4. Magnetic susceptibility and electron–phonon (e–p) interaction in some U and Ce based heavy fermion (HF) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, J.; Shadangi, N.; Nayak, P.

    2015-01-01

    Here an attempt is made to explore the variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature for different values of the position of f-level (d) and electron–phonon interaction (EPI) strength (r) in some U and Ce based heavy Fermion (HF) systems within Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of a static magnetic field B and interaction of phonons with electrons of hybridization band. Since magnetic susceptibility χ is related to the f-electron occupation n ±σ f , the expression for the latter is analytically derived through f–f correlation function following the Green function technique of Zubarev. The numerical analysis of χ as a function of temperature ‘T’ is done for different values of d and r. The results show a good agreement with the experiments for some U and Ce based HFs. An explanation for the existence of a critical value of d w.r.t. E F for switching of nature of χ∼T from U to Ce based HF systems is provided. Our calculated value of the temperature T χmax corresponding to the peak position of χ for small values of hybridization constant γ=0.002 and 0.0036 coincides with the experimental value of 19 K for UPt 3 and 35 K for UPd 2 Al 3 reported by Frings et al. and Geibel et al. respectively. - Highlights: • Variation of magnetic susceptibility χ with temperature T is studied for some HF systems. • Periodic Anderson Model in presence of magnetic field and electron–phonon interaction is used for numerical evaluation. • The existence of a critical value of the position of f-level(d) is proposed for distinction between χ∼T behavior of U and Ce based HF systems. • Results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental observations for some Ce and U based HF systems. • Theoretically evaluated temperature corresponding to the peak value of χ matches with the experimental results of UPt 3 and UPd 2 Al 3

  5. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatola, B O; Keogh, P; Hicks, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  6. Robust upward dispersion of the neutron spin resonance in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce1−xYbxCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Van Dyke, John; Lum, I. K.; White, B. D.; Jang, Sooyoung; Yazici, Duygu; Shu, L.; Schneidewind, A.; Čermák, Petr; Qiu, Y.; Maple, M. B.; Morr, Dirk K.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The neutron spin resonance is a collective magnetic excitation that appears in the unconventional copper oxide, iron pnictide and heavy fermion superconductors. Although the resonance is commonly associated with a spin-exciton due to the d(s±)-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter, it has also been proposed to be a magnon-like excitation appearing in the superconducting state. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to demonstrate that the resonance in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce1−xYbxCoIn5 with x=0, 0.05 and 0.3 has a ring-like upward dispersion that is robust against Yb-doping. By comparing our experimental data with a random phase approximation calculation using the electronic structure and the momentum dependence of the -wave superconducting gap determined from scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) for CeCoIn5, we conclude that the robust upward-dispersing resonance mode in Ce1−xYbxCoIn5 is inconsistent with the downward dispersion predicted within the spin-exciton scenario. PMID:27677397

  7. Coupling between magnetic and superconducting order parameters and evidence for the spin excitation gap in the superconducting state of a heavy fermion superconductor UPd2Al3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metoki, Naoto; Haga, Yoshinori; Koike, Yoshihiro; Aso, Naofumi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    1997-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have been carried out in order to study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in a heavy fermion superconductor, UPd 2 Al 3 . We have observed 1% suppression of the (0 0 0.5) magnetic peak intensity below the superconducting transition temperature T c . This is direct evidence for the coupling of the magnetic order parameter with the superconducting one. Furthermore, we have observed a spin excitation gap associated with superconductivity. The gap energy ΔE g increases continuously from ΔE g =0 to 0.4 meV with decreasing temperature from T c to 0.4 K. This gap energy corresponds to 2k B T c , which is smaller than the superconducting gap expected from the BCS theory (3.5k B T c ). These results are indicative of the strong interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. (author)

  8. Meta-orbital transition in heavy-fermion systems. Analysis by dynamical mean field theory and self-consistent renormalization theory of orbital fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Kazumasa

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a two-orbital Anderson lattice model with Ising orbital intersite exchange interactions on the basis of a dynamical mean field theory combined with the static mean field approximation of intersite orbital interactions. Focusing on Ce-based heavy-fermion compounds, we examine the orbital crossover between two orbital states, when the total f-electron number per site n f is ∼1. We show that a 'meta-orbital' transition, at which the occupancy of two orbitals changes steeply, occurs when the hybridization between the ground-state f-electron orbital and conduction electrons is smaller than that between the excited f-electron orbital and conduction electrons at low pressures. Near the meta-orbital critical end point, orbital fluctuations are enhanced and couple with charge fluctuations. A critical theory of meta-orbital fluctuations is also developed by applying the self-consistent renormalization theory of itinerant electron magnetism to orbital fluctuations. The critical end point, first-order transition, and crossover are described within Gaussian approximations of orbital fluctuations. We discuss the relevance of our results to CeAl 2 , CeCu 2 Si 2 , CeCu 2 Ge 2 , and related compounds, which all have low-lying crystalline-electric-field excited states. (author)

  9. Influence of Heavy Fermion Ytterbium Substitution on the Electronic and Crystal Properties of the Frustrated Magnet CuFeO2 Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkendir, Osman Murat

    2017-11-01

    The influence of heavy fermion Ytterbium substitution was investigated on the crystal, electronic, and magnetic properties of CuFeO2 with the general formula Yb x Cu1- x FeO2. The results of the crystal structure study revealed polycrystalline formations in the sample. The electronic and magnetic properties of the samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) techniques. Both XAS and XMCD revealed that the substituted Yb atoms govern the entire phenomena with their narrow 4 f levels by forming broader molecular bonds with the 3 d levels of the transition metals. Owing to the prominent changes caused by the activity of the 4 f electrons in the crystal structures, Yb atoms were determined to be the main "role player" in the phase transitions. XMCD measurements were performed at room temperature 300 K (27 °C) to determine the magnetic properties of the samples and, except for CuFeO2 ( x = 0.0), the samples were observed to be ordered magnetically (mainly ferrimagnetic) in the bulk.

  10. Search for Type-III Seesaw Heavy Fermions with Multilepton Final States using 2.3/fb of 13 TeV proton-proton Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for type-III seesaw signal in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample corresponds to $2.3\\,\\textrm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13\\,$TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Since the signal populates channels with at least three leptons and diverse kinematic properties, the data is binned in exclusive channels. The primary selection is based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign dilepton systems which helps discriminate the signal against the Standard Model background. The final optimization for the type-III seesaw signal is based on the sum of leptonic transerve momenta and missing transverse energy. Control samples in data are used to check the robustness of background evaluation techniques and to minimize the reliance on simulation. The observations are consistent with expectations from Standard Model processes. The results are used to exclude heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model wi...

  11. ACRT technique for the single crystal growth of the heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Sebastian; Kliemt, Kristin; Butzke, Constantin; Krellner, Cornelius [Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} the antiferromagnetic ordering below 70 mK close to a quantum critical point is well-studied. Beneath the magnetic ordering a new phase transition was found recently at 2 mK. It is necessary to prepare large and high-quality single crystals for studying the nature of this new phase transition. Besides the optimization of the single crystal growth it is important to investigate single crystals with different isotopes at this phase transition. Here, we report the crystal growth of YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} with the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT). ACRT shows for other compounds, e.g. YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}), that this technique can reduce flux impurities and enhance the yield of larger crystals. We also report the attempt to receive metallic isotopes of ytterbium with metallothermic reduction. Crystals with different isotopes of silicon and ytterbium can be used for NMR measurements to investigate the underlying phenomena of quantum criticality in more detail.

  12. Field-Induced Quantum Critical Point and Nodal Superconductivity in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor Ce_{2}PdIn_{8}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Dong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The in-plane resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the heavy-fermion superconductor Ce_{2}PdIn_{8} single crystals were measured down to 50 mK. A field-induced quantum critical point, occurring at the upper critical field H_{c2}, is demonstrated from the ρ(T∼T near H_{c2} and ρ(T∼T^{2} when further increasing the field. The large residual linear term κ_{0}/T at zero field and the rapid increase of κ(H/T at low field give evidence for nodal superconductivity in Ce_{2}PdIn_{8}. The jump of κ(H/T near H_{c2} suggests a first-order-like phase transition at low temperature. These results mimic the features of the famous CeCoIn_{5} superconductor, implying that Ce_{2}PdIn_{8} may be another interesting compound to investigate for the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity.

  13. Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on the Thermoelectric Properties of Heavy-Fermion YbAl3 Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Danqi; Mu, Xin; Zhou, Hongyu; Li, Cuncheng; Ma, Shifang; Ji, Pengxia; Hou, Weikang; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Wanting; Nie, Xiaolei; Zhao, Wenyu

    2018-06-01

    The magnetic nanocomposite thermoelectric materials xFe3O4/YbAl3 ( x = 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) have been prepared by the combination of ultrasonic dispersion and spark plasma sintering process. The nanocomposites retain good chemical stability in the presence of the second-phase Fe3O4. The second-phase Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles are distributed on the interfaces and boundaries of the matrix. The x dependences of thermoelectric properties indicate that Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles can significantly decrease the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. The magnetic nanoparticles embedded in YbAl3 matrix are not only the phonon scattering centers of nanostructures, but also the electron scattering centers due to the Kondo-like effect between the magnetic moment of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the spin of electrons. The ZT values of the composites are first increased in the x range 0%-1.0% and then decreased when x > 1.0%. The highest ZT value reaches 0.3 at 300 K for the nanocomposite with x = 1.0%. Our work demonstrates that the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles can greatly increase the thermoelectric performance of heavy-fermion YbAl3 thermoelectric materials through simultaneously scattering electrons and phonons.

  14. Investigation of the commensurate magnetic structure in the heavy-fermion compound CePt2In7 using magnetic resonant x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Nicolas; Wermeille, Didier; Casati, Nicola; Sakai, Hironori; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Bauer, Eric D.; White, Jonathan S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the magnetic structure of the heavy-fermion compound CePt2In7 below TN=5.34 (2 ) K using magnetic resonant x-ray diffraction at ambient pressure. The magnetic order is characterized by a commensurate propagation vector k1 /2=(1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 ) with spins lying in the basal plane. Our measurements did not reveal the presence of an incommensurate order propagating along the high-symmetry directions in reciprocal space but cannot exclude other incommensurate modulations or weak scattering intensities. The observed commensurate order can be described equivalently by either a single-k structure or by a multi-k structure. Furthermore we explain how a commensurate-only ordering may explain the broad distribution of internal fields observed in nuclear quadrupolar resonance experiments [Sakai et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 140408 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.140408] that was previously attributed to an incommensurate order. We also report powder x-ray diffraction showing that the crystallographic structure of CePt2In7 changes monotonically with pressure up to P =7.3 GPa at room temperature. The determined bulk modulus B0=81.1 (3 ) GPa is similar to those of the Ce-115 family. Broad diffraction peaks confirm the presence of pronounced strain in polycrystalline samples of CePt2In7 . We discuss how strain effects can lead to different electronic and magnetic properties between polycrystalline and single crystal samples.

  15. Multiband superconductivity in heavy fermion compound CePt3Si without inversion symmetry. An NMR study on a high-quality single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukuda, Hidekazu; Nishide, Sachihiro; Harada, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    We report on novel superconducting characteristics of the heavy fermion (HF) superconductor CePt 3 Si without inversion symmetry through 195 Pt-NMR study on a single crystal with T c =0.46 K that is lower than T c - 0.75 K for polycrystals. We show that the intrinsic superconducting characteristics inherent to CePt 3 Si can be understood in terms of the unconventional strong-coupling state with a line-node gap below T c =0.46 K. The mystery about the sample dependence of T c is explained by the fact that more or less polycrystals and single crystals inevitably contain some disordered domains, which exhibit a conventional BCS s-wave superconductivity (SC) below 0.8 K. In contrast, the Neel temperature T N - 2.2 K is present regardless of the quality of samples, revealing that the Fermi surface responsible for SC differ from that for the antiferromagnetic order. These unusual characteristics of CePt 3 Si can be also described by a multiband model; in the homogeneous domains, the coherent HF bands are responsible for the unconventional SC, whereas in the disordered domains the conduction bands existing commonly in LaPt 3 Si may be responsible for the conventional s-wave SC. We remark that some impurity scatterings in the disordered domains break up the 4f-electrons-derived coherent bands but not others. In this context, the small peak in 1/T 1 just below T c reported before [Yogi et al. (2004)] is not due to a two-component order parameter composed of spin-singlet and spin-triplet Cooper pairing states, but due to the contamination of the disorder domains which are in the s-wave SC state. (author)

  16. How to deal with the annoying Hot Spots in FEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenninggaard, Jon

    2017-01-01

    How do we deal with the annoying ”Hot Spots” in our solid structure Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and how do we justify the stresses in those areas?......How do we deal with the annoying ”Hot Spots” in our solid structure Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and how do we justify the stresses in those areas?...

  17. Heavy fermions and extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikine, Ilia

    2000-01-01

    Three heavy electron systems, CeCu 2 Si 2 , CePd 2 Si 2 and UGe 2 , were investigated by transport, quantum oscillations (CePd 2 Si 2 ) and neutron diffraction (UGe 2 ) measurements. The experiments were performed under extreme conditions of very low temperature, high magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure. In the case of CeCu 2 Si 2 , we followed the evolution of the magnetic A-phase that is found to collapse rapidly under pressure. We found evidence for a relation between the A-phase and the presence of a maximum in the temperature dependence of H c2 . Our analysis showed that at low pressure, the sign of the exchange integral should be negative, thus superconductivity is enhanced by an increase in the paramagnetic susceptibility as in the Jaccarino-Peter effect. The anisotropy of the initial slope of H c2 and therefore that of the effective mass was found to change under pressure. For CePd 2 Si 2 , both the de Haas-van Alphen effect at ambient pressure and the electrical resistivity under pressure were studied. The latter reveals a non-Fermi liquid behavior in the vicinity of the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point, P c ∼ kbar. The analysis of H c2 at P c shows that the superconducting state is well described by a weak coupling, clean limit model with a slightly anisotropic orbital limit and a strongly anisotropic paramagnetic one. UGe 2 is shown to demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity that develops just below the ferromagnetic quantum critical point, P c ∼16 kbar. The measurements of the resistivity under pressure point to a possible existence of another phase boundary and thus another quantum critical point, P x ∼ 12 kbar, within the ferromagnetic state. The P-T phase diagram containing both P c and P x was sketched, and a possible relation between P x and the development of superconductivity was discussed. The temperature dependence of H c2 demonstrates a variety of novel behaviors, which cannot be understood within conventional models of superconductivity. (author) [fr

  18. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe2Ge2 Heavy Fermion Compound A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran; #8741; , Ganapathy; Kanchana, Venkatakrishnan; Antonio, Daniel; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Bauer, Eric D.; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul (Aarhus); (CIW); (Hyderabad - India); (IIT-India); (LANL); (UNLV)

    2016-06-03

    The crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound was measured at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. Furthermore, the measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. While the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) at ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ~9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.

  19. Coupled s-wave and d-wave states in the heavy-fermion superconductor U/sub 1-//sub x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, A.; Sahu, D.; George, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    In the heavy-fermion superconductor U/sub 1-//sub x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/, superconducting states coexist for thorium concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06. Assuming s-wave and d-wave symmetries for these states, we derive a Ginzburg-Landau free-energy expression which couples s- and d-wave states and is rotationally invariant, in contrast to the free-energy expression proposed by P. Kumar and P. Woelfle [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1954 (1987)]. We discuss in detail the consequences that follow from our free-energy relation. In particular, we predict that in the above system there are two eigenfrequencies associated with the dynamics of phase oscillations (internal Josephson effect) which are characteristic of the s-wave and d-wave states

  20. Thermal properties of heavy fermion systems under unaxial and hydrostatic pressure: Anisotropic magnetic ordering in CeCu6-xAux and (B,T,p) phase diagram of UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieck, M.

    1996-01-01

    Single crystal samples of heavy fermion systems UPt 3 and CeCu 6-x Au x have been investigated under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure, respectively, at low temperatures and in magnetic fields up to 3 T using measurements of the specific heat and the magnetocaloric effect. A light-weigth hydrostatic pressure cell made of CuBe was designed and built up. For CeCu 6-x Au x the interrelation between magnetic order and the non-magnetic ground state was studied as function of Au concentration. For the UPt 3 system the phase diagrams in the superconducting state has been constructed. In the magnetocaloric effect irreversibilities due to flux pinning in the flux line lattice were observed

  1. steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: fea approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The flux levels at these loading conditions were also monitored. Key words: Three phase Induction Motor, Steady state and Dynamic Response, Flux Levels, FEA, Loading conditions. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications;. New York: ... for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge University. Press ...

  2. Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...

  3. Magnetic excitations in CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, M.; Reichardt, W.; Hennion, B.; Pepy, G.; Wanklyn, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic excitations of CuO both in the ordered and the paramagnetic phase. Their results demonstrate the dominance of the magnetic interaction along the 10-1 Cu-O zigzag chains. In this direction the slope of the acoustic branch is 550 neV Angstrom

  4. High-Tc Superconductors Based on FeAs Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Izyumov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties and models of electronic structure are analyzed for a new class of high-TC superconductors which belong to iron-based layered compounds. Despite their variable chemical composition and differences in the crystal structure, these compounds possess similar physical characteristics, due to electron carriers in the FeAs layers and the interaction of these carriers with fluctuations of the magnetic order. A tremendous interest towards these materials is explained by the prospects of their practical use. In this monograph, a full picture of the formation of physical properties of these materials, in the context of existing theory models and electron structure studies, is given. The book is aimed at a broad circle of readers: physicists who study electronic properties of the FeAs compounds, chemists who synthesize them and specialists in the field of electronic structure calculations in solids. It is helpful not only to researchers active in the fields of superconductivity and magnetism, but also...

  5. Program for stator winding leakage inductance determination by FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a program designed by the author in order to determine the stator winding parameters. The program is realized in Visual Basic and, in fact, it is for computer aided design of AC machines. Starting from the design data, based on the classical analytical formulas, geometrical parameters of the stator and the parameters of the stator winding are computed. This program works with a finite elements analysis (FEA software (the one used by the author is MagNet, a product of Infolytica company and according to data obtained after the design calculation, or according to data specified by user (in case of an existing machine, the stator and stator winding are built 3D (three-dimensional. For the same stator, different types of winding can be chosen. After realizing numerical model, by 3D FEA, leakage inductance is determined.

  6. Magnetically robust non-fermi liquid behavior due to the competition between crystalline-electric field singlet and Kondo-Yosida singlet in f2-based heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Shinya; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2011-01-01

    In f 2 -based heavy fermion systems with a tetragonal symmetry, we investigate the magnetic field dependence of a non-fermi liquid (NFL) which arises related to the quantum critical point (QCP) due to the competition between the crystalline-electric field (CEF) singlet and the Kondo-Yosida singlet states. On the basis of the Wilson numerical renormalization group method, we find that the magnetic field less than a characteristic magnetic field H z * does not affect the characteristic temperature T F * at which the specific heat takes a maximum value. Since such H z * increases as the deviation from the QCP increases, slightly off the QCP, there are parameter regions where NFL behaviors are robust at an observable temperature range T > T F *against a magnetic field of up to H z * which is far larger than T F *. Our result suggests that such robust NFL behaviors can arise also in systems with other CEF symmetries; e.g., magnetically robust NFL behaviors observed in UBe 13 may be understood on this basis.

  7. Abnormal specific heat enhancement and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the heavy-fermion system U2Cu17 -xGax (5 ≤x ≤8 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, E.; Amon, A.; Prots, Yu.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Grin, Yu.

    2018-03-01

    In the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound U2Zn17 , the Sommerfeld coefficient γ can be enhanced if all Zn atoms are replaced by a combination of Cu and Al or Cu and Ga. In the former ternary phase, glassy behavior was observed, while for the latter, conflicting ground-state reports suggest material quality issues. In this work, we investigate the U2Cu17 -xGax substitutional series for 4.5 ≤x ≤9.5 . In the homogeneity range of the phase with the Th2Zn17 -type of crystal structure, all samples exhibit glassy behavior with 0.6 K ≤Tf≤1.8 K . The value of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ in this system exceeds 900 mJ/molUK2. Such a drastic effective-mass enhancement can possibly be attributed to the effects of structural disorder, since the role of electron concentration and lattice compression is likely minimal. Crystallographic disorder is also responsible for the emergence of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in these spin-glass materials, as evidenced by logarithmic divergence of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity.

  8. Numerical simulations of progressive hardening by using ABAQUS FEA software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns numerical simulations of progressive hardening include phase transformations in solid state of steel. Abaqus FEA software is used for numerical analysis of temperature field and phase transformations. Numerical subroutines, written in fortran programming language are used in computer simulations where models of the distribution of movable heat source, kinetics of phase transformations in solid state as well as thermal and structural strain are implemented. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics is based on continuous heating diagram and continuous cooling diagram. The numerical analysis of thermal fields, phase fractions and strain associated progressive hardening of elements made of steel were done.

  9. Ferromagnetic correlations in Yb based heavy fermions probed by NMR relaxation: YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2} vs. Yb(Rh,Ir){sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baenitz, M.; Sarkar, R.; Khuntia, P.; Krellner, C.; Geibel, C.; Steglich, F. [Max - Planck Institute of Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden, Germany (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Intersite correlations in Ce-based heavy fermion systems close to the quantum critical point separating the magnetic ordered state from the paramagnetic Kondo lattice are in almost all cases predominantly antiferromagnetic (AFM) in nature. The NMR relaxation of these systems show an evolution from localized fluctuations with 1/T{sub 1} nearly constant above the Kondo temperature T{sub K}, to a linear in T Korringa- like behavior with a constant and enhanced (1/T{sub 1}T)- value below T{sub K}. We report on {sup 31}P-NMR results on the ferromagnetic (FM) quantum critical system YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2} over a wide range in temperature (2-300 K) and field (0.2 - 9 T). Here, {sup 31}(1/T{sub 1}T)(T) does not show such a signature at T{sub K}, instead a continuous increase of (1/T{sub 1}T) down to lowest T is observed. A similar behavior has been reported for YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, which also exhibits strong FM correlations evidenced by {sup 29}Si - NMR and an enhanced Wilson ratio. Furthermore, in CeFePO, which is likely unique among Ce-based quantum critical system because of its strong FM correlations, (1/T{sub 1}T) also diverges continuously for T {yields}0. This suggests that the difference in the relaxation between most of the Ce systems and the Yb systems is predominantly related to a change from AFM to FM intersite correlations. NMR-results (shift, line width, T{sub 1}) are analyzed and discussed in different models (Korringa, Moriya).

  10. Who’s Betty? Between the Fea and the Ugly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rodríguez Barradas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Why a soap opera with an argument like Betty, la fea is a big hit into so dissimilar tastes like the Colombian and Latin-American followers of the genre? The soap opera is a genre that had its origin, principally, of this side of the world. Betty, the ugly one, has the archetypal elements that identify whom it sees with what it sees. The most attractive of this history is the form how it is deeply entrenched in the myth of the romantic love even if its energy is canalized in the tense moral, economic and emotional negotiations that complicate the rituals of the courtship. It is not said here that the life should be idyllic, calm, harmonic, and always happy; this soap opera proposes a reflection on the investment of the archetypal models of the novel in Latin America.

  11. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanling; Hou, Wenhua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Niu, Qiang; Ma, Rulin; Mu, Lati; Wang, Haixia

    2016-12-01

    Copper dioxide nanoparticles (NPs), which is a kind of important and widely used metal oxide NP, eventually reaches a water body through wastewater and urban runoff. Ecotoxicological studies of this kind of NPs effects on hydrophyte are very limited at present. Lemna minor was exposed to media with different concentrations of CuO NPs, bulk CuO, and two times concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media. The changes in plant growth, chlorophyll content, antioxidant defense enzyme activities [i.e., peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities], and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured in the present study. The particle size of CuO NPs and the zeta potential of CuO NPs and bulk CuO in the culture media were also analyzed to complementally evaluate their toxicity on duckweed. Results showed that CuO NPs inhibited the plant growth at lower concentration than bulk CuO. L. minor roots were easily broken in CuO NPs media under the experimental condition, and the inhibition occurred only partly because CuO NPs released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The POD, SOD, and CAT activities of L. minor increased when the plants were exposed to CuO NPs, bulk CuO NPs and two times the concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media, but the increase of these enzymes were the highest in CuO NPs media among the three kinds of materials. The MDA content was significantly increased compared with that of the control from 50 mg L -1 CuO NP concentration in culture media. CuO NPs has more toxicity on L. minor compared with that of bulk CuO, and the inhibition occurred only partly because released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The plant accumulated more reactive oxygen species in the CuO NP media than in the same concentration of bulk CuO. The plant cell encountered serious damage when the CuO NP concentration reached 50 mg L -1 in culture media. The toxicology of CuO NP on hydrophytes must be considered because that hydrophytes

  12. Superconducting classes in heavy fermions systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovik, G.E.; Gor'kov, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical method for constructing of the superconductivity classes for nontrivial superconductors is described. All superconducting phases which can arise directly on transition from the normal state for cubic, hexagonal and tetragonal symmetries are enumerated. It is shown that in the triplet case the types of zeros in the energy gap always correspond to points on the Fermi surface, whereas for signlet pairing the whole zero lines are possible. For the phases with zeros on the lines or points, the low-temperature specific heat varies as T 2 on T 3 respectivelty. The superconducting phases which arise from the multydimensional representations may possess a magnetic moment which induces currents on the surface of a monodomain sample even in the absence of an external magnetic field. The specific case of a domain wall is considered and it is shown that large magnetic currents of magnetization are present in the wall

  13. Heavy fermions and superconductivity in doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, S. [Max-Planck-Inst. fur Phys. Komplexer Syst., Stuttgart (Germany). Aussenstelle Stuttgart; Zevin, V. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Zwicknagl, G. [Max-Planck-Inst. fur Phys. Komplexer Syst., Stuttgart (Germany). Aussenstelle Stuttgart

    1996-10-01

    We present a Fermi liquid description for the low-energy excitations in rare Earth cuprates Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The strongly renormalized heavy quasiparticles which appear in the doped samples originate from the coherent decoupling of rare earth spins and correlated conduction electrons. The correlations among the conduction electrons are simulated by assuming a spin density wave ground state. We discuss results for the thermodynamic properties in the insulating, normal metallic and superconducting phases which are in fair agreement with experimental data. In addition, the model predicts interesting behaviour for the superconducting state of samples with low transition temperature T{sub c} which may help to assess the validity of the underlying assumptions. (orig.)

  14. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m 2 g −1 with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg −1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  15. Angulated Dental Implants in Posterior Maxilla FEA and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A. Hamed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different implant angulations in posterior maxilla on stress distribution by finite element analysis and verify its results experimentally. METHODS: Two simplified models were prepared for an implant placed vertically and tilted 25° piercing the maxillary sinus. Geometric models' components were prepared by Autodesk Inventor then assembled in ANSYS for finite element analysis. The results of finite element analysis were verified against experimental trials results which were statistically analysed using student t-test (level of significance p < 0.05. RESULTS: Implant - abutment complex absorbed the load energy in case of vertical implant better than the case of angulated one. That was reflected on cortical bone stress, while both cases showed stress levels within the physiological limits. Comparing results between FEA and experiment trials showed full agreement. CONCLUSION: It was found that the tilted implant by 25° can be utilised in the posterior region maxilla for replacing maxillary first molar avoiding sinus penetration. The implant-bone interface and peri-implant bones received the highest Von Mises stress. Implant - bone interface with angulated implant received about 66% more stresses than the straight one.

  16. Parametric study on patch repaired CFRP laminates using FEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashfuddoja, M.; Ramji, M. [Indian Institute of Technology. Engineering Optics Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates have become popular for structural applications as they are lighter, stronger and tougher. Composite structures are also susceptible to damage while in service. For improved service life, the damage needs to be repaired so that repair structure integrity is enhanced. Various parameters like patch size and shape, it's layup sequence and adhesive thickness would influence the performance of the repaired structure. In present work, a parametric study is carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the influence of various parameters involved in composite repair. The panel is made of carbon / epoxy composite laminate with stacking sequence of (0/{+-}45/900)s and is subjected to tensile load. Damaged CFRP laminates is repaired by symmetrical patch adhesively bonded over the damaged area. Circular patch of different stacking sequence and size is considered. Influence of adhesive material and it's thickness on repair efficiency is also investigated. The influence of various repair parameters on peel stress is also analysed. (Author)

  17. Angulated Dental Implants in Posterior Maxilla FEA and Experimental Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Hamed A; Marzook, Hamdy A; Ghoneem, Nahed E; El-Anwar, Mohamed I

    2018-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different implant angulations in posterior maxilla on stress distribution by finite element analysis and verify its results experimentally. Two simplified models were prepared for an implant placed vertically and tilted 25° piercing the maxillary sinus. Geometric models' components were prepared by Autodesk Inventor then assembled in ANSYS for finite element analysis. The results of finite element analysis were verified against experimental trials results which were statistically analysed using student t-test (level of significance p < 0.05). Implant - abutment complex absorbed the load energy in case of vertical implant better than the case of angulated one. That was reflected on cortical bone stress, while both cases showed stress levels within the physiological limits. Comparing results between FEA and experiment trials showed full agreement. It was found that the tilted implant by 25° can be utilised in the posterior region maxilla for replacing maxillary first molar avoiding sinus penetration. The implant-bone interface and peri-implant bones received the highest Von Mises stress. Implant - bone interface with angulated implant received about 66% more stresses than the straight one.

  18. CuO mesostructures as ammonia sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    The emission threshold of NH3 in air is 1000 kg/yr which is now about 20 Tg/yr according to environmental protection agencies. Hence, there is a rapid increase in need of NH3 sensors to timely detect and control NH3 emissions. Metal oxide nanostructures such as CuO with special features are potential candidates for NH3 sensing. In the present study, morphology controlled 3-dimensional CuO mesostructures were synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal method. A modified approach using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (EG) was used as solvent to control the growth process. Hierarchical mesostructures namely, hollow-sphere-like and urchin-like feature with particle dimensions ranging from 0.3-1 µm were obtained by varying water/EG ratio. The room temperature ammonia sensing behavior of all samples was studied using an indigenous gas sensing set-up. It was found that hollow-sphere like CuO nanostructures showed a maximum response of 2 towards 300 ppm ammonia with a response and recovery time of 5 and 15 min. The hydrothermal synthesis strategy reported here has the advantage of producing shape controlled hierarchical materials are highly suitable for various technological applications.

  19. FEA analysis and design optimization for a multifunctional piece of furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Haraga Georgeta; Goanță Adrian Mihai

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an original approach to the integration of computer aided design and finite element analysis for a multifunctional piece of furniture using CATIA Generative Structural Analysis workbench. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) application is an important engineering technique in the furniture industry. FEA is an accurate method for numerical solution of field problems. A major problem of mesh generation today is access to CAD geometry in a efficient and precise manner. Starting with...

  20. Magnetoelectric Coupling in CuO Nanoparticles for Spintronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Lotey, Gurmeet Singh

    2018-05-01

    Multiferroic copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by colloidal synthesis method. The morphological, structural, magnetic, dielectric and magnetodielectric property has been investigated. The structural study reveals the monoclinic structure of CuO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images disclose that the size of the CuO nanoparticles is 18 nm and the synthesized nanoparticles are uniform in size and dispersion. Magnetic study tells the weak ferromagnetic character of CuO nanoparticles with coercivity and retentivity value 206 Oe and 0.060 emu/g respectively. Dielectric study confirms that the dielectric constant of CuO nanoparticles is around 1091 at low frequency. The magnetoelectric coupling in the synthesized CuO nanoparticles has been calculated by measuring magnetodielectric coupling coefficient.

  1. Synthesis of Thermally Spherical CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittaya Tamaekong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a thermal method. The CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, respectively. The specific surface area (SSABET of CuO nanoparticles was determined by nitrogen adsorption. The SSABET was found to be 99.67 m2/g (dBET of 9.5 nm. The average diameter of the spherical CuO nanoparticles was approximately 6–9 nm.

  2. CoFea: A Novel Approach to Spam Review Identification Based on Entropy and Co-Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of electronic commerce, spam reviews are rapidly growing on the Internet to manipulate online customers’ opinions on goods being sold. This paper proposes a novel approach, called CoFea (Co-training by Features, to identify spam reviews, based on entropy and the co-training algorithm. After sorting all lexical terms of reviews by entropy, we produce two views on the reviews by dividing the lexical terms into two subsets. One subset contains odd-numbered terms and the other contains even-numbered terms. Using SVM (support vector machine as the base classifier, we further propose two strategies, CoFea-T and CoFea-S, embedded with the CoFea approach. The CoFea-T strategy uses all terms in the subsets for spam review identification by SVM. The CoFea-S strategy uses a predefined number of terms with small entropy for spam review identification by SVM. The experiment results show that the CoFea-T strategy produces better accuracy than the CoFea-S strategy, while the CoFea-S strategy saves more computing time than the CoFea-T strategy with acceptable accuracy in spam review identification.

  3. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubal, Deepak P., E-mail: deepak.dubal@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India); Holze, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.holze@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg{sup −1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  4. Optimization of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for a Magnetically Levitated Blood Pump via 3-D FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W; Burger, Aaron F; Day, Steven W

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of a magnetically levitated (maglev) axial flow blood pump, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the design of a hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). Radial, axial, and current stiffness of multiple design variations of the HMB were calculated using a 3-D FEA package and verified by experimental results. As compared with the original design, the optimized HMB had twice the axial stiffness with the resulting increase of negative radial stiffness partially compensated for by increased current stiffness. Accordingly, the performance of the maglev axial flow blood pump with the optimized HMBs was improved: the maximum pump speed was increased from 6000 rpm to 9000 rpm (50%). The radial, axial and current stiffness of the HMB was found to be linear at nominal operational position from both 3-D FEA and empirical measurements. Stiffness values determined by FEA and empirical measurements agreed well with one another. The magnetic flux density distribution and flux loop of the HMB were also visualized via 3-D FEA which confirms the designers' initial assumption about the function of this HMB.

  5. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongliang; Ge Chuannan; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    CuO nanowire arrays were prepared by oxidation of copper nanowires embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The AAO was fabricated in an oxalic acid at a constant voltage. Copper nanowires were formed in the nanopores of the AAO membranes in an electrochemical deposition process. The oxidized copper nanowires at different temperatures were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a CuO phase after calcining at 500 0 C in air for 30 h. A transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the nanowire morphologies. Raman spectra were performed to study the CuO nanowire arrays. After measuring, we found that the current-voltage curve of the CuO nanowires is nonlinear.

  6. Displacement waves in La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Onozuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Makoto; Syono, Yasuhiko

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La2CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures.

  7. FEA of the Variations in Sound Insulation in Nominally Identical Prefabricated Lightweight Timber Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The measurements of sound propagation in buildings usually show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source...... for these variations can lead to lowered production costs. The present paper presents a numerical analysis of the variations in sound propagation of norminally identical prefabricated lightweight timber panel structues. By using the commercial FEA software ABAQUS, a parameter study is carried out regarding variation...

  8. An FEA study on impact resistance of bio-inspired CAD models

    OpenAIRE

    Page, T; Thorsteinsson, G

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of biomimetic methods in the design of armour systems. It focusses on biological structures found in nature that feature both rigid and flexible armours, analysing their structures and determining which are the most widely successful. A study was conducted on three bio-inspired structures built in Creo Parametric and tested using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to determine which structure had the best impact resistance. The study was con...

  9. Continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines using complemented FEA results – Part II: Procedure application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, László; Fekete, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    The general objective of this paper is to execute the continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines with the developed procedure has been presented in the Part I. This aim was performed with a large dataset of complemented finite element analysis (FEA) results and burst test values can be found in the References. The numerical investigations have been done with an assumed sample-case taking spherical and spheroid shaped characteristic and mobile defects into account. The most important achievements are the supplemented ductile failure analysis, the continuous suitability of the weak link, the strain-based design criteria and the continuous integrity assessment diagrams. - Highlights: • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) examinations are performed for selection of a sample-case to investigate corrosion defects. • Serial calculations are carried out to determine the continuous suitability of the corroded pipeline sections. • We investigate the shape and size effects of corrosion defects on load carrying capacities (LCCs) of defective pipelines. • Continuous integrity assessment diagram (CIAD) showing the decreasing competent LCCs in the operation time is introduced. • Verification of the proposed method is performed by comparing the FEA results with burst pressure values measured.

  10. Intra-Laminar Fracture Toughness of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer By Using Theory, Experimentation and FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firojkhan, Pathan; Tanpure, Kshitijit; Dawale, Ajinkya; Patil, Shital

    2018-04-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are widely use in aerospace, marine, auto-mobile and civil engineering applications because of their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance and potentially high durability. The purpose of this research is to experimentally investigate the mechanical and fracture properties of glass-fiber reinforced polyester composite material, 450 g/m 2 randomly distributed glass-fiber mat also known as woven strand mat with polyester resin as a matrix. The samples have been produced by the conventional hand layup process and the specimens were prepared as per the ASTM standards. The tensile test was performed on the composite specimens using Universal testing machine (UTM) which are used for the finite element simulation of composite Layered fracture model. The mechanical properties were evaluated from the stress vs. strain curve obtained from the test result. Later, fracture tests were performed on the CT specimen. In case of CT specimen the load vs. Displacement plot obtained from the experimental results was used to determine the fracture properties of the composite. The failure load of CT specimen using FEA is simulated which gives the Stress intensity factor by using FEA. Good agreement between the FEA and experimental results was observed.

  11. FEA analysis and design optimization for a multifunctional piece of furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haraga Georgeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original approach to the integration of computer aided design and finite element analysis for a multifunctional piece of furniture using CATIA Generative Structural Analysis workbench. Finite Element Analysis (FEA application is an important engineering technique in the furniture industry. FEA is an accurate method for numerical solution of field problems. A major problem of mesh generation today is access to CAD geometry in a efficient and precise manner. Starting with a solid modelling for the creation of the desired piece of multifunctional furniture is used in this case, the automatic generation of the finite element meshes. Getting more accurate results for the mesh refinement process can be made by changing parameters. The article outlines the developed model for analysing the supporting structure of the armchair. This model provides simulating of the different loads and checking the raised stresses and deformation in the structures analysed. The main objective of this research is to evaluate strength of wooden cedar armchair for a person weighing 140 kg and for this the finite element analysis (FEA has been used. Multifunctional furniture is the answer to the challenges contemporary lifestyle, creativity in design activities that require optimal space utilization and reducing costs.

  12. Functional CuO Microstructures for Glucose Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gulzar; Tahira, Aneela; Mallah, Arfana Begum; Mallah, Sarfraz Ahmed; Ibupoto, Akila; Khand, Aftab Ahmed; Baradi, Waryani; Willander, Magnus; Yu, Cong; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain

    2018-02-01

    CuO microstructures are produced in the presence of water-soluble amino acids by hydrothermal method. The used amino acids include isoleucine, alpha alanine, and arginine as a soft template and are used for tuning the morphology of CuO nanostructures. The crystalline and morphological investigations were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The XRD study has shown that CuO material obtained in the presence of different amino acids is of high purity and all have the same crystal phase. The CuO microstructures prepared in the presence of arginine were used for the development of sensitive and selective glucose biosensor. The linear range for the glucose detection are from 0.001 mM to 30 mM and limit of detection was found to be 0.0005 mM. The sensitivity was estimated around 77 mV/decade. The developed biosensor is highly selective, sensitive, stable and reproducible. The glucose biosensor was used for the determination of real human blood samples and the obtained results are satisfactory. The CuO material is functional therefore can be capitalized in wide range of applications such as lithium ion batteries, all oxide solar cells and supercapacitors.

  13. Synthesis of CuO nanoflower and its application as a H2O2 sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuO; nanoflowers; electrochemical; H2O2. 1. Introduction. Cupric oxide (CuO) is an important transition metal oxide ... several high temperature superconductors and giant mag- ... precipitate was washed with ethanol and distilled water.

  14. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Cassia auriculata leaf extract ... Several methods are available for CuO NP preparation ... reader. Characterization .... would be important targets in current.

  15. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Prakash, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Gaur, Anurag, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  16. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively

  17. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  18. Tailored 3D CuO Nanogrid Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Gouma, P.I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the controlled synthesis of 3D CuO nano grids by the combined use of electro spinning and thermal oxidation of a composite metal mesh/polymer mat architecture. The obtained nano grids result from three steps encompassing: (i) Cu atom clusters diffusing into the nano fibers producing polymer-metal core-shell-type fibers (ii) decomposition of the polymeric shell; (iii) oxidation of the metallic core of the nano fibers to form self-supported, open nano grids consisting of continuous nano fibers of CuO nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20 nm. The calculated band gap energy of the cupric oxide nano grids was determined from the UV-Vis spectrum to be 1.32 eV. The unique 3D CuO nano grids may be used as key components of 3D nano batteries, photo catalysts, and p-type chemo sensors.

  19. Synthesis of a new compound - Sr2CuO2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, D.V.; Khardanov, A.L.; Antipov, E.V.; Kovba, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    A new compound of Sr 2 CuO 2 CO 3 composition, being an intermediate product of solid phase synthesis in air in SrCo 3 -CuO system at T 2 CuO 2 CO 3 have low resistance at room temperature and semiconductor type conductivity

  20. Positron annihilation study in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The positron annihilation study for La 2 CuO 4 are performed using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave(FLAPW) calculated electron and positron densities. The electron-positron momentum density(EPMD) is computed, and the well known Lock-Crisp-West(LCW) zone folding of the EPMD is produced. In the LCW analysis, small residual variations of order about 3 % are observed. The calculations show that the relative weights of the Fermi surface discontinuities are substantially altered due to the positron preferentially sampling the Cu-O plane region

  1. Validation of the FEA of a deep drawing process with additional force transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Grbic, N.; Vucetic, M.

    2017-10-01

    In order to meet requirements by automotive industry like decreasing the CO2 emissions, which reflects in reducing vehicles mass in the car body, the chassis and the powertrain, the continuous innovation and further development of existing production processes are required. In sheet metal forming processes the process limits and components characteristics are defined through the process specific loads. While exceeding the load limits, a failure in the material occurs, which can be avoided by additional force transmission activated in the deep drawing process before the process limit is achieved. This contribution deals with experimental investigations of a forming process with additional force transmission regarding the extension of the process limits. Based on FEA a tool system is designed and developed by IFUM. For this purpose, the steel material HCT600 is analyzed numerically. Within the experimental investigations, the deep drawing processes, with and without the additional force transmission are carried out. Here, a comparison of the produced rectangle cups is done. Subsequently, the identical deep drawing processes are investigated numerically. Thereby, the values of the punch reaction force and displacement are estimated and compared with experimental results. Thus, the validation of material model is successfully carried out on process scale. For further quantitative verification of the FEA results the experimental determined geometry of the rectangular cup is measured optically with ATOS system of the company GOM mbH and digitally compared with external software Geomagic®QualifyTM. The goal of this paper is the verification of the transferability of the FEA model for a conventional deep drawing process to a deep drawing process with additional force transmission with a counter punch.

  2. Facile Large-scale synthesis of stable CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P.; Abdollahi-Nejand, B.; Eskandari, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a novel approach in synthesizing the CuO nanoparticles was introduced. A sequential corrosion and detaching was proposed in the growth and dispersion of CuO nanoparticles in the optimum pH value of eight. The produced CuO nanoparticles showed six nm (±2 nm) in diameter and spherical feather with a high crystallinity and uniformity in size. In this method, a large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles (120 grams in an experimental batch) from Cu micro-particles was achieved which may met the market criteria for large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles.

  3. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured CuO thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wyas 1999). CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it ... of water. A semiconductor, to be used as photoelectrode in PEC cell, must be chemically stable and should have ... into volatile compounds under heat treatment (Armelao et.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by adopting aqueous precipitation method using copper sulphate 5-hydrate as a precursor and NaOH as a stabilizing agent. This gives a large scale production of CuO-NPs which are utilized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye. The CuO ...

  5. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Jae, E-mail: kimsangj@jejunu.ac.kr [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p{sub 3/2}) and Cu(2p{sub 1/2}) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors.

  6. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p 3/2 ) and Cu(2p 1/2 ) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors

  7. Adsorption and inhibition of CuO nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lina

    2018-02-01

    CuO NPs, the size ranging from 20 to 80 nm were used to detect the adsorption and inhibition on the Arabidopsis thaliana roots. In this study, CuO NPs were adsorbed and agglomerated on the surface of root top after exposed for 7 days. With the increasing of CuO NPs concentrations, CuO NPs also adsorbed on the meristernatic zone. The growth of Arabidopsis thaliana lateral roots were also inhibited by CuO NPs exposure. The Inhibition were concentration dependent. The number of root top were 246, 188 and 123 per Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The number of root tops after CuO NPs exposure were significantly decreased compared with control groups. This results suggested the phytotoxicity of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

  8. FEA and microstructure characterization of a one-piece Y-TZP abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lucas Hian; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Borges, Alexandre Luís Souto; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Tango, Rubens Nisie

    2014-11-01

    The most important drawback of dental implant/abutment assemblies is the need for a fixing screw. This study aimed to develop an esthetic one-piece Y-TZP abutment to suppress the use of the screw. Material characterization was performed using a bar-shaped specimen obtained by slip-casting to validate the method prior to prototype abutment fabrication by the same process. The mechanical behavior of the prototype abutment was verified and compared with a conventional abutment by finite element analysis (FEA). The abutment was evaluated by micro-CT analysis and its density was measured. FEA showed stress concentration at the first thread pitch during installation and in the cervical region during oblique loading for both abutments. However, stress concentration was observed at the base of the screw head and stem in the conventional abutment. The relative density for the fabricated abutment was 95.68%. Micro-CT analysis revealed the presence of elongated cracks with sharp edges over the surface and porosity in the central region. In the light of these findings, the behavior of a one-piece abutment is expected to be better than that of the conventional model. New studies should be conducted to clarify the performance and longevity of this one-piece Y-TZP abutment. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Free Energy Adjusted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (FEA-PSNR) for Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), the de facto universal image quality metric has been widely criticized as having poor correlation with human subjective quality ratings. In this paper, it will be illustrated that the low performance of PSNR as an image quality metric is partially due to its inability of differentiating image contents. And it is revealed that the deviation between subjective score and PSNR for each type of distortions can be systematically captured by perceptual complexity of the target image. The free energy modelling technique is then introduced to simulate the human cognitive process and measure perceptual complexity of an image. Then it is shown that performance of PSNR can be effectively improved using a linear score mapping process considering image free energy and distortion type. The proposed free energy adjusted peak signal to noise ratio (FEA-PSNR) does not change computational steps the of ordinary PSNR and therefore it inherits the merits of being simple, derivable and physically meaningful. So FEA-PSNR can be easily integrated into existing PSNR based image processing systems to achieve more visually plausible results. And the proposed analysis approach can be extended to other types of image quality metrics for enhanced performance.

  10. Displacement waves in La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) and La(1. 85)Sr(0. 15)CuO(4-delta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, T.; Onozuka, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Hirabayashi, M.; Syono, Y.

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures. 20 references.

  11. Oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Wu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhihe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Using anodic aluminum oxide membranes as the nanoreactors and controller, oriented nanowire arrays of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Mn-doped CuO have been successfully fabricated using Mn(NO_3)_2 · 4H_2O and Cu(NO_3)_2 · 3H_2O as the starting materials. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the as-prepared oriented nanowire arrays are of high purity. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the nanowires are oriented, continuous and uniform with a diameter and length of about 170 nm and several tens of micrometers, respectively, and thus of a high aspect ratio. Low-temperature magnetic measurements showed the ferromagnetic property of the oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays with the critical temperature at around 80 K, which will endow them with great potential applications in spintronics in the future. (paper)

  12. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  13. Magnetic excitations in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors compare the experimentally observed magnetic excitations in La 2 CuO 4 with those calculated for a square lattice spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. They find that the short-wavelength spin-pair excitation spectrum deduced from light scattering, and the long wavelength spin- wave dispersion deduced from neutron scattering are both consistent with a nearest neighbor model with the exchange constant J of about 1500 K

  14. Dynamic characteristics of Semi-active Hydraulic Engine Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried out to compare with the simulation results, and verify the accuracy of the model. Then the dynamic characteristics-dynamic stiffness and damping angle were analysed by simulation and test. This paper provides theoretical support for the development and optimization of the semi-active hydraulic engine mount.

  15. Toxicity and transfer of CuO Nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Dai, Yanhui; Xu, Lina

    2018-02-01

    CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are widely used in commercial applications. With increasing CuO ENPs production, CuO ENPs are likely to present in the environment and cause a potential threaten to ecosystem. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana (Bay-0) was chosen to take the toxic experiment after exposed to CuO ENPs (0, 20, and 50 mg/L) and Cu2+ (0.15 mg/L). And the copper content of shoots at 50 mg/L CuO ENPs was about 20 times of control, indicating that CuO ENPs could be absorbed into Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and transfered from root to shoot in a certain way.

  16. Exchange bias effect in composites of cuo nanoparticles and nanosilica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan Saha, Dhriti [MLS Professor' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kumar Nandi, Arun [Polymer Science Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakravorty, Dipankar, E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Professor' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Nanodimensional silica based glass containing iron ions was prepared within the compressed pellet of CuO nanoparicles. The nanocomposite material showed exchange bias effect. This effect arose due to ferromagnetic iron doped CuO phase and antiferromagnetic CuO interface formation within the nanocomposite during the synthesis process. Coercive field as a function of temperature was fitted with Arhenius–Neel equation and extracted blocking temperature was 511 K. The value of effective anisotropy constant for the nanocomposite was found to be 3.64x10{sup 5} erg/cc. - Highlights: • Nanoglass comprising SiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was grown with pores of CuO nanoparticle compacts. • CuO (AFM)-core and Fe doped CuO (FM) shell were formed during synthesis. • The nanocomposite material showed exchange bias effect.

  17. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu 2 O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH) 2 . But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO

  18. Kondo effect and heavy fermions in Yb compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonville, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Kondo properties of Yb dilute alloys and intermetallics have been investigated using Moessbauer spectroscopy on 170 Yb. In the dilute alloys AuYb and LaBe 13 Yb, the Kondo logarithmic anomaly of the impurity relaxation rate has been detected, and in the concentrated Yb compounds YbBe 13 , YbP and YbAs, and YbCuAl, the manifestations of the interplay between the Kondo effect and the magnetic ordering due to the RKKY interaction have been characterized

  19. Heavy fermion stabilization of solitons in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, E.; Graham, N.; Jaffe, R.L.; Weigel, H.

    2000-01-01

    We find static solitons stabilized by quantum corrections in a (1+1) -dimensional model with a scalar field chirally coupled to fermions. This model does not support classical solitons. We compute the renormalized energy functional including one-loop quantum corrections. We carry out a variational search for a configuration that minimizes the energy functional. We find a nontrivial configuration with fermion number whose energy is lower than the same number of free fermions quantized about the translationally invariant vacuum. In order to compute the quantum corrections for a given background field we use a phase-shift parameterization of the Casimir energy. We identify orders of the Born series for the phase shift with perturbative Feynman diagrams in order to renormalize the Casimir energy using perturbatively determined counterterms. Generalizing dimensional regularization, we demonstrate that this procedure yields a finite and unambiguous energy functional

  20. The critical magnetic fields of heavy fermions superconductors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can easily be seen that sharp change of HC2 between the two solutions exists in all orders of perturbation because there is no finite matrix element between the two states (ƞ, ƞ3) = (|0>, 0) and (ƞ, ƞ3) = (0, |0>) in any higher order of perturbation in the coupling term. This is different if the Magnetic field is pointing along ...

  1. Some observations on heavy fermion superconductivity in UBe13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Giorgi, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Recently it has been discovered that very slight substitution of Cu for Be in UBe 13 depresses superconductivity below 0.050 K. We have measured the low-temperature specific heat of UBe/sub 12.94/ Cu/sub 0.06/ (T/sub c/ 13 appears unaltered in the copper-substituted material. Therefore, the presence of high-mass electrons is not directly correlated superconductivity in UBe 13

  2. Extra Z neutral bosons, families and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-08-01

    The minimal Grand Unified Theories with three-family should include two extra Z neufral bosons which belong to the different broken scales. Georgi's argument on heavy Dirac fermions has been realized. These fermions should not be bizarre. The extra Z and Dirac fermions are not too heavy. The difficulty of the proton decay may be resolved

  3. CuO reduction induced formation of CuO/Cu2O hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Yin, Qiyue; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Reduction of CuO nanowires results in the formation of a unique hierarchical hybrid nanostructure, in which the parent oxide phase (CuO) works as the skeleton while the lower oxide (Cu2O) resulting from the reduction reaction forms as partially embedded nanoparticles that decorate the skeleton of the parent oxide. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the reduction process of CuO nanowires, we demonstrate that the formation of such a hierarchical hybrid oxide structure is induced by topotactic nucleation and growth of Cu2O islands on the parent CuO nanowires.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Colloidal CuO Nanocrystals for Light-Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Yee-Fun; Choi, Joshua J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    CuO is an earth-abundant, nontoxic, and low band-gap material; hence it is an attractive candidate for application in solar cells. In this paper, a synthesis of CuO nanocrystals by a facile alcohothermal route is reported. The nanocrystals are dispersible in a solvent mixture of methanol and chloroform, thus enabling the processing of CuO by solution. A bilayer solar cell comprising of CuO nanocrystals and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) achieved a power conversion efficiency of 0.04%, indicating the potential of this material for light-harvesting applications.

  5. Synthesis of CuO nanocrystalline and their application as electrode materials for capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Zhang Milin

    2008-01-01

    Cauliflower-like, nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO nanocrystallines were synthesized by the chemical deposition method. The microstructure and morphology of CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the morphology of CuO was affected by property of alkali added into system. The probable mechanisms of the formation of CuO with different morphologies were discussed. The electrochemical properties of CuO as electrode material were enhanced by the improving of morphology. Cauliflower-like CuO exhibited a higher specific capacitance (116.9 F g -1 ) than nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO, and also showed good reversibility. Specific capacitance of cauliflower-like CuO (115.3 F g -1 ) was 343.5% higher than CuO bought (26 F g -1 ) at 5 mA cm -2

  6. Synthesis of CuO nanocrystalline and their application as electrode materials for capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongxia [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhanghongxia.412@163.com; Zhang Milin [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhangmilin@hrbeu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Cauliflower-like, nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO nanocrystallines were synthesized by the chemical deposition method. The microstructure and morphology of CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the morphology of CuO was affected by property of alkali added into system. The probable mechanisms of the formation of CuO with different morphologies were discussed. The electrochemical properties of CuO as electrode material were enhanced by the improving of morphology. Cauliflower-like CuO exhibited a higher specific capacitance (116.9 F g{sup -1}) than nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO, and also showed good reversibility. Specific capacitance of cauliflower-like CuO (115.3 F g{sup -1}) was 343.5% higher than CuO bought (26 F g{sup -1}) at 5 mA cm{sup -2}.

  7. Electronic structure studies of La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, A. L.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Jean, Y. C.; Wetzler, K. H.; Howell, R. H.; Fluss, M. J.; Harshman, D. R.; Remeika, J. P.; Cooper, A. S.; Fleming, R. M.

    1988-07-01

    We report results of positron-electron momentum-distribution measurements of single-crystal La2CuO4 using two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-annihilation-radiation techniques. The data contain two components: a large (~85%), isotropic corelike electron contribution and a remaining, anisotropic valence-electron contribution modeled using a linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital method and a localized ion scheme, within the independent-particle model approximation. This work suggests a ligand-field Hamiltonian to be justified for describing the electronic properties of perovskite materials.

  8. Cu-O superconductors: through a lens, but darkly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orenstein, J.; Thomas, G.A.; Rapkine, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of reflectivity R, for single crystal samples of La 2 CuO 4 (c-La) and pressed pellets of ceramic La/sub 2-x/Sr/sub x/CuO 4 (LaSr) for x = 0, 0.04, 0.075, 0.175, 0.225 are reported. A plot of R vs log nu for c-La is shown. The samples were cube-like objects approximately 2 mm on a side, which were polished as previously described

  9. Electronic structure studies of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    We report results of positron-electron momentum-distribution measurements of single-crystal La 2 CuO 4 using two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-annihilation-radiation techniques. The data contain two components: a large (∼85%), isotropic corelike electron contribution and a remaining, anisotropic valence-electron contribution modeled using a linear combination of atomic orbitals--molecular orbital method and a localized ion scheme, within the independent-particle model approximation. This work suggests a ligand-field Hamiltonian to be justified for describing the electronic properties of perovskite materials

  10. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanostructures on copper substrate as selective solar absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick Kumar, S.; Murugesan, S.; Suresh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Selective solar absorber coatings of copper oxide (CuO) on copper substrates are prepared by room temperature oxidation of copper at different alkaline conditions. The surface morphology and structural analyses of the CuO coatings are carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD and Raman studies indicated the single phase nature and high crystallinity of the prepared CuO nanostructures. Different CuO nanostructures, viz., nanoneedles, nanofibers and nanoparticles are formed at different alkaline conditions. The influence of reaction time on morphology of the CuO nanostructures is also studied. The thermal emittance values of these nanostructured CuO samples are found to be in the range of 6–7% and their solar absorptances are ranged between 84 and 90%. The observed high solar selectivity values (>12.7) suggest that these coatings can be used as selective absorbers in solar thermal gadgets. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CuO thin films on Cu substrate have been prepared by a facile method. • Morphology of the CuO nanostructures varies with reaction pH. • The thin films show high absorptance in the visible region and low thermal emittance. • Multiple absorption in the porous structure leads to high solar absorptance. • Nanostructures posses solar selectivity values >12

  11. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the compressive strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self-compacting concrete with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles have been investigated. CuO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 15 nm were added to self-compacting concrete and various properties of the specimens ...

  12. Tetragonal CuO: End member of the 3d transition metal monoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, W.; Koster, Gertjan; Blank, David H.A.; Hammond, Robert H.; Geballe, Theodore H.; Beasley, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Monoclinic CuO is anomalous both structurally as well as electronically in the 3d transition metal oxide series. All the others have the cubic rocksalt structure. Here we report the synthesis and electronic property determination of a tetragonal (elongated rocksalt) form of CuO created using an

  13. An Investigation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA on Piezoelectric Compliance in Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Milling (UVAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rasidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis for piezoelectric actuator has been developed in Ansys Software which are a program that can analyses and simulate the dynamic behaviour of piezoelectric. The Ultrasonic Vibration assisted Milling (UVAM experimental having a difficulty to investigate the effect of vibration mechanism where existence of error in material, mechanism and attachment of piezoelectric thus affect the amplitude and frequency of mechanical compliance during the machining of UVAM. This paper will investigate the modelling of piezoelectric compliance and follow the procedures of FEA to accurately predict the dynamic behaviour of compliance. The parameters for simulation of piezoelectric are voltage, electromechanical coupling and frequency. The compliance mechanism is model by using SolidWorks 2014 and imported to Ansys Mechanical APDL Software were the piezoelectric are embedded on the mechanism. Modal analysis and harmonic analysis has been used in order to obtain the mode shape and displacement. The displacement of the compliance mechanism will be compare between simulation and experimental. The dynamic behaviour was discussed in simulation to study the reliability of the compliance mechanism before it safely used in UVAM.

  14. Finite element analysis (FEA) of dental implant fixture for mechanical stability and rapid osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shafia; Murtaza, Ahmar; Ali, Hasan; Uddin, Zia Mohy; Zehra, Syedah Sadaf

    2017-10-01

    For rapid osseointegration of dental implant fixtures, various surface treatments including plasma spraying, hydroxyapatite coating, acid-etching, and surface grooving are used. However undesirable effects such as chemical modifications, loss of mechanical properties, prolonged processing times and post production treatment steps are often associated with these techniques. The osseointegration rate of the dental implants can be promoted by increasing the surface area of the dental implant, thus increasing the bone cells - implant material contact and allow bone tissues to grow rapidly. Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques can be used to fabricate dental implant fixtures with desirable surface area in a single step manufacturing process. AM allows the use of Computer Aided Designing (CAD) for customised rapid prototyping of components with precise control over geometry. In this study, the dental implant fixture that replaces the tooth root was designed on commercially available software COMSOL. Nickel - titanium alloy was selected as build materials for dental implant. The geometry of the dental fixture was varied by changing the interspacing distance (thread pitch) and number of threads to increase the total surface area. Three different microstructures were introduced on the surface of dental implant. The designed models were used to examine the effect of changing geometries on the total surface area. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the effect of changing geometries on the mechanical properties of the dental implant fixtures using stress analysis.

  15. Computer aided FEA simulation of EN45A parabolic leaf spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes computer aided finite element analysis of parabolic leaf spring. The present work is an improvement in design of EN45A parabolic leaf spring used by a light commercial automotive vehicle. Development of a leaf spring is a long process which requires lots of test to validate the design and manufacturing variables. A three-layer parabolic leaf spring of EN45A has been taken for this work. The thickness of leaves varies from center to the outer side following a parabolic pattern. These leaf springs are designed to become lighter, but also provide a much improved ride to the vehicle through a reduction on interleaf friction. The CAD modeling of parabolic leaf spring has been done in CATIA V5 and for analysis the model is imported in ANSYS-11 workbench. The finite element analysis (FEA of the leaf spring has been carried out by initially discretizing the model into finite number of elements and nodes and then applying the necessary boundary conditions. Maximum displacement, directional displacement, equivalent stress and weight of the assembly are the output targets of this analysis for comparison & validation of the work.

  16. CO gas sensing of CuO nanostructures, synthesized by an assisted solvothermal wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Oroojpour, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    CuO nanostructures with different morphologies and sizes were grown in a controlled manner using a simple low-temperature hydrothermal technique. By controlling the pH of reaction mixture, spherical nanoparticles and cloudlike CuO structures were synthesized at 100-150 o C with excellent efficiency. These CuO nanostructures have been tested for CO gas monitoring by depositing them as thick films on an interdigitated alumina substrate and evaluated the surface resistance of the deposited layer as a function of operating temperature and CO concentrations. The gas sensitivity tests have demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures, especially cloudlike morphology, exhibit high sensitivity to CO proving their applicability in gas sensors. The role of the nanostructure on the sensing properties of CuO is also discussed.

  17. Study of the C-14-contamination potential of C-impurities in CuO and Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeputte, K; Moens, L; Dams, R; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The carbon concentration in CuO and iron was determined by isolating C. The values were in agreement with results reported in other studies. Contaminating carbon from CuO and Fe was transformed to AMS targets and measured for C-14. C-traces in CuO were shown to be the major contribution to the C-14

  18. A density functional theory study of the influence of exchange-correlation functionals on the properties of FeAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sinéad M; Spaldin, Nicola A

    2017-06-01

    We use density functional theory within the local density approximation (LDA), LDA  +  U, generalised gradient approximation (GGA), GGA  +  U, and hybrid-functional methods to calculate the properties of iron monoarsenide. FeAs, which forms in the MnP structure, is of current interest for potential spintronic applications as well as being the parent compound for the pnictide superconductors. We compare the calculated structural, magnetic and electronic properties obtained using the different functionals to each other and to experiment, and investigate the origin of a recently reported magnetic spiral. Our results indicate the appropriateness or otherwise of the various functionals for describing FeAs and the related Fe-pnictide superconductors.

  19. Wetting of molybdenum with molten Cu-O alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yupko, V.L.; Garbuz, V.V.; Kryuchkova, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cu-O alloys were prepared from type MOb copper (GOST 859-78) with an oxygen content of 0.001 wt.% and type ChDA cuprous oxide (MRTU 6-09-1451-64), the powder of which was first pressed into briquettes. The weighted portions of Cu 2 O were weighed on an Elektrobalans scale having an absolute error of ±5 · 10 -7 g. The relative error in weighing an approximately 1 · 10 -4 g weighed portion of Cu 2 O for preparation of the alloy with the minimum oxygen content of 0.002% was, therefore, ± 0.5% and consequently for the alloys with a higher oxygen content the accuracy was higher. The alloys were prepared on a ZrO 2 + 5% Y 2 O 3 ceramic at 1,420 K in a vacuum of 6.7 · 10 -3 Pa,d their weight was 1.0-1.5 g, and the melting time 30 sec. The pure type MOb copper was remelted in the same manner. The time relationships of the angle of wetting of molybdenum by molten Cu-O alloys under conditions of combined heating are given. With an increase in oxygen content from 0.004 to 0.005%, wetting drops sharply

  20. NInFEA: an embedded framework for the real-time evaluation of fetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Danilo; Barabino, Gianluca; Raffo, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) extraction from non-invasive biopotential recordings is a long-standing research topic. Despite the significant number of algorithms presented in the scientific literature, it is difficult to find information about embedded hardware implementations able to provide real-time support for the required features, bridging the gap between theory and practice. This article presents the NInFEA (non-invasive fetal ECG analysis) tool, an embedded hardware/software framework based on the hybrid dual-core OMAP-L137 low-power processor for the real-time evaluation of fetal ECG extraction algorithms. The hybrid platform, including a digital signal processor (DSP) and a general-purpose processor (GPP), allows achieving the best performance compared with single-core architectures. The GPP provides a portable graphical user interface, whereas the DSP is extensively used for advanced signal processing tasks. As a case study, three state-of-the-art fetal ECG extraction algorithms have been ported onto NInFEA, along with some support routines needed to provide the additional information required by the clinicians and supported by the user interface. NInFEA can be regarded both as a reference design for similar applications and as a common embedded low-power testbed for real-time fetal ECG extraction algorithms.

  1. Development of capacitive sensor for automatically measuring tumbler water level with FEA simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qun; Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Jong-Ha

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water has several advantages that have already been established, such as improving blood circulation, reducing acid in the stomach, etc. However, due to people not noticing the amount of water they consume every time they drink, most people drink less water than the recommended daily allowance. In this paper, a capacitive sensor for developing an automatic tumbler to measure water level is proposed. Different than in previous studies, the proposed capacitive sensor was separated into two sets: the main sensor for measuring the water level in the tumbler, and the reference sensor for measuring the incremental level unit. In order to confirm the feasibility of the proposed idea, and to optimize the shape of the sensor, a 3D model of the capacitive sensor with the tumbler was designed and subjected to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation. According to the simulation results, the electrodes were made of copper and assembled in a tumbler manufactured by a 3D printer. The tumbler was filled with water and was subjected to experiments in order to assess the sensor's performance. The comparison of experimental results to the simulation results shows that the measured capacitance value of the capacitive sensor changed linearly as the water level varied. This proves that the proposed sensor can accurately measure the water level in the tumbler. Additionally, by use of the curve fitting method, a compensation algorithm was found to match the actual level with the measured level. The experimental results proved that the proposed capacitive sensor is able to measure the actual water level in the tumbler accurately. A digital control part with micro-processor will be designed and fixed on the bottom of the tumbler for developing a smart tumbler.

  2. Interpreting ASME limits and philosophy in FEA of pressure vessel parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, L.M.; Cruz, J.R.B.; Miranda, C.A.J.; Neto, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years there has been an effort to interpret finite element (FE) stress results on the light of the ASME B and PV rules and philosophy. Many task groups have issued guidelines on stress linearization and classifications. All those attempts have come up trying to cope modern FE techniques with the rules imposed by the ASME Code. This paper is an independent contribution to the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) groups which are studying the stress classification and the failure mechanism in a FE framework. This work tries to complement the interesting work by Hollinger and Hechmer presented in the PVP-94 in Minneapolis. In that paper, the authors examined a typical support skirt and showed relations between the skirt collapse load obtained by finite element analysis and the loads allowed from the ASME stress limits. To complement such paper, in the present article, different skirt geometry configurations are analyzed. The configurations here investigated consist of similar support skirts but with different angles of attachments between cylinder and cone parts. It will be possible to observe the influence of the bending stress in the collapse load and its relation to the allowable loads inferred from the ASME limits. A pressure vessel with torispherical head under internal pressure is also examined. Using elastic and limit load FEA, the present paper determines the collapse loads of the configurations. It sets up the relations between these collapse loads, stress categories, and limits dictated by the ASME Code Subsection NB. On the light of NB rules and philosophy, this paper shows how different methods of stress assessment, classification, and limits may influence in the design of a pressure vessel

  3. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur; Karthikeyan, B.

    2013-01-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A u and B u modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes

  4. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur [Department of Marine Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 (India); Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: balkarin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India)

    2013-05-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A{sub u} and B{sub u} modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes.

  5. Enhancement in light harvesting ability of photoactive layer P3HT: PCBM using CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Dipak, Pukhrambam; Chandel, Tarun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized CuO nanoparticles via precipitation method and incorporated CuO nanoparticles in the P3HT-poly (3-hexyl) thiophene: PCBM-[6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterogeneous blend. The ratio of P3HT to CuO in the blend was varied, while maintaining the fixed ratio of PCBM. The UV-visible absorption spectra of P3HT: PCBM photoactive layer containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer. The absorption band starts from 310 nm to 750 nm for P3HT: CuO (NPs):PCBM (0.5:0.5:1). This shows that incorporation of CuO nanoparticles leads to larger absorption band. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows improvement in P3HT crystallinity and the better formation of CuO nanostructures.

  6. Transforming from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to induce ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling without any ferromagnetic dopant. The magnetic measurements indicate that paramagnetic CuO is driven to the ferromagnetic state at room temperature by ball milling gradually. The saturation magnetization of the milled powders is found to increase with expanding the milling time and then decrease by annealing under atmosphere. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the observed induction and weaken of the ferromagnetism shows close relationship with the valence charged oxygen vacancies (Cu1+-VO in CuO.

  7. Annealing effect on superconductivity of La2CuO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, I.; Takahashi, H.; Kojima, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that La 2 CuO 4 single crystals grown at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa by TSFZ method are superconducting below 32 K, and show a semiconducting behavior in nonsuperconducting state. The single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 are changed from superconductors to semiconductors by annealing in argon, and are returned to superconductors by annealing at ambient pressure of oxygen. Therefore, superconductivity of the La 2 CuO 4 single crystals is due to excess oxygen

  8. Annealing effect on superconductivity of La2CuO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, L.; Takahashi, H.; Kojima, H.

    1992-01-01

    La 2 CuO 4 single crystals grown at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa by TSFZ method are superconducting below 32 K, and show a semiconducting behavior in nonsuperconducting state. The single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 are changed from superconductors to semiconductors by annealing in argon, and are returned to superconductors by annealing at ambient pressure of oxygen. Therefore, superconductivity of the La 2 CuO 4 single crystals is due to excess oxygen. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volanti, D.P.; Keyson, D.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Joya, M.R.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Souza, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volanti, D.P. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br; Simoes, A.Z. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Joya, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, A.G. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-14

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained.

  11. Optical excitations in CuO2-sheets doped and undoped with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Y.; Arima, T.; Koshihara, S.; Takagi, H.; Ido, T.; Ishibashi, S.; Uchida, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports optical reflectance spectra measured on single crystals of parent families of high T c copper oxide compounds with single-layered CuO 2 -sheets, which clearly show the strong transitons across the charge-transfer (CT) gaps at 1.5-2.0 eV in various types of CuO 2 -sheets. The carrier-doping effects on the CT excitations have been investigated on the Sr-doped La 2 CuO 4 and Ce-doped Nd 2 O 4 crystals

  12. Zeolite Encapsulated Nanocrystalline CuO: A Redox Catalyst for the Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vijaikumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite encapsulated nanocrystalline CuO is synthesized and characterized by powder XRD and HRTEM analyses which clearly show that the particles are less than 15 nm and the nanoparticles are highly dispersed. This nano CuO encapsulated CuY zeolite is used as catalyst in the oxidation of aromatic secondary alcohols. CuY zeolite acts as an efficient support for nano CuO, by stabilizing it and preventing its aggregation. Plausible mechanisms for the formation of the various products are also given.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of tartrazine dye using CuO straw-sheaf-like nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Martha Purnachander; Wu, Jerry J; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-03-01

    Straw-sheaf-like CuO nanostructures were fruitfully synthesized using a chemical precipitation approach for the photocatalytic degradation assessment of tartrazine. Phase identification, composition, and morphological outlook of prepared CuO nanostructures were established by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized CuO nanostructures was appraised in the presence of visible light and the possible intermediates formed during the photocatalytic degradation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A suitable degradation pathway has also been proposed.

  14. Nanostructured CuO thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis: a simple method for enhancing the electrochemical performance of CuO in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis; Martin, Francisco; Ramos-Barrado, Jose R.; Sanchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by using a spray pyrolysis method, copper acetate as precursor and stainless steel as substrate. The textural and structural properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed thorough coating of the substrate and thickness of 450-1250 nm; the average particle size as determined from the AFM images ranged from 30 to 160 nm. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of CuO alone and the XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cu 2+ as the main oxidation state on the surface. The films were tested as electrodes in lithium cells and their electrochemical properties evaluated from galvanostatic and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPES) measurements. The discharge STEP curves exhibited various peaks consistent with the processes CuO Cu 2 O Cu and with decomposition of the electrolyte, a reversible process in the light of the AFM images. The best electrode exhibited capacity values of 625 Ah kg -1 over more than 100 cycles. This value, which involves a CuO Cu reversible global reaction, is ca. 50% higher than that reported for bulk CuO. The nanosize of the particles and the good adherence of the active material to the substrate are thought to be the key factors accounting for the enhanced electrochemical activity found

  15. Beware the black box: investigating the sensitivity of FEA simulations to modelling factors in comparative biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Walmsley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis (FEA is a computational technique of growing popularity in the field of comparative biomechanics, and is an easily accessible platform for form-function analyses of biological structures. However, its rapid evolution in recent years from a novel approach to common practice demands some scrutiny in regards to the validity of results and the appropriateness of assumptions inherent in setting up simulations. Both validation and sensitivity analyses remain unexplored in many comparative analyses, and assumptions considered to be ‘reasonable’ are often assumed to have little influence on the results and their interpretation.Here we report an extensive sensitivity analysis where high resolution finite element (FE models of mandibles from seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads typical for comparative analysis: biting, shaking, and twisting. Simulations explored the effect on both the absolute response and the interspecies pattern of results to variations in commonly used input parameters. Our sensitivity analysis focuses on assumptions relating to the selection of material properties (heterogeneous or homogeneous, scaling (standardising volume, surface area, or length, tooth position (front, mid, or back tooth engagement, and linear load case (type of loading for each feeding type.Our findings show that in a comparative context, FE models are far less sensitive to the selection of material property values and scaling to either volume or surface area than they are to those assumptions relating to the functional aspects of the simulation, such as tooth position and linear load case. Results show a complex interaction between simulation assumptions, depending on the combination of assumptions and the overall shape of each specimen. Keeping assumptions consistent between models in an analysis does not ensure that results can be generalised beyond the specific set of assumptions used. Logically, different

  16. Transparency of the Total System Performance Assessment through the Development of the FEAS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.; Seo, E.J.; Kang, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    Transparency on the total system performance assessment (TSPA) is the key issue to enhance the public acceptance for a permanent high level radioactive repository. Throughout the lessons accumulated in international projects, it turns out to be important to translate technical languages to more understandable ones. One of the key consolidated statements of the RISCOM project was 'the public should know you have a model, which is clear to everybody about value judgments, facts, uncertainties and questions'. In fact, the final assessment is the integration of identifying and clarifying facts, expert judgment, uncertainties, value judgment, level of significance, and open questions, which cannot be easily understood. Traditionally, the study on features, events, and processes (FEPs) and associated scenarios has been regarded as the starting point to open the communicative discussion on TSPA such as what to evaluate, how to evaluate and how to translate outcomes into more friendly language that many stakeholders can easily understand and react with. However, in most cases, it is difficult for stakeholders outside the performance assessment field to assess the details on the story of the safety assessment; scenario and technical background of it. Fortunately, the advent of the internet era opens up the possibility of two way communication from the beginning of the performance assessment so that every stake bolder can exchange their keen opinions on the safety issues. To achieve it, KAERI develops the systematic approach from the FEPs to Assessment method flow chart, through the formation of integrated FEPs corresponding to the elements in the RES matrix. All information is integrated into the web based program named FEAS (FEp to Assessment through Scenario development) under development in KAERI. In parallel, two independent systems are also under development, the web based quality assurance system and the performance assessment input database. Throughout the next phase

  17. Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased γ-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity.Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively

  18. Azide-Alkyne Huisgen [3+2] Cycloaddition Using CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoon Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs and their application to the [3+2] cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes are reviewed. With respect to the importance of click chemistry, CuO hollow NPs, CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black, water-soluble double-hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC nanoreactors and ZnO–CuO hybrid NPs were synthesized. Non-conventional energy sources such as microwaves and ultrasound were also applied to these click reactions, and good catalytic activity with high regioselectivity was observed. CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black can be recycled nine times without any loss of activity, and water-soluble DHBC nanoreactors have been developed for an environmentally friendly process.

  19. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. (Department of Physics Alessandro Volta,' ' University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  20. Comparison of internal friction in high Tc superconductors and CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzowski, O.; Davoli, I.; Stizza, S.; Mancini, G.; Kusz, B.; Barczynski, R.; Gazda, M.; Sadowski, W.; Murawski, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the internal friction and shielding effect in CuO, superconducting yttrium and bismuth ceramics and yttrium monocrystal that have been measured. Several features, some of them common for all specimens, have been found

  1. CuO urchin-nanostructures synthesized from a domestic hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyson, D.; Volanti, D.P.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2008-01-01

    This letter reports the synthesis of CuO urchin-nanostructures by a simple and novel hydrothermal microwave method. The formation and growth of urchin-nanostructures is mainly affected by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The hierarchical malachite particles are uniform spheres with a diameter of 0.7-1.9 μm. CuO urchin-nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The specific surface area of the CuO nanostructured microspheres was about 170.5 m 2 /g. A possible mechanism for the formation of such CuO urchin-nanostructures is proposed

  2. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India and Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gupta, V. K. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R. [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  3. CuO nanoparticle sensor for the electrochemical determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sathish; Kumara Swamy, B.E.; Jayadevappa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MCPE prepared from flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibits good electrocatalytic activity for DA compared with MCPE prepared from rod-shaped CuO nanoparticles. ► The MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles strong electrocatalytic enhancement of redox peak currents for DA and large peak potential separation between E AA − E DA . ► Analysis of DA shows linearly increase in anodic peak current in presence of excess ascorbic acid. ► Ease of preparation and good analytical response supports its claim for use as a potential dopamine sensor. - Abstract: In the present work, different shaped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a co-precipitation method. The CuO nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis). The prepared CuO nanoparticles were used for the preparation of modified carbon-paste electrodes (MCPE) for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) at pH 6.0. The MCPE prepared from flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited an enhanced current response for DA. Electrochemical parameters, such as the surface area of the electrode, the heterogeneous rate constant (k s ) and the lower detection limit (5.5 × 10 −8 M), were calculated and compared with those of the MCPE prepared from rod-shaped CuO nanoparticles. The MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited a further improved current response for DA and a high selectivity (E AA − E DA = 0.28 V) for the simultaneous investigation of DA and ascorbic acid (AA) at pH 6.0. The modified carbon-paste electrochemical sensors were compared, and the MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited better performance than the MCPE prepared from CTAB

  4. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CONTRASTANDO AS PRODUÇÕES DA REVISTA CONTABILIDADE & FINANÇAS (FEA-USP E REVISTA BASE (UNISINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIO DONIZETE BATISTELLA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La reestructuración del sistema de evaluación de publicaciones de la Funda-ción Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento de Personal de Nivel Superior (CAPES, el Sistema Qualis, produjo un fuerte incentivo a la publicación de artículos en periódicos. Aprehender la fase de la producción en dos periódicos nacionales es el foco de esta averiguación. Estos periódicos son: Revista Contabilidade & Finanças (FEA-USP e Revista Base (UNISINOS. El período de análisis engloba las publicaciones ocurridas en 2005 y en 2006. Los aspectos observados por la CAPES en su proceso de eva-luación de periódicos son eminentemente orientados en la edición y compaginación del periódico. En este sentido, el análisis adoptado en esta pesquisa posee enfoque en la forma de los periódicos, siendo que la metodología central es fundamentada en el modelo propuesto por Krzyzanowski y Ferreira (1998. Los resultados logrados sugieren que la Revista Contabilidad & Finanzas (FEA-USP presenta, con relación al apartado forma, un desempeño general clasificado como bueno, mientras que la Revista Base (Unisinos presenta un desempeño mediano. Se observó también una mayor concentración de autores en las publicaciones de la Revista Contabilidad & Finanzas (FEA-Usp (recurrencia con relación a la Revista Base (UNISINOS.

  6. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresa P S Prasad, Dattatray S Dhawale, Thiripuranthagan Sivakumar, Salem S Aldeyab, Javaid S M Zaidi, Katsuhiko Ariga and Ajayan Vinu

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD r...

  7. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; Salhi, Elisabeth; Croue, Jean-Philippe; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  8. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2014-11-18

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Preparation and photo Fenton-like activities of high crystalline CuO fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; He, Jing; Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    CuO fibers were successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning method, followed by calcination. Some experimental parameters such as the content of Cu(NO3)2•3H2O, the content of PVP, the stirring time, the applied voltage, as well the calcination temperature were investigated, respectively, and their influences on the morphologies of fibers and the spinnability of precursor solution were analyzed. The CuO fibers calcined at 550 °C consisted of numerous CuO grains exhibited a well-crystalline structure. Furthermore, the CuO fibers demonstrated effective photo-Fenton degradation to methyl orange with the assist of H2O2 and the adding volume of H2O2 affects the degradation activities greatly. The degradation rate of methyl orange by the CuO fibers in the presence of 238.8 mmol/L H2O2 is 3.8 times as much as one by P25 alone under the irradiation of Xe lamp. The degradation ratio of methyl orange could achieve 83% in 180 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of the CuO fibers were attributed to two aspects: one is the well-crystalline of CuO fibers; the other is that H2O2 accepted the photogenerated electrons and holes effectively, which not only prevented the recombination of charge carriers but also produced additional rad OH. In this work, the formation and photocatalysis mechanisms of CuO fibers were also investigated.

  10. Angle Integrated Photoemission Study of SmO0.85F0.15FeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Wei, Ou; Jia-Feng, Zhao; Yan, Zhang; Da-Wei, Shen; Bo, Zhou; Le-Xian, Yang; Cheng, He; Fei, Chen; Min, Xu; Yan, Chen; Dong-Lai, Feng; Tao, Wu; Xian-Hui, Chen

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of the new superconductor SmO 1-x F x FeAs (x = 0.15) is studied by angle-integrated photoemission spectroscopy. Our data show a sharp feature very close to the Fermi energy, and a relative flat distribution of the density of states between 0.5eV and 3eV binding energy, which agrees well with the band structure calculations considering an antiferromagnetic ground state. No noticeable gap opening is observed at 12K below the superconducting transition temperature, indicating the existence of large ungapped regions in the Brillouin zone. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Study of some electronics properties of new superconductor Sr2VO3FeAs in ground state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Majidiyan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some electronics properties of new superconductor Sr2VO3FeAs, such as density of states, band structure, density of electron cloud and bound lengths in the ground state have been calculated. According to N(Ef in ground state CV/T value has been estimated. The calculations were performed in the framework of density functional theory (DFT, using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW method with the general gradient approximation (GGA.

  12. Assessment, Problems and Ways of Improvement of Technical Regulation of Foreign Economic Activity (FEA in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steblyanko Maryna D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of technical regulation of FEA in the world and Ukraine and identifies main problems and ways of increase of efficiency of certification. It considers the system of technical regulation of EU and provides examples of application of technical barriers by some countries for ensuring security of goods in the domestic market. The article offers to develop a strategy of development of the national system of information provision of technical regulation and suspend transition from the system of mandatory certification to the system of assessment of correspondence with requirements of technical orders of business.

  13. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of 18F-labeled 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative (18F-FEA-Erlotinib) as a potential EGFR PET agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun; Han, Yanjiang; Chen, Min; Hu, Kongzhen; Qi, Yongshuai; Sun, Penghui; Wang, Men; Wu, Hubing; Li, Guiping; Wang, Quanshi; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Suqing; Zheng, Xi

    2018-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has gained significant attention as a therapeutic target. Several EGFR targeting drugs (Gefitinib and Erlotinib) have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have received high approval in clinical treatment. Nevertheless, the curative effect of these medicines varied in many solid tumors because of the different levels of expression and mutations of EGFR. Therefore, several PET radiotracers have been developed for the selective treatment of responsive patients who undergo PET/CT imaging for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. In this study, a novel fluorine-18 labeled 4-anilinoquinazoline based PET tracer, 1N-(3-(1-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazolin-4-amine ( 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib), was synthesized and biological evaluation was performed in vitro and in vivo. 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib was achieved within 50min with over 88% radiochemical yield (decay corrected RCY), an average specific activity over 50GBq/μmol, and over 99% radiochemical purity. In vitro stability study showed no decomposition of 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib after incubated in PBS and FBS for 2h. Cellular uptake and efflux experiment results indicated the specific binding of 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib to HCC827 cell line with EGFR exon 19 deletions. In vivo, Biodistribution studies revealed that 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib exhibited rapid blood clearance both through hepatobiliary and renal excretion. The tumor uptake of 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib in HepG2, HCC827, and A431 tumor xenografts, with different EGFR expression and mutations, was visualized in PET images. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using 18 F-FEA-Erlotinib as a PET tracer for screening EGFR TKIs sensitive patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of novel CuO nanosheets and their non-enzymatic glucose sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Beni, Valerio; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus

    2013-06-20

    In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 10² µA/mMcm² and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

  15. Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 102 µA/mMcm2 and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

  16. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  17. Photocatalytic effect of green synthesised CuO nanoparticles on selected environmental pollutants and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuku, Xolile; Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Maaza, Malik

    2018-05-01

    Highly crystalline irregular green synthesised CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) which are 10 nm in particle size were successfully characterised by HRSEM and AFM. EDS confirmed the main components of prepared sample which are Cu and O. Meanwhile, UV/Vis revealed the reflectance, transmittance, absorbance and the semiconducting nature of the synthesised nano-oxides. The optical band gap of CuO NPs was calculated to be 1.4 - 2.3 eV which indicates that CuO NPs can be used in metal oxide semiconductor-based devices. CuO NPs were found to be excellent photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange organic dye under the illumination of artificial light irradiation. The experiments demonstrated that MO in aqueous solution was more efficiently photo-degraded (65 %) using CuO NPs as photocatalysts. Further, the nanomaterials were also found to be good inhibitors of bacterial strains at both low and high concentrations of 5 - 10 mg mL-1.

  18. CuO nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, optical properties and interaction with amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Trass, A.; ElShamy, H.; El-Mehasseb, I. [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt); El-Kemary, M., E-mail: elkemary@yahoo.com [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm have been successfully prepared by an alcothermal method. The prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. A strong sharp emission under UV excitation is reported from the prepared CuO nanoparticles. The results show that the CuO nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The fluorescence emission spectra display an intense sharp emission at 365 nm and weak broad intensity emission at 470 nm. Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the nanoparticles suggest bi-exponential function giving time constants of {tau}{sub 1} (330 ps, 94.21%) and {tau}{sub 2} (4.69 ns, 5.79%). In neutral and alkaline solutions, Zeta potential values of CuO nanoparticles are negative, due to the adsorption of COO{sup -} group via the coordination of bidentate. At low pH the zeta potential value is positive due to the increased potential of H{sup +} ions in solution. Comparative UV-visible absorption experiments with the model amino acid compounds of positive and negative charges as arginine and aspartic acid, respectively confirmed the negative surface of CuO nanoparticles. The results should be extremely useful for understanding the mode of the interaction with biological systems. This binding process also affects the particle's behavior inside the body.

  19. Fabrication of CuO nanoplatelets for highly sensitive enzyme-free determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Adhered growth of CuO nanoplatelets on Cu foils. > Enzyme-free glucose sensor with very high sensitivity. > Excellent stability and good anti-interference ability. - Abstract: CuO nanoplatelets were grown on Cu foils by a one step, template free process. The structure and morphology of the CuO nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The CuO nanoplatelets grown on Cu foil were integrated to be an electrode for glucose sensing. The electrocatalytic activity of the CuO nanoplatelets electrode for glucose in alkaline media was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 3490.7 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to glucose which is much higher than that of most reported enzyme-free glucose sensors and the linear range was obtained over a concentration up to 0.80 mM with a detection limit of 0.50 {mu}M (signal/noise = 3). Exhilaratingly, the electrode based on the CuO nanoplatelets is resistant against poisoning by chloride ion, and the interference from the oxidation of common interfering species, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and carbonhydrate compounds, can also be effectively avoided. Finally, the electrode was applied to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples.

  20. Room temperature synthesis of 2D CuO nanoleaves in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen; Zhao Jingzhe; Ma Dechong; Hou Shengnan; Li Linzhi; Hao Xinli

    2011-01-01

    A simple room temperature method was reported for the synthesis of CuO nanocrystals in aqueous solution through the sequence of Cu 2+ → Cu(OA) 2 → Cu(OH) 2 → Cu(OH) 4 2- → CuO. Sodium oleate (SOA) was used as the surfactant and shape controller. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It can be seen that 1D Cu(OH) 2 nanowires were first obtained from Cu(OA) 2 and, at room temperature, converted into 2D CuO nanoleaves (CuO NLs) in a short time under a weakly basic environment. On prolonging the reaction time, the top part of these 2D nanoleaves branched and separated along the long axis to form 1D rod-like nano-CuO because of the assistance of SOA. A possible transformation mechanism of Cu(OH) 2 to CuO nanostructures at room temperature in aqueous solution is discussed. The transformation velocity can be controlled by changing the pH value of the system. The prepared CuO NLs were used to construct an enzyme-free glucose sensor. The detecting results showed that the designed sensor exhibited good amperometric responses towards glucose with good anti-interferent ability.

  1. Conventional proximity effect in bilayers of superconducting underdoped $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands coated with non superconducting overdoped $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, G.; Millo, O.

    2009-01-01

    Following a recent study by our group in which a large $T_c$ enhancement was reported in bilayers of the non-superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$ and superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ films [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{101}, 057005 (2008)], we checked if a similar effect occurs when superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands are coated with a continuous layer of the non superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$. We found that no such phenomenon is observed. The bare supercond...

  2. Improving the correlation of structural FEA models by the application of automated high density robotized laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanietz, Maximilian; Bhangaonkar, Avinash; Semken, Michael; Cockrill, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Sound has had an intricate relation with the wellbeing of humans since time immemorial. It has the ability to enhance the quality of life immensely when present as music; at the same time, it can degrade its quality when manifested as noise. Hence, understanding its sources and the processes by which it is produced gains acute significance. Although various theories exist with respect to evolution of bells, it is indisputable that they carry millennia of cultural significance, and at least a few centuries of perfection with respect to design, casting and tuning. Despite the science behind its design, the nuances pertaining to founding and tuning have largely been empirical, and conveyed from one generation to the next. Post-production assessment for bells remains largely person-centric and traditional. However, progressive bell manufacturers have started adopting methods such as finite element analysis (FEA) for informing and optimising their future model designs. To establish confidence in the FEA process it is necessary to correlate the virtual model against a physical example. This is achieved by performing an experimental modal analysis (EMA) and comparing the results with those from FEA. Typically to collect the data for an EMA, the vibratory response of the structure is measured with the application of accelerometers. This technique has limitations; principally these are the observer effect and limited geometric resolution. In this paper, 3-dimensional laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) has been used to measure the vibratory response with no observer effect due to the non-contact nature of the technique; resulting in higher accuracy measurements as the input to the correlation process. The laser heads were mounted on an industrial robot that enables large objects to be measured and extensive data sets to be captured quickly through an automated process. This approach gives previously unobtainable geometric resolution resulting in a higher confidence EMA. This is

  3. Dependence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on tritium recovery for tritium safety operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Cui, E-mail: cdxohc10000@163.com [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Uemura, Yuki; Yuyama, Kenta; Fujita, Hiroe; Sakurada, Shodai; Azuma, Keisuke [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Taguchi, Akira; Hara, Masanori; Hatano, Yuji [University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 939-8555 (Japan); Chikada, Takumi; Oya, Yasuhisa [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Influence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on the tritium recovery was evaluated. • Reaction rate constant of tritium with CuO particle has been calculated by the combination of experimental results and a simulation code. • Dependence of reaction tubing length on tritium conversion ratio has been explored. - Abstract: Usage of CuO and water bubbler is one of the conventional and convenient methods for tritium recovery. In present work, influence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on the tritium recovery was evaluated. Reaction rate constant of tritium with CuO particle has been calculated by the combination of experimental results and a simulation code. Then, these results were applied for exploring the dependence of reaction tubing length on tritium conversion ratio. The results showed that the surface area of CuO has a great influence on the oxidation rate constant. The frequency factor of the reaction would be approximately doubled by reducing the CuO particle size from 1.0 mm to 0.2 mm. Cross section of reaction tubing mainly affected on the duration of tritium at the temperature below 600 K. Reaction tubing with length of 1 m at temperature of 600 K would be suitable for keeping the tritium conversion ratio above 99.9%. The length of reaction tubing can be reduced by using the smaller CuO particle or increasing the CuO temperature.

  4. Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres: Controlled synthesis for enhanced lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiangfeng; Li Liping; Li Guangshe; Fu Zhengwei; Zheng Jing; Yan Tingjiang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and these microspheres showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method. → The CuO hollow microspheres were assembled from radically oriented nanorods. → The growth mechanism was proposed to proceed via self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. → The microspheres showed good cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. → Hierarchical microstructures with hollow interiors promote electrochemical property. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were hydrothermally prepared without use of any surfactants or templates. By controlling the formation reaction conditions and monitoring the relevant reaction processes using time-dependent experiments, it is demonstrated that hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and that hierarchical spheres could be tuned to show different morphologies and microstructures. As a consequence, the formation mechanism was proposed to proceed via a combined process of self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. Further, these hollow microspheres were initiated as the anode material in lithium ion batteries, which showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity, most likely because of the synergetic effect of small diffusion lengths in building blocks of nanorods and proper void space that buffers the volume expansion. The strategy reported in this work is reproducible, which may help to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials via designing the hollow structures necessary for developing lithium ion batteries and the relevant

  5. Safe-by-Design CuO Nanoparticles via Fe-Doping, Cu-O Bond Length Variation, and Biological Assessment in Cells and Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naatz, Hendrik; Lin, Sijie; Li, Ruibin; Jiang, Wen; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E; Mädler, Lutz; Pokhrel, Suman

    2017-01-24

    The safe implementation of nanotechnology requires nanomaterial hazard assessment in accordance with the material physicochemical properties that trigger the injury response at the nano/bio interface. Since CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used industrially and their dissolution properties play a major role in hazard potential, we hypothesized that tighter bonding of Cu to Fe by particle doping could constitute a safer-by-design approach through decreased dissolution. Accordingly, we designed a combinatorial library in which CuO was doped with 1-10% Fe in a flame spray pyrolysis reactor. The morphology and structural properties were determined by XRD, BET, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM, EFTEM, and EELS, which demonstrated a significant reduction in the apical Cu-O bond length while simultaneously increasing the planar bond length (Jahn-Teller distortion). Hazard screening was performed in tissue culture cell lines and zebrafish embryos to discern the change in the hazardous effects of doped vs nondoped particles. This demonstrated that with increased levels of doping there was a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells, as well as an incremental decrease in the rate of hatching interference in zebrafish embryos. The dissolution profiles were determined and the surface reactions taking place in Holtfreter's solution were validated using cyclic voltammetry measurements to demonstrate that the Cu + /Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ redox species play a major role in the dissolution process of pure and Fe-doped CuO. Altogether, a safe-by-design strategy was implemented for the toxic CuO particles via Fe doping and has been demonstrated for their safe use in the environment.

  6. Control of the superconducting properties of Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs through isovalent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Free, David G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Cassidy, Simon J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Ramos, Silvia [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Clarke, Simon J., E-mail: simon.clarke@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    The effect of the isovalent substitution of Sr{sup 2+} by Ca{sup 2+} on the structure and superconducting properties of Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs is described in the compositional range 0≤x≤0.5. SQUID magnetometry measurements reveal that after an initial increase in T{sub c}, which is maximised at 29.5 K in Sr{sub 1.95}Ca{sub 0.05}VO{sub 3}FeAs, a rapid suppression of superconductivity is observed with increasing x. XANES spectra of Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs collected on the Fe and V absorption K-edges show that the position of both edges are invariant with composition within the experimental uncertainty. A combination of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and neutron powder diffraction techniques is used to rationalise the observed changes in T{sub c} with x, in terms of changes to the structure of the FeAs layer upon partial Ca substitution. These findings demonstrate that superconductivity in the Fe-based superconductors is extremely sensitive to the crystal structure with T{sub c} maximised in samples with regular FeAs{sub 4}-tetrahedra. - Graphical abstract: Superconducting transition temperature is controlled by structural parameters in Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs. - Highlights: • Substitution of Sr by Ca in the superconductor Sr{sub 2}VO{sub 3}FeAs is isovalent. • Relationship between superconducting T{sub c} and structural parameters is demonstrated. • Linear dependence of T{sub c} on structural parameters rather than composition.

  7. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurh, P.G.; Tang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam. For the

  8. CuO nanostructures on copper foil by a simple wet chemical route at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, S.; Das, S.; Das, N.S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uniform CuO nanostructures have been synthesized on copper foil substrates by oxidation of Cu in alkaline condition by a simple wet chemical route at room temperature. By controlling the alkaline condition (pH value) different CuO nanostructures like nanoneedles, self-assembled nanoflowers and staking of flake-like structures were achieved. The phase formation and the composition of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies indicated that the samples were composed of CuO. The morphologies of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. A possible growth mechanism is also proposed here. Band gap energies of the nanostructures were determined from the optical reflectance spectra. The different CuO nanostructures showed good electron field emission properties with turn-on fields in the range 6-11.3 V μm -1 . The field emission current was significantly affected by the morphologies of the CuO films.

  9. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnxCu1−xO (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol% hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  10. Green Synthesis and Characterizations of Flower Shaped CuO Nanoparticles for Biodiesel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintu Varghese

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are primary candidates to play a key role in energy future. In this work, plant-mediated green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles was studied. The CuO nanoparticles were used as the catalysts for the production of biodiesel from coconut oil. An aqueous extract of Centella Asiatica leaves was used as a bio-reducing agent for the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles. This biocatalyst was characterized by using different techniques (FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM with EDX which were confirmed the formation of CuO nanoparticles. Further, the presences of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester groups at the produced biodiesel were confirmed using both the GC-MS and FTIR analysis. From this work, it has been concluded that the plant extract mediated synthesis of CuO nanoparticles is quite simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. The produced biodiesel from coconut oil is considered to be a potential source for alternative conventional fuel.

  11. Optical and structural properties of CuO nanofilm: Its diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim Y.; Guellue, O.

    2010-01-01

    The high crystalline CuO nanofilms have been prepared by spin coating and annealing combined with a simple chemical method. The obtained films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Structural analysis results demonstrate that the single phase CuO on Si (1 0 0) substrate is of high a crystalline structure with a dominant in monoclinic (1 1 1) orientation. FT-IR results confirm the formation of pure CuO phase. UV-vis absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the CuO films is 2.64 eV. The PL spectrum of the CuO films shows a broad emission band centered at 467 nm, which is consistent with absorption measurement. Also, Au/CuO/p-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been fabricated. Electronic properties (current-voltage) of these structures were investigated. In addition, the interfacial state properties of the MIS diode were obtained. The interface-state density of the MIS diode was found to vary from 6.21 x 10 12 to 1.62 x 10 12 eV -1 cm -2 .

  12. Preparation and characterization of CuO catalyst for the thermolysis treatment of distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Choudhary, Rumi; Kaushal, Rajesh Kumar; Pal, Dharm; Sawarkar, Ashish N

    2017-08-16

    CuO catalyst was prepared from copper sulfate by alkali precipitation method followed by drying and calcination. Characterization of CuO catalyst using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area analysis envisaged the effectiveness of CuO as a catalyst for the treatment of biodigester effluent (BDE) emanated from distilleries. The catalytic thermolysis is an efficient advance treatment method for distillery biodigester effluent (BDE). CT treatment of BDE was carried out in a 0.5 dm 3 thermolytic batch reactor using CuO as a catalyst at different pH (1-9), temperatures (80-110°C), and catalyst loadings (1-4 kg/m 3 ). With CuO catalyst, a temperature of 110°C, catalyst loading of 4 kg/m 3 , and pH of 2 was found to be optimal, providing a maximum reduction in chemical oxygen demand of 65%. The settling characteristics at different temperatures of CT-treated sludge were also presented.

  13. A Root-Colonizing Pseudomonad Lessens Stress Responses in Wheat Imposed by CuO Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Wright

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NPs containing essential metals are being considered in formulations of fertilizers to boost plant nutrition in soils with low metal bioavailability. This paper addresses whether colonization of wheat roots by the bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6, protected roots from the reduced elongation caused by CuO NPs. There was a trend for slightly elongated roots when seedlings with roots colonized by PcO6 were grown with CuO NPs; the density of bacterial cells on the root surface was not altered by the NPs. Accumulations of reactive oxygen species in the plant root cells caused by CuO NPs were little affected by root colonization. However, bacterial colonization did reduce the extent of expression of an array of genes associated with plant responses to stress induced by root exposure to CuO NPs. PcO6 colonization also reduced the levels of two important chelators of Cu ions, citric and malic acids, in the rhizosphere solution; presumably because these acids were used as nutrients for bacterial growth. There was a trend for lower levels of soluble Cu in the rhizosphere solution and reduced Cu loads in the true leaves with PcO6 colonization. These studies indicate that root colonization by bacterial cells modulates plant responses to contact with CuO NPs.

  14. Effect of Cu Salt Molarity on the Nanostructure of CuO Prolate Spheroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeeh, Sabah H.; Hussein, Hashim Abed; Judran, Hadia Kadhim

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate was used as a source of Cu ion with five different molarities (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 2 and 0.25M). XRD, FE-SEM and TEM techniques all showed that CuO samples have polycrystalline monoclinic structure. CuO prolate spheroid is assembled from nanoparticles as building units. It was demonstrated that the purity, morphology, size range of prolate spheroid and density of nano building units are significantly influenced by Cu precursor’s molarity. The pure phase of CuO prolate spheroid was produced via molarity of 0.2M with crystallite size of 15.1565nm while the particle size of building units ranges from 16nm to 21nm. The stability of CuO nanosuspension or nanofluid was evaluated by zeta potential analysis. The obtained properties of specific structure with large surface area of CuO prolate spheroid make it a promising candidate for wide range of potential applications as in nanofluids for cooling purposes.

  15. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: tariqjan84@gmail.com, E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Jan, Tariq, E-mail: tariqjan84@gmail.com, E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Ul-Hassan, Sibt; Umair Ali, M.; Abbas, Fazal [Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Ishaq [Experimental Physics Labs, National Center for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad [Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Zn{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol%) hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  16. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin immobilized in CuO nanowire bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueming; Zhang, Qian; Li, Jinghong

    2010-11-15

    It is one of main challenges to find the suitable materials to enhance the direct electron transfer between the electrode and redox protein for direct electrochemistry field. Nano-structured metal oxides have attracted considerable interest because of unique properties, well biocompatibility, and good stability. In this paper, the copper oxide nanowire bundles (CuO NWBs) were prepared via a template route, and the bioelectrochemical performances of hemoglobin (Hb) on the CuO NWBs modified glass carbon electrodes (denoted as Hb-CuO NWBs/GC) were studied. TEM and XRD were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the as synthesized CuO NWBs. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) proved that Hb in the CuO NWBs matrix could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks at approximately -0.325 V (vs. Ag/AgCl saturated KCl) were shown in the cyclic voltammogram curve for the Hb-CuO NWBs/GC electrode, which indicated the direct electrochemical behavior. The Hb-CuO NWBs/GC electrode also displayed a good electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the CuO NWBs are good substrates for immobilization of biomolecules and might be promising in the fields of (bio) electrochemical analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a New Gradient Based Strain-Criterion for Prediction of Bendability in Quality Assurance and FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denninger, Ralf; Liewald, Mathias; Sindel, Manfred

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulation systems are more and more used in process development of car bodies. Nowadays, also the hemming process is optimised in FEA. Thus, the analysing of process robustness calls for a failure criterion for the specific bending and hemming load condition. For that purpose the experimental determination of bendability under various pre-load conditions that occur in real production, e.g. during deep drawing in press shop, is content of this contribution. Using these experimental results, a new approach for a strain-gradient based failure criterion for bending operations is presented to optimise bendability prediction. The bending-strain-gradient approach can be used both in production related departments of quality assurance as well as for simulative process design or process validation for vehicle manufacturing planning.

  18. A DIFFERENT APPROACH IN OPTIMUM DESIGN PROCESS AND FEA VALIDATION OF LOW-SPEED MULTI-PHASE IPMSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed asghar gholamian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnets placement effects on permanent magnet motors performance, because of its different magnetic flux density distribution. Therefore, different types of magnet placement should be examined experimentally or by valid simulations. In this paper, first, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM called spoke type with specifications related to the propulsion of ships is designed and then optimized by ant colony algorithm to increase the torque-to-volume ratio. The design procedure and its formulas presented as simple as possible. Then, to verify the optimization results of the optimized motor, a Two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA is done. Also in this analyze the core and the slot saturation was studied.

  19. A checklist of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of Myanmar, with an updated list of Leonardo Fea's collecting localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Jirapatrasilp, Parin; Golovatch, Sergei I; Panha, Somsak

    2017-11-16

    At present, the millipede fauna of Myanmar comprises 92 species from 34 genera, 13 families and 8 orders, mostly described in 1889-1896. All literature records are cited with updates on species identities, as well as numerous taxonomic problems which make the number of species and even genera still imprecise. The Myanmar millipede fauna contains 70 endemic and five widespread synanthropic species. One species is found to have erroneously been recorded from Myanmar, and is ejected from the list of Myanmar millipedes also because of its uncertain taxonomic status. A complete bibliography on the millipedes of Myanmar, an updated list of the collecting localities and a map of the journeys of Leonardo Fea, the principal collector of Diplopoda in Burma, are also presented.

  20. a Geometric Processing Workflow for Transforming Reality-Based 3d Models in Volumetric Meshes Suitable for Fea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Guidi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Conservation of Cultural Heritage is a key issue and structural changes and damages can influence the mechanical behaviour of artefacts and buildings. The use of Finite Elements Methods (FEM) for mechanical analysis is largely used in modelling stress behaviour. The typical workflow involves the use of CAD 3D models made by Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) surfaces, representing the ideal shape of the object to be simulated. Nowadays, 3D documentation of CH has been widely developed through reality-based approaches, but the models are not suitable for a direct use in FEA: the mesh has in fact to be converted to volumetric, and the density has to be reduced since the computational complexity of a FEA grows exponentially with the number of nodes. The focus of this paper is to present a new method aiming at generate the most accurate 3D representation of a real artefact from highly accurate 3D digital models derived from reality-based techniques, maintaining the accuracy of the high-resolution polygonal models in the solid ones. The approach proposed is based on a wise use of retopology procedures and a transformation of this model to a mathematical one made by NURBS surfaces suitable for being processed by volumetric meshers typically embedded in standard FEM packages. The strong simplification with little loss of consistency possible with the retopology step is used for maintaining as much coherence as possible between the original acquired mesh and the simplified model, creating in the meantime a topology that is more favourable for the automatic NURBS conversion.

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of different sizes of the CuO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Dongen; Ni Xiaomin; Song Jimei; Zheng Huagui

    2008-01-01

    Well-dispersed cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with the size from 10 to 100 nm were successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of CuC 2 O 4 precursor at 400 deg. C. The prepared CuO nanoparticles of different sizes used as anode materials for Li ion battery all exhibit high electrochemical capacity at the first discharge. However, with the particles size changing, an interesting phenomenon appears. That is, the larger size of the particles is, the discharge capacity of the first time smaller is, while that of the second time is larger. At the same time, the mechanism of the above phenomenon is discussed in this paper. Surprisingly, we have synthesized the copper nanoparticles with different sizes by the CuO of different sizes as the electrodes

  2. Synthesis of Cu2O from CuO thin films: Optical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya S. Murali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hole conducting, optically transparent Cu2O thin films on glass substrates have been synthesized by vacuum annealing (5×10−6 mbar at 700 K for 1 hour of magnetron sputtered (at 300 K CuO thin films. The Cu2O thin films are p-type and show enhanced properties: grain size (54.7 nm, optical transmission 72% (at 600 nm and Hall mobility 51 cm2/Vs. The bulk and surface Valence band spectra of Cu2O and CuO thin films are studied by temperature dependent Hall effect and Ultra violet photo electron Spectroscopy (UPS. CuO thin films show a significant band bending downwards (due to higher hole concentration than Cu2O thin films.

  3. Electrical and thermoluminescence properties of γ-irradiated La2CuO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kolaly, M. A.; Abd El-Kader, H. I.; Kassem, M. E.

    1994-12-01

    Measurements of the electrical properties of unirradiated as well as ?-irradiated La2CuO4 crystals were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range of 0.1-100 kHz. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were also performed on such crystals in the temperature range of 300-600K. The conductivity of the unirradiated La2CuO4 crystals were found to obey the power law frequency dependence at each measured temperature below the transition temperature (Tc = 450K). The activation energies for conduction and dielectric relaxation time have been calculated. The TL response and the dc resistance were found to increase with ?-irradiation dose up to 9-10 kGy. The results showed that the ferroelastic domain walls of La2CuO4 crystal as well as its TL traps are sensitive to ?-raditaion. This material can be used in radiation measurements in the range 225 Gy-10 kGy.

  4. Spectroscopic study of the CuO chains in YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, H.; Derro, D.J.; Barr, A.L.; Markert, J.T.; de Lozanne, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    We interpret our previously published results obtained using a technique called current-imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) to study the detailed electronic structure of the CuO chains in the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x near the Fermi level. Our CITS data comprise sequences of 32 simultaneously obtained images taken at bias voltages ranging from -78 to 72 mV. Cross sections of the CITS data, normalized-conductance analysis, and logarithmic-derivative analysis allow us to examine in detail the behavior of electronic modulations along the CuO chains and the energy gap in the CuO chains of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . This new analysis lends a strong foundation to our previous interpretation of the CITS data [H. L. Edwards et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1387 (1995)]. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  5. Electronic and Optical Properties of CuO Based on DFT+U and GW Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F; Agusta, M K; Dipojono, H K

    2016-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of electronic structure and optical properties of monoclinic CuO based on DFT+U and GW approximation. CuO is an antiferromagnetic material with strong electron correlations. Our calculation shows that DFT+U and GW approximation sufficiently reliable to investigate the material properties of CuO. The calculated band gap of DFT+U for reasonable value of U slightly underestimates. The use of GW approximation requires adjustment of U value to get realistic result. Hybridization Cu 3dxz, 3dyz with O 2p plays an important role in the formation of band gap. The calculated optical properties based on DFT+U and GW corrections by solving Bethe-Salpeter are in good agreement with the calculated electronic properties and the experimental result. (paper)

  6. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  7. Enhanced stability and dissolution of CuO nanoparticles by extracellular polymeric substances in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Stability of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environment is an essential parameter to evaluate their fate, bioavailability, and potential toxic effects toward living organisms. As CuO NPs enter the wastewater systems, they will encounter extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from microbial community before directly interacting with bacterial cells. EPS may play an important role in affecting the stability and the toxicity of CuO NPs in aquatic environment. In this study, the influences of flocculent sludge-derived EPS, as well as model protein (BSA) and natural polysaccharides (alginate) on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO NPs were investigated. Results showed that the presence of NOMs strongly suppressed CuO NPs aggregation, confirmed by DLS, zeta potentials, and TEM analysis. The enhanced stability of CuO NPs in the presence of EPS and alginate were attributed to the electrostatic combined with steric repulsion, while the steric-hindrance effect may be the predominant mechanism retarding nano-CuO aggregation for BSA. Higher degrees of copper release were achieved with the increasing concentrations of NOMs. EPS are more effective than alginate and BSA in releasing copper, probably due to the abundant functional groups and the excellent metal-binding capacity. The ratio of free-Cu 2+ /total dissolved Cu significantly decreased in the presence of EPS, indicating that EPS may affect the speciation and Cu bioavailability in aqueous environment. These results may be important for assessing the fate and transport behaviors of CuO NPs in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy.

  8. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Kumaresa P S; Dhawale, Dattatray S; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Vinu, Ajayan [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), World Premier International (WPI) Research Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sivakumar, Thiripuranthagan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Gundy, Chennai 600025 (India); Aldeyab, Salem S [Department of Chemistry, Petrochemicals Research Chair, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455 Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, Javaid S M, E-mail: vinu.ajayan@nims.go.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-08-15

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD results reveal that nanoporous carbons with embedded CuO nanoparticles exhibit a well-ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the nitrogen adsorption measurements indicate the presence of excellent textural characteristics such as high surface area, large pore volume and uniform pore size distribution. The amount of CuO nanoparticles in the nanochannels of the nanoporous carbon could be controlled by simply varying the Si/Cu molar ratio of the mesoporous silica template. Morphological characterization by SEM and TEM reveals that high-quality CuO nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the nanoporous carbon framework. The supercapacitance behavior of the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbons was investigated. The material with a small amount of CuO in the mesochannels and high surface area affords a maximum specific capacitance of 300 F g{sup -1} at a 20 mV s{sup -1} scan rate in an aqueous electrolyte solution. A supercapacitor containing the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbon is highly stable and exhibits a long cycle life with 91% specific capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  9. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kumaresa P. S.; Dhawale, Dattatray S.; Sivakumar, Thiripuranthagan; Aldeyab, Salem S.; Zaidi, Javaid S. M.; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Vinu, Ajayan

    2011-08-01

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD results reveal that nanoporous carbons with embedded CuO nanoparticles exhibit a well-ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the nitrogen adsorption measurements indicate the presence of excellent textural characteristics such as high surface area, large pore volume and uniform pore size distribution. The amount of CuO nanoparticles in the nanochannels of the nanoporous carbon could be controlled by simply varying the Si/Cu molar ratio of the mesoporous silica template. Morphological characterization by SEM and TEM reveals that high-quality CuO nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the nanoporous carbon framework. The supercapacitance behavior of the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbons was investigated. The material with a small amount of CuO in the mesochannels and high surface area affords a maximum specific capacitance of 300 F g-1 at a 20 mV s-1 scan rate in an aqueous electrolyte solution. A supercapacitor containing the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbon is highly stable and exhibits a long cycle life with 91% specific capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  10. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticulates is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles. Although a number of studies have discussed the transformation of nanoparticles during

  11. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Xian-He; Xie, Chao; Li, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Bao; Lu, Jian

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm2V-1 s-1 and hole concentration of 1.34 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 102 A W-1, 3.95 × 102 and 6.38 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1, respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  12. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresa P S Prasad, Dattatray S Dhawale, Thiripuranthagan Sivakumar, Salem S Aldeyab, Javaid S M Zaidi, Katsuhiko Ariga and Ajayan Vinu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. XRD results reveal that nanoporous carbons with embedded CuO nanoparticles exhibit a well-ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the nitrogen adsorption measurements indicate the presence of excellent textural characteristics such as high surface area, large pore volume and uniform pore size distribution. The amount of CuO nanoparticles in the nanochannels of the nanoporous carbon could be controlled by simply varying the Si/Cu molar ratio of the mesoporous silica template. Morphological characterization by SEM and TEM reveals that high-quality CuO nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the nanoporous carbon framework. The supercapacitance behavior of the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbons was investigated. The material with a small amount of CuO in the mesochannels and high surface area affords a maximum specific capacitance of 300 F g-1 at a 20 mV s-1 scan rate in an aqueous electrolyte solution. A supercapacitor containing the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbon is highly stable and exhibits a long cycle life with 91% specific capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  13. Enhanced stability and dissolution of CuO nanoparticles by extracellular polymeric substances in aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun, E-mail: hhuhjyhj@126.com; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi [Hohai University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-10-15

    Stability of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environment is an essential parameter to evaluate their fate, bioavailability, and potential toxic effects toward living organisms. As CuO NPs enter the wastewater systems, they will encounter extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from microbial community before directly interacting with bacterial cells. EPS may play an important role in affecting the stability and the toxicity of CuO NPs in aquatic environment. In this study, the influences of flocculent sludge-derived EPS, as well as model protein (BSA) and natural polysaccharides (alginate) on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO NPs were investigated. Results showed that the presence of NOMs strongly suppressed CuO NPs aggregation, confirmed by DLS, zeta potentials, and TEM analysis. The enhanced stability of CuO NPs in the presence of EPS and alginate were attributed to the electrostatic combined with steric repulsion, while the steric-hindrance effect may be the predominant mechanism retarding nano-CuO aggregation for BSA. Higher degrees of copper release were achieved with the increasing concentrations of NOMs. EPS are more effective than alginate and BSA in releasing copper, probably due to the abundant functional groups and the excellent metal-binding capacity. The ratio of free-Cu{sup 2+}/total dissolved Cu significantly decreased in the presence of EPS, indicating that EPS may affect the speciation and Cu bioavailability in aqueous environment. These results may be important for assessing the fate and transport behaviors of CuO NPs in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy.

  14. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibupoto, Z.H., E-mail: zafar.hussin.ibupoto@liu.se [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden); Khun, K. [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden); Liu, X. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, 58183 Linköping Sweden (Sweden); Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only Cu-O bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88 ± 0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. - Highlights: • This study describes the synthesis of bundle of CuO nanowires by hydrothermal method. • CuO nanostructures exhibit good alignment and

  15. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibupoto, Z.H.; Khun, K.; Liu, X.; Willander, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only Cu-O bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88 ± 0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. - Highlights: • This study describes the synthesis of bundle of CuO nanowires by hydrothermal method. • CuO nanostructures exhibit good alignment and

  16. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Bojun [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Department of Applied Physics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065 (China); Qing, Chen; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2015-11-15

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes.

  17. Facile dicyandiamide-mediated fabrication of well-defined CuO hollow microspheres and their catalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shengyang; Wang Caifeng; Chen Li; Chen Su

    2010-01-01

    Nearly monodisperse CuO hollow microspheres were successfully synthesized by a straightforward one-pot hydrothermal approach using dicyandiamide (DDA) as structure-guiding agent. The composition, structure and morphology of the products were investigated in detail, via a set of characterizations including X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results demonstrated that different copper sources and experimental procedures would significantly affect the shape or size of CuO products. A possible formation mechanism of CuO microspheres in this process was thoroughly discussed. Also, some other novel CuO microstructures were fabricated based on DDA-mediated synthetic route. DSC/TGA analysis revealed that as-prepared CuO microspheres can be explored as a promising additive to accelerate the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, a key oxidizer in composite solid propellants.

  18. Enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Catalytic disproportionation of hypobromous acid

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    of bromide-containing waters in the presence of cupric oxide (CuO). CuO was effective to catalyze hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypobromous acid (HOBr) decay (e.g., at least 104 times enhancement for HOBr at pH 8.6 by 0.2 g L-1 CuO). Significant halate

  19. Oxidative fabrication of patterned, large, non-flaking CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumm, F; Sikorski, P

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple and fast approach to fabricate large, non-flaking arrays of CuO nanowires by oxidizing thin copper substrates in air. Oxidative CuO nanowire growth is commonly accompanied by oxide layer flaking due to stress at the copper-copper oxide interface. Using thin substrates is shown to prevent this flaking by introducing favourable material thickness ratios in the samples after oxidation. Additionally, thin foils allow larger scale topographic patterns to be transferred from an underlying mould to realize non-flat, nanowire-decorated surfaces. Further patterning is possible by electrodeposition of a nickel layer, which restricts nanowire growth to specific areas of the sample.

  20. Polymethacrylic acid as a new precursor of CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Nasser Mohammed; Zoromba, Mohamed Shafick

    2012-11-01

    Polymethacrylic acid and its copper complexes have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes have been used as precursors to produce CuO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition in air. The stages of decompositions and the calcination temperature of the precursors have been determined from thermal analyses (TGA). The obtained CuO nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD showed a monoclinic structure with particle size 8-20 nm for the synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are catalytically active in decomposing hydrogen peroxide and a mechanism of decomposition has been suggested.

  1. In-vivo assessment of femoral bone strength using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based on routine MDCT imaging: a preliminary study on patients with vertebral fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Liebl

    Full Text Available To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD measurements as gold standard.One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects.In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963 and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976. The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N by 14.7% (5440 N while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N. The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366, but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028.FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our data suggests, that MDCT

  2. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only CuO bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88±0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcome of temperature variation on sol-gel prepared CuO nanostructure properties (optical and dielectric)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibi, Maryam [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Javed, Qurat-ul-Ain, E-mail: quratulain@sns.nust.edu.pk [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Hussain [Institute of Avionics & Aeronautics (IAA), Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Baqi, Sabah [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    The optical and dielectric properties of Copper Oxide (CuO) have made it a fascinating material to be used in solar energy harvesting, gas sensing, optoelectronics and catalytical applications. Focusing on the cost-effectiveness of Sol-gel method, it is employed for nanostructured CuO production. Effect of changing temperature is observed on the formation mechanism of CuO and its properties. The temperature range of 300 °C–500 °C was used in annealing of samples to produce defect free CuO nanomaterial. Prepared material was investigated using phase characterization (X-ray diffraction ‘XRD’) technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and LCR meter. A structural change in prepared CuO was observed from cluster formation to Nano-fibrils by increase in annealing temperature. 11.99 nm–29.17 nm crystallites of CuO were attained by using Debye Scherer formula. A large band gap of 3.15 eV was achieved by increasing the annealing temperature upto 400 °C. For better solar energy harvest, wide band gapped CuO structures are proved to be functional and practical materials. The fabricated CuO nanostructures were found suitable to be used in devices for stabilizing circuit designs for sensitive appliances as well as micro electromechanical systems (mems). - Highlights: • CuO was synthesized by using sol gel method post growth annealing process. • XRD and SEM characterizations confirm the successful synthesis of CuO. • Change in morphology was observed with varying annealing temperature. • Improved optical and dielectric properties were observed.

  4. Chamomile flower extract-directed CuO nanoparticle formation for its antioxidant and DNA cleavage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Fatih, E-mail: fduman@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Kayseri 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Erciyes University, Nanotechnology Research Center, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Kup, Fatma Ozturk [Erciyes University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Kayseri 38039, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using a medicinal plant (Matricaria chamomilla) flower extract as both reducing and capping agent and investigate their antioxidant activity and interaction with plasmid DNA (pBR322).The CuO NPs were characterized using Uv–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The CuO NPs exhibited nearly mono-distributed and spherical shapes with diameters of 140 nm size. UV–Vis absorption spectrum of CuO NPs gave a broad peak around 285 and 320 nm. The existence of functional groups on the surface of CuO NPs was characterized with FT-IR analysis. XRD pattern showed that the NPs are in the form of a face-centered cubic crystal. Zeta potential value was measured as − 20 mV due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in plant extract. Additionally, we demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant activity of CuO NPs and their interaction with plasmid DNA. We assumed that the CuO NPs both cleave and break DNA double helix structure. - Highlights: • The synthesis of microwave assisted green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles • The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by FT-IR, DLS, XRD, EDX and SEM. • Concentration-dependent antioxidant activity of CuO NPs was determined. • CuO NPs cause both cleavage in the DNA double helix structure and breaks as well.

  5. Magnetic fluctuations in La1.95Ba0.05CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayden, S.M.; Aeppli, G.; Mook, H.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-scattering and resistivity experiments on single crystals of La1.95Ba0.05CuO4 are described. On warming to as high as 250 K, the correlation length does not change, and the temperature dependence of the generalized susceptibility chi(Q, omega) is due solely to the temperature dependence o...

  6. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen under visible light on La2CuO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry (USTHB),. B.P. 32, 16111 ... The energy diagram shows the feasibility of La2CuO4 for the H2 evolution under visible light. The best ... An efficient photocata-.

  7. Synthesis of chrysalis-like CuO nanocrystals and their catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. JUN WANG a,b,. *, SHANSHAN HE ... analyzer at a heating rate of 10°C min. –1 from 35 to 500°C. ... ent reaction temperature, CuO nanocrystals were pre- pared to show different ...

  8. Magnetic and dielectric studies of multiferroic CuO nanoparticles confined to porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E.V.; Lee, M.K.; Tien, C.; Pak, V.N.; Formus, D.V.; Pirozerskii, A.L.; Nedbai, A.I.; Ubyivovk, E.V.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Chang, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Dc magnetization and ac electric permittivity were measured for the CuO-porous glass nanocomposite made and for pressed powder CuO. Magnetization curves showed a bend between two linear segments for both the nanocomposite and bulk cupric oxide at 230 K evidencing that the temperature of the transition from the paramagnetic into multiferroic phase did not change noticeably under nanoconfinement. Results suggested also a reduction of the temperature of the second transition into the collinear antiferromagnetic phase. ZFC and FC magnetizations were found to bifurcate for the nanocomposite and bulk CuO. The bifurcation was accompanied with peaks on ZFC magnetization. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoparticles embedded into porous glass compared to bulk. ► ZFC and FC magnetizations bifurcate in the nanocomposite and bulk CuO. ► Dc magnetization suggests a reduction of the temperature T N1 till about 190 K. ► Temperature T N2 of the transition into multiferroic phase did not change.

  9. Theory of phonon properties in doped and undoped CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahoosh, S.G. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Apostolov, A.T. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Department of Physics, 1, Hristo Smirnenski Blvd., 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Apostolova, I.N. [University of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Industry, 10, Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Wesselinowa, J.M., E-mail: julia@phys.uni-sofia.bg [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, 5 J. Bouchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-07-02

    We have studied the phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles and have shown the importance of the anharmonic spin–phonon interaction. The Raman peaks of CuO nanoparticles shift to lower frequency and become broader as the particle size decreases in comparison with those of bulk CuO crystals owing to size effects. By doping with different ions, in dependence of their radius compared to the host ionic radius the phonon energies ω could be reduced or enhanced. The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects. -- Highlights: ► The phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles are studied using a miscroscopic model. ► The phonon energy decreases whereas the damping increases with decreasing of particle size. ► It is shown the importance of the anharmonic spin–phonon interaction. ► By doping with RE-ions the phonon energy is reduced, whereas with TM-ions it is enhanced. ► The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    The pure and Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles of the series Cu(1-x)Fe(x)O (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were successfully prepared by a simple low temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples were single phase crystallized in monoclinic structure of space group C2/c with average crystallite size of about 25 nm and unit cell volume decreases with increasing iron doping concentration. TEM micrograph showed nearly spherical shaped agglomerated particles of 4% Fe-doped CuO with average diameter 26 nm. Pure CuO showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with coercive field of 67 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties were greatly enhanced with Fe-doping in the CuO matrix. All the doped samples showed ferromagnetism at room temperature with a noticeable coercive field. Saturation magnetization increases with increasing Fe-doping, becomes highest for 4% doping then decreases for further doping which confirms that the ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles are intrinsic and are not resulting from any impurity phases. The ZFC and FC branches of the temperature dependent magnetization (measured in the range of 10-350 K by SQUID magnetometer) look like typical ferromagnetic nanoparticles and indicates that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is above 350 K.

  11. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 5. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low temperature sintered quaternary piezoelectric ceramics. Jianhua Li ... Keywords. Sintering; microstructure-final; piezoelectric properties; perovskites; Jahn–Teller effect.

  12. Legionella pneumophila transcriptional response following exposure to CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper ions are an effective antimicrobial agent used to control Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever arising from institutional drinking water systems. Here we present data on an alternative bactericidal agent, CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), and test its efficacy at three conce...

  13. Porous SnO2-CuO nanotubes for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Chanhoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Yoon, Ki Ro; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-01-01

    Facile synthesis of rationally designed structures is critical to realize a high performance electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Among different candidates, tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) is one of the most actively researched electrode materials due to its high theoretical capacity (1493 mAh g-1), abundance, inexpensive costs, and environmental friendliness. However, severe capacity decay from the volume expansion and low conductivity of SnO2 have hampered its use as a feasible electrode for LIBs. Rationally designed SnO2-based nanostructures with conductive materials can be an ideal solution to resolve such limitations. In this work, we have successfully fabricated porous SnO2-CuO composite nanotubes (SnO2-CuO p-NTs) by electrospinning and subsequent calcination step. The porous nanotubular structure is expected to mitigate the volume expansion of SnO2, while the as-formed Cu from CuO upon lithiation allows faster electron transport by improving the low conductivity of SnO2. With a synergistic effect of both Sn and Cu-based oxides, SnO2-CuO p-NTs deliver stable cycling performance (91.3% of capacity retention, ∼538 mAh g-1) even after 350 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1, along with enhanced rate capabilities compared with SnO2.

  14. Ceramic Composites of 3Y-TZP Doped with CuO: Processing, Microstructure and Tribology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, S.

    2006-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is about processing, microstructure and tribology of CuO doped 3Y-TZP (3 mol% yttria stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals) composite ceramics. This group of materials has shown attractive properties such as superplastic behaviour at elevated temperature and a

  15. Giant Cu 2p Resonances in CuO Valence-Band Photoemission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.; Ghijsen, J.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.

    1991-01-01

    We report the observation of a giant resonance in the Cu 2p resonant-photoemission spectra of CuO. The study allows the unambiguous identification of the local Cu 3d8 configuration in the valence-band photoemission spectrum, providing conclusive evidence for the charge-transfer nature of the

  16. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery

  17. Excellent field emission properties of vertically oriented CuO nanowire films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oriented CuO nanowire films were synthesized on a large scale using simple method of direct heating copper grids in air. The field emission properties of the sample can be enhanced by improving the aspect ratio of the nanowires just through a facile method of controlling the synthesis conditions. Although the density of the nanowires is large enough, the screen effect is not an important factor in this field emission process because few nanowires sticking out above the rest. Benefiting from the unique geometrical and structural features, the CuO nanowire samples show excellent field emission (FE properties. The FE measurements of CuO nanowire films illustrate that the sample synthesized at 500 °C for 8 h has a comparatively low turn-on field of 0.68 V/μm, a low threshold field of 1.1 V/μm, and a large field enhancement factor β of 16782 (a record high value for CuO nanostructures, to the best of our knowledge, indicating that the samples are promising candidates for field emission applications.

  18. Characterization and gas sensing properties of CuO synthesized by DC directly applying voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinbumrung, Arrak [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai, E-mail: schthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CuO as a p-type semiconductor. • It was synthesized by directly applying voltage. • A promising material for ammonia detection. - Abstract: CuO microstructure was successfully synthesized by 50 A and 3.6 V DC directly applying voltage. Crystalline structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The sample of the 15 min processing time has an irregular shape with diameter about several hundreds of nanometer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to determine vibrational modes and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples: 529 and 585 cm{sup −1} vibrational modes, 3.95 eV band gap, and 402 nm emitting wavelength in violet region of CuO. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition, Cu(II)O, of the metal oxide surface. Gas sensing performance exposing to NH{sub 3} mixed with air at various working temperatures and NH{sub 3} concentrations of the as-synthesized CuO has the best response at the optimal working temperature of 250 °C: sensitivity of 56.6% exposed to 5275 ppm NH{sub 3}.

  19. Characterization and gas sensing properties of CuO synthesized by DC directly applying voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinbumrung, Arrak; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO as a p-type semiconductor. • It was synthesized by directly applying voltage. • A promising material for ammonia detection. - Abstract: CuO microstructure was successfully synthesized by 50 A and 3.6 V DC directly applying voltage. Crystalline structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The sample of the 15 min processing time has an irregular shape with diameter about several hundreds of nanometer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to determine vibrational modes and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples: 529 and 585 cm −1 vibrational modes, 3.95 eV band gap, and 402 nm emitting wavelength in violet region of CuO. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition, Cu(II)O, of the metal oxide surface. Gas sensing performance exposing to NH 3 mixed with air at various working temperatures and NH 3 concentrations of the as-synthesized CuO has the best response at the optimal working temperature of 250 °C: sensitivity of 56.6% exposed to 5275 ppm NH 3

  20. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  1. Low-frequency noise characterization of single CuO nanowire gas sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinhauer, S.; Köck, A.; Gspan, C.; Grogger, W.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Pogany, D.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency noise properties of single CuO nanowire devices were investigated under gas sensor operation conditions in dry and humid synthetic air at 350¿°C. A 1/f noise spectrum was found with the normalized power spectral density of current fluctuations typically a factor of 2 higher for humid

  2. Spectral characterization of mechanically synthesized MoO3-CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeep, Dola; Gopala Krishna, A.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Daniel Ephraim, S.; Pavan, Y. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, MoO3-CuO metal oxide composite nanopowders are prepared by simple mechanochemical assisted synthesis technique with the stoichiometric weight ratios of MoO3 and CuO as 2.3:1 and 3.3:1, respectively. The structural and spectroscopic properties of the as-synthesised samples are characterised by XRD, SEM with EDS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and TGA/DTA. X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrates the peaks correspond to orthorhombic phase of α-MoO3 and monoclinic phase of β-CuO. The average crystalline sizes of the 2.3:1 and 3.3:1 samples were found to be 16 and 24 nm, respectively, which are supported by Williamson-Hall (W-H) calculations. The correlations between the milling rotational speeds with morphological characteristics are revealed by the SEM images. The fundamental modes of Mo=O and Cu-O were analysed by FT-IR. Raman analysis has provided the qualitative information about the structure of the mixed oxide composite. Thermogravimetry analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) of MoO3-CuO have revealed that the dual phase mixed oxide composite is stable up to 709 °C with a negligible weight loss. Based on the above, it can be inferred that the synthesised mixed lubricous oxide nanocomposite could be used as a solid lubricant at elevated temperatures.

  3. Redes de Pesquisa Entre os Egressos do Doutorado em Ciências Contábeis da FEA/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva analisar as redes de pesquisa dos egressos do curso de Doutorado em Ciências Contábeis da FEA/USP. A pesquisa documental foi realizada nos currículos Lattes dos doutores em controladoria e contabilidade, formados pela Universidade de São Paulo, no período de 1962 a 2008. Da população de 185 doutores do Doutorado de Ciências Contábeis da FEA/USP, uma amostra de 158 foi selecionada, pois 27 currículos Lattes não estavam disponíveis. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se estatística descritiva para quantificação da produção científica dos doutores, conforme informações disponíveis nos currículos Lattes. Para análise das redes de pesquisa entre os egressos, utilizou-se o software UNICET®. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam as instituições que os egressos estão vinculados atualmente, as funções que exercem nestas instituições, a produção científica dos egressos no período de 1998 a 2008 e as redes de pesquisa predominantes entre os egressos. Constatou-se que a Universidade de São Paulo concentra o maior número de docentes egressos e que a produção científica dos doutores pesquisados está predominantemente publicada em anais de congressos. Quanto às redes, observou-se que estabelecem redes de cooperação com predomínio de ligações fracas em livros, capítulos de livros e textos de revistas/jornais, porém relações de cooperação fortes na publicação de artigos em periódicos. Conclui-se que há ainda necessidade de um fortalecimento nas redes estabelecidas entre os egressos analisados para proporcionar um aprimoramento científico na área contábil.

  4. Novel β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes: facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan-Rong; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dong-Feng; Tian, Qing-Nan; Yang, Ke; Si, Yuan; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, novel β-C3N4/CuO composites with superior photocatalytic activity are successfully fabricated via a facile reflux method followed by a thermal process. The morphologies, particle size and microstructure of the synthesized β-C3N4/CuO composites largely depended upon copper chloride and the volume ratio of V water:V ethanol in the mixed precursors. The fabricated β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes exhibited obviously enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) with an  ˜3.4 and 1.9 fold increase in efficiency over that of pure g-C3N4 and commercial P25, respectively. The β-C3N4/CuO composite photocatalyst also showed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Moreover, the β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes showed almost no loss of photocatalytic activity after three recycles of the degradation of the MB. A multiple synergetic mechanism in β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes, which is featured by the highly reactive {0 0 2} facets, exposed many active sites of nanoflakes and the efficient charge separation are proposed to account for the distinguished photocatalytic activity. This work provides a facile and cost-effective strategy for designing novel β-C3N4/CuO photocatalysts for application in environmental purification.

  5. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  6. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  7. Electrochemical properties of CuO hollow nanopowders prepared from formless Cu–C composite via nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hwa [Daegu Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 80 Daehakro Bukgu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Ju [Suncheon Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Suncheon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan, E-mail: yckang@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process that relied on nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion; these nanopowders have potential applications in lithium-ion batteries. Citric acid is used as both the carbon source material and chelating agent and plays a key role in the preparation of the hollow nanopowders. The formless Cu–C composite that formed as an intermediate product transforms into slightly aggregated CuO hollow nanopowders after post-treatment at 300 and 400 °C under an air atmosphere. The CuO hollow nanopowders exhibit higher initial discharge capacities and better cycling performances than those of the filled-structured CuO nanopowders, which are prepared at a post-treatment temperature of 500 °C under an air atmosphere. The discharge capacities of the CuO nanopowders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C for the 150{sup th} cycle at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} are 793, 632, and 464 mA h g{sup −1}, respectively, and their capacity retentions calculated from the maximum discharge capacities are 88, 80, and 73%, respectively. The CuO nanopowders with hollow structures exhibit better structural stability for repeated lithium insertion and desertion processes than those with filled structures. - Highlights: • Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process. • Cu–C composite transforms into CuO hollow nanopowders by Kirkendall diffusion. • Hollow CuO nanopowders show good electrochemical properties for lithium-ion storage.

  8. Tuning the magnetism of the top-layer FeAs on BaFe2As2 (001): First-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Jing; Liu, Kai; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Magnetism may play an important role in inducing the superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. As a prototypical system, the surface of BaFe2As2 provides a good platform for studying related magnetic properties. We have designed systematic first-principles calculations to clarify the surface magnetism of BaFe2As2 (001), which previously has received little attention in comparison with surface structures and electronic states. We find that the surface environment has an important influence on the magnetic properties of the top-layer FeAs. For As-terminated surfaces, the magnetic ground state of the top-layer FeAs is in the staggered dimer antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, distinct from that of the bulk, while for Ba-terminated surfaces the collinear (single-stripe) AFM order is the most stable, the same as that in the bulk. When a certain coverage of Ba or K atoms is deposited onto the As-terminated surface, the calculated energy differences among different AFM orders for the top-layer FeAs on BaFe2As2 (001) can be much reduced, indicating enhanced spin fluctuations. To compare our results with available scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements, we have simulated the STM images of several structural/magnetic terminations. Astonishingly, when the top-layer FeAs is in the staggered dimer AFM order, a stripe pattern appears in the simulated STM image even when the surface Ba atoms adopt a √{2 }×√{2 } structure, while a √{2 }×√{2 } square pattern comes out for the 1 ×1 full As termination. Our results suggest: (i) the magnetic state at the BaFe2As2 (001) surface can be quite different from that in the bulk; (ii) the magnetic properties of the top-layer FeAs can be tuned effectively by surface doping, which may likely induce superconductivity at the surface layer; (iii) both the surface termination and the AFM order in the top-layer FeAs can affect the STM image of BaFe2As2 (001), which needs to be taken into account when identifying the surface

  9. Surface accumulation conduction controlled sensing characteristic of p-type CuO nanorods induced by oxygen adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C; Fu, X Q; Xue, X Y; Wang, Y G; Wang, T H

    2007-01-01

    P-type CuO nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and the ethanol-sensing properties of sensors based on CuO were investigated. The sensor resistance increased when it was exposed to ethanol and decreased in the air, which is contrary to the case for sensors realized from n-type semiconductor. The resistance of the CuO-based sensor was about 2 kΩ in air and 6 kΩ in ethanol vapour with concentration of 2000 ppm. Such a sensing property is attributed to surface accumulation conduction. Sensors based on CuO nanorods have potential applications in detecting ethanol in low concentration

  10. Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoja, Villem; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Toxicities of ZnO, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were determined using OECD 201 algal growth inhibition test taking in account potential shading of light. The results showed that the shading effect by nanoparticles was negligible. ZnO nanoparticles were most toxic followed by nano CuO and nano TiO2. The toxicities of bulk and nano ZnO particles were both similar to that of ZnSO4 (72 h EC50 approximately 0.04 mg Zn/l). Thus, in this low concentration range the toxicity was attributed solely to solubilized Zn2+ ions. Bulk TiO2 (EC50=35.9 mg Ti/l) and bulk CuO (EC50=11.55 mg Cu/l) were less toxic than their nano formulations (EC50=5.83 mg Ti/l and 0.71 mg Cu/l). NOEC (no-observed-effect-concentrations) that may be used for risk assessment purposes for bulk and nano ZnO did not differ (approximately 0.02 mg Zn/l). NOEC for nano CuO was 0.42 mg Cu/l and for bulk CuO 8.03 mg Cu/l. For nano TiO2 the NOEC was 0.98 mg Ti/l and for bulk TiO2 10.1 mg Ti/l. Nano TiO2 formed characteristic aggregates entrapping algal cells that may contribute to the toxic effect of nano TiO2 to algae. At 72 h EC50 values of nano CuO and CuO, 25% of copper from nano CuO was bioavailable and only 0.18% of copper from bulk CuO. Thus, according to recombinant bacterial and yeast Cu-sensors, copper from nano CuO was 141-fold more bioavailable than from bulk CuO. Also, toxic effects of Cu oxides to algae were due to bioavailable copper ions. To our knowledge, this is one of the first systematic studies on effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on algal growth and the first describing toxic effects of nano CuO towards algae.

  11. DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR FOR USE IN HYDRODYNAMIC RENEWABLE ENERGY BY APPLYING ACO AND FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Nikbakhsh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important ways to reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently reduce greenhouse gases and environmental pollution is the use of renewable energies such as water, sun, wind, etc. One of the most efficient ways to take advantages of the shallow flowing waters such as rivers and fountains in electrical power generation is the use of hydrodynamic screw in the direction of water flow. The design of the generator for this application results in environmental dangers decrease. On the other hand, it provides some part of electrical energy required for human beings. Generators in hydrodynamic renewable energy system ought to have features such as high efficiency, power density and reliability as well as low volume. Among various generators, the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG meets these requirements very well. In this paper, first, analytical calculations and the design process of PMSG were explained. Then, the ant colony optimization (ACO was used for the optimization of design quantities. PMSG design optimization increased in efficiency and decreased in volume. By improving these two parameters in the designed PMSG, it gets very suitable to be used in hydrodynamic renewable energy system. Finally, the results of the optimized design of PMSG were validated through simulation of it in Maxwell software and applying finite element analysis (FEA. Also the final results have been compared to similar experimental researches results.

  12. Strength Enhancement of Car Front Bumper for Slow Speed Impact by FEA Method as per IIHS Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant Rameshchandra; Shelar, Ajit Lavaji

    2017-05-01

    Low speed collisions happen significantly due to on road slow moving heavy traffic as well as during parking of vehicles. The bumpers are provided in front and back side of a vehicle has two main purposes: first is to absorb the energy generated during these kinds of slow speed impacts and secondly to protect the expensive parts like main engine parts, radiators and connected engine cooling mechanism, headlights, taillights, etc, by slowing down the vehicles. The problem often in various cars bumper is that they doesn't line-up vertically during low speed impact and leads to damage of various parts which are costly to repair. Many a times bumper design does not have sufficient capacity to absorb the energy generated during these impact. Guideline by International Institute Highway Safety (IIHS) regulation provides useful insight for such low speed impact study. In this paper, slow speed impact test were conducted as per IIHS regulation in three positions namely central impact, left hand corner impact and right hand corner impact. Parameters including bumper material, shape, thickness and impact condition are analyzed using fine element analysis (FEA) to enhance crashworthiness design in low speed impact. Then the vehicle front structure has been modified suitably. It has been observed that lining up the front metal bumper with suitable stiffness provides the best result which ultimately reduces the damage to the vehicle parts.

  13. Insights into the CuO nanoparticle ecotoxicity with suitable marine model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, A; Gallo, A; Parlapiano, I; Berducci, M T; Boni, R; Tosti, E; Prato, E; Maggi, C; Cicero, A M; Migliore, L; Manfra, L

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, among them copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), are widely used in different applications (e.g. batteries, gas sensors, superconductors, plastics and metallic coatings), increasing their potential release in the environment. In aquatic matrix, the behavior of CuO NPs may strongly change, depending on their surface charge and some physical-chemical characteristics of the medium (e.g. ionic strength, salinity, pH and natural organic matter content). Ecotoxicity of CuO NPs to aquatic organisms was mainly studied on freshwater species, few tests being performed on marine biota. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CuO NPs on suitable indicator species, belonging to the ecologically relevant level of consumers. The selected bioassays use reference protocols to identify Effect/Lethal Concentrations (E(L)C), by assessing lethal and sub-lethal endpoints. Mortality tests were performed on rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis), shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and copepod (Tigriopus fulvus). While moult release failure and fertilization rate were studied, as sub-lethal endpoints, on T. fulvus and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), respectively. The size distribution and sedimentation rates of CuO NPs, together with the copper dissolution, were also analyzed in the exposure media. The CuO NP ecotoxicity assessment showed a concentration-dependent response for all species, indicating similar mortality for B. plicatilis (48hLC 50 = 16.94 ± 2.68mg/l) and T. fulvus (96hLC 50 = 12.35 ± 0.48mg/l), followed by A. franciscana (48hLC 50 = 64.55 ± 3.54mg/l). Comparable EC 50 values were also obtained for the sub-lethal endpoints in P. lividus (EC 50 = 2.28 ± 0.06mg/l) and T. fulvus (EC 50 = 2.38 ± 0.20mg/l). Copper salts showed higher toxicity than CuO NPs for all species, with common sensitivity trend as follows: P. lividus ≥ T. fulvus (sublethal endpoint) ≥ B. plicatilis >T. fulvus (lethal endpoint) >A. franciscana. CuO NP micrometric

  14. Analyzing distinctive rotor poles of the axial flux PM motors by using 3D-FEA in view of the magnetic equivalent circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Cetin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher efficiency is always a desire for the electric machines researchers. One serious candidate is the axial flux permanent magnet motor to achieve that. These machines have advantages on power and torque density profile. This study aims to analyse the performances of the different rotor poles’ characteristics of the axial flux permanent magnet machines. The magnetic equivalent circuit designed and placed into the single gap axial flux permanent magnet machine to fathom the machine characteristic. The proposed rotors magnet poles are investigated in the view of the torque ripple reduction, back EMF waveforms and flux density distribution by using finite element analysis. Four different designs are compared. 3D analysis is used for FEA simulations. Torque ripple, back emf and magnetic flux distribution waveforms are obtained from the 3D FEA analysis. As a result, the proposed rotors are practicable and situated for higher performance.

  15. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon–i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  16. Speciation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles exposed to culture medium and lymphocyte cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spectral fits and linear combination data for ZnO and CuO nanoparticles exposure during toxicity testing. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  17. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic property of CuO and Ag/CuO nanoparticles for the epoxidation of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashanizadegan, Maryam; Erfaninia, Nasrin [Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    CuO nanorodes, CuO nanoplates and Ag/CuO nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of polyethylene glycol by depositional in alkaline environment. Oxide nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FT-IR). CuO and Ag/CuO nanoparticles show high catalytic activity for the selective epoxidation of styrene to styrene oxide by TBHP. Under the optimized reaction condition, the oxidation of styrene catalyzed by CuO nanorods gave 100% conversion with 60 and 35% styrene oxide and benzaldehyde, respectively. Ag/CuO gave 99% conversion and styrene oxide (71%) and benzaldehyde (12%) being the major product.

  18. Modeling Photoelectron Spectra of CuO, Cu2O, and CuO2 Anions with Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Methods: An Adventure in Fock Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orms, Natalie; Krylov, Anna I

    2018-04-12

    The experimental photoelectron spectra of di- and triatomic copper oxide anions have been reported previously. We present an analysis of the experimental spectra of the CuO - , Cu 2 O - , and CuO 2 - anions using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods. The open-shell electronic structure of each molecule demands a unique combination of EOM-CC methods to achieve an accurate and balanced representation of the multiconfigurational anionic- and neutral-state manifolds. Analysis of the Dyson orbitals associated with photodetachment from CuO - reveals the strong non-Koopmans character of the CuO states. For the lowest detachment energy, a good agreement between theoretical and experimental values is obtained with CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative account of triple excitations). The (T) correction is particularly important for Cu 2 O - . Use of a relativistic pseudopotential and matching basis set improves the quality of results in most cases. EOM-DIP-CCSD analysis of the low-lying states of CuO 2 - reveals multiple singlet and triplet anionic states near the triplet ground state, adding an extra layer of complexity to the interpretation of the experimental CuO 2 - photoelectron spectrum.

  19. Cu charge fluctuations and anomalous behaviour in the phonon spectrum of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobry, A.; Greco, A.; Migoni, R.; Stachiotti, M.

    1991-09-01

    The additional excitation observed in the phonon spectrum of La 2 CuO 4 is shown to arise from Cu charge fluctuations. A nonlinear breathing shell model is formulated for the coupling of these fluctuations with the lattice. The harmonic dynamics and exact nonlinear solutions are studied in a 2-D model of the CuO 2 planes. A molecular dynamics simulation shows an additional peak of nonphononic character originated by the nonlinear lattice dynamics. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs

  20. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the SrO-In2O3-CuO System in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2013-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the SrO-In2O3-CuO system were investigated at 900 °C in air. Under these conditions, five binary oxide phases are stable: Sr2CuO3, SrCuO2, Sr14Cu24O41, In2Cu2O5 and SrIn2O4. The pseudo-ternary section is characterised by six three-phase regions and is dominated...

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Copper Oxide (CuO Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Bacillus sp. FU4: Optimization of Experiment Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Taran, Maryam Rad, Mehran Alavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several methods for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs including chemical, physical and biological process. In this study, Bacillus sp. FU4 was used as biological source for biosynthesis of CuO NPs. Methods: CuO NPs have been prepared by copper sulfate (CuSO4. CuO NPs were formed after oxidation of Cu NPs. Design and analysis of Taguchi experiments (an orthogonal assay and analysis of variance (ANOVA carried out by the Qualitek-4 software. Average effect of CuSO4 concentration (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 M, incubation and culturing time (48, 72, 96 hours as three controllable factors with three levels were evaluated in CuO NPs biosynthesis. Characterization of CuO NPs was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also, the antimicrobial properties of CuO NPs were investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 as multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria. Results: Results: It was evaluated that, NPs size distributions were in the range of 2-41 nm with spherical shapes. The anti-bacterial activities of CuO NPs were measured based on diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests of NPs dispersed in batch cultures. Two levels of CuSO4 concentrations (0.1 and 0.01M had antibacterial effect on E.coli (33±0.57 and 6 ±2mm. In the case of S. aureus, there was surprisingly no sign of growth. Conclusion: CuO NPs have antibacterial activity that can be benefit in medicinal aspect for fighting against prominent pathogen bacteria such as E.coli ATCC 25922 and S.aureus ATCC 43300.

  2. Direct structural and spectroscopic investigation of ultrathin films of tetragonal CuO: Six-fold coordinated copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samal, D.; Tan, H.; Takamura, Y.; Siemons, W.; Verbeeck, J.; van Tendeloo, G.; Arenholz, E.; Jenkins, A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Koster, Gertjan

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other 3d transition metal monoxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO), CuO is found in a low-symmetry distorted monoclinic structure rather than the rocksalt structure. We report here of the growth of ultrathin CuO films on SrTiO3 substrates; scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to show

  3. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Shutesh, E-mail: shutesh.k@onsemi.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ON Semiconductor Package Innovation and Development Center, 70450 Seremban (Malaysia); Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1{sup ¯}11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications.

  4. Preparation of octahedral CuO micro/nanocrystals and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Hongbo; Li, Li; Chen, Yashun; Yang, Xianqin; Su, Changwei; Guo, Junming; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Octahedral cupric oxides with hollow structure were prepared. • No hard template was used in the preparation of hollow cupric oxides. • The cupric oxides show good reversible capacity. - Abstract: Herein we report that three octahedral CuO samples with hollow or solid structure are successfully prepared by firstly preparation of Cu 2 O products using a chemical reduction method, then by calcination in a muffle furnace at 300 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. The obtained CuO samples serve as a good model system for the study as anodes for lithium ion batteries. All the three CuO samples have high discharge specific capacity and good cycling stability from the 2nd cycling to the 50th cycling. Octahedral CuO hollow crystals with 400 nm in size have the highest reversible capacity and the smallest resistance. So their electrochemical performances are partly related to their morphologies. The results suggest that the as-prepared CuO samples, especially the 400 nm hollow octahedral CuO crystals could be a promising material for the anode of lithium-ion battery

  5. Controlled synthesis of uniform ultrafine CuO nanowires as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tao Weizhe; Zhao Mingshu; Xu Minwei; Yang Shengchun; Sun Zhanbo; Wang Liqun; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ultrafine CuO nanowires were controlled synthesized by a simple solution route. → CuO nanowires exhibit high capacity, superior cyclability and improved rate capability. → Voltage-capacity curves show larger extra reversible reactions at low potentials in CuO nanowires. → CV curves show lower over-potential in CuO nanowires. - Abstract: A simple solution route is used to synthesize ultrafine Cu(OH) 2 nanowires by restraining the morphology transformation of early formed 1D nanostructure. The obtained ultrafine nanowires can be well preserved at a low temperature structure transformation in solid state. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the ultrafine CuO nanowires exhibit high reversible capacity, superior cycling performance and improved rate capability. The improved electrochemical properties of CuO nanowires are ascribed to their ultrafine size which lead to the reduced over-potential, extra reversible reactions at low potentials and improved interface performance between the electrode and electrolyte.

  6. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shutesh; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1 ¯ 11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications

  7. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  8. Effects of exposure to nano and bulk sized TiO2 and CuO in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc Koce, Jasna

    2017-10-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO 2 and CuO are among most commonly used nanoparticles, and elevated concentrations of them are expected to be found in all environments, including aquatic. A standard growth inhibition test ISO/CD 20079 was used to determine the toxicity of nano sized and larger micro sized (bulk) particles in the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM CuO and TiO 2 on common duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Both nano and bulk CuO particles caused changes in the structure and function of treated plants. The number of fronds and colonies decreased by as much as 78%, the length of roots and fronds decreased by 99% and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, photochemical efficiency was reduced by up to 35%, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased by more than 240%. The altered physiological state of the CuO exposed plants was also reflected in the elevated occurrence of necrosis and bleaching in the duckweed colonies. Nano sized particles of CuO proved more phytotoxic than bulk particles, and the effects of both studied CuO sizes were concentration dependent. On the other hand, both bulk and nano sized particles of TiO 2 caused no severe phytotoxic effects, there was no concentration dependence and they could be considered as non-harmful to common duckweed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Peroxymonosulfate activation and pollutants degradation over highly dispersed CuO in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Peng; Fang, Jia; Wang, Manye; Wu, Deming; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) supported CuO catalysts were synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that the CuO species were highly dispersed in OMS-2 with a high ratio of easily reduced surface oxygen species. The synergetic effect between CuO and OMS-2 significantly improved the dye degradation rate and catalytic stability, compared with CuO, OMS-2 and supported CuO on other materials. About 97% of the dye was removed within 15 min at neutral solution pH by using 0.2 g/L of CuO/OMS-2 and PMS. The effect of initial solution pH, PMS concentration, reaction temperature and CuO content in the composites on AO7 degradation was also investigated. Mechanism study indicated that SO4-rad radicals generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn and Cu species with different oxidation states, mainly accounted for the degradation.

  10. NQR study in superconducting La2CuO4+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Sugata, T.; Kohori, Y.; Oda, Y.; Kohara, T.

    1992-01-01

    Cu NQR signals were observed around 33.1 and 36.0 MHz together with the antiferromagnetic Cu NMR signals in the superconducting La 2 CuO 4+ δ obtained by annealing in high pressure oxygen gas. The NQR intensity increases with increasing oxygen contents. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1 , of Cu NQR indicates that the paramagnetic phase is in the superconducting state at low temperatures. These results show that the NQR and NMR signals were coming from the Cu sites in the superconducting phase and the antiferromagnetic phase, respectively. No appreciable differences were observed in the Cu NQR spectrum and the relaxation time between the superconducting La 2 CuO 4 + δ samples annealed under the oxygen pressure of 400 ≅ 1200 bar. (orig.)

  11. CuO and Ag2O effect on electrical properties of barium vanadate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolova, L.D.; Glasova, M.N.; Kalygina, V.M.; Spasibkina, S.N.; Khorikov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of CuO on barium vanadate glass (BVG) conductivity on direct and alternating currents in the frequency range (10 2 -10 4 )Hz has been studied. Effect of Ag 2 O has been also studied for comparison, as Ag and Cu have idendical structure of external electron shells (d 10 , S 1 ). CuO introduction to binary barium vanadate glasses as a modificator results in the conductivity improvement on direct and alternating currents conditioned with reducing activation energy of small radius polaron jump, apparently, owing to exchange (ferromagnetic) interaction between V(IV) and Cu(II). Jump activation energy in barium vanadate glasses with Ag 2 O increases and conductivity drops due to the distance increase between vanadium atoms

  12. Study of Optical Band Gap of CuO Using Fermi's Golden Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemade, K R; Waghuley, S A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum size effect where the electronic and optical properties of solids are altered due to changes in the band structures, enhanced the surface/volume ratio in nano dimensions forces more than 33% of the atoms to be on the surface (for 10nm dot 35), which drastically altering the physical properties such as having lower melting temperature and lower sintering temperature, and higher diffusion force at elevated temperatures. Consequently, its Fermi's golden rule analysis becomes crucial. Cupric oxide (CuO) is an important transition metal oxide with the basis of several high temperature superconductors and giant magnetoresistance materials. In present investigation, optical Band Gap from UV data using Fermi's golden rule for single step chemically synthesized CuO was computed.

  13. Probing the CuO planes with positrons in high Tc cuprates: theoretical predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Massidda, S.; Peter, M.

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool to investigate the Fermi surface in high T c superconductors. To study the physics of the copper-oxygen subsystem that forms the Cu-O layers, it is important to provide theoretical predictions, on materials where there is a large overlap between the positron and the interesting Cu-O planes. We have performed first-principle electronic structure calculations obtained using the linear muffin-tin orbital and the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave methods. The positron charge distributions and their sensitivity to different potentials are calculated. Secondly, we have computed the annihilation rates and the electron-positron momentum density in order to give predictions of the Fermi surface signals. (orig.)

  14. Positron lifetime studies in undoped and Sr doped La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.; Hariharan, Y.; Vasumathi, D.

    1992-01-01

    The results of positron lifetime measurements as a function of temperature, in undoped and Sr doped La 2 CuO 4 are presented. A second component of lifetime with a value of 225 ps is seen to develop after 100degC, whose intensity grows sharply in the range of 100degC to 250degC. The mean lifetime increases from 170 ps to 207 ps as the temperature is increased from room temperature to 300degC. Using the results of the theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes at vacancies in La 2 CuO 4 , it is argued that the increase in lifetime with temperature is due to positron trapping at the thermally generated La vacancies. From a two state trapping model analysis, the formation energy is estimated to be 0.39±0.04 eV

  15. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V Cu , V O ) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V − Cu - V + O complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  16. Some crystal chemistry of (Ln,Ce)2CuO4-δ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Keating, A.; Myhra, S.; White, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Compounds of the form (Ln, Sr, Ce) 2 CuO 4-δ (Ln = rare earth element) crystallise as the Nd 2 CuO 4 structure type, K 2 NiF 4 structure type or perfectly and imperfectly ordered intergrowths of these parent structures. These structurally similar phases exhibit superconductivity in which the charge carriers are holes (in Sr-doped material) or electrons (in Ce doped material). In this study, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) were used to investigate the charge balancing mechanisms operating in each superconducting regime and the structural changes accompanying compositional variation. It was found that under slightly reducing conditions charge coupled cation substitutions predominate, whilst at low pO 2 ( -5 atm) perfectly ordered oxygen superlattices form. The structural and electronic changes which accompany deoxygenation were observed in situ during XPS and HREM observations. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Antimicrobial activities of CuO films deposited on Cu foils by solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai, E-mail: schthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Monoclinic CuO thin films on Cu foils were successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemical method in alkaline solution with the pH of 13 at room temperature for different lengths of time. The as-synthesized thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Formation mechanism of the phase and morphologies was also discussed according to the experimental results. In this research, assemblies of pure CuO nanospindles with different orientations containing in the thin film synthesized for 2 weeks with 400 nm and 413 nm violet emissions showed better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than E. coli.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of CuO films deposited on Cu foils by solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    Monoclinic CuO thin films on Cu foils were successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemical method in alkaline solution with the pH of 13 at room temperature for different lengths of time. The as-synthesized thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Formation mechanism of the phase and morphologies was also discussed according to the experimental results. In this research, assemblies of pure CuO nanospindles with different orientations containing in the thin film synthesized for 2 weeks with 400 nm and 413 nm violet emissions showed better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than E. coli.

  19. Obtention of superconductivity by room temperature electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casan-Pastor, N.; Fuertes, A.; Gomez-Romero, P.

    1993-01-01

    The undoped oxide La2CuO4 has required traditionally synthesis under high pressure of oxygen (and high temperatures) to incorporate excess oxygen into its structure and become a superconductor. The electrochemical oxidation of this same oxide at room temperature and pressure constitutes a striking example of the use of an alternative driving force for the oxidation of oxides to become superconductors. Electrochemical treatment of oxides has been frequently applied to their reduction with cationic intercalation. Oxidations of these solid with the concomitant intercalation of anions into their lattice shows also great promises. The paper reports recent results in the electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4 and other cuprates, showing also the important role of post-oxidation thermal treatments on the properties of the resulting solids

  20. ESR of Gd3+ in magnetically ordered Eu2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, C.; Oseroff, S.B.; Rao, D.; Valdivia, J.A.; Barberis, G.E.; Martins, G.B.; Sarrao, J.; Fisk, Z.; Tovar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments of Gd 3+ in the antiferromagnetic (AF) ordered phase (T N ) of Eu 2 CuO 4 can be interpreted in terms of four magnetically nonequivalent rare-earth sites with local internal fields H i =±310(30) Oe along the [100] and [010] directions. The internal field is well described by a dipolar magnetic field of a noncollinear AF array of 0.35(4) μ B per Cu moment aligned along the [100] and [010] directions. This is consistent with recent results of magnetic-field-dependent neutron-diffraction experiments. From the ESR and magnetic susceptibility data, the crystal field parameters for Gd 3+ and Eu 3+ in Eu 2 CuO 4 are determined. The exchange parameters between the rare earths are also estimated. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Influence of doping on the electronic structure of (La, Sr)2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Fluss, M.J.; Sterne, P.A.; Kaiser, J.H.; Kitazawa, K.; Kojima, H.

    1994-01-01

    High-statistics (>4 x 10 8 counts), room-temperature measurements of the electron positron momentum density of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 have been performed for samples with Sr concentrations of x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.13, and 0.2. These spectra have been analyzed in conjunction with theoretical calculations of the electron positron momentum density. The metallic samples show features consistent with the presence of a Fermi surface, but its evolution with increasing Sr concentration does not follow the predictions of band theory. These results may indicate the effects of electron-electron correlation on the electron momentum distribution in the Cu-O plane. 12 refs., 2 figs

  2. Lattice instabilities and structural phase transformations in La2CuO4 superconductors and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Soft-mode structural phase transformations, common in many perovskite-based materials, are also found in La 2 CuO 4 and structurally related oxides. The resulting phase behavior is rather complex, but is a natural consequence of the degeneracy of the soft phonon order parameters. This paper reviews the structural and lattice-dynamical results and their interpretation based upon mean-field statistical mechanical models

  3. Geometric distribution of CuO chains in YBa2Cu3O6+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matic, V.M.; Lazarov, N.Dj.

    2006-01-01

    Statistics of CuO chains in basal planes of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x high-T c superconductor has been studied in terms of two dimensional asymmetric next-to-nearest-neighbor Ising (ASYNNNI) model, with accentuation on distribution of CuO chains per different chain lengths. It has been shown that the fraction p(l) of CuO chains containing l oxygen ions (i.e., having the length equal to l), satisfies so-called ''law of geometric distribution''p(l)=ω(1-ω) l-1 , where the quantity ω is equal to the inverse of average chain length l av in the system, for given values of oxygen content x and temperature T. In the case of ortho-II (OII) structural phase, the geometric chain probability distribution is shown to hold separately for each of two different sublattices of oxygen sites, commonly known as α 1 and α 2 , with respectively defined l av α 1 (x,T) and l av α 2 (x,T). The theoretically derived result of the chain probability distribution p(l) is shown to be in a remarkable agreement with the results obtained out of extensive Monte Carlo calculations that were made within region of stability of orthorhombic structural phases in (x,T) space. The relevance of chain length distribution for accurate count of the number of transferred electronic holes to superconducting CuO 2 layers has been pointed out and expression for hole concentration has been derived. The concept of critical chain length for charge transfer mechanism was briefly discussed

  4. Building Selectivity for NO Sensing in a NOx Mixture with Sonochemically Prepared CuO Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max R. Mullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems that can distinguish between NO and NO2 in a mixture of these two gases are of interest. Since NO and NO2 can be brought to equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the surfaces that they are in contact with, the detection of NO and NO2 independently is a difficult problem and has not been solved to date. In this study, we explore a high surface area sonochemically prepared CuO as the resistive sensing medium. CuO is a poor catalyst for NOx equilibration, and requires temperatures of 500 C to bring about equilibration. Thus, at 300 C, NO and NO2 retain their levels after interaction with CuO surface. In addition, NO adsorbs more strongly on the CuO over NO2. Using these two concepts, we can detect NO with minimal interference from NO2, if the latter gas concentration does not exceed 20% in a NOx mixture over a range of 100–800 ppm. Since this range constitutes most of the range of total NOx concentrations in diesel and other lean burn engines, this sensor should find application in selective detection of NO in this combustion application. A limitation of this sensor is the interference with CO, but with combustion in excess air, this problem should be alleviated.

  5. Copper Oxide (CuO) 2-D Nanosheets for Advanced Electronic and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    supercritical CO2 reactor is in progress. The reactor is being machined and experiments will begin September 1. 5. Transport measurements on pellets made...for the upgrading of biodiesel . In a collaboration with Professor Kim at Yale we have decorated CuO nanosheets with nanodiamonds as a new catalytic...and transport electrons like a conduit. In order to maximize the photocatalytic activity of ND/photocatalyst composites, the electrical conductivity of

  6. Superconductivity in La1.56Sr0.44CuO4/La2CuO4 Superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozovic, I.; Suter, A.; Morenzoni, E.; Prokscha, T.; Luetkens, H.; Wojek, B.M.; Logvenov, G.; Gozar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Superlattices of the repeated structure La 1.56 Sr 0.44 CuO 4 /La 2 CuO 4 (LSCO-LCO), where none of the constituents is superconducting, show a superconducting transition of T(prime) c 25 K. In order to elucidate the nature of the superconducting state we have performed a low-energy μSR study. By applying a magnetic field parallel (Meissner state) and perpendicular (vortex state) to the film planes, we could show that superconductivity is sheet like, resulting in a very anisotropic superconducting state. This result is consistent with a simple charge-transfer model, which takes into account the layered structure and the difference in the chemical potential between LCO and LSCO, as well as Sr interdiffusion. Using a pancake-vortex model we could estimate a strict upper limit of the London penetration depth to 380 nm in these superlattices. The temperature dependence of the muon depolarization rate in field cooling experiments is very similar to what is observed in intercalated BSCCO and suggests that vortex-vortex interaction is dominated by electromagnetic coupling but negligible Josephson interaction.

  7. Hydrothermal growth of CuO nanoleaf structures, and their mercuric ion detection application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    Mercury is the hazardous heavy metal ion for the environment and the human being therefore its determination is very important and herein we describe the development of mercury ion sensor on the CuO nanoleaf like nanostructures using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template for the growth by hydrothermal growth method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study has shown high density and good crystal quality of the fabricated CuO nanostructures respectively. The presented mercury ion sensor has detected the wide range of 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M mercury ion concentrations with an acceptable Nernstian behaviour and a sensitivity of 30.1 ± 0.6 mV/decade. The proposed mercury ion sensor exhibited low detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-8) M and also a fast response time of less than 5 s. In addition, the presented mercury ion sensor has shown an excellent repeatability, reproducibility, stability and selectivity. Moreover, the mercury ion selective electrode based on CuO nanoleaves was tested as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration.

  8. The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Khun, K.; Willander, M.; Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9 ± 2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 × 10 −5 to 2.0 × 10 −2 M with detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −6 M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  9. Synthesis and Structural Study of Sr2CuO3+δ Superconductor under High Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Qing, Liu; Fu-Ren, Wang; Feng-Ying, Li; Liang-Chen, Chen; Ri-Cheng, Yu; Chang-Qing, Jin; Yan-Chun, Li; Jing, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A single-phase Sr 2 CuO 3+δ superconductor is synthesized under high temperature and high pressure, in which oxygen atoms only partially occupy the apical sites next to the CuO 2 planes and act as hole-dopants. The superconducting transition temperature with T c max = 75 K is achieved in the material. Structure analysis from x-ray powder diffraction data show that this material crystallizes into a K 2 NiF 4 structure with tetragonal unit cell of a = 3. 795(3) Å and c = 12. 507(1) Å. Energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray-diffraction studies at ambient are performed on powder samples of Sr 2 CuO 3+δ in a diamond-anvil cell at pressure up to 35 GPa. Anisotropic compressibility is found. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition might exist as revealed by the discontinuous change of crystal cell volume V with pressure. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Khun, K.; Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoeping, Linkoeping University, SE-60174 Norrkoeping (Sweden); Lu, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-03-11

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9 {+-} 2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} to 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M with detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  11. A Robust, Enzyme-Free Glucose Sensor Based on Lysine-Assisted CuO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain Baloach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of a nanomaterial with enhanced and desirable electrocatalytic properties is of prime importance, and the commercialization of devices containing these materials is a challenging task. In this study, unique cupric oxide (CuO nanostructures were synthesized using lysine as a soft template for the evolution of morphology via a rapid and boiled hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of the synthesized CuO nanomaterial were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The prepared CuO nanostructures showed high potential for use in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in an alkaline medium. The proposed enzyme-free glucose sensor demonstrated a robust response to glucose with a wide linear range and high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. To explore its practical feasibility, the glucose content of serum samples was successfully determined using the enzyme-free sensor. An analytical recovery method was used to measure the actual glucose from the serum samples, and the results were satisfactory. Moreover, the presented glucose sensor has high chemical stability and can be reused for repetitive measurements. This study introduces an enzyme-free glucose sensor as an alternative tool for clinical glucose quantification.

  12. Atomic resolution chemical bond analysis of oxygen in La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M.; Nagai, T.; Lugg, N. R.; Neish, M. J.; Nagao, M.; Kurashima, K.; Allen, L. J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kimoto, K.

    2013-08-01

    The distorted CuO6 octahedron in La2CuO4 was studied using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution. The near-edge structure in the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss spectrum was recorded as a function of the position of the electron probe. After background subtraction, the measured spectrum image was processed using a recently developed inversion process to remove the mixing of signals on the atomic columns due to elastic and thermal scattering. The spectra were then compared with first-principles band structure calculations based on the local-density approximation plus on-site Coulomb repulsion (LDA + U) approach. In this article, we describe in detail not only anisotropic chemical bonding of the oxygen 2p state with the Cu 3d state but also with the Cu 4p and La 5d/4f states. Furthermore, it was found that buckling of the CuO2 plane was also detectable at the atomic resolution oxygen K-edge. Lastly, it was found that the effects of core-hole in the O K-edge were strongly dependent on the nature of the local chemical bonding, in particular, whether it is ionic or covalent.

  13. CuO nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against nosocomial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Marcela Gómez León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a prototype reactor, CuO nanoparticles (NPs were synthetized through the precipitation method, starting from CuSO2·5H2O and Cu(CH3COO2·H2O. The obtained NPs were characterized by XDR, FT-IR, SEM, and TEM. The antimicrobial activity of the NPs was determined by the plate diffusion method, placing 20 mg of NPs onto four nosocomial strains obtained from north Lima national hospital Intensive-Care Unit (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aerococcus viridans, Ochrobactrum anthropic, and Micrococcus lylae. NPs characterization revealed that those synthetized from acetate (CuO–Acet shown pure CuO phase, while those synthetized from sulphate CuO–Sulf shown two phases where CuO was the predominant one, having more than 84%. The crystal domains for CuO–Acet and CuO–Sulf were 15 and 19 nm, respectively. The inhibition halos for the studied strains were larger for CuO–Sulf NPs than CuO–Acet NPs, only Ochrobactrum anthropi displayed similar inhibition halos for both types of NPs.

  14. CuO and Co3O4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterizations, and Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (CuO, Co3O4 nanocrystals (NCs have been successfully prepared in a short time using microwave irradiation without any postannealing treatment. Both kinds of nanocrystals (NCs have been prepared using copper nitrate and cobalt nitrate as the starting materials and distilled water as the solvent. The resulted powders of nanocrystals (NCs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM measurements. The obtained results confirm the presence of the both of oxides nanopowders produced during chemical precipitation using microwave irradiation. A strong emission under UV excitation is obtained from the prepared CuO and Co3O4 nanoparticles. The results show that the nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The line scans of atomic force microscopy (AFM images of the nanocrystals (NCs sprayed on GaAs substrates confirm the results of both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, vibrational studies have been carried out using Raman spectroscopic technique. Specific Raman peaks have been observed in the CuO and Co3O4 nanostructures, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM of the peaks indicates a small particle size of the nanocrystals.

  15. SEM and AFM studies of dip-coated CuO nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Ganesan, V

    2013-01-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) semiconducting thin films were prepared at various copper sulfate concentrations by dip coating. The copper sulfate concentration was varied to yield films of thicknesses in the range of 445-685 nm by surface profilometer. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of (-111) plane. The surface morphology and topography of monoclinic-phase CuO thin films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Surface roughness profile was plotted using WSxM software and the estimated surface roughness was about ∼19.4 nm at 30 mM molar concentration. The nanosheets shaped grains were observed by SEM and AFM studies. The stoichiometric compound formation was observed at 30 mM copper sulfate concentration prepared film by EDX. The indirect band gap energy of CuO films was increased from 1.08 to 1.20 eV with the increase of copper sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuO Grown by Using a Modified Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanorods were grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using a modified-chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method. We investigated the morphology, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the cupric oxide nanorods with various growth durations by using field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and three-electrode potentiostat, respectively. In this work, we found that the morphologies, thickness, growth rate, crystallinities, grain sizes and optical bandgap were controllable on the growth duration, which affected photocurrent density and photo-stability. The highest growth rate of CuO nanorods was 126 nm/min. From the XRD measurement, we also confirmed that (020) directional growth affected the growth of the CuO nanorods. A maximum photocurrent density of-1.88 mA/cm² at -0.55 V (vs. SCE) and high photo-stability value about 40% was obtained with 10 minutes growth duration.

  17. Spin dynamics and exchange interactions in CuO measured by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Gaw, S. M.; Princep, A. J.; Hamilton, E.; Tóth, S.; Ewings, R. A.; Enderle, M.; Wheeler, E. M. Hétroy; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic properties of CuO encompass several contemporary themes in condensed-matter physics, including quantum magnetism, magnetic frustration, magnetically-induced ferroelectricity, and orbital currents. Here we report polarized and unpolarized neutron inelastic scattering measurements which provide a comprehensive map of the cooperative spin dynamics in the low-temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of CuO throughout much of the Brillouin zone. At high energies (E ≳100 meV ), the spectrum displays continuum features consistent with the des Cloizeax-Pearson dispersion for an ideal S =1/2 Heisenberg AFM chain. At lower energies, the spectrum becomes more three dimensional, and we find that a linear spin-wave model for a Heisenberg AFM provides a very good description of the data, allowing for an accurate determination of the relevant exchange constants in an effective spin Hamiltonian for CuO. In the high-temperature helicoidal phase, there are features in the measured low-energy spectrum that we could not reproduce with a spin-only model. We discuss how these might be associated with the magnetically-induced multiferroic behavior observed in this phase.

  18. FeAs superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    From magneto-resistance studies, we obtained an upper critical field of 46 T corre- sponding to a coherence length ~27 Е in the above composition. Acknowledgements. A K G and S P thank the Department of Science and. Technology (DST), Govt. of India for financial sup- port. J P and S J S thank Council of Scientific and.

  19. Cu-O network dependence of optical charge-transfer gaps and spin-pair excitations in single-CuO2-layer compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Y.; Koshihara, S.; Arima, T.; Takagi, H.; Ishibashi, S.; Ido, T.; Uchida, S.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of optical conductivity and magnon Raman scattering have been investigated in single crystals of a parent family of cuprate superconductors with various types of Cu-O single-layer networks. The analysis of the spectra shows the systematic dependence of the charge-transfer gaps and covalent character of Cu-O bonds on the pattern of the Cu-O network, while the spin-exchange energy is rather convergent for all the single-CuO 2 -sheet compounds

  20. Mild chemical strategy to grow micro-roses and micro-woolen like arranged CuO nanosheets for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gund, Girish S.; Holze, Rudolf; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2013-11-01

    The hierarchical structures of nanosheets, micro-roses and micro-woolen like CuO nanosheets were directly fabricated on stainless steel via surfactant-free and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Further, these CuO nanostructures demonstrate excellent surface properties like uniform surface morphology, high surface area and uniform pore size distribution of CuO samples. The electrochemical properties of CuO nanostructures have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical studies of the CuO samples show obvious influence of surface properties on the pseudocapacitance performance. The maximum specific capacitances of nanosheets, micro-roses and micro-woolen like CuO nanosheets are found to be 303 Fg-1, 279 Fg-1 and 346 Fg-1, respectively at 5 mV s-1 scan rate. Further, the EIS analysis shows lower ESR value, high power performance, excellent rate as well as frequency response of micro-woolen like CuO sample. The Ragone plot ascertains better power and energy densities of all three CuO nanostructured samples than other electrical energy storage devices. The long-term cycling performance of CuO is examined at different scan rates and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were studied. Present investigation suggests the inexpensive CBD approach for fine-tuning surface properties of oxide materials for energy storage applications.

  1. Crystal Growth and Neutron Scattering Study of Spin Correlations of the T‧-Structured Pr2‑x Ca x CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masaki; Tsutsumi, Kenji; Miura, Tomohiro; Danilkin, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    We studied Ca-doping effect on spin correlations in T‧-structured cuprate oxide RE2CuO4 (RE: rear earth) with growing a sizable single crystal of Pr2‑x Ca x CuO4 (x=0.05 and 0.10) as well as synthesizing powder samples of Pr1.90Ca0.10CuO4 and Eu1.90Ca0.10CuO4. In the all as-prepared and annealed samples, no evidence of shielding signal associated with superconductivity was observed by magnetic susceptibility measurement. Elastic neutron scattering measurements on the as-grown Pr1.90Ca0.10CuO4 clarified the existence of long-ranged magnetic order with commensurate spin correlation. The ordering temperature was determined to be ∼290K, which is comparable to Néel temperature in the parent compound of Pr2CuO4. The existence of commensurate low-energy spin excitation was also confirmed by inelastic neutron scattering measurements for the annealed Pr1.95Ca0.05CuO4. These results strongly suggest a negligible Ca-doping effect on the physical properties in T‧-RE2CuO4, which is quite different from the drastic doping evolution of magnetism in T -RE2CuO4.

  2. Study of the variations of fall induced hip fracture risk between right and left femurs using CT-based FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Tanvir R; Luo, Yunhua

    2017-10-03

    Hip fracture of elderly people-suffering from osteoporosis-is a severe public health concern, which can be reduced by providing a prior assessment of hip fracture risk. Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been considered an effective computational tool to assess the hip fracture risk. Considering the femoral neck region is the weakest, fracture risk indicators (FRI) are evaluated for both single-legged stance and sideways fall configurations and are compared between left and right femurs of each subject. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scan datasets of thirty anonymous patients' left and right femora have been considered for the FE models, which have been simulated with an equal magnitude of load applied to the aforementioned configurations. The requirement of bilateral hip assessment in predicting the fracture risk has been explored in this study. Comparing the sideways fall and single-legged stance, the FRI varies by 64 to 74% at the superior aspects and by 14 to 19% at the inferior surfaces of both the femora. The results of this in vivo analysis clearly substantiate that the fracture is expected to initiate at the superior surface of femoral neck region if a patient falls from his/her standing height. The distributions of FRI between the femurs vary considerably, and the variability is significant at the superior aspects. The p value (= 0.02) obtained from paired sample t-Test yields p value ≤ 0.05, which shows the evidence of variability of the FRI distribution between left and right femurs. Moreover, the comparison of FRIs between the left and right femur of men and women shows that women are more susceptible to hip fracture than men. The results and statistical variation clearly signify a need for bilateral hip scanning in predicting hip fracture risk, which is clinically conducted, at present, based on one hip chosen randomly and may lead to inaccurate fracture prediction. This study, although preliminary, may play a crucial role in

  3. Novel CuCr_2O_4 embedded CuO nanocomposites for efficient photodegradation of organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Methyl orange and methylene blue dye degradation studied under UV light irradiation. • Nanocomposites characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, UV–vis DRS and PL. • CuCr_2O_4 loading effectively enhanced the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Novel photocatalyst based on CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites was synthesized for different Cr"3"+ concentration by reflux condensation method, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue dyes (MB) under UV light irradiation. Phase evolution by X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic CuO and tetragonal CuCr_2O_4 as the components of the prepared nanocomposites. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope revealed that the incorporation of Cr"3"+ in CuO lattice alters the morphology of CuO from microsphere to cluster shape. Photoluminescence spectra of CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. As expected, the CuCr_2O_4 loaded CuO showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for MO and MB dyes, and the kinetic studies suggest that the degradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites can be attributed to the presence of CuCr_2O_4 as an electron acceptor, which improves the effective charge separation in CuO.

  4. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, S.K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe 3 O 4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe 3 O 4 -CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu 2+ ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe 3 O 4 . • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  5. Validation of nonlinear FEA models of a thin-walled elbow under extreme loading conditions for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watakabe, Tomoyoshi; Wakai, Takashi; Jin, Chuanrong; Usui, Yoshiya; Sakai, Shinkichi; Ooshika, Junji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming failure modes and safety margin, some studies on the ultimate strength of thin-walled piping components for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) under extreme loading conditions such as large earthquakes have been reported these several years. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been applied in these studies to simulate buckling and yielding with large deformation, whose accuracy is dependent on the element type, the mesh size, the elasto-plastic model and so on. It is important to check the validation of a finite element model for nonlinear analysis especially under extreme loading conditions. This paper presents static and dynamic analyses of a thin-walled elbow with large deformation under large seismic loading, and discusses the validation of the FEA models comparing with experimental results. The finite element analysis models in this study are generated by shell elements for a stainless steel pipe elbow of diameter-to-thickness ratio 59:1 similar to the main pipe of SFRs, which is used for shaking table tests. At first, a static analysis is carried out for an in-plane monotonic bending test, in order to confirm that the shell element is appropriate to the large deformation analysis and the material parameters are proper for the strain level in the experiments. And then, a dynamic in-plane bending test with the maximum acceleration of 11.7G is simulated by the nonlinear FEA with stiffness-proportional damping. The influence of mesh sizes on results is investigated, to determine proper mesh sizes and reduce the computational cost. Finally, comparing the results of the FEM analyses with those of experiments, it is concluded that the appropriately generated FEA models are effective and give accurate results for nonlinear analyses of the thin-walled elbow under large seismic loading. (author)

  6. Improved photocatalytic activity of ZnO coupled CuO nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Nataraj, D.; Pal, Tarasankar; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Photodegradation of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes was investigated. • Morphological studies show 3D flower-like CuO microspheres adorned with ZnO nanorods. • Optical analysis showed characteristic absorption bands of CuO and ZnO. • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than CuO. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for different Zn 2+ concentrations by reflux condensation method without using any surfactant, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using methyl orange and methylene blue dyes under UV light irradiation. XRD revealed the formation of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites, composing of monoclinic CuO and hexagonal ZnO. XPS analysis revealed that CuO–ZnO nanocomposites are made up of Cu(II), Zn(II) and O. FESEM and TEM images showed that pure CuO exhibit 3D flower-like microstructure, while the CuO–ZnO nanocomposites prepared for different Zn 2+ concentrations have 3D flower-like CuO, microstructure adorned with rod-like ZnO particles. UV–Vis DRS showed absorption bands corresponding to CuO and ZnO around 960 nm and 395 nm, respectively. PL spectra of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photodegradation assay revealed that catalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites increased with Zn 2+ concentration, and also effectively degrade methyl orange and methylene blue dyes when compared to pure CuO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were mainly ascribed to the reduced recombination and efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites was proposed

  7. Room temperature chemically oxidized La2CuO4+y: Phase separation induced by thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rial,C.; Moran, E.; Alario-Franco, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of roam temperature chemically oxidized La2CuO4+y [y = 0.103(4)] has been refined from powder neutron diffraction data using the space group Bmab. The modifications induced in the CuO2 and the LaO planes by the insertion of oxygen are consistent with the high T-c measured for this m......The structure of roam temperature chemically oxidized La2CuO4+y [y = 0.103(4)] has been refined from powder neutron diffraction data using the space group Bmab. The modifications induced in the CuO2 and the LaO planes by the insertion of oxygen are consistent with the high T-c measured...... a short treatment at 433 K, La2CuO4.103(4) undergoes a phase separation into two phases: phase 1, with estimated y(1) = 0.086(4) and T-cl = 30 K, and phase 2, with estimated y(2) = 0.12(1) and T-c2 = 17 K. By increasing the annealing times, phase 2 transforms to phase I and finally disappears. Therefore...

  8. Solid state green synthesis and catalytic activity of CuO nanorods in thermal decomposition of potassium periodate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports a facile solid state green synthesis process using the leaf extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis to synthesize CuO nanorods with average diameters of 15-20 nm and lengths up to 100 nm. The as-synthesized CuO nanorods were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The formation mechanism of CuO nanorods has been explained by involving the individual role of amide I (amino groups) and carboxylate groups under excess hydroxyl ions released from NaOH. The catalytic activity of CuO nanorods in thermal decomposition of potassium periodate microparticles (µ-KIO4) microparticles was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis measurement. The original size (~100 µm) of commercially procured potassium periodate was reduced to microscale length scale to about one-tenth by PEG200 assisted emulsion process. The CuO nanorods prepared by solid state green route were found to catalyze the thermal decomposition of µ-KIO4 with a reduction of 18 °C in the final thermal decomposition temperature of potassium periodate.

  9. AC losses in Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes with Ca2CuO3 as interfilamentary resistive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, R.; Iwata, Y.; Tateyama, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Oota, A.; Zhang, P.X.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we prepared the Bi2223 multifilamentary tapes with Ca 2 CuO 3 as interfilamentary resistive barriers and evaluated their AC magnetization loss properties at 77 K. The Bi2223 tapes with thin barrier layers of Ca 2 CuO 3 around the filaments were prepared by using a standard powder-in-tube (PIT) method. To fabricate the Ca 2 CuO 3 layers around each filament, the outside surface of monocore Ag-sheathed wires was coated by Ca 2 CuO 3 with the slurry. After the heat treatment to decompose and evaporate the organic binder in the slurry, the several coated monocore wires were stacked and packed into another Ag-tube. Then, the packed tube was drawn and rolled into tape shape. The tape was subsequently sintered to form Bi2223 phase inside filaments. The AC magnetization losses in an AC transverse magnetic field were measured by a pick-up coil method. The loss properties in the barrier tape were compared with those in the tape without barriers. The results indicated that introducing Ca 2 CuO 3 barriers is very effective to suppress the electromagnetic coupling among the filaments and also to reduce the magnetization losses under parallel transverse field

  10. Structural and optical properties of a NaCl single crystal doped with CuO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addala, S.; Bouhdjer, L.; Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Sebais, M.; Chala, A.; Bouhdjar, A.

    2013-01-01

    A cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystal-doped NaCl single crystal and a pure NaCl single crystal are grown by using the Czochralski (Cz) method. A number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption in the UV—visible range, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to characterize the obtained NaCl and NaCl:CuO crystals. It is observed that the average radius of CuO crystallites in NaCl:CuO crystal is about 29.87 nm, as derived from the XRD data analysis. Moreover, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results confirm the existence of the monoclinic CuO phase in NaCl crystal. UV—visible absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the NaCl:CuO crystal is 434 nm (2.85 eV), and it shows a significant amount of blue-shift (ΔE g = 1 eV) in the band gap energy of CuO, which is due to the quantum confinement effect exerted by the CuO nanocrystals. The PL spectrum of the NaCl:CuO shows a broad emission band centred at around 438 nm, which is consistent with the absorption measurement. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie

    2016-04-13

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  12. Karakterisasi Sensor Gas Lpg (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Dari Bahan Komposit Semikonduktor Tio2(cuo)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; -, Elvaswer

    2015-01-01

    The Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG's) sensor in the form of composite has been characterized. The steps of manufacturing processes are the mixing of materials, calcinations at 500ºC for 4 hours, blended, compacted and sintered at 700ºC for 4 hours. The sensor was tested at room temperature through current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics, sensitivity, and conductivity. Based on measurement I-V characteristic it's known that sample with 10% addition of CuO have sensitivity of 10 at 10 volt vol...

  13. 17O NMR Study of Undoped and Lightly Hole Doped CuO2 Planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, K.R.; Hunt, A.W.; Imai, T.; Chou, F.C.; Lee, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Using 17 O NMR, we probed the short wavelength excitations in the CuO 2 planes of insulating and weakly metallic high T c cuprates. We measured the spin wave damping for an S=1/2 2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet for the first time. The results establish the nearly free behavior (asymptotic freedom) of the high energy spin waves, even without long range magnetic order. Light hole doping dramatically enhances the low energy excitation spectrum below 300K. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie; Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Zhongxing; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  15. Preparation of CuO nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulateef, Sinan A., E-mail: sinan1974@yahoo.com; MatJafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F., E-mail: thinker-academy@yahoo.com; Ahmed, Naser M.; Azzez, Shrook A. [School of Physics, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Issam M. [Baghdad university, physics department (Iraq); Al-Jumaili, Batool E. B. [Department of Physics, (UPM), Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Colloidal Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation in acetone. Cu NPs were converted into CuO. The size and optical properties of these NPs were characterized using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Cu NPs were spherical, and their mean diameter in acetone was 8 nm–10 nm. Optical extinction immediately after the ablation showed surface Plasmon resonance peaks at 602 nm. The color of Cu NPs in acetone was green and stable even after a long time.

  16. Synthesis of Cu3N from CuO and NaNH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Miura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low-temperature synthesis of submicron-sized Cu3N powder produced from CuO and NaNH2 powder mixture by heating at 150–190 °C in a Teflon-sealed autoclave. The structure was the anti-RuO3 type with a lattice parameter of 0.3814(1 nm, and strong optical absorption was observed below ∼1.9 eV. This synthesis method has the potential of facile control of the reaction with less use of ammonia sources.

  17. Enhanced catalytic activity without the use of an external light source using microwave-synthesized CuO nanopetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Lakhotiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report enhanced catalytic activity of CuO nanopetals synthesized by microwave-assisted wet chemical synthesis. The catalytic reaction of CuO nanopetals and H2O2 was studied with the application of external light source and also under dark conditions for the degradation of the hazardous dye methylene blue. The CuO nanopetals showed significant catalytic activity for the fast degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B (RhB under dark conditions, without the application of an external light source. This increased catalytic activity was attributed to the co-operative role of H2O2 and the large specific surface area (≈40 m2·g−1 of the nanopetals. We propose a detail mechanism for this fast degradation. A separate study of the effect of different H2O2 concentrations for the degradation of methylene blue under dark conditions is also illustrated.

  18. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles.

  19. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of La2CuO4 in the multielectron LDA+GTB approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, I. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    The band structure of La 2 CuO 4 in antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases is calculated at finite temperatures by the multielectron LDA+GTB method. The temperature dependence of the band spectrum and the spectral weight of Hubbard fermions is caused by a change in the occupation numbers of local multielectron spin-split terms in the antiferromagnetic phase. A decrease in the magnetization of the sublattice with temperature gives rise to new bands near the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band. It is shown that the band gap decreases with increasing temperature, but La 2 CuO 4 remains an insulator in the paramagnetic phase as well. These results are consistent with measurements of the red shift of the absorption edge in La 2 CuO 4 with increasing temperature

  20. Influence of CuO nanoparticle on palm oil based alkyd resin preparation and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruey Ong, Huei; Maksudur Rahman Khan, Md.; Ramli, Ridzuan; Shein Hong, Chi; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2018-03-01

    An alkyd resin has been synthesized from palm oil that reacted with glycerol and phthalic anhydride by alcoholysis-polyesterification process and co-catalyzed by CuO nanoparticle. The CuO nanoparticle was pre-prepared in the glycerol via sol gel method, which creates a new reaction condition for resin preparation. The resins were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where a new ester linkage bond (C-O-C) was noticed for resin sample. The antimicrobial activity and the curing behaviour of the resin were determined by Kirby-Bauer and differential scanning calorimeter technique. It was found that, the addition of CuO speeded up the reaction rate and played antimicrobial role. Moreover, it shortens the reaction time of alcoholysis and polyesterification process.

  1. Building energetic material from novel salix leaf-like CuO and nano-Al through electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yan Jun; Li, Xueming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an energetic material was prepared by depositing nano-Al on CuO arrays via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), which offers a feasible route for nano-Al integration. The morphology and structure of the CuO arrays and Al/CuO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuO arrays were homogenously salix leaf-like structure with a width of ⁓150 to 200 nm. The energy density of Al/CuO composites was approximate to 1454.5 J/g by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) plot and the combustion performance was recorded by a high-speed camera. Moreover, the combustion flames were violent and the whole reaction process only lasted 72.2 ms, indicating that the energy of the Al/CuO nanothermite can be released effectively.

  2. Field-induced interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, A. T.; Jensen, P.; Jacobsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    We present neutron-scattering studies of the interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4 (Tc=27 K). The correlations are studied both in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the CuO2 planes, and in zero field under different cooling conditions. We...

  3. Magnetic-Field-Induced Soft-Mode Quantum Phase Transition in the High-Temperature Superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Niedermayer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the high-temperature superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4 reveal a magnetic excitation gap Delta that decreases continuously upon application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. The gap vanishes at the critical field required to induce long...

  4. Facile synthesis of nanosheet-like CuO film and its potential application as a high-performance pseudocapacitor electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nwanya, AC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the chemical synthesis of binderless and surfactant free CuO films for pseudocapacitive applications. Nanosheet-like and nanorod-like CuO films are deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the successive ionic layer...

  5. Embalagem a vácuo: efeito no escurecimento e endurecimento do feijão durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Araújo Zambaldi Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A influência do uso de embalagem a vácuo no controle do escurecimento e endurecimento do tegumento foi avaliada em feijões da cv. 'Pérola'. Os feijões após secos foram submetidos a diferentes embalagens: polietileno seladas a vácuo (espessura de 80µm, polietileno seladas sem vácuo (espessura de 80µm e embalagem comercial (espessura de 20µm, armazenados por oito meses em condições ambiente. Foram realizadas análises de umidade, tempo de cozimento, cor, atividade enzimática e compostos fenólicos, logo após a secagem e em intervalos de dois meses até o oitavo mês. O tempo de cozimento foi maior para os grãos acondicionados em embalagem comercial do que nas outras embalagens, ao final do armazenamento. Os grãos embalados em sacos de polietileno selados a vácuo apresentaram menor queda nos valores de L*. As amostras da embalagem selada a vácuo apresentaram atividade da Peroxidase e Polifenoloxidase inferior aos grãos da embalagem comercial. O teor de fenólicos totais não apresentou diferença significativa. O uso da embalagem selada a vácuo foi eficiente em retardar o aumento no tempo de cozimento, o escurecimento do tegumento, a atividade das enzimas Polifenoloxidase e Peroxidase da cultivar 'Pérola', durante o armazenamento por oito meses em condição ambiente.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic analysis and electrochemical performance of modified β-nickel hydroxide electrode with CuO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shruthi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a modified β-nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH2 electrode material with CuO has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. The structure and property of the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR, Raman and thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA techniques. The results of the FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA indicate that the modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode materials contain intercalated water molecules and anions. A pasted–type electrode was prepared using nickel hydroxide powder as the main active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS studies were undertaken to assess the electrochemical behavior of pure β-Ni(OH2 and modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode with CuO in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. The addition of CuO into β-nickel hydroxide was found to enhance the reversibility of the electrode reaction and also increase the separation of the oxidation current peak of the active material from the oxygen evolution current. The modified nickel hydroxide with CuO was also found to exhibit a higher proton diffusion coefficient and a lower charge transfer resistance. These findings suggest that the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO possesses an enhanced electrochemical response and thus can be recognized as a promising candidate for battery electrode applications.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of multi-armed CuO nanoparticles and their remarkable bactericidal potential against waterborne bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Pratibha, E-mail: rkpratibha@yahoo.com; Merwyn, S.; Agarwal, G. S.; Tripathi, B. K.; Pant, S. C. [Defence Research and Development Establishment (India)

    2012-01-15

    Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500-1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100-200 nm width near the base and 50-100 nm width at the tapered ends and {approx}25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 Degree-Sign C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 {mu}g/mL nano CuO killed 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 {mu}g/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.

  8. Controlled Synthesis of Heterostructured SnO2-CuO Composite Hollow Microspheres as Efficient Cu-Based Catalysts for the Rochow Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezhi Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the design and synthesis of a series of heterostructured SnO2-CuO hollow microspherical catalysts (H-SnO2(x-CuO, x is the weight ratio of Sn/Cu for the Rochow reaction. The microspherical catalysts with nanosheets and nanoparticles as building blocks were prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method coupled with calcination. When tested for the Rochow reaction, the prepared H-SnO2(0.2-CuO composite exhibited higher dimethyldichlorosilane selectivity (88.2% and Si conversion (36.7% than the solid CuO, hollow CuO and other H-SnO2(x-CuO microspherical samples, because in the former there is a stronger synergistic interaction between CuO and SnO2.

  9. Chemical bond properties and Mossbauer spectroscopy in (La1-xMx)2CuO4 (M=Ba, Sr)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using the average band-gap model, the chemical bond properties of (La1-x Mx)2CuO4(M=Ba, Sr) were calculated . The calculated covalencies for Cu(O and La(O bond in the compounds are 0.3 and 0.03 respectively. M?ssbauer isomer shifts of 57Fe doped in La2CuO4 and 119Sn doped in La2CuO4 were calculated by using the chemical surrounding factor defined by covalency and electronic polarizability. Four valence state tin and three valence iron sites were identified in 57Fe and 119Sn doped La2CuO4.

  10. Structural properties of as-grown and reduced Pr2CuO4 single crystals investigated by ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, T.; Abe, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Ion channeling is very sensitive to atomic arrangements and small atomic displacements in real space. Thus, in order to clarify a role of reduction for Pr 2 CuO 4 , ion channeling properties for the materials have been measured in detail. Anomalous increases of dechanneling fractions of Cu and O atoms in the reduced samples have been found. These results could not be explained by the apical oxygen model but probably suggest that O atoms in Cu-O planes are removed by reduction. Taking these results into account, correlation between lattice instability and superconductivity in the material will be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Response speed of SnO2-based H2S gas sensors with CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Mozumdar, Subho; Patanjali, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles on sputtered SnO 2 thin-film surface exhibit a fast response speed (14 s) and recovery time (61 s) for trace level (20 ppm) H 2 S gas detection. The sensitivity of the sensor (S∼2.06x10 3 ) is noted to be high at a low operating temperature of 130 deg. C. CuO nanoparticles on SnO 2 allow effective removal of excess adsorbed oxygen from the uncovered SnO 2 surface due to spillover of hydrogen dissociated from the H 2 S-CuO interaction

  12. Chemical synthesis of flower-like hybrid Cu(OH)2/CuO electrode: Application of polyvinyl alcohol and triton X-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S K; Fulari, V J; Kim, D-Y; Maile, N C; Koli, R R; Dhaygude, H D; Ghodake, G S

    2017-08-01

    In this research article, we report hybrid nanomaterials of copper hydroxide/copper oxide (Cu(OH) 2 /CuO). A thin films were prepared by using a facile and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As-synthesized and hybrid Cu(OH) 2 /CuO with two different surfactants polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triton-X 100 (TRX-100) was prepared having distinct morphological, structural, and supercapacitor properties. The surface of the thin film samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A nanoflower-like morphology of the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures arranged vertically was evidenced on the stainless steel substrate. The surface was well covered by nanoflake-like morphology and formed a uniform Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures after treating with surfactants. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the hybrid phase of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO materials. The electrochemical properties of the pristine Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, PVA:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, TRX-100:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO films were observed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The electrochemical examination reveals that the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode has excellent specific capacitance, 292, 533, and 443Fg -1 with pristine, PVA, and TRX-100, respectively in 1M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte solution. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode shows positive role of the PVA and TRX-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu, E-mail: ycwu@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Wuhan University (WHU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V{sub Cu}, V{sub O}) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V{sup −}{sub Cu} - V{sup +}{sub O} complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  14. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a NH 3 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  15. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report a NH3 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  16. Nonenzymatic amperometric determination of glucose by CuO nanocubes-graphene nanocomposite modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liqiang; Zhu, Limei; Wang, Zhenxin

    2012-12-01

    Here, we report a nonenzymatic amperometric glucose sensor based on copper oxide (CuO) nanocubes-graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (CuO-G-GCE). In this case, the graphene sheets were cast on the GCE directly. CuO nanocubes were obtained by oxidizing electrochemically deposited Cu on the graphene. The morphology of CuO-G nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The CuO-G-GCE-based sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and high stability for glucose oxidation. Under optimized conditions, the linearity between the current response and the glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 2μM to 4mM with a detection limit of 0.7μM (S/N=3), and a high sensitivity of 1360μAmM(-1)cm(-2). The proposed electrode showed a fast response time (less than 5s) and a good reproducibility. The as-made sensor was applied to determine the glucose levels in clinic human serum samples with satisfactory results. In addition, the effects of common interfering species, including ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and other carbohydrates, on the amperometric response of the sensor were investigated and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing 3D highly ordered nanoporous CuO electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed E; El-Kady, Maher F; Rahmanifar, Mohammad S; Kaner, Richard B; Mousavi, Mir F

    2015-03-04

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research efforts for the development of lightweight and durable energy storage devices. Herein, we report a simple, yet effective, strategy for high-performance supercapacitors by building three-dimensional pseudocapacitive CuO frameworks with highly ordered and interconnected bimodal nanopores, nanosized walls (∼4 nm) and large specific surface area of 149 m(2) g(-1). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing facilitated ion transport, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and more active sites for electrochemical reactions. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 431 F g(-1) (1.51 F cm(-2)) at 3.5 mA cm(-2) and retains over 70% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrafast rate of 70 mA cm(-2). When this highly ordered CuO electrode is assembled in an asymmetric cell with an activated carbon electrode, the as-fabricated device demonstrates remarkable performance with an energy density of 19.7 W h kg(-1), power density of 7 kW kg(-1), and excellent cycle life. This work presents a new platform for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors for the next generation of portable electronics and electric vehicles.

  18. GMI effect in CuO coated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taysioglu, Asli Ayten; Peksoz, Ahmet; Kaya, Yunus; Derebasi, Naim; Irez, Gazi; Kaynak, Gokay

    2009-01-01

    A Copper oxide (CuO) film has been grown on a surface of Co-based amorphous ribbon using chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The influence of coating and width of ribbon on giant magneto impedance have been investigated over a frequency range from 0.1 to 3 MHz and under a static magnetic field between -8 and +8 kA/m. The results showed that Co-based amorphous ribbons, which are coated CuO film, have a significant effect on the magnitude and operation frequency for the giant magneto impedance effect as compared to the samples without coating. The highest giant magneto impedance effect was found to be 14.90 on 5 mm width coated ribbon, which is 60% higher than the sample without coating. A surface observation of these samples has been carried out by an atomic force microscope. The AFM images reveal the difference between surfaces of coated and as-cast sample.

  19. GMI effect in CuO coated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taysioglu, Asli Ayten [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Peksoz, Ahmet, E-mail: peksoz@uludag.edu.t [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Kaya, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Derebasi, Naim [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Irez, Gazi [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Kaynak, Gokay [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-11-13

    A Copper oxide (CuO) film has been grown on a surface of Co-based amorphous ribbon using chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The influence of coating and width of ribbon on giant magneto impedance have been investigated over a frequency range from 0.1 to 3 MHz and under a static magnetic field between -8 and +8 kA/m. The results showed that Co-based amorphous ribbons, which are coated CuO film, have a significant effect on the magnitude and operation frequency for the giant magneto impedance effect as compared to the samples without coating. The highest giant magneto impedance effect was found to be 14.90 on 5 mm width coated ribbon, which is 60% higher than the sample without coating. A surface observation of these samples has been carried out by an atomic force microscope. The AFM images reveal the difference between surfaces of coated and as-cast sample.

  20. WO3 nanoflakes decorated with CuO clusters for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The low quantum efficiency arising from poor charges transfer and insufficient light absorption is one of the critical challenges toward achieving highly efficient water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells. Three dimensions (3D structures and heterojunctions have received intensive research interests recent years due to their excellent ability to separate photo-generated charges as well as the enhanced light harvesting property. Herein, 3D CuO/WO3 structure was fabricated through a facile solvothermal method followed by chemical bath deposition. The loading of CuO clusters on WO3 nanoflake arrays results in a much improved photocurrent density compared with that of pristine WO3 nanoflake arrays, which reaches 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement demonstrates that the improved performance of CuO/WO3 electrode is attributed to the accelerated charge transfer kinetics as a result of the desirable band alignment in CuO/WO3 heterojunction. This work demonstrates a facile strategy to construct superior WO3 electrode, which will ultimately allow for efficient storage of solar energy into hydrogen. Keywords: Photoelectrochemistry, Water splitting, Tungsten trioxide photoanode, CuO clusters, Heterojunction

  1. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N., E-mail: ngk@nitt.edu [Thin film laboratory, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Here, we report a NH{sub 3} and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  2. Subsolidus phase relations of Bi2O3-Nd2O3-CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yezhou

    1997-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the Bi 2 O 3 -Nd 2 O 3 -CuO ternary system and its binary systems along with crystallographic parameters of the compounds were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The room temperature section of the phase diagram of the Bi 2 O 3 -Nd 2 O 3 -CuO system can be divided into two diphase regions and six triphase regions. No ternary compound was found. There exist two solid solutions (α, β) and a compound Bi 0.55 Nd 0.45 O 1.5 in the (Bi 2 O 2 ) 1-x (Nd 2 O 3 ) x system. Both solid solution α (0.05≤x≤0.30) and β (0.53≤x≤0.73) belong to the rhombohedral system (R3m). The lattice parameters represented by a hexagonal cell are a=3.9832(4), c=27.536(5) A for Bi 0.8 Nd 0.2 O 1.5 (α phase) and a=3.8826(3), c=9.727(1) A for Bi 0.4 Nd 0.8 O 1.5 (β phase). The Bi 0.55 Nd 0.45 O 1.5 compound crystallizes in a face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) lattice with a=5.5480(2) A. (orig.)

  3. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets via Olea europaea leaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  4. A density functional theory study of CO oxidation on CuO1-x(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Xing; Ye, Li-Ping; Gu, Hui-Jie; Huang, Jin-Hua; Li, Hui-Ying; Luo, Yong

    2015-08-01

    The surface structures, CO adsorption, and oxidation-reaction properties of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree have been investigated by using density functional theory including on-site Coulomb corrections (DFT + U). Results indicate that the reduction of Cu has a great influence on the adsorption of CO. Electron localization caused by the reduction turns Cu(2+) to Cu(+), which interacts much stronger with CO, and the adsorption strength of CO is related to the electronic interaction with the substrate as well as the structural relaxation. In particular, the electronic interaction is proved to be the decisive factor. The surfaces of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree all have good adsorption to CO. With the expansion of the surface reduction degree, the amount of CO that is stably adsorbed on the surface increases, while the number of surface active lattice O decreases. In general, the activity of CO oxidation first rises and then declines.

  5. Morphological Control of Mesoporosity and Nanoparticles within Co3O4-CuO Electrospun Nanofibers: Quantum Confinement and Visible Light Photocatalysis Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-10-18

    The one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous and interconnected nanoparticles (NPs) enriched composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO nanofibers (NFs) in the ratio Co:Cu = 1/4 (Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs) composite have been synthesized by electrospinning and calcination of mixed polymeric template. Not merely the mesoporous composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs but also single mesoporous Co 3 O 4 NFs and CuO NFs have been produced for comparison. The choice of mixed polymer templates such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for electrospinning is responsible for the formation of 1D mesoporous NFs. The HR-TEM result showed evolution of interconnected nanoparticles (NPs) and creation of mesoporosity in all electrospun NFs. The quantum confinement is due to NPs within NFs and has been proved by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study and the UV-vis-NRI diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The high intense photoluminescence (PL) spectra showing blue shift of all NFs also confirmed the quantum confinement phenomena. The lowering of PL spectrum after mixing of CuO in Co 3 O 4 nanofibers framework (Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs) proved CuO as an efficient visible light response low cost cocatalyst/charge separator. The red shifting of the band gap in composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs is due to the internal charge transfer between Co 2+ to Co 3+ and Cu 2+ , proved by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Creation of oxygen vacancies by mixing of CuO and Co 3 O 4 also prevents the electron-hole recombination and enhances the photocatalytic activity in composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs. The photocurrent density, Mott-Schottky (MS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies of all NFs favor the high photocatalytic performance. The mesoporous composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs exhibits high photocatalytic activity toward phenolic compounds degradation as compared to the other two NFs (Co 3 O 4 NFs and CuO NFs). The kinetic study of phenolic compounds followed first order rate equation. The high photocatalytic

  6. Two types of the effective mass divergence and the Grueneisen ratio in heavy-fermion metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Msezane, A.Z.; Shaginyan, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of the specific heat c p , effective mass M*, and the thermal expansion coefficient α of a Fermi system located near the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) is considered. We observe the first type behavior if the system is close to FCQPT: the specific heat c p ∝√T, M*∝1/√T, while the thermal expansion coefficient α∝√T. Thus, the Grueneisen ratio Γ(T)=α/c p does not diverges. At the transition region, where the system passes over from the non-Fermi liquid to the Landau Fermi liquid, the ratio diverges as Γ(T)∝1/√T. In the system becomes the Landau Fermi liquid, Γ(T,r)∝1/r, with r being a distance from the quantum critical point. Provided the system has undergone FCQPT, the second type takes place: the specific heat behaves as c p ∝√T, M * ∝1/T, and α=a+bT with a,b being constants. Again, the Grueneisen ratio diverges as Γ(T)∝1/√T

  7. Intertwined Orders in Heavy-Fermion Superconductor CeCoIn_{5}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Y. Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of spin-density-wave (SDW magnetic order in the low-temperature and high-field corner of the superconducting phase diagram of CeCoIn_{5} is unique among unconventional superconductors. The nature of this magnetic Q phase is a matter of current debate. Here, we present the thermal conductivity of CeCoIn_{5} in a rotating magnetic field, which reveals the presence of an additional order inside the Q phase that is intimately intertwined with the superconducting d-wave and SDW orders. A discontinuous change of the thermal conductivity within the Q phase, when the magnetic field is rotated about antinodes of the superconducting d-wave order parameter, demands that the additional order must change abruptly, together with the recently observed switching of the SDW. A combination of interactions, where spin-orbit coupling orients the SDW, which then selects the secondary p-wave pair-density-wave component (with an average amplitude of 20% of the primary d-wave order parameter, accounts for the observed behavior.

  8. Nonperturbative studies on the Higgs and heavy-fermion sectors in the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lee.

    1989-01-01

    The author carried out large-scale Monte Carlo simulations on the O(4) model in four dimension as an approximation to the SU(2)-Higgs sector in the minimal Standard Model. He finds that the O(4) model is defined at a trivial Gaussian fixed point at λ R = 0.0, and is weakly interacting in the scaling regions in both phases. The infrared singularity in the broken phase and the finite size effects of renormalized quantities in both phases are shown to be under control. He gets a Higgs mass upper bound m H ≅ 640 GeV at a dimensionless correlation length ξ = 2 on the lattice. He tried to set a similar bound on the top quark mass by studying the 1-component model with the Yukawa coupling as the first step. He first maps out the phase diagram of the model, and finds that the fermion loop has significant effects on the phase structure. He then says that the quenched approximation is not good to this system. The preliminary Monte Carlo data show that everything is consistent with a second order phase transition line. However, the possibility of having a first order phase transition at strong Yukawa coupling is still not ruled out. No evidence of triviality of the Yukawa coupling has been found yet

  9. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of heavy fermion YbRh2 Laves phase compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harsha; Shugani, Mani; Aynyas, Mahendra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of YbRh2 Laves phase intermetallic compound which crystallize in cubic (MgCu2-type) structure have been investigated using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP- LAPW) method with LDA and LDA+U approximation. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B') are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. The electronic properties are analyzed from band structures and density of states. Elastic constants are predicted first time for this compound which obeys the stability criteria for cubic system.

  10. Pressure-induced valence change and moderate heavy fermion state in Eu-compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Fuminori; Okauchi, Keigo; Sato, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Ai; Akamine, Hiromu; Ashitomi, Yosuke; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Valenta, Jaroslav; Prchal, Jiri; Sechovský, Vladimir; Aoki, Dai; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2018-05-01

    A pressure-induced valence transition has attracted much attention in Eu-compounds. Among them, EuRh2Si2, EuNi2Ge2, and EuCo2Ge2 reveal the valence transition around 1, 2, and 3 GPa, respectively. We have succeeded in growing single crystals of EuT2X2 (T: transition metal, X: Si, Ge) and studied electronic properties under pressure. EuRh2Si2 indicates a first-order valence transition between 1 and 2 GPa, with a large and prominent hysteresis in the electrical resistivity. At higher pressures, the first-order valence transition changes to a cross-over regime with an intermediate valence state. Tuning of the valence state with pressure is reflected in a drastic change of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in EuRh2Si2 single crystals. Effect of pressure on the valence states on EuRh2Si2, EuIr2Si2, EuNi2Ge2, and EuCo2Ge2, as well as an isostructural related compound EuGa4, are reviewed.

  11. Critical quasiparticle theory applied to heavy fermion metals near an antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh2Si2, for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results. PMID:22331893

  12. NMR study of novel heavy fermion superconductor CePt{sub 3}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)]. E-mail: ueda@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kohara, T. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Motoyama, G. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Oda, Y. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Si29 NMR experiments were performed to study microscopically the normal and superconducting states in Si29 enriched CePt{sub 3}Si. A Si29 Knight shift parallel to the c-axis did not decrease below the T{sub c}. The 1/T{sub 1} result taken with a field cycling method showed no distinct coherence peak just below T{sub c} and a steep decrease below T{sub c} on cooling. The estimated value of the superconducting energy gap was about 2{delta}=3.6k{sub B}T{sub c}. These results may be an evidence for triplet pairing superconductivity.

  13. Spectroscopic evidence for 5f bands at room temperature in uranium-based heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Koelling, D.D.; Dunlap, B.D.; Capasso, C.; del Giudice, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present data on the alloy system UPd/sub 3-x/Pt/sub x/ and show that in the double hexagonal phase (x 2.4) as well, except that the low-binding energy feature is locked in at E/sub F/ and shows evidence of energy dispersion at room temperature/endash/consistent with well-defined bands. Conversely, we show that even in well-behaved narrow band systems (USn 3 there is evidence for satellite formation. 44 refs., 8 figs

  14. Magnetic structure of the heavy-fermion compound U2Zn17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, D. E; Shirane, G.; Shapiro, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    The phase transition of U2Zn17 at 9.7K has been investigated by neutron powder diffraction. The transition corresponds to the onset of antiferromagnetic order where the U moments are oriented antiparallel to their neighbors within the basal planes and the near neighbor along the c^ axis of this r...... of this rhombohedral compound. At 5K, the ordered moments lie within the basal planes and are of magnitude (0.8±0.1) μB, which is substantially below the paramagnetic moment of 2.25 μB/U atom given by high-temperature susceptibility data......The phase transition of U2Zn17 at 9.7K has been investigated by neutron powder diffraction. The transition corresponds to the onset of antiferromagnetic order where the U moments are oriented antiparallel to their neighbors within the basal planes and the near neighbor along the c^ axis...

  15. Two types of the effective mass divergence and the Grueneisen ratio in heavy-fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Msezane, A.Z.; Shaginyan, V.R

    2004-01-12

    The behavior of the specific heat c{sub p}, effective mass M*, and the thermal expansion coefficient {alpha} of a Fermi system located near the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) is considered. We observe the first type behavior if the system is close to FCQPT: the specific heat c{sub p}{proportional_to}{radical}T, M*{proportional_to}1/{radical}T, while the thermal expansion coefficient {alpha}{proportional_to}{radical}T. Thus, the Grueneisen ratio {gamma}(T)={alpha}/c{sub p} does not diverges. At the transition region, where the system passes over from the non-Fermi liquid to the Landau Fermi liquid, the ratio diverges as {gamma}(T){proportional_to}1/{radical}T. In the system becomes the Landau Fermi liquid, {gamma}(T,r){proportional_to}1/r, with r being a distance from the quantum critical point. Provided the system has undergone FCQPT, the second type takes place: the specific heat behaves as c{sub p}{proportional_to}{radical}T, M{sup *}{proportional_to}1/T, and {alpha}=a+bT with a,b being constants. Again, the Grueneisen ratio diverges as {gamma}(T){proportional_to}1/{radical}T.

  16. Effect of pressure on spin fluctuations and superconductivity in heavy-fermion UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, J.O.; Thompson, J.D.; Fisk, Z.; de Visser, A.; Franse, J.J.M.; Menovsky, A.

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the susceptibility, on the T 2 temperature dependence of the spin-fluctuation resistivity, and on superconductivity in UPt 3 . The spin-fluctuation temperature T/sub s/, derived from the slope of resistivity versus T 2 , is used within a Fermi-liquid picture to calculate the susceptibility chi at T = 0 K. The depression of this calculated chi with pressure agrees with the directly measured value partial lnchi/partialP = -24 Mbar -1 . Both the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ and the initial slope of the upper critical field also decrease under pressure. We find that partial lnT/sub c//partialP = -25 Mbar -1 and speculate upon correlations between chi and T/sub c/

  17. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with a Heavy Fermion in Light of Recent LHC Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Q. Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent announcement of a discovery of a possible Higgs-like particle—its spin and parity are yet to be determined—at the LHC with a mass of 126 GeV necessitates a fresh look at the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking, in particular if this newly-discovered particle will turn out to have the quantum numbers of a Standard Model Higgs boson. Even if it were a 0+ scalar with the properties expected for a SM Higgs boson, there is still the quintessential hierarchy problem that one has to deal with and which, by itself, suggests a new physics energy scale around 1 TeV. This paper presents a minireview of one possible scenario: the formation of a fermion-antifermion condensate coming from a very heavy fourth generation, carrying the quantum number of the SM Higgs field, and thus breaking the electroweak symmetry.

  18. On superconducting double transition in a heavy fermion material UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Masa-aki; Machida, Kazushige.

    1992-01-01

    In order to explain phase diagrams independent of field-orientation, which is now evident in UPt 3 , we present a scenario based on a superconducting (SC) class belonging to the one-dimensional representation (1D-REP) with odd-parity. The preexisting antiferromagnetic order (AF) lifts the spin space degeneracy of the pairing function to split T c , which is contrasted with the orbital degeneracy lifting mechanism in the previous 2D-REP scenario. A non-trivial coupling of the two orderings, SC and AF is derived and a GL theory is developed to examine the successive phase transitions. We calculate several quantities, including the upper and lower critical fields, specific heat jumps and derive the phase diagrams under applied fields. It is demonstrated that the present 1D-REP scenario is more consistent with various experiments on UPt 3 than the previous 2D-REP one. We emphasize that the 1D-REP scenario is the only choice remained within the symmetry breaking framework, which is able to consistently explain the experiments. (author)

  19. Chemical equilibrium model for high- Tc and heavy fermion superconductors: the density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, A.; Hissa, J.; Hayrynen, T.; Braysy, V.; Sakkinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium model is based on the idea of correlated electron pairs, which in singlet state can exist as quasimolecules in the superfluid and normal states of a superconductor. These preformed pairs are bosons which can undergo a Bose-Einstein condensation in analogy with the superfluidity of 4 He+ 3 He-mixture. The bosons (B ++ ) and the fermions (h + ) are in chemical equilibrium with respect to the reaction B ++ ↔ 2h + , at any temperature. The mean densities of bosons and fermions (quasiholes) n B (T) and n h (T) are determined from the thermodynamics of the equilibrium reaction in terms of a single function f(T). By thermodynamics the function f(T) is connected to equilibrium constant φ(T) by 1-f(T) = [1 + φ(T)] -1/2 . Using a simple power law, known to be valid near T = 0, for the chemical constant φ(T) α/t 2γ , t = T/T*, the mean density of quasiholes is given in closed form. This enables one to calculate the corresponding density of states (DOS) D(E) N s /N(0), by solving an integral equation. The NIS- tunneling conductivity near T = 0, given by D(E) compares well with the most recent experiments: D(E) ∼ E γ , for small E and a finite maximum of right size, corresponding to 'finite quasiparticle lifetime'. The corresponding SIS-tunneling conductivity is obtained from a simple convolution and is also in agreement with recent break junction experiments of Hancotte et al. The position of the maximum can be used to obtain the scaling temperature T*, which comes close to the one measured by Hall coefficient in the normal state. A simple explanation for the spingap effect in NMR is given. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  20. Hidden order symmetry and superconductivity in heavy Fermions investigated by quasiparticle interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Alireza [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); MPI for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Thalmeier, Peter [MPI for the Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The hidden order (HO) in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has been determined as a high rank multipole formed by itinerant 5f-electrons with distinct orbital structure imposed by the crystalline electric field. Because this can lead to a considerable number of different multipoles it is of great importance to use microscopic techniques that are sensitive to their subtle physical differences. Here we investigate whether quasiparticle interference (QPI) method can distinguish between the two most frequently proposed HO parameter models: the even rank-4 hexadecapole and the odd-rank-5 dotriacontapole model. We obtain the quasiparticle dispersion and reconstructed Fermi surface in each HO phase adapting an effective two-orbital model of 5f bands that reproduces the main Fermi surface sheets of the para phase. We show that the resulting QPI spectrum reflects directly the effect of fourfold symmetry breaking in the rank-5 model which is absent in the rank-4 model. Therefore we suggest that QPI method should give a possibility of direct discrimination between the two most investigated models of HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Furthermore the signature of proposed chiral d-wave superconducting (SC) order parameter in QPI of the coexisting HO+SC phase is investigated.

  1. La2CuO4+δ: Synthesis under high oxygen pressure and study of phase relations and energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.P.; Mehta, A.; DiCarlo, J.; Navrotsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    High oxygen pressures have been achieved in a piston-cylinder apparatus using a double capsule assembly consisting of a sealed outer Au capsule, containing an oxygen source (KMnO 4 ), and an inner, open Pt capsule containing the sample. Using this technique, La 2 CuO 4 was annealed at 800 degree C, 5--25 kbar for 2--4 h. Transposed temperature drop calorimetry at 704 degree C was used to determine the enthalpy of oxidation, and weight loss measurements characterized the oxygen nonstoichiometry, δ, in La 2 CuO 4+δ , in the high-pressure, oxygen annealed samples. For samples analyzed at room temperature, x-ray diffraction measurements show that beyond δ∼0.10--0.13, additional oxygen is accommodated in a perovskite-like LaCuO 3-α phase. An analysis of the thermochemical measurements indicates that the nature of holes in La 2 CuO 4+δ could change in the range of δ∼0.03--0.06. 16,17 It is further suggested that the observed change in the thermochemical behavior in the range of δ∼0.01--0.06 could be the driving influence behind the spinodal decomposition of La 2 CuO 4+δ at low temperatures (Dabrowski et al. 10 )

  2. A new way for preparing superconducting materials: the electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattiaux, A.; Park, J.C.; Grenier, J.C.; Pouchard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation in alkaline medium is described as a new way for preparing superconducting oxides at room temperature. The application of this method to La 2 CuO 4 gave rise to a metallic material with a superconducting behaviour below 39 K and whose physical and chemical features appear as quite promising [fr

  3. Novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Longqin; Chen, Funan; Zhou, Juncen

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy is reported in this paper. Hierarchical structure composed of micro/nano-featherlike CuO was obtained by electrodeposition of Cu-Zn alloy coating and subsequently an electrochemical anodic treatment in alkaline solution. After modification with lauric acid, the surface became hydrophobicity/superhydrophobicity. The formation of featherlike CuO structures was controllable by varying the coating composition. By applying SEM, ICP-AES, and water contact angle analysis, the effects of coating composition on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the as-prepared surfaces were detailedly studied. The results indicated that at the optimal condition, the surface showed a good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 155.5 ± 1.3° and a sliding angle as low as about 3°. Possible growth mechanism of featherlike CuO hierarchical structure was discussed. Additionally, the anticorrosion effect of the superhydrophobic surface was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The interface model for anticorrosion mechanism of superhydrophobic surface in corrosive medium was proposed. Besides, the mechanical stability test indicated that the resulting superhydrophobic surfaces have good mechanical stability.

  4. Structural studies of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 + Ag superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4, on its crystal structure and local structural features, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. (SXRD) and ..... extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). ... [1] Zhang and Chongmin 1991 Thesis, University of British.

  5. CuO nanoparticles supported on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene nanocomposites for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meixia [Hebei University of Engineering, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering (China); Guo, Qingbin, E-mail: guoqingbinhue@163.com [Hebei University of Engineering, Academic Affairs office (China); Xie, Juan; Li, Yongde; Feng, Yapeng [Hebei University of Engineering, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-01-15

    Developing highly active catalysts to promote the electrocatalytic glucose oxidation (EGO) is a crucial demand for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. Herein, we reported the use of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene (NSG) as a novel support material for anchoring CuO nanoparticles and obtained CuO/NSG was employed as an efficient EGO catalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. The results showed that the NSG endowed the CuO/NSG with large surface area, increased structural defects, improved conductivity, and strong covalent coupling between NSG and CuO. Owing to the significant contribution of NSG and the synergistic effect of NSG and CuO, the CuO/NSG exhibited a remarkably higher EGO activity than CuO and CuO/reduced graphene oxide. The CuO/NSG-based sensor displayed excellent glucose sensing performances with a considerably low detection limit of 0.07 μM. These findings elucidate that the NSG is a promising support material for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

  6. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  7. A comparative investigation of SO2 oxidative transfer over CuO with a CeO2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Shen, Benxian; Pi, Zhipeng; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Jigang

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the catalytic desulfurization function of the Mg-Al spinel sulfur transfer agent in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, the reaction paths of SO2 oxidation by O2 over the metal oxide surface of CuO (111) and CeO2 (111) were investigated. In reference to the fact that SO2 reacting with O2 over CuO was a Mars-van Krevelen cycle, a similar reaction law for SO2 oxidation over CeO2 was also verified by characterization methods (e.g., IR, XPS). Meanwhile, the molecular simulation results indicated that the rate-control step of SO2 oxidation over CeO2 (111) and CuO (111) was a SO3 desorption step. The lower energy barrier in the rate-control step corresponded to better catalytic performance; hence, it could explain the reason that CeO2 had a better sulfur oxidization transfer performance than CuO.

  8. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temp erature on Optical Prop erties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. C. Vidyasagar; Y. Arthoba Naik∗; T. G. Venkatesha; R. Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting CuO nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol 400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of CuO nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of CuO nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  9. Shape-controlled synthesis of Sn-doped CuO nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomáčka, Petr; Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 481, NOV (2016), s. 28-38 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Sn-doped CuO * Tin doping * Copper oxide * Catalyst * Catalytic activity * Morphology Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.233, year: 2016

  10. Use of low-temperature nanostructured CuO thin films deposited by spray-pyrolysis in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.; Martin, F.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous copper acetate solutions at temperatures over 200-300 deg C range. The textural and structural properties of the films were determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the sole crystalline phase detected in the film was CuO, XPS spectra revealed a more complex surface structure due to the presence of undecomposed copper acetate that can be easily removed by Ar + ion sputtering. The heating temperature was found to have little limited effect on the particle size and thickness of the films, which, however, increased significantly increasing deposition time. The film with the smallest grain size exhibited an excellent electrochemical response in Li battery electrodes and was capable of supplying sustained specific capacity as high as 625 A h kg -1 (50% greater than that delivered by bulk CuO and close to the theoretical capacity for the CuO Cu reaction) upon extensive cycling

  11. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S. K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe3O4@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe3O4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe3O4@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe3O4-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent.

  12. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  13. Synthesis of a highly dispersed CuO catalyst on CoAl-HT for the epoxidation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Yang, Pengfei; Pan, Yongning; Li, Yunpeng; He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2017-10-10

    A highly dispersed CuO catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and evaluated for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under solvent acetonitrile conditions. Compared with MgAl hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT)-, MgO-, TiO 2 -, C-, and MCM-22-supported catalysts, CuO/CoAl-HT exhibited preferable activity and selectivity towards styrene oxide (72% selectivity at 99.5% styrene conversion) due to its high dispersion of CuO and surface area of Cu. The improved dispersion of CuO/CoAl-HT could be ascribed to the nature of HT support, especially the synergistic effect of acidic and basic sites on the surface, which facilitated the formation of highly dispersed CuO species. A structure-performance relationship study indicated that copper(ii) in CuO was the active site for the epoxidation and oxidation of styrene, and that Cu II of rich electronic density favored the improvement of selectivity of styrene oxide. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the preferred catalytic performance of CuO/CoAl-HT could be maintained in five reused cycles.

  14. Optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped CuO flower/plates/particles-like nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, N Mohamed; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John; Bououdina, M; Hussain, Shamima

    2014-03-01

    In this study, pure and Co-doped CuO nanostructures (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 at wt% of Co) were synthesized by microwave combustion method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Powder X-ray diffraction patterns refined by the Rietveld method indicated the formation of single-phase monoclinic structure. The surface morphology and elemental analysis of Co-doped CuO nanostructures were studied by using HR-SEM and EDX. Interestingly, the morphology was found to change considerably from nanoflowers to nanoplates then to nanoparticles with the variation of Co concentration. The optical band gap calculated using DRS was found to be 2.1 eV for pure CuO and increases up to 3.4 eV with increasing cobalt content. Photoluminescence measurements also confirm these results. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained nanostructures were ferromagnetic at room temperature with an optimum value of saturation magnetization at 1.0 wt.% of Co-doped CuO, i.e., 970 micro emu/g.

  15. Low energy excitations in superconducting La1.86Sr0.14CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Aeppli, G.; Hayden, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present magnetic neutron scattering and specific heat data on the high-T(c) superconductor La1.86Sr0.14CuO4. Even when the samples are superconducting and the magnetic response, chi'', is suppressed, there are excitations with energies well below 3.5k(B)T(c). The wave-vector dependence of chi...

  16. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Density functional theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on CuO(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shujuan, E-mail: sunshujuan@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Chunyu [Science and Technology Innovation Center, Datang Technologies Industry Group Company Limited, Beijing (China); Zhang, Dongsheng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Yanji, E-mail: yjwang@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The dissociation mechanisms of O{sub 2} on the CuO(1 1 1) surface have been obtained. • The energy barriers and reaction energies are calculated. • The presence of oxygen vacancy can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces. The calculated results indicate that the bridge site of two Cu{sub sub} atoms is the most favorable site for O adsorption on the perfect CuO(1 1 1) surface. But on the oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surface, the O atom adsorbed on O{sub vacancy} site after optimization. On the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces, the O{sub 2} are all paralleling to the surface after optimization. Possible dissociation pathways of molecularly adsorbed O{sub 2} on the two surfaces are identified. The calculated results suggest that the presence of oxygen vacancy exhibits a strong chemical reactivity towards the dissociation of O{sub 2} and can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO.

  18. The effects of CuO nanoparticles on properties of self compacting concrete with GGBFS as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and CuO nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early age of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (% at later ages. CuO nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. CuO nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased the CuO nanoparticles' content more than 3.0 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. More rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that CuO nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  19. A new effect on the dependence of Tc on the number of Cu-O layers in the non-rare-earth ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Martin, P.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    We argue from the experimental evidence that the superconductivity in the non-rare-earth compounds is confined to two inequivalent layers of Cu-O planes where electron pairing occurs. This conjecture leads us to a set of phenomenological equations in terms of two order parameters that correctly describe the characteristic lengths of the copper oxide ceramics. The formalism developed indicates that samples with a larger number of Cu-O layers may have higher transition temperatures. The formalism suggests that in a multilayered Cu-O compound increments of T c as a function of the doping parameter will be more pronounced the larger the number of layers. (author). 12 refs

  20. Generalized One-Band Model Based on Zhang-Rice Singlets for Tetragonal CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, I. J.; Manuel, L. O.; Aligia, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Tetragonal CuO (T-CuO) has attracted attention because of its structure similar to that of the cuprates. It has been recently proposed as a compound whose study can give an end to the long debate about the proper microscopic modeling for cuprates. In this work, we rigorously derive an effective one-band generalized t -J model for T-CuO, based on orthogonalized Zhang-Rice singlets, and make an estimative calculation of its parameters, based on previous ab initio calculations. By means of the self-consistent Born approximation, we then evaluate the spectral function and the quasiparticle dispersion for a single hole doped in antiferromagnetically ordered half filled T-CuO. Our predictions show very good agreement with angle-resolved photoemission spectra and with theoretical multiband results. We conclude that a generalized t -J model remains the minimal Hamiltonian for a correct description of single-hole dynamics in cuprates.

  1. CuGeO3 and CuO by respectively elastic and inelastic polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, M.; Regnault, L.P.; Lorenzo, J.; Dhalenne, G.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Polarization analysis permitted to verify very promptly that the plane of the helix in the incommensurate phase of CuO was not (a*,c*) as first proposed but another one containing without equivoque the b*-axis.Inelastic polarization analysis under applied magnetic field permitted to study the triplet magnon-like mode of spin-Peierls CuGeO 3 . This mode splits in three, as expected. Intensities of inelastic neutron scattering measurements with polarization analysis have been collected in both spin-flip and nonspin-flip channels. This Zeeman splitting revealed that two out of the three processes are purely spin-flip excitations, while the third undisplaced one is a nonspin-flip process in which the neutron conserves its spin orientation

  2. Preparation of Uniform Hexapod Cu{sub 2}O and Hollow Hexapod CuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngsik; Huh, Youngduk [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The filled hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors were also prepared under microwave irradiation for only 120 s using a commercial microwave oven. The optimal experimental conditions for the perfect and uniform hexapod-like Cu{sub 2}O precursors were examined. The control of the cooling rate by adding cold water was also examined for the elimination of further crystal growth at the end of the arm of the hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors due to the thermal diffusion in reaction medium. The uniform hollow structure and hexapod CuO products were also prepared from the direct thermal oxidation of the filled hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors. The morphology-dependent properties of inorganic materials, such as magnetic, photocatalytic, and antibacterial activities, is one of the most important experimental issues in inorganic technology. Many researchers have prepared uniform and specific shaped inorganic oxides to understand the morphology-dependent properties of inorganic oxides.

  3. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  4. Evidence for anisotropic excitonlike enhancement of the Raman scattering from La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.H.; Peters, C.R.; Wanklyn, B.M.; Chen, C.; Watts, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polarized Raman studies on oriented single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 yield α/sub z//sub z/ spectra with narrow lines at 429 and 228 cm/sup -1/ that are identified as the two A 1 /sub g/ modes expected for the tetragonal K 2 NiF 4 structure; α/sub x//sub z/ spectra with one line at 228 cm/sup -1/ that has E/sub g/ symmetry; and α/sub x//sub x/ spectra with numerous peaks that are due to normally forbidden phonon excitations. The α/sub x//sub x/ spectra also show strong second-order features, suggesting a highly anisotropic, excitonlike enhancement of the Raman scattering

  5. CuO Nanoflowers growing on Carbon Fiber Fabric for Flexible High-Performance Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weina; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: One of the best electrochemical performances for CuOelectrodes based supercapacitorisachieved by the CuOhierarchical structure growing on the carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) in aqueous electrolyte. Meanwhile, a flexible solid-state supercapacitoris also fabricated as a promising candidate in energy storage for flexible, wearable and lightweight electronics. - Highlights: • The electrodes are fabricated by cupric oxide growing on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF). • The capacitor performance is optimized by the mass loading. • One of the best electrochemical performances is achieved for CuO/CFF supercapacitor. • A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor can power 3 light-emitting diodes for about 5 min. - Abstract: A hierarchical CuO nano-structure is prepared by directly growing CuO nanoflowers on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) via a hydrothermal method. The CuO/CFF is used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor for electrochemical energy storage. The supercapacitor displays superior electrochemical performance in aqueous electrolyte with the specific capacitance of 839.9 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, energy density of 10.05 Wh/kg and power density of 1798.5 W/kg, which are the highest values for the CuO/CFF electrodes. Moreover, a flexible symmetric solid-state symmetric supercapacitor is also fabricated by using the CuO/CFF as electrodes. The solid-state supercapacitor exhibits a specific capacitance of 131.34 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s with a power density of 145.12 W/kg, and 95.8% capacitance retention after 2000 charge-discharge cycles.

  6. Thermal history dependence of superconducting properties in La2CuO4+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Sumiyama, A.; Oda, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties below/above room temperature (RT) in the ceramic La 2 CuO 4-δ with excess oxygen. The phase separation (O-rich phase: superconducting and O-poor phase: antiferromagnetic) was concluded to occur above 373 K, in contrast with the usual report of the phase separation around 320 K. As for the superconducting phases, the well-known T c onset of 32 or 36 K, dependent on thermal history around 200 K, in the samples annealed in high-pressure oxygen gas, was not changed by thermal history between RT and 373 K. The samples electrochemically oxidized at RT included the phase with the high T c of 45 K, which was not changed by thermal history below RT, and the phase with the low T c of 32 or 36 K. The 45 K phase was changed into the low-T c phase by annealing at 373 K. The samples electrochemically oxidized at 333 K, which was accompanied with the diffusion of excess oxygen, showed gradual change of superconducting behavior: the single low-T c (32 or 36 K) phase (oxidation time = 24 h), coexistence of the low-T c phase and the high-T c (45 K) phase (36 h), and the single high T c phase (48 and 72 h). Thus, the single superconducting phase with the high T c of 45 K has been obtained, which showed a metallic behavior in normal resistivity and apparent changes of lattice constant in comparison with that of stoichiometric La 2 CuO 4 . (orig.)

  7. Kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation over modified supported CuO catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loc, Luu Cam; Tri, Nguyen; Cuong, Hoang Tien; Thoang, Ho Si [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    The following supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: 10(wt.)%CuO (CuAl), 10%CuO+10%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CuCrAl) and 10%CuO+20%CeO{sub 2} (CuCeAl) were under the investigation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined by the methods of BET, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR). A strong interaction of copper with support in CuAl resulted in the formation of low active copper aluminates. The bi-oxide CuCrAl was more active than CuAl owing to the formation of high catalytically active spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The fact of very high activity of the sample CuCeAl can be explained by the presence of the catalytically active form of CuO-CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The kinetics of CO total oxidation was studied in a gradientless flow-circulating system at the temperature range between 200 C and 270 C. The values of initial partial pressures of carbon monoxide (P{sup o}{sub CO}), oxygen (P{sup o}{sub O2}), and specially added carbon dioxide (P{sup o}{sub CO{sub 2}}) were varied in ranges (hPa): 10 / 45; 33 / 100, and 0 / 30, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Role of heat on the development of electrochemical sensors on bare and modified Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder carbon paste electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan; Kumara Swamy, B E

    2016-01-01

    The Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder (NP) was synthesized by a mechanochemical method and characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The synthesized Co3O4/CuO NP was used as a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) and further the bare carbon paste and Co3O4/CuO NP modified carbon paste was heated at different temperatures (100, 150, 200 and 250 °C) for 10 min. The Co3O4/CuO NP MCPE was used to study the consequences of scan rate and dopamine concentration. Furthermore the preheated modified electrodes were used to study the electrochemical response to dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of CuO chains on the local density of states in the vortex phase of YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W A

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effects of the CuO chains on the density of states in the vortex phase in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , via a calculation based on the tight-binding proximity model. In this model, chain superconductivity results from single-electron hopping between the intrinsically normal chains and intrinsically superconducting CuO 2 planes. The calculations are based on self-consistent solutions of the Bogolyubov-de Gennes equations for a bilayer consisting of a single CuO 2 layer and a single CuO chain layer. We find that, in addition to the dispersing resonances found in single-layer models, there are a second set of dispersing resonances, associated with the induced gap in the chain layer. These new resonances are highly anisotropic and distort the vortex core shape.

  10. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO2. In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO2/Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc) of 0.026 mA cm‑2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO2. This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells.

  11. Structure analysis of mutually incommensurate composite crystal (Ca0.5Y0.5)0.8CuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, I.; Takeya, S.; Fujihisa, H.; Honda, K.; Ito, T.; Oka, K.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2006-01-01

    Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of mutually incommensurate (Ca 0.5 Y 0.5 ) 0.8 CuO 2 , 'Ca 2 Y 2 Cu 5 O 1 ' has been performed by the composite approach which leads to average substructures and their relative arrangement. The composite crystal structure of (Ca 0.5 Y 0.5 ) 0.8 CuO 2 has the CuO 2 substructure and the Ca 0.5 Y 0.5 substructure. The CuO 2 substructure with a 1 = 10.598(2) A, b = 6.189(2) A, c 1 = 2.825(2) A, β 1 = 90.19(4) o , V 1 = 185.4(1) A 3 , Z = 4 and space group F2/m has the plane of edge-shared one-dimensional CuO 2 chains along the c-axis. The Ca 0.5 Y 0.5 substructure with a 2 = 10.629(2) A, b = 6.189(2) A, c 2 3.517(1) A, β 2 = 94.36(3) o , V 2 = 230.7(1) A 3 , Z = 4 and space group F2/m forms the sheet of (Ca, Y) atoms in the ac-plane. By considering (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace group symmetry, it is concluded that the incommensurate composite crystal structure of (Ca 0.5 Y 0.5 ) 0.8 CuO 2 should be described by the combination of F2/m for the CuO 2 substructure and F2/c for the Ca 0.5 Y 0.5 substructure. The composite approach has made clear that the plane of CuO 2 chains and the sheet of (Ca, Y) atoms stack alternately to form a mutually incommensurate composite crystal with layered substructures

  12. Analysis of Anti-Wear Properties of CuO Nanoparticles as Friction Modifiers in Mineral Oil (460cSt Viscosity Using Pin-On-Disk Tribometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the anti-wear properties of CuO nanoparticles based mineral oil using pin-on-disk apparatus. The pin material selected was EN 24(untreated as it is used in gear manufacturing. Commonly used graphite macro particles (wt.% and CuO nanoparticles(wt.% were used as additives. It had been observed that the additives based mineral oil samples exhibited superior antiwear properties than pure mineral oil. Both CuO nanoparticles (0.2 wt.% and graphite (0.2 wt.% based lubricant showed significant decrease in coefficient of friction and specific wear rate. There was a reduction in both coefficient of friction (28.5 % approx. and specific wear rate (70 % approx. in case of CuO nanolubricants and graphite based mineral oil as compared with the pure mineral oil.Flash-fire point, viscosity and viscosity index also increased with the increase in additive concentration. The surface characteristics of the pin were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and surface roughness tester. The SEM images showed more rough surfaces in case of pure mineral oil samples as compared with graphite and CuO nanoparticles based samples. The surface roughness values of the pins in case of graphite (0.2 wt.% and CuO nano particles (0.2 wt.% based lubricant were much lesser than pure mineral oil. From the results predicted minimum 0.2 wt.% CuO nanoparticles were required to enhance the antiwear property of the lubricant. This work aimed in bringing a comparative experimental analysis using CuO nanoparticles and commonly used graphite macro particles as lubricant additives on various properties such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, surface roughness and anti-wear properties. Thus, the work would be useful in developing new nano lubricants with minimum additive concentration.

  13. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the CaO-WO3-CuO System at 800 °C in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J. -C.

    2012-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the CaO-WO3-CuO system were investigated in air. The samples were equilibrated at 800 degrees C. Under these conditions, five binary oxide phases are stable: Ca2CuO3, Cu3WO6, CuWO4, CaWO4 and Ca3WO6. The pseudo-ternary section is characterised by 6 three...

  14. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Carboxyl Groups Using CdTe and CuO Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Sakurai; Taro Sato; Jiawei Xu; Soichi Sato; Tatsuya Fujino

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of compounds containing carboxyl groups was carried out by using semiconductor nanoparticles (CdTe and CuO) as the matrix. Salicylic acid (Sal), glucuronic acid (Glu), ibuprofen (Ibu), and tyrosine (Tyr) were ionized as deprotonated species (carboxylate anions) by using electrons ejected from CdTe after the photoexcitation. When CuO was used as the matrix, the peak intensity of Tyr became high compared with that obtained with CdTe....

  15. Reply to Comment on ‘Oxygen vacancy-induced magnetic moment in edge-sharing CuO2 chains of Li2CuO2-δ ’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, G. J.; Tian, J. C.; Lin, C. K.; Hayashi, M.; Liou, S. C.; Chen, W. T.; Wong, Deniz P.; Liou, H. L.; Chou, F. C.

    2018-05-01

    In this reply to the comment on ‘Oxygen vacancy-induced magnetic moment in edge-sharing CuO2 chains of {{{Li}}}2{{{CuO}}}2-δ ’ (2017 New Journal of Physics 19 023206), we have clarified several key questions and conflicting results regarding the size of the intra-chain nearest neighbor coupling J 1 and the sign of the Weiss temperature Θ defined in the Curie–Weiss law of χ(T) = χ ◦ + C/(T ‑ Θ). Additional data analysis is conducted to verify the validity of the Curie–Weiss law fitting protocol, including the negative sign and size of Θ based on the high-temperature linear temperature dependence of 1/χ(T) for T > J 1 and \\tfrac{g{μ }B{SH}}{{k}BT}\\ll 1. The consistency between the magnetic antiferromagnetic (AF) ground state below T N and the negative sign of Θ in the high-temperature paramagnetic (PM) state is explained via the reduction of thermal fluctuation for a temperature-independent local field due to magnetic interaction of quantum nature. A magnetic dipole–dipole (MDD)-type interaction among FM chains is identified and proposed to be necessary for the 3D AF magnetic ground state formation, i.e., the Heisenberg model of an exchange-type interaction alone is not sufficient to fully describe the quasi-1D spin chain system of {{{Li}}}2{{{CuO}}}2. Several typical quasi-1D spin chain compounds, including {{{Li}}}2{{{CuO}}}2,{{{CuAs}}}2{{{O}}}4,{{{Sr}}}3{{{Fe}}}2{{{O}}}5, and CuGeO3, are compared to show why different magnetic ground states are achieved from the chemical bond perspective.

  16. Facile synthesis, growth mechanism and reversible superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic properties of non-flaking CuO nanowires grown from porous copper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaobao; Xu Daguo; Zhang Kaili; Hung, Tak Fu

    2013-01-01

    Reversible superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces based on porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires are developed in this study. A facile thermal oxidation method is used to synthesize non-flaking bicrystalline CuO nanowires on porous copper substrates in static air. The effects of thermal oxidation temperature and duration are systemically studied. The growth mechanism of the obtained non-flaking CuO nanowires is presented and the compression stress is believed to be the key driving force. The wettability of the CuO nanowires after chemical modification with trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane is systemically investigated. The porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires exhibit excellent superhydrophobic performance with almost no water adhesion and no apparent drag resistance, and a maximum static water contact angle of 162 ± 2° is observed. Moreover, a rapid reversibly switchable wettability between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states is realized by the alternation of air–plasma treatment and surface fluorination. The porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires will find promising applications in surface and corrosion protection, liquid transportation, oil–water separation, and self-cleaning surfaces. (paper)

  17. Electrochemical detection of copper ions leached from CuO nanoparticles in saline buffers and biological media using a gold wire working electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserri, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.baldisserri@istec.cnr.it; Costa, Anna Luisa [ISTEC-CNR (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    We performed explorative cyclic voltammetry in phosphate-buffered saline buffers, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), and fetal bovine serum-added DMEM using Au wire as working electrode, both in the absence and in the presence of known nominal concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} ions or 15 nm CuO nanoparticles. Addition of either Cu{sup 2+} ions or aqueous suspension of CuO nanoparticles caused a single anodic peak to appear in the double-layer region of all three pristine media. The height of the anodic peak was found to increase in a monotonic fashion vs. Cu{sup 2+} concentration in Cu{sup 2+}-added media, and versus time since CuO addition in CuO-added media. Stepwise addition of glycine to Cu{sup 2+}-added phosphate-buffered saline buffer caused an increasing cathodic shift of the anodic peak accompanied by decreasing peak currents. Results indicate that preparing Cu{sup 2+}-free suspensions of CuO nanoparticles in such media is difficult, owing to the presence of leached copper ions. The implications on results of experiments in which CuO nanoparticle-added biological media are used as cell culture substrates are discussed. Literature data on the interactions between Cu{sup 2+} ions, dissolved carbon dioxide in aqueous CuO suspensions, and amino acids present in such media are compared to our results.

  18. Electrochemical detection of copper ions leached from CuO nanoparticles in saline buffers and biological media using a gold wire working electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldisserri, Carlo; Costa, Anna Luisa

    2016-04-01

    We performed explorative cyclic voltammetry in phosphate-buffered saline buffers, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and fetal bovine serum-added DMEM using Au wire as working electrode, both in the absence and in the presence of known nominal concentrations of Cu2+ ions or 15 nm CuO nanoparticles. Addition of either Cu2+ ions or aqueous suspension of CuO nanoparticles caused a single anodic peak to appear in the double-layer region of all three pristine media. The height of the anodic peak was found to increase in a monotonic fashion vs. Cu2+ concentration in Cu2+-added media, and versus time since CuO addition in CuO-added media. Stepwise addition of glycine to Cu2+-added phosphate-buffered saline buffer caused an increasing cathodic shift of the anodic peak accompanied by decreasing peak currents. Results indicate that preparing Cu2+-free suspensions of CuO nanoparticles in such media is difficult, owing to the presence of leached copper ions. The implications on results of experiments in which CuO nanoparticle-added biological media are used as cell culture substrates are discussed. Literature data on the interactions between Cu2+ ions, dissolved carbon dioxide in aqueous CuO suspensions, and amino acids present in such media are compared to our results.

  19. Phase and electrical properties of PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles by a hybrid sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesattabud, Tharathip; Gibbons, Brady J.; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles were successfully prepared by a hybrid sol-gel process. In this process, CuO (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 wt. %) nanopowder was suspended in an organometallic solution of PZT, and then coated on platinised silicon substrate using a spin-coating technique. The influence of CuO nano-particles' dispersion on the phase of PZT thin films was investigated. XRD results showed a perovskite phase in all films. At the CuO concentration of 0.4-1 wt. %, a second phase was observed. The addition of CuO nano-particles affected the orientation of PZT thin films. The addition was also found to reduce the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films. However, at 0.2 wt. % CuO concentration, the film exhibited good ferroelectric properties similar to those of PZT films. In addition, the fatigue retention properties of the PZT/CuO system was observed, and it showed 14% fatigue at 108 switching bipolar pulse cycles while the fatigue in PZT thin films was found to be 17% at the same switching bipolar pulse cycles.

  20. Composite (La0.45Nd0.25)Sr0.3MnO3/5CuO materials for magnetic refrigeration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maalam, K.; Balli, M.; Habouti, S.; Dietze, M.; Hamedoun, M.; Hlil, E.-K.; Es-Souni, M.; El Kenz, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Mounkachi, O.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the magnetocaloric properties of (La0.45Nd0.25)Sr0.3MnO3 (LNSMO)-based composites are studied. The structural, microstructural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of LNSMO and LNSMO/5CuO samples were investigated aiming to particularly clarify the secondary phase (CuO) role in driving the magnetocaloric behavior. The main phase LNSMO crystallizes in a rhombohedral R-3C (1 6 7) configuration. The XRD patterns of composite samples show both perovskite LNSMO and monoclinic Tenorite CuO structures. The microstructural analysis unveils that the CuO phase is mainly present in the grain boundaries and segregates region. On the other hand, it was found that the magnetocaloric effect could be significantly enhanced by adding a small amount of CuO (5% weight ratio). For a magnetic field changing from 0 to 1.5 T, the corresponding isothermal entropy change was found to be 2.55 J/kg K for the LNSMO/5CuO composite while it is only about 1.1 J/kg K for the mother material LNSMO. Our finding should inspire and open new ways for the enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in manganites-based materials.

  1. High-performance supercapacitors of Cu-based porous coordination polymer nanowires and the derived porous CuO nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ke; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Yi, Fei-Yan; Chen, Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Li, Qin; Tao, Kai; Han, Lei

    2017-12-12

    Electrode materials for supercapacitors with one-dimensional porous nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, are very attractive for high-efficiency storage of electrochemical energy. Herein, ultralong Cu-based porous coordination polymer nanowires (copper-l-aspartic acid) were used as the electrode material for supercapacitors, for the first time. The as-prepared material exhibits a high specific capacitance of 367 F g -1 at 0.6 A g -1 and excellent cycling stability (94% retention over 1000 cycles). Moreover, porous CuO nanotubes were successfully fabricated by the thermal decomposition of this nanowire precursor. The CuO nanotube exhibits good electrochemical performance with high rate capacity (77% retention at 12.5 A g -1 ) and long-term stability (96% retention over 1000 cycles). The strategy developed here for the synthesis of porous nanowires and nanotubes can be extended to the construction of other electrode materials for more efficient energy storage.

  2. Energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in Nd2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.P.; Kao, C.C.; Haemaelaeinen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report the energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from Nd 2 CuO 4 . An energy loss feature at ∼6 eV is observed in the vicinity of the Cu K-edge. Numerical calculations based on the Anderson impurity model identify this as a charge transfer excitation to the anti-bonding state. The incident polarization is shown to select the intermediate states participating in the resonance process. Resonances are observed at 8,990 eV and 9,000 eV with the incident polarization perpendicular and parallel to the CuO planes, respectively. In contrast to the single-site model calculations, no resonances are observed associated with the 1s3d 10 L intermediate states, suggesting non-local effects play a role

  3. Improving the Efficiency of DASC by Adding CeO2/CuO Hybrid Nanoparticles in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midhun Mohan, V.; Sajeeb, A. M.

    Solar energy is the abundantly available source of renewable energy with least impact on environment. Direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is the commonly used device to absorb heat directly from sun and make use of it for different heating applications. In the past, many experiments have been done to increase the efficiency of DASC using nanofluids. In this paper, an examination of solar collector efficiency for hybrid CeO2/CuO-water (0.1% by volume) nanofluid under various flow rates and proportions of CeO2/CuO nanoparticles is investigated. The experiments were conducted at flow rates spanning from 20cc/min to 100cc/min and with CeO2/CuO nanoparticles proportions of 1:0, 1:0.5, 1:1, 0.5:1 and 0:1. The efficiency increases from 16.5% to 51.6% when the flow rate is increased from 20cc/min to 100cc/min for hybrid CeO2/CuO (1:1)-water nanofluid. The results also showed an increase in efficiency of 13.8%, 18.1%, 24.3%, 24.9% and 26.1% with hybrid combination of CeO2/CuO at ratios 1:0, 1:0.5, 1:1, 0.5:1 and 0:1, respectively, in comparison with water at a flow rate of 100cc/min.

  4. MAGNETIC AND HYPERFINE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL TRANSFORMATION CuO - Fe2O3 TO Fe3O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Betancur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic study about the thermal transformation of hematite doped with CuO (Fe2O3 + CuO is presented. The heat treatment was carried out at a temperature of 375 ± 1 ºC, in a controlled atmosphere composed by 20% hydrogen and 80% nitrogen. Samples were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature, magnetization as a function of temperature and hysteresis loops at 10K. Our results suggest that both the hyperfine fields and linewidths of the A and B sites remain essentially constant with increasing the CuO concentration, while at the same time a paramagnetic component arises, which is indicative of the appearance of a precipitate or a new phase of Fe-Cu, i.e. there is not an effective incorporation of the copper into the structure of the magnetite. The saturation magnetization falls from approximately 87 emu/g to 78 emu/g, consistent with such a paramagnetic phase. Also, an increase in the coercivity from ~576 Oe up to ~621 Oe by increasing the percentage of CuO from 2% up to 20% is observed. Such increase is also attributed to the paramagnetic phase acting as pinning center for domain walls, besides also de pinning effect due to vacancies induced by the thermal treatment. Finally, an inversion of the magnetization in the Verwey temperature is observed. The data suggest that by means of the synthesis method employed, it is possible to obtain Fe3O4 magnetite particles coexisting with precipitates of Fe-Cu, giving rise to a modification in the magnetic properties and generatingan interesting effect in the magnetization at the Verwey temperature.

  5. Controlling the radiative properties of cool black-color coatings pigmented with CuO submicron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Baneshi, Mehdi; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design a pigmented coating with dark appearance that maintains a low temperature while exposed to sunlight. The radiative properties of a black-color coating pigmented with copper oxide (CuO) submicron particles are described. In the present work, the spectral behavior of the CuO-pigmented coating was calculated. The radiative properties of CuO particles were evaluated, and the radiative transfer in the pigmented coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ). The coating is made using optimized particles. The reflectivity is measured by spectroscopy and an integrating sphere in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) regions. By using CuO particles controlled in size, we were able to design a black-color coating with high reflectance in the NIR region. The coating substrate also plays an important role in controlling the reflectance. The NIR reflectance of the coating on a standard white substrate with appropriate coating thickness and volume fraction was much higher than that on a standard black substrate. From the comparison between the experimental and calculated results, we know that more accurate particle size control enables us to achieve better performance. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction on a suitable substrate enables cool and black-color coating against solar irradiation. -- Highlights: • A new approach in designing pigmented coatings was used. • The effects of particles size on both visible and near infrared reflectivities were studied. • The results of numerical calculation were compared with experimental ones for CuO powders

  6. A template-free method for stable CuO hollow microspheres fabricated from a metal organic framework (HKUST-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoying; Liu, Hong; Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Zhuhong; Feng, Xin; Huo, Fengwei; Lu, Xiaohua

    2015-06-07

    Uniform CuO hollow microspheres were successfully achieved from a non-uniform metal organic framework by using a template-free method. The process mechanism has been revealed to be spherical aggregation and Ostwald ripening. When tested in CO oxidation and heat treatment, these assembled microspheres exhibited an excellent catalytic performance and show a much better stability than the inherited hollow structure from MOFs.

  7. Hierarchical structured Sm2O3 modified CuO nanoflowers as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; He, Mingqian; He, Ping; Liu, Hongtao; Bai, Hongmei; Chen, Jingchao; He, Shaoying; Zhang, Xingquan; Dong, Faqing; Chen, Yang

    2017-12-01

    By a simple and cost effective chemical precipitation-hydrothermal method, novel hierarchical structured Sm2O3 modified CuO nanoflowers are prepared and investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The physical properties of prepared materials are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDX and FTIR techniques. Furthermore, electrochemical performances of prepared materials are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectrum in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte. The resulting Sm2O3 modified CuO based electrodes exhibit obviously enhanced capacitive properties owing to the unique nanostructures and strong synergistic effects. It is worth noting that the optimized SC-3 based electrode exhibits the best electrochemical performances in all prepared electrodes, including higher specific capacitance (383.4 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and good rate capability (393.2 F g-1 and 246.3 F g-1 at 0.3 A g-1 and 3.0 A g-1, respectively), as well as excellent cycling stability (84.6% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles at 1.0 A g-1). The present results show that Sm2O3 is used as a promising modifier to change the morphology and improve electrochemical performances of CuO materials.

  8. Electronic structure of clean and Ag-covered single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CuO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-01-01

    Photoemission studies of single-crystalline samples of Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 show clear resemblance to the corresponding data for single crystals of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . In particular, a sharp Fermi-level cutoff, giving evidence of metallic conductivity at room temperature, as well as single-component O 1s emission and Cu 2p satellites with a strength amounting to about 50% of that of the main Cu 2p line, are observed. An analysis of the relative core-level photoemission intensities shows that the preferential cleavage plane of single-crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 is between adjacent Bi-O layers. Deposition of Ag adatoms causes only weak reaction with the Bi and O ions of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 substrate, while the Cu states rapidly react with the Ag adatoms, as monitored by a continuous reduction of the Cu 2p satellite intensity as the Ag overlayer becomes thicker

  9. Interfacial engineering of CuO nanorod/ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructure photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Baran, Sümeyra Seniha; Asgin, Mansur; Gur, Emre; Kocak, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    Developing efficient and cost-effective photoanode plays a vital role determining the photocurrent and photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we demonstrate DSSCs that achieve relatively high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) by using one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanorods hybrid nanostructures. CuO nanorod-based thin films were prepared by hydrothermal method and used as a blocking layer on top of the ZnO nanowires' layer. The use of 1D ZnO nanowire/CuO nanorod hybrid nanostructures led to an exceptionally high photovoltaic performance of DSSCs with a remarkably high open-circuit voltage (0.764 V), short current density (14.76 mA/cm2 under AM1.5G conditions), and relatively high solar to power conversion efficiency (6.18%) . The enhancement of the solar to power conversion efficiency can be explained in terms of the lag effect of the interfacial recombination dynamics of CuO nanorod-blocking layer on ZnO nanowires. This work shows more economically feasible method to bring down the cost of the nano-hybrid cells and promises for the growth of other important materials to further enhance the solar to power conversion efficiency.

  10. Electrochemical fluorination of La(2)CuO(4): a mild "chimie douce" route to superconducting oxyfluoride materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delville, M H; Barbut, D; Wattiaux, A; Bassat, J M; Ménétrier, M; Labrugère, C; Grenier, J C; Etourneau, J

    2009-08-17

    The fluorination of La(2)CuO(4) was achieved for the first time under normal conditions of pressure and temperature (1 MPa and 298 K) via electrochemical insertion in organic fluorinated electrolytes and led to lanthanum oxyfluorides of general formula La(2)CuO(4)F(x). Analyses showed that, underneath a very thin layer of LaF(3) (a few atomic layers), fluorine is effectively inserted in the material's structure. The fluorination strongly modifies the lanthanum environment, whereas very little modification is observed on copper, suggesting an insertion in the La(2)O(2) blocks of the structure. In all cases, fluorine insertion breaks the translation symmetry and introduces a long-distance disorder, as shown by electron spin resonance. These results highlight the efficiency of electrochemistry as a new "chimie douce" type fluorination technique for solid-state materials. Performed at room temperature, it additionally does not require any specific experimental care. The choice of the electrolytic medium is crucial with regard to the fluorine insertion rate as well as the material deterioration. Successful application of this technique to the well-known La(2)CuO(4) material provides a basis for further syntheses from other oxides.

  11. Structural analysis of CuO / CeO2-based catalytic materials intended for PROX reaction: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiva, L.S.; Simoes, A.N.; Bispo, A.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work relates the synthesis process of CuO/CeO 2 catalytic materials by a combustion reaction method as well as it introduces a structural analysis of the developed material, this structural analysis had as main focus to evaluate the influence of the doping substance (CuO) when being incorporated in the hostess matrix structure that is CeO 2 . The CuO/CeO catalytic materials developed in this work are destined to preferential oxidation of CO reaction (PROX). The developed materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and textural complete analysis by the BET method. According to the results, the CuO incorporation changed crystallinity of the structure of the catalytic materials. On the other hand, the morphologic and textural characteristics did not showed significant differences regarding the presence of the doping substance (CuO) in the structure of the developed materials. The porosity of the structures of the developed catalytic materials belongs to the type macroporous. (author)

  12. Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of ZnO and CuO Nanoparticles Coated Brackets against Streptococcus Mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Baratali; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Yaghoubi, Masoud; Shahtahmassbi, Nasser; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Shakeri, Mohammadtaghi; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-09-01

    During the orthodontic treatment, microbial plaques may accumulate around the brackets and cause caries, especially in high-risk patients. Finding ways to eliminate this microbial plaque seems to be essential. The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of nano copper oxide (CuO) and nano zinc oxide (ZnO) coated brackets against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) in order to decrease the risk of caries around the orthodontic brackets during the treatment. Sixty brackets were coated with nanoparticles of ZnO (n=20), CuO (n=20) and CuO-ZnO (n=20). Twelve uncoated brackets constituted the control group. The brackets were bonded to the crowns of extracted premolars, sterilized and prepared for antimicrobial tests (S.mutans ATCC35668). The samples taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours were cultured on agar plates. Colonies were counted 24 hours after incubation. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. In CuO and CuO-ZnO coated brackets, no colony growth was seen after two hours. Between 0-6 hours, the mean colony counts were not significantly different between the ZnO and the control group (p>0.05). During 6-24 hours, the growth of S.mutans was significantly reduced by ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with the control group (pbrackets have better antimicrobial effect on S.mutans than ZnO coated brackets.

  13. The Effect of CuO Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Effects and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Zandi, Hengameh; Meshkani, Hamidreza; Hosseinzadeh Firouzabadi, Azadeh

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic appliances facilitate microbial plaque accumulation and increase the chance of white spot lesions. There is a need for new plaque control methods independent of patient's cooperation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on antimicrobial properties and bond strength of orthodontic adhesive. CuO nanoparticles were added to the composite transbond XT at concentrations of 0.01, 0.5 and 1 wt.%. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composites containing nanoparticles, the disk agar diffusion test was used. For this purpose, 10 discs from each concentration of nano-composites (totally 30 discs) and 10 discs from conventional composite (as the control group) were prepared. Then the diameter of streptococcus mutans growth inhibition around each disc was determined in blood agar medium. To evaluate the shear bond strength, with each concentration of nano-composites as well as the control group (conventional composite), 10 metal brackets were bonded to the human premolars and shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine. Nano-composites in all three concentrations showed significant antimicrobial effect compared to the control group ( p nano-composites compared to control group ( p = 0.695). Incorporating CuO nanoparticles into adhesive in all three studied concentrations added antimicrobial effects to the adhesive with no adverse effects on shear bond strength.

  14. Superconductivity drives magnetism in δ -doped La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, A.; Logvenov, G.; Boris, A. V.; Baiutti, F.; Wrobel, F.; Howald, L.; Stilp, E.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Keimer, B.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the interplay between different orders in a solid is a key challenge in highly correlated electronic systems. In real systems this is even more difficult since disorder can have strong influence on the subtle balance between these orders and thus can obscure the interpretation of the observed physical properties. Here we present a study on δ -doped La2CuO4 (δ -LCON ) superlattices. By means of molecular beam epitaxy whole LaO2 layers were periodically replaced by SrO2 layers, providing a charge reservoir yet reducing the level of disorder typically present in doped cuprates to an absolute minimum. The induced superconductivity and its interplay with the antiferromagnetic order is studied by means of low-energy muon spin rotation. We find a quasi-two-dimensional superconducting state which couples to the antiferromagnetic order in a nontrivial way. Below the superconducting transition temperature, the magnetic volume fraction increases strongly. The reason could be a charge redistribution of the free carriers due to the opening of the superconducting gap which is possible due to the close proximity and low disorder between the different ordered regions.

  15. Performance enhancement studies in a thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater with CuO nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasaien Anin Vincely

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on a thermosyphon type flat plate collector, inclined at 45°, for water heating application. Water and water based nanofluids were used as absorber fluid to gain heat from solar rays incident on the flat plate col-lector. Nanofluids were prepared by adding CuO nanoparticles of 40-50 nm size to the base fluid at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt% (ζ. The hot absorber fluid was made to circulate in the shell side of a heat exchanger, placed at the top of the flat plate collector, where utility water was circulated inside a helically coiled Cu tube. Temperatures at strategic locations in the flat plate collector, working fluid, utility water inlet and outlet were measured. The nanofluid increases the collector efficiency with increasing ζ. A highest efficiency enhancement of 5.7% was observed for the nanofluid with ζ = 0.2 having a mass flow rate of 0.0033 kg/s. The 3-D, steady-state, conjugate heat transfer CFD analyses were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 software. Theoretically estimated buoyancy induced fluid flow rates were close with the CFD predictions and thus validates the computational methodology.

  16. Internal fields on Gd3+ ions diluted in Eu2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysler, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The EPR spectrum of dilute Gd 3+ ions substituting for Eu 3+ in Eu 2 CuO 4 at 9 GHz and 35 GHz in the temperature range of room temperature down 1.5K have been measured. Each one of the resonance lines shows a splitting into two or more weaker lines below T N ∼ 215K. The simultaneous appearance of a low field microwave absorption signal is attributed to the onset of long range antiferromagnetic ordering with a weak ferromagnetic component. The splitting of the EPR spectrum is associated with different Gd sites in the magnetically ordered structure. A reduction of the local symmetry of the rare earth sites below T N is described in terms of an internal magnetic field lying in the ab-plane. Dipolar and exchange contributions to the internal field are discussed. A strong dependence of the GdEPR spectrum and the microwave absorption on the magnetic history of the samples has been observed, suggesting the formation of magnetic domains or a glassy state. (Author) [es

  17. Synthesis of high-temperature superconducting oxides and chemical alloying in Cu-O planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Barboux, P.; Bagley, B.G.; Green, L.H.; Mckinnon, W.R.; Hull, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Some methods for synthesis permitting to fabricate dense superconducting ceramics are considered. The Zole-Hell method is the most perspective one among them. Effect of oxygen content in a sample and copper substitution for nickel and zinc on structural, transition and superconducting properties of samples of the La-Sr-Cu-O(1) and Y-Ba-Cu-O(2) systems is studied. Copper substitution is established to suppress superconductivity in system 1 and to decrease T c in system 2, and this effect doesn't depend on the fact whether the substituting 3d-metal is magnetic (nickel) or diamagnetic (zinc). Detailed study of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y properties as a function of oxygen content has shown that superconductivty in this composition can be suppressed as a result of oxygen removal and it can be reduced with its interoduction. The possibility to prepare nonalloyed La 2 CuO 4 in superconducting state as a result of plasma treatment comprises a scientific interest. 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  18. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu 2 O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu + species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  19. Fabrication of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, S.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guilan, University Campus 2, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabnezhad, Sh., E-mail: sohrabnezhad@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafourian, S. [Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and a CuO shell. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu{sup 2+} ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  20. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Düzenli, Derya [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Mineral Analysis and Technology, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Onal, Isik, E-mail: ional@metu.edu.tr [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu{sub 2}O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu{sup +} species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.