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Sample records for fe-mn alloy specimens

  1. Mechanical alloying of Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The ball milling of Fe-24Mn and Fe-24Mn-6Si mixed powders has been performed by the high energy ball milling technique.By employing X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer measurements.The ccmposition evolution during the milling process has been investigated.The results indicate the formation of paramagnetic Fe-Mn or Fe-Mn-Si alloys with a metastable fcc phase as final products.which imply that the Fe and Mn proceed a co-diffusion meenanism through the surface of fragmented powders.The thermal stability and composition evolution of the as-milled alloys were discussed comparing with the bulk alloy,.

  2. Creep Behaviour of Fe-Mn Binary Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. Sahin; N. Ucar

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tensile creep behaviour of fine-grained Fe-Mn binary alloys containing 0.42-1.21 wt. % Mn has been investigated in the temperature range from room temperature to 475K under 10-50 Mpa. Tensile tests are carried out with a constant cross-head speed under uniaxial load at a strain rate 10-4s-1. Stress exponent and activation energy are determined to clarify deformation mechanism. The obtained variation of steady state creep rate with respect to the applied stress for Fe-Mn binary alloys exhibits two distinct regimes at about 20 Mpa, indicating a possible change in creep mechanism. The average stress exponent is approximately 2.2, which is a characteristic of grain boundary sliding in the alloys. The activation energy for plastic flow varies from 135 to 92kJ/mol, depending on the Mn content.

  3. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  4. Precipitation hardening of biodegradable Fe-Mn-Pd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszner, F. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Sologubenko, A.S. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinhammer, M. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lerchbacher, C. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Early Stages of Precipitation, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Haenzi, A.C. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Leitner, H. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Early Stages of Precipitation, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Uggowitzer, P.J. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Loeffler, J.F., E-mail: joerg.loeffler@mat.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This work presents a phenomenological description of the precipitation controlled hardening of a new biodegradable Fe-based alloy developed to fulfill the requirements of temporary implant applications. Pronounced strengthening of the solution-treated martensitic Fe-10Mn-1Pd (in wt.%) alloy upon isothermal aging at temperatures within the ferrite-austenite phase field is observed and attributed to the thermally activated formation of coherent plate-like Pd-rich precipitates on {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} planes of the matrix. The onset and the early stages of alloy decomposition were studied using two complementary techniques: transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis. Three distinct regions of the hardening kinetics are recognized and closely correlated to the evolution of the alloy microstructure. Upon aging, clustering of Pd atoms within the Fe-Mn solid solution occurs. The very small clusters grow, coarsen and adopt a plate-like shape, rearranging mutually to reduce the overall elastic strain energy. The elastic interaction of the dislocation substructure with Pd-rich precipitates of evolving morphology affects the dislocation mobility and is responsible for the hardness evolution of the alloy. A study of the hardening kinetics shows that the process exhibits all the features characteristic of maraging steels.

  5. Binder-jetting 3D printing and alloy development of new biodegradable Fe-Mn-Ca/Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Daeho; Chou, Da-Tren; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun; Swink, Isaac; Issaev, Ilona; Kuhn, Howard A; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-11-01

    3D printing of various biomaterials including titanium and stainless steel has been studied for treating patients with cranio-maxillofacial bone defect. The potential long term complications with use of inert biometals have opened the opportunities for use of biodegradable metals in the clinical arena. The authors previously reported that binder-jet 3D printing technique enhanced the degradation rates of biodegradable Fe-Mn alloy by creating engineered micropores rendering the system attractive as biodegradable implantable devices. In the present study, the authors employed CALPHAD modeling to systematically study and modify the Fe-Mn alloy composition to achieve enhanced degradation rates. Accordingly, Ca and Mg addition to Fe-35wt% Mn solid solution predicted increase in degradation rates. In order to validate the CALPHAD results, Fe - (35-y)wt% Mn - ywt% X (X=Ca, Mg, and y=0, 1, 2) were synthesized by using high energy mechanical alloying (HEMA). Sintered pellets of Fe-Mn-Ca and Fe-Mn-Mg were then subjected to potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and live/dead cell viability tests. Sintered pellets of Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Ca, and Fe-Mn-Mg also exhibited MC3T3 murine pre-osteoblast cells viability in the live/dead assay results. Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-1Ca were thus accordingly selected for 3D printing and the results further confirmed enhanced degradation of Ca addition to 3D printed constructs validating the theoretical and alloy development studies. Live/dead and MTT cell viability results also confirmed good cytocompatibility of the 3D-printed Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-1Ca constructs. Bone grafting is widely used for the treatment of cranio-maxillofacial bone injuries. 3D printing of biodegradable Fe alloy is anticipated to be advantageous over current bone grafting techniques. 3D printing offers the fabrication of precise and tailored bone grafts to fit the patient specific bone defect needs. Biodegradable Fe alloy is a good candidate for 3D printing synthetic grafts to regenerate bone

  6. Deep Drawing Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Wung; Moon, Jongun; Jang, Min Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Yim, Dami; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2017-07-01

    Herein, the deep drawability and deep drawing behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA and its microstructure and texture evolution are first studied for future applications. The CoCrFeMnNi HEA is successfully drawn to a limit drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.14, while the planar anisotropy of the drawn cup specimen is negligible. The moderate combination of strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity and the formation of deformation twins in the edge region play important roles in successful deep drawing. In the meanwhile, the texture evolution of CoCrFeMnNi HEA has similarities with conventional fcc metals.

  7. Research on residual stress inside Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy coating by laser cladding processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Heng; Lin, Cheng-xin; Zhang, Jia-qi; Liu, Zhi-jie

    2016-09-01

    The stainless Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy (SMA) coating was prepared on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel. The principal residual stress measured by the mechanical hole-drilling method indicates that the Fe-Mn-Si SMA cladding specimen possesses a lower residual stress compared with the 304 stainless steel cladding specimen. The mean stress values of the former and the latter on 10-mm-thick substrate are 4.751 MPa and 7.399 MPa, respectively. What's more, their deformation values on 2-mm-thick substrate are about 0° and 15°, respectively. Meanwhile, the variation trend and the value of the residual stress simulated by the ANSYS finite element software consist with experimental results. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows ɛ-martensite exists in Fe-Mn-Si SMA coating, which verifies the mechanism of low residual stress. That's the γ→ɛ martensite phase transformation, which relaxes the residual stress of the specimen and reduces its deformation in the laser cladding processing.

  8. Microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and cytotoxicity characterization of the hot forged FeMn30(wt.%) alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    An interest in biodegradable metallic materials has been increasing in the last two decades. Besides magnesium based materials, iron-manganese alloys have been considered as possible candidates for fabrication of biodegradable stents and orthopedic implants. In this study, we prepared a hot forged FeMn30 (wt.%) alloy and investigated its microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics as well as cytotoxicity towards mouse L 929 fibroblasts. The obtained results were compared with those of iron. The FeMn30 alloy was composed of antiferromagnetic γ-austenite and ε-martensite phases and possessed better mechanical properties than iron and even that of 316 L steel. The potentiodynamic measurements in simulated body fluids showed that alloying with manganese lowered the free corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate, compared to iron. On the other hand, the corrosion rate of FeMn30 obtained by a semi-static immersion test was significantly lower than that of iron, most likely due to a higher degree of alkalization in sample surrounding. The presence of manganese in the alloy slightly enhanced toxicity towards the L 929 cells; however, the toxicity did not exceed the allowed limit and FeMn30 alloy fulfilled the requirements of the ISO 10993-5 standard.

  9. Transformation reversibility in Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzaki, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.; Natsume, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.; Maki, T. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    1995-12-01

    The change of the surface relief associated with stress-induced epsilon martensite before and after the reverse transformation in an Fe-33%Mn-6%Si alloy (Ms=264K) has been investigated. The permanent strain of a 2.7% tensile-strained specimen was 1.1% after the reverse transformation. In this specimen, a large part of surface relief still remained after heating to 623K (above Af). When five training cycles of 2.5% straining at room temperature and heating at 623K were applied, the permanent strain became negligible and the surface relief vanished well. TEM observations showed that usual permament slip deformation hardly occurred in the interior of an austenite grain in a 3.8% tensile-strained specimen where the permanent strain after the reversion was 2%. These results indicate that the permanent strain in the shape memory behavior is mainly attributed to the lack of transformation reversibility, i.e., the lack of reversible movement of Shockley partial dislocations. The conditions for the reversibility were discussed and the importance of the back stress formed by the forward transformation was pointed out. The effects of traning were also briefly discussed. (orig.).

  10. Reinforcement of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors by using Fe-Mn-Si-Ni shape memory alloy rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, H.; Honma, Y.; Nomura, M.; Nakayama, C.; Koshizuka, N.; Maruyama, T.; Murakami, M.

    Bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors are brittle ceramics and their tensional strengths are very low. Therefore, reinforcement of the bulk superconductor is needed for practical applications. Pre-compression load has been shown to be effective in enforcing the bulk superconductors. Fe-Mn-Si alloys exhibit shape-memory effects and the size change due to the shape recovery is large. Therefore, the Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy rings will function as effective reinforcement material for the bulk superconductors. We prepared Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors with top-seeded melt-growth process and the Ni added Fe-Mn-Si (Fe-Mn-Si-Ni) alloy ring which exhibited better shape memory performances than Ni-free Fe-Mn-Si alloys. The ring was extended by inserting a steel rod and heated to 623K. The amount of shape recovery strain was about 2%. Based on these results, the TSMG-processed bulk YBa- Cu-O superconductor 39.0 mm in diameter was inserted into the Fe-Mn-Si-Ni ring whose inner diameter was 39.3 mm at room temperature. With heating to 623K, the Fe-Mn-Si-Ni ring shrank and firmly encapsulated the bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor. Cracking was not observed in the bulk superconductor. It was interesting to note that the trapped magnetic field of the Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor at 77K was increased from 2,550 G to 3,795 G through Fe-Mn-Si-Ni ring reinforcement. These results clearly show that the reinforcement treatment with Fe-Mn-Si-Ni alloy ring or pre-compression load is effective in improving the field trapping ability in addition to thee improvement of the mechanical properties.

  11. Spin-Glass-Ferromagnetic Multicritical Point in Amorphous Fe-Mn Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, M. B.; Rao, K. V.; Chen, H. S.

    1980-03-01

    The ac susceptibility of a sequence of amorphous Fe-Mn alloys shows lines of both spin-glass and ferromagnetic transitions. A detailed scaling-law analysis, treating the common point on the two magnetic phase boundaries as a multicritical point, verifies the scaling hypothesis and yields multicritical, spin-glass, and crossover exponents. The observed behavior compares quite will with position-space renormalization results.

  12. Effects of Aluminum on Hydrogen Solubility and Diffusion in Deformed Fe-Mn Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hüter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss hydrogen diffusion and solubility in aluminum alloyed Fe-Mn alloys. The systems of interest are subjected to tetragonal and isotropic deformations. Based on ab initio modelling, we calculate solution energies and then employ Oriani’s theory which reflects the influence of Al alloying via trap site diffusion. This local equilibrium model is complemented by qualitative considerations of Einstein diffusion. Therefore, we apply the climbing image nudged elastic band method to compute the minimum energy paths and energy barriers for hydrogen diffusion. Both for diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen, we find that the influence of the substitutional Al atom has both local chemical and nonlocal volumetric contributions.

  13. Electrochemical Characterization of a New Biodegradable FeMnSi Alloy Coated with Hydroxyapatite-Zirconia by PLD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Cimpoeşu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable alloys are very attractive biomaterials. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and linear potentiodynamic polarization (LPP techniques were used for the study of the electrochemical behavior of uncoated FeMnSi and coated FeMnSi with hydroxyapatite + zirconia (HA-ZrO2 through pulsed laser deposition (PLD technique. Experiments were carried out using Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS. It has been shown that in HBSS the impedance for uncoated FeMnSi was mainly characterized by one capacitive effect, which related to the alloy charge transfer control. The charge transfer resistance increases for HA-ZrO2-coated FeMnSi alloy. The equivalent circuits simulating the electrochemical behavior of both uncoated and HA-ZrO2-coated FeMnSi alloys in HBSS were proposed. From LPP the corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of the zero current potential (ZCP and corrosion current density (jcorr. The surface morphology of both uncoated and HA-coated FeMnSi alloys in HBSS obtained after LPP was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  14. Ab initio lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe-Mn random alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, T; Music, D; Hallstedt, B; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Vitos, L; Schneider, J M

    2010-07-28

    We have studied the lattice stability of face centred cubic (fcc) versus hexagonal close packed (hcp) Fe-Mn random alloys using ab initio calculations. In the calculations we considered the antiferromagnetic order of local moments, which for fcc alloys models the magnetic configuration of this phase at room temperature (below its Néel temperature) as well as their complete disorder, corresponding to paramagnetic fcc and hcp alloys. For both cases, the results are consistent with our thermodynamic calculations, obtained within the Calphad approach. For the room temperature magnetic configuration, the cross-over of the total energies of the hcp phase and the fcc phase of Fe-Mn alloys is at the expected Mn content, whereas for the magnetic configuration above the fcc Néel temperature, the hcp lattice is more stable within the whole composition range studied. The increase of the total energy difference between hcp and antiferromagnetic fcc due to additions of Mn as well as the stabilizing effect of antiferromagnetic ordering on the fcc phase are well displayed. These results are of relevance for understanding the deformation mechanisms of these random alloys.

  15. Fe-Mn alloys for metallic biodegradable stents: degradation and cell viability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Hendra; Purnama, Agung; Dube, Dominique; Couet, Jacques; Mantovani, Diego

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable stents have shown their potential to be a valid alternative for the treatment of coronary artery occlusion. This new class of stents requires materials having excellent mechanical properties and controllable degradation behaviour without inducing toxicological problems. The properties of the currently considered gold standard material for stents, stainless steel 316L, were approached by new Fe-Mn alloys. The degradation characteristics of these Fe-Mn alloys were investigated including in vitro cell viability. A specific test bench was used to investigate the degradation in flow conditions simulating those of coronary artery. A water-soluble tetrazolium test method was used to study the effect of the alloy's degradation product to the viability of fibroblast cells. These tests have revealed the corrosion mechanism of the alloys. The degradation products consist of metal hydroxides and calcium/phosphorus layers. The alloys have shown low inhibition to fibroblast cells' metabolic activities. It is concluded that they demonstrate their potential to be developed as degradable metallic biomaterials.

  16. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  17. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2017-03-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  18. EFFECT OF Cr AND Al CONTENT ON THE STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN γ-Fe-Mn ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Tian; Y.S.Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Cr and Al content were investigated on the stacking fault energy in austenitic Fe-31Mn-(0-7.26)Cr-0.96C and Fe-31Mn-(0-8.68)Al-0.85C alloys by the thermodynamic analysis. The results show that the additions of chromium or aluminum increase the non-magnetic component of the stacking fault energy in the γ-FeMn alloys, and the effect of aluminum is larger than that of chromium. The change in the magnetic entropy caused in the antiferromagnetic transition increases the free energy difference between the γ and ε phases in the γ-Fe-Mn alloys. The effects of chromium and aluminum on the magnetic component were discussed on the basis of the influence of both upon the antiferromagnetic transition in the γ-Fe-Mn alloys.

  19. Investigations of a nanostructured FeMnSi shape memory alloy produced via severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, Gheorghe; Gurau, Carmela; Sampath, Vedamanickam; Bujoreanu, Leandru Gheorghe

    2016-11-01

    Low-cost iron-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) show great potential for engineering applications. The developments of new processing techniques have recently enabled the production of nanocrystalline materials with improved properties. These developments have opened avenues for newer applications for SMAs. The influence of severe plastic deformation induced by the high-speed high-pressure torsion (HSHPT) process on the microstructural evolution of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr alloy was investigated. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of the alloy revealed the existence of nanoscale grains with an abundance of stacking faults. The high density of dislocations characteristic of severe plastic deformation was not observed in this alloy. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ɛ-martensite with an HCP crystal structure and γ-phase with an FCC structure.

  20. Shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C alloys with low Mn contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, X.H., E-mail: MIN.Xiaohua@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sawaguchi, T.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maruyama, T. [Awaji Materia Co., Ltd. 2-3-13, Kanda ogawamachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0052 (Japan); Yin, F.X. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuzaki, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} A class of new Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C shape memory alloys with low Mn contents has been designed. {yields} A Mn content for the onset of the {alpha}' martensite is less than 13 mass%, and the {epsilon} martensite still exists in the alloy with a 9 mass% Mn. {yields} The shape recovery strain decreases considerably when the Mn content is reduced from 13 to 11 mass%. {yields} The sudden decrease in the shape recovery strain is mainly caused by the formation of {alpha}' martensite. - Abstract: An attempt was made to develop a new Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy from a Fe-17Mn-6Si-0.3C (mass%) shape memory alloy, which was previously reported to show a superior shape memory effect without any costly training treatment, by lowering its Mn content. The shape memory effect and the phase transformation behavior were investigated for the as-solution treated Fe-(17-2x)Mn-6Si-0.3C-xNi (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) polycrystalline alloys. The shape recovery strain exceeded 2% in the alloys with x = 0-2, which is sufficient for an industrially applicable shape memory effect; however, it suddenly decreased in the alloys between x = 2 and 3 although the significant shape recovery strain still exceeded 1%. In the alloys with x = 3 and 4, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscope observation revealed the existence of {alpha}' martensite, which forms at the intersection of the {epsilon} martensite plates and suppresses the crystallographic reversibility of the {gamma} austenite to {epsilon} martensitic transformation.

  1. The electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present study of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe using density functional theory. The compound is half-metallic with half-metallic gap of 0.13 eV. The total magnetic moment of this compound is 3.96 μB which is in close agreement with Slater-Pauling rule. The effect of lattice compression and expansion shows the robustness of half-metallicity. A large value of half-metallic gap and 100% spin-polarization makes this material interesting for spin dependent applications.

  2. High spin polarization in CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainsla, Lakhan [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Magnetic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Suresh, K. G., E-mail: suresh@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Nigam, A. K. [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Manivel Raja, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Hono, K. [Magnetic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    We report the structure, magnetic property, and spin polarization of CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy. The alloy was found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (prototype LiMgPdSn) with considerable amount of DO{sub 3} disorder. Thermal analysis result indicated the Curie temperature is about 750 K without any other phase transformation up to melting temperature. The magnetization value was close to that predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. Current spin polarization of P = 0.70 ± 0.01 was deduced using point contact andreev reflection measurements. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been fitted in the temperature range of 5–300 K in order to check for the half metallic behavior. Considering the high spin polarization and Curie temperature, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  3. Factors Affecting Transformation Temperatures in Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The effects of prestrain and annealing temperature on phase transformation temperatures in Fe14Mn5Si8Cr4Ni shape memory alloy have been studied. The results showed that when the annealing temperature was 673 K, both the Af and the Ms temperatures increased appreciably as the prestrain increased, the As temperature increased slightly with increasing prestrain; the resistivity difference at 303 K between the heating and cooling curve also increased with increasing prestrain, which agreed with the recovery strain. The shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloy is caused by the stress-induced γ → ε martensite transformation and its reverse transformation. When the prestrain was 10%, the Ms temperature decreased remarkably as the annealing temperature increased.

  4. Powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying effects on the formation of thermally induced martensite in an FeMnSiCrNi SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricop Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By ingot metallurgy (IM, melting, alloying and casting, powder metallurgy (PM, using as-blended elemental powders and mechanical alloying (MA of 50 % of particle volume, three types of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA specimens were fabricated, respectively. After specimen thickness reduction by hot rolling, solution treatments were applied, at 973 and 1273 K, to thermally induce martensite. The resulting specimens were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, in order to reveal the presence of ε (hexagonal close-packed, hcp and α’ (body centred cubic, bcc thermally induced martensites. The reversion of thermally induced martensites, to γ (face centred cubic, fcc austenite, during heating, was confirmed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, which emphasized marked increases of storage modulus and obvious internal friction maxima on DMA thermograms. The results proved that the increase of porosity degree, after PM processing, increased internal friction, while MA enhanced crystallinity degree.

  5. Effect of chemical component on shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naichao Si; Zhihong Jia; Longbiao Qi

    2004-01-01

    Effect of chemical component on shape memory effect (SME) of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE shape memory alloys was studied by bent measurement, thermal cycle training, SEM etc. Results of study indicate that the alloys with high Mn content (25%) appeare better SME, especially in lower strain. SME improves evidently when Si is higher content, especially it′s range from 3% up to 4%.But brittleness of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE alloy increases by increasing the Si content. SME of the alloy is weakening gradually as carbon content increases under small strain (3%). But in the condition of large strain (above 6%), SME of the alloy whose carbon content ranges from 0.1% to 0.12% shows small decreasing range, especially of alloy with the addition of compound RE.

  6. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe-21.63Mn-5.60Si-9.32Cr-5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm-253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ɛ martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  7. Landau theory of martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Considering the features of martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys, the Landau theory is established by introducing the density of stacking faults as a new order parameter ηand the corresponding free energy function. By using such an order parameter, the stacking fault mechanism of the nucleation and growth for the γ(fcc)→ε(hcp) martensitic transformation can be reasonably explained, and a further detailed mechanism is proposed. The stacking faults are generated and overlapped in an irregular form at the beginning and then becoming regular to create some transition structures till a stable phase forms at a certain temperature. The importance of the interface soliton is to complete the transformations into various structures of martensite but not the twinned one. The thermodynamics of fcc→hcp transformation and those between different transition structures are described by the free energy function established in the present note.

  8. Spin gapless semiconducting behavior in equiatomic quaternary CoFeMnSi Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Mallick, A. I.; Raja, M. Manivel; Nigam, A. K.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Alam, Aftab; Suresh, K. G.; Hono, K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report the signature of spin gapless semiconductor (SGS) in CoFeMnSi that belongs to the Heusler family. SGS is a new class of magnetic semiconductors which have a band gap for one spin subband and zero band gap for the other, and thus are useful for tunable spin transport based applications. We show various experimental evidences for SGS behavior in CoFeMnSi by carefully carrying out the transport and spin-polarization measurements. SGS behavior is also confirmed by first-principles band-structure calculations. The most stable configuration obtained by the theoretical calculation is verified by experiment. The alloy is found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (LiMgPdSn type) with some amount of disorder and has a saturation magnetization of 3.7 μB/f .u . and Curie temperature of ˜620 K. The saturation magnetization is found to follow the Slater-Pauling behavior, one of the prerequisites for SGS. Nearly-temperature-independent carrier concentration and electrical conductivity are observed from 5 to 300 K. An anomalous Hall coefficient of 162 S/cm is obtained at 5 K. Point contact Andreev reflection data have yielded the current spin-polarization value of 0.64, which is found to be robust against the structural disorder. All these properties strongly suggest SGS nature of the alloy, which is quite promising for the spintronic applications such as spin injection as it can bridge the gap between the contrasting behaviors of half-metallic ferromagnets and semiconductors.

  9. Perspectives on the exploitation of CuZnAl alloys, FeMnSi-based alloys and ZrO{sub 2}-containing shape-memory ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, T.Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (St. Helena). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Cu-Zn-Al alloys possess advantages for exploitation such as low cost, easy fabrication and excellent shape memory effect (SME). The deficiencies of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys, i.e. the appearance of the stabilization of martensite, degradation of SME in prolonged application and the rather low fatigue life, can be overcome by various processing such as immediate up-quenching, alloying addition for retarding the incubation of bainite formation and grain refinement. Fe-Mn-Si based alloys are one-way shape memory material with high strength, high action temperatures, good workability and low cost. Addition of nitrogen or rare earth (RE) elements can considerably strengthen the austenite and lower the Neel temperature in Fe-Mn-Si alloys. Partial replacement of Mn with Cr and addition of RE elements to Fe-Mn-Si may reduce its stacking fault energy. Nitrogen and RE elements also lower the M{sub s} temperature of Fe-Mn-Si and Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, stabilizing the austenite after shape recovery. The newly developed Fe-25Mn-6Si-5Cr-0.14N alloy possesses not only a complete shape memory recovery with a recoverable strain of 3% through only one cycle of training, but also the nice corrosion resistance in aqueous solution of NaOH and NaCl. The SME of Fe-Mn-Si-RE is superior to that of Fe-Mn-Si, e.g. its recoverable strain is about two-fold larger than that of Fe-Mn-Si when the pre-strain {epsilon}>3%. The exploitation of the Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-N and Fe-Mn-Si-RE alloys as coupling materials seems to be foresighted. Studies on (8{proportional_to}12)mol%CeO{sub 2}-(0.25{proportional_to}0.75)mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} with various grain size and density after different sintering processes show that 8mol%CeO{sub 2}-0.5mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} fabricated by sintering at 1773 K for 6 hours exhibits best SME, i.e. a complete shape memory recovery and a recoverable strain of 1.2% at high temperatures (above 773 K). The shape memory ceramics 8Ce-0.5Y-TZP is worthy to be developed. (orig.)

  10. C-Mn segregation and its effect on phase transformation and deformation in Fe-Mn-C alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞富; 吕宇鹏; 魏涛

    1997-01-01

    C-Mn segregation and its effect on phase transformation and plastic deformation in Fe-Mn-C alloys were studied through the calculation of valence electron structure, the microregion composition detection and TEM in-situ dynamic tensile deformation test The experimental results show that in Fe-8Mn-1.2C alloyed austenite, nA of units with C Mn involved is 3 98 times that of units without C involved and 1.4 times that of units with C involved; aCD of units with C-Mn involved is 2 21 times that of units with C involved. In Fe-Mn-C alloyed austenites, there exists microsegrcgation of C-Mn, forming the randomly distributed Fe-Mn-C atomic cluster segregation zone linked with the -C-Mn-C-Mn- strong bond network, which will effectively slow down the motion of atoms and retard the initiation of the slip system and the movement of dislocation, and thus will severely influence the phase transformation and deformation of the alloy

  11. Effect of Si on the reversibility of stress-induced martensite in Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, N. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Dunne, D.P., E-mail: druce_dunne@uow.edu.au [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Fe-Mn-Si is a well-characterized ternary shape memory alloy. Research on this alloy has consistently shown that the addition of 5-6 wt.% Si is desirable to enhance the reversibility of stress-induced martensite vis-a-vis shape memory. This paper examines the effect of Si on the morphology and the crystallography of the martensite in the Fe-Mn-Si system. It is concluded that the addition of Si increases the c/a ratio of the martensite, reduces the transformation volume change and decreases the atomic spacing difference between the parallel close-packed directions in the austenite-martensite interface (habit) plane. It is proposed that, in addition to austenite strengthening, Si enhances reversibility by reducing the volume change and the interfacial atomic mismatch between the martensite and the austenite. Although shape memory is improved, transformation reversibility remains limited by the necessary misfit dislocations that accommodate the atomic spacing differences in the interface.

  12. Evidence of ferrimagnetic ordering in FeMnO{sub 3} produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifu, D. E-mail: dseifu@morgan.edu; Kebede, A.; Oliver, F.W.; Hoffman, E.; Hammond, E.; Wynter, C.; Aning, A.; Takacs, L.; Siu, I.-L.; Walker, J.C.; Tessema, G.; Seehra, M.S

    2000-03-01

    Mechanical alloying of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} is shown to produce FeMnO{sub 3}, whose X-ray diffraction pattern fits the cubic structure (space group Ia3, lattice constant {approx}9.40 A) identical to that of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Temperature variation of its magnetic susceptibility {chi} shows a phase transition near T{sub c}{approx}40 K and the {chi}{sup -1} versus T data for T>T{sub c} fit the variation expected for a ferrimagnet with a magnetic moment of 2.8 {mu}{sub B} per formula unit. The Moessbauer spectrum for T>T{sub c} is a doublet with quadrupole splitting {approx}1 mm/s and isomer shift {approx}0.4 mm/s, changing to a sextet for T

  13. Microstructural evolution of a CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy after swaging and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplanche, G., E-mail: guillaume.laplanche@rub.de; Horst, O.; Otto, F.; Eggeler, G.; George, E.P.

    2015-10-25

    The processing parameters which govern the evolution of microstructure and texture during rotary swaging and subsequent heat treatments were studied in an equiatomic single-phase CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy. After vacuum induction melting and casting, the diameter of the 40 mm cast ingot was reduced at room temperature to a final diameter of 16.5 mm by rotary swaging (diameter reduction of 60%/area reduction of 80%) and the alloy was then annealed at different temperatures for 1 h. The resulting microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and correlated with results of microhardness measurements. It was found that the microhardness first increases slightly upon annealing below the recrystallization temperature but then drops steeply at higher annealing temperatures due to the onset of recrystallization. Special emphasis was placed on how the microstructure evolves with respect to the radial and longitudinal position in the rod. Finally, a combination of swaging and heat treatment parameters were identified that can produce CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys with a homogeneous composition and grain size and almost no texture. - Highlights: • Evolution of microstructure and texture in CoCrFeMnNi after swaging and annealing. • Rotary swaging results in major <111> + minor <100>-fiber textures. • Recrystallization (RX) in the deformed microstructure is heterogeneous. • Complete RX resulted in homogenous grain size distributions with no texture. • The low SFE is likely the reason for the homogeneous microstructure after.

  14. Quantification of site disorder and its role on spin polarization in the nearly half-metallic Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, M. D.; Roy, Syamashree; Meena, S. S.; Bhatt, Pramod; Yusuf, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The electronic structure and magnetism of the quaternary Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn are studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method. The calculation for the perfectly LiMgPdSn-type ordered crystal structure (type I) of NiFeMnSn shows a high spin polarization (˜76 %) with a ferromagnetic ground state. The total spin magnetic moment is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. The structural investigations using neutron diffraction at 500 K, and Mössbauer spectroscopy at 300 K on the NiFeMnSn alloy, prepared using an arc melting, show the presence of atomic site disorder. The electronic structure calculation for the disordered structure shows that the site disorder destroys the nearly half-metallic nature of this alloy. The magnetization measurements indicate that the Curie temperature is well above room temperature (˜405 K) as desired for the spintronics application.

  15. Critical driving force for martensitic transformation fcc (γ)→hcp(ε) in Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金学军; 徐祖耀; 李麟

    1999-01-01

    By the application of Chou’s new geometry model and the available data from binary Fe-Mn, Fe-Si and Mn-Si systems, as well as SGTE DATA for lattice stability parameters of three elements from Dinsdale, the Gibbs free energy as a function of temperature of the fcc(γ) and hep(ε) phases in the Fe-Mn-Si system is reevaluated. The relationship between the Neel temperature of the γ phase and concentration of constituents in mole fraction, is fitted and verified by the experimental results. The critical driving force for the martensitic transformation fcc (γ)→ hep (ε), △ GCγ→ε, defined as the free energy difference between γ and ε phases at Ms of various alloys can also be obtained with a known Ms. It is found that the driving force varies with the composition of alloys, e. g. △ GCγ→ε = - 100.99 J/mol in Fe-27.0Mn-6.0Si and △ GCγ→ε = - 122.11 J/mol in Fe-26.9Mn-3.37Si. The compositional dependence of critical driving force accorded with the expression formulated by Hsu of the

  16. Elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys studied by the combinatorial thin film approach and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, S; Kasprzak, M; Klusmann, C D; Stalf, F; Music, D; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Schneider, J M

    2013-06-19

    The elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys with additions of up to 8 at.% X were studied by combinatorial thin film growth and characterization and by ab initio calculations using the disordered local moments (DLM) approach. The lattice parameter and Young's modulus values change only marginally with X. The calculations and experiments are in good agreement. We demonstrate that the elastic properties of transition metal alloyed Fe-Mn can be predicted by the DLM model.

  17. Effect of V content on microstructure and mechanical properties of the CoCrFeMnNiV{sub x} high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, N.D., E-mail: stepanov@bsu.edu.ru [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Shaysultanov, D.G.; Salishchev, G.A. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Tikhonovsky, M.A.; Oleynik, E.E.; Tortika, A.S. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology” NAS of Ukraine, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Senkov, O.N. [UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd., Dayton, OH 45432 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Structure and mechanical properties of CoCrFeMnNiV{sub x} alloys reported. • Formation of intermetallic sigma phase due to V addition. • Volume fraction of sigma phase is proportional to cumulative Cr and V concentration. • Strengthening and loss of ductility due to increase in sigma phase volume fraction. - Abstract: Crystal structure, microstructure, microhardness and compression properties of CoCrFeMnNiV{sub x} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) high entropy alloys were examined. The alloys were produced by vacuum arc melting and studied in as-solidified and homogenized (annealing at 1000 °C for 24 h) conditions. The CoCrFeMnNi alloy was a single-phase fcc solid solution in both conditions. The CoCrFeMnNiV{sub 0.25} alloy had a single-phase fcc structure in as-solidified condition, but ∼2 vol.% fine particles of a sigma phase precipitated after annealing. The alloys with x = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 contained the sigma phase already in as-solidified condition. The sigma-phase volume fraction increased with an increase in the V content, and in CoCrFeMnNiV the sigma phase became the matrix phase. After homogenization treatment, the volume fraction of the sigma phase increased in all three alloys by ∼8% due to additional precipitation of fine particles inside the fcc phase. Phase composition and microstructure of the alloys was analyzed employing criteria for solid solution/intermetallic phase formation. The effect of alloys’ chemical composition on the volume fraction of constitutive phases was discussed. A modified valence electron concentration (VEC) criterion, which takes into account localized lattice distortions around V atoms, was suggested to correctly predict sigma phase formation in the CoCrFeNiMnV{sub x} alloys. It was demonstrated that the volume fraction of sigma phase was proportional to the cumulative Cr and V concentration. Mechanical properties of the alloys were greatly affected by the sigma phase. The CoCrFeMnNi and CoCrFeMn

  18. Role of Si in Improving the Shape Recovery of FeMnSiCrNi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Gouthama; Ray, R. K.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of Si addition on the microstructure and shape recovery of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloys has been studied. The microstructural observations revealed that in these alloys the microstructure remains single-phase austenite ( γ) up to 6 pct Si and, beyond that, becomes two-phase γ + δ ferrite. The Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase starts appearing in the microstructure after 7 pct Si and makes these alloys brittle. Silicon addition does not affect the transformation temperature and mechanical properties of the γ phase until 6 pct, though the amount of shape recovery is observed to increase monotonically. Alloys having more than 6 pct Si show poor recovery due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The shape memory effect (SME) in these alloys is essentially due to the γ to stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation, and the extent of recovery is proportional to the amount of stress-induced ɛ martensite. Alloys containing less than 4 pct and more than 6 pct Si exhibit poor recovery due to the formation of stress-induced α' martensite through γ- ɛ- α' transformation and the large volume fraction of δ-ferrite, respectively. Silicon addition decreases the stacking fault energy (SFE) and the shear modulus of these alloys and results in easy nucleation of stress-induced ɛ martensite; consequently, the amount of shape recovery is enhanced. The amount of athermal ɛ martensite formed during cooling is also observed to decrease with the increase in Si.

  19. Experimental Investigation and Computer Simulation of Diffusion in Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo Alloys with Different Optimization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weisen; Ågren, John; Lu, Xiao-Gang; He, Yanlin; Li, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to simulate the diffusional phase transformations involving the fcc and bcc phases for microalloyed steels, the diffusion mobilities for fcc and bcc Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo alloys were experimentally investigated and critically assessed. The diffusion-couple technique was employed to extract the interdiffusion coefficients in Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo alloys with the Sauer-Freise and Whittle-Green methods. Based on the present experimental interdiffsivities, the mobility parameters for the fcc and bcc phases in the Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo systems were optimized using the traditional method. Simultaneously, a direct method was developed and utilized to directly fit mobilities to the diffusion profiles rather than the diffusivities in the present work. The satisfactory description of the diffusion behavior in the Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo systems has confirmed the reliability of the direct method. Particularly, the two sets of diffusion mobilities obtained with both methods could simulate the diffusion phenomenon between the fcc and bcc phases in the Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo systems successfully.

  20. Phase stability, band gap, and electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z = Al, Ga, In)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. C.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X. T.

    2015-03-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the phase stability, band gap, and electronic structures and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z = Al, Ga, In). We found that FeMnScZ (Z = Al, Ga, In) alloys are half-metallic ferrimagnets at their equilibrium lattice constants and retain a high spin polarization over a quite wide range of lattice distortions. The half-metallic band gap in the FeMnScZ (Z = Al, Ga, In) alloys arises from t 1u- t 2g splitting but not e u- t 1u splitting. The total magnetic moments are 3 µB per unit cell for FeMnScZ (Z = Al, Ga, In) alloys, following the Slater-Pauling rule with the total number of valence electrons minus 18 rather than 24. Moreover, all of these alloys have a negative formation energy, which implies that they can be synthesized experimentally.

  1. Effect of grain size on superelasticity in Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Omori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of grain size on superelastic properties in Fe-34Mn-15Al-7.5Ni alloy wires with a ⟨110⟩ fiber-texture were investigated by cyclic tensile tests. It was confirmed that the critical stress for induced martensitic transformation and the superelastic strain are functions of relative grain size d/D (d: mean grain diameter, D: wire diameter, and that the critical stress is proportional to (1–d/D2 as well as in Cu-based shape memory alloys. A large superelastic strain of about 5% was obtained in the specimen with a large relative grain size over d/D = 1.

  2. INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING ON SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT OF Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.C. Si; Z.H. Jia; L.B. Qi

    2003-01-01

    Effect of carbon, compound RE, quenching temperature, pre-strain and recovery temperature on shape memory effect (SME) of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE shape memory alloy was studied by bent measurement, thermal cycle training, SEM etc. It was shown that the grains of alloys addition with .compound RE became finer and SME increased evidently. SME of the alloy was weakening gradually as carbon content increased under small strain (3%o). But in the condition of large strain (more than 6%), SME of the alloy whose carbon content range from 0.1% to 0.12% showed small decreasing range, especially of alloy with the addition of compound RE. Results were also indicated that SME was improved by increasing quenching temperature (>1000℃). The amount of thermal induced martensite increased and the relative shape recovery ratio could be increased to more than 40% after 3-4 times thermal training. The relative shape recovery ratio decreased evidently depending on rising of pre-strain. Furthermore, because speed of martensite transition was extremely great under higher tempering temperature (more than 450℃), ε→γtransition completed in 1os meanwhile the relative shape recovery ratio of the alloy increased rapidly.

  3. Heavy Metals and Radioactive Characterization of the Main Materials Involved in the HC-FeMn Alloy Production Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, H. [Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Bakr, H.; Elnimr, T. [Tanta University (Egypt); Sharshar, T. [Kafrelsheikh University (Egypt)

    2014-07-01

    Natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are always present in association with a variety of elements in the geological formations. The extraction of non-radioactive minerals from the mineral matrices may lead to the buildup of NORM in wastes and/or end product with different concentrations of uranium and thorium daughters, depending on extraction procedures, initial concentrations and chemical forms of the NORM in the mineral matrices. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used for the quantitative assessment of radionuclides and the associated radiation hazards at the high carbon Ferromanganese alloy (HC-FeMn) production plant in Abu Zenima (West Sinai, Egypt). The low grad Mn from Um Bogma is mixed with Norwegian Mn to improve its quality. While the Egyptian raw Mn is richer in {sup 238}U, Cu and Zn, the Norwegian raw Mn is richer in {sup 40}K and Mn. The mixing process leads to increasing concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and Zn. Enhanced concentrations of Mn, Cu and Zn were also found in the waste. The radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in different raw materials used in the alloy formation process, HC-FeMn alloy, waste and other mining products produced by the same company are also determined. The estimated range of the total activities of wastes produced annually by the extraction process are 8.7-17.3, 0.7-1.3 and 6.7-13.4 GBq for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The calculated absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent in waste dumps with these increased fractions of NORM are 225 nGy/h and 276 mSv, respectively. This investigation does not recommend the use of the waste in housing construction or as filling materials in the area where houses may be built on or near the tailing piles. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. The enthalpy change of the hcp {yields} fcc martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn-Co alloys: composition dependence and thermal cycling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, P.; Fernandez Guillermet, A.; Sade, M

    2004-05-25

    Extending a recent calorimetric study of the Fe-Mn system the enthalpy change associated with the fcc{yields}hcp martensitic transformation in the Fe-Mn-Co system has been determined in alloys with 13{<=}at.% Mn{<=}30 and up to 9 at.% Co. The heat effect has been measured by differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the fraction of material that transformed martensitically was determined by combining a dilatometric technique with the known molar volume versus composition relations. A detailed description of the various experimental and data processing procedures is reported. The enthalpy change is discussed as a function of composition and of the number of thermal cycles of transformation and retransformation. The picture of the energetics of the fcc{yields}hcp martensitic transformation emerging from the present study should be useful in future attempts to model the thermodynamics and phase stability relations in the Fe-Mn-Co system.

  5. In Situ Observation of Austenite Growth During Continuous Heating in Very-Low-Carbon Fe-Mn and Ni Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, M.; Wan, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    The growth of austenite during continuous heating was observed in situ under a confocal scanning laser microscope in Fe-Mn and Ni alloys containing less than 0.01 mass pct C. The advancements of the α/γ boundary were measured in the temperature range of ca. 40 K, which encompassed the Ae3 line of the alloys. Below Ae3, the growth rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted from the carbon diffusion-controlled negligible partition local equilibrium in the (α + γ) two-phase region, whereas those observed near and above the Ae3 were ca. two orders of magnitude greater. The α/γ boundary mobilities evaluated therefrom were somewhat smaller than those obtained previously in massive ferrite transformation during continuous cooling in the same alloys, albeit the experimental scatter was large and fell near the mobilities proposed in the literature. The α/γ boundary migrated probably with a carbon diffusion spike ahead of the boundary and the solute drag of the carbon or alloy element is unlikely to be operative during the growth of austenite.

  6. Magnetic properties across intergranular regions of disordered FeMnAl alloys: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, E.A. [Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia) and Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: jomazo@fisica.udea.edu.co; Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2007-09-01

    By using the variational principle for the Gibbs free energy, based on the Bogoliubov inequality, the magnetic properties of disordered systems with competing interactions are studied. In our model, we implement periodic boundary conditions stressing on how the number of first nearest neighbors can modify the magnetism. Concerning the competing interactions, we have considered those values corresponding to the ternary system FeMnAl. This system exhibits magnetic phases, like the spin-glass behavior, arising from atomic disorder, bond competition and the dilutor effect of aluminum atoms. In this work we compute the magnetization per site and the magnetic susceptibility, as a function of temperature, for different values of the coordination number. Results reveal an increase of the Curie temperature with the number of first nearest neighbors, as well as the existence of a minimum critical coordination number below which the system becomes paramagnetic.

  7. Interaction between solute atoms and radiation defects in Fe-Ni-Si and Fe-Mn-Si alloys under irradiation with proton ions at low-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Abe, Hiroaki; Sekimura, Naoto

    2016-12-01

    Isochronal annealing followed by residual resistivity measurements at 12 K was performed in Fe-0.6Ni-0.6Si and Fe-1.5Mn-0.6Si alloys irradiated with 1 MeV proton ions below 70 K, and recovery stages were compared with those of Fe-0.6Ni and Fe-1.5Mn. The effects of silicon addition in the Fe-Ni alloy was observed as the appearance of a new recovery stage at 282-372 K, presumably corresponding to clustering of solute atoms in matrix, and as a change in mixed dumbbell migration at 122-142 K. Silicon addition mitigated the manganese effect in Fe-Mn alloy that is obstructing the recovery of radiation defects. Reduction of resistivity in Fe-Mn-Si alloy also suggested formation of small solute atom clusters.

  8. Thermodynamic prediction of M_s in Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys associated with fcc(γ)→hcp(ε) martensitic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骥华; 金学军; 徐祖耀

    1999-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction profile analysis of three different composition Fe-Mn-Si alloys, the relationship between stacking fault probability Psf with the concentrations of constituents in alloys, 1/Psf=540.05+23.70×Mn wt%-138.74×Si wt%, was determined. According to the nucleation mechanism by stacking fault in this alloy,the equation between critical driving force ΔGc and Psf, ΔGc=67.487+0.1775/Psf(J/mol), was made. Therefore,the relationship between critical driving force and compositions was established. Associated with the thermodynamic calculation, the Ms of fcc(γ)→hcp(ε) martensitic transformation in any suitable composition Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys can be predicted and results seem reasonable as compared with some experimental data.

  9. A novel training-free cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloy based on formation of martensite in a domain-specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yuhua; Peng, Huabei; Wang, Chaoping; Yu, Qinxu; Li, Ning [College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2011-02-15

    The proposed key to producing a good shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys is to reduce or even prevent the collisions between martensite bands. A method for realizing this is to make stress-induced martensite bands form in a domain-specific manner. We developed a novel training-free cast Fe-18Mn-5.5Si-9.5Cr-4Ni alloy with residual lathy delta ferrite based on this idea. The recovery strain reached 6.4% only after annealing the cast Fe-18Mn-5.5Si-9.5Cr-4Ni alloy. Microstructure observations indicated that the lathy delta ferrite made the stress-induced martensite form in a domain-specific manner by first subdividing grains into smaller domains. We hypothesize that through adjusting alloy compositions, solidification parameters, and heat treatment technique, the shape recovery of cast Fe-Mn-Si alloys can be further improved. Such a finding will provide a novel method for developing training-free Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of CoCrFeMnNbNi High-Entropy Alloy Coating by TIG Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yi Huo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloy cladding coatings are widely prepared on the surface of tools and machines. High-entropy alloys are potential replacements of nickel-, iron-, and cobalt-base alloys in machining due to their excellent strength and toughness. In this work, CoCrFeMnNbNi HEA coating was produced on AISI 304 steel by tungsten inert gas cladding. The microstructure and wear behavior of the cladding coating were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, microhardness tester, pin-on-ring wear tester, and 3D confocal laser scanning microscope. The microstructure showed up as a nanoscale lamellar structure matrix which is a face-centered-cubic solid solution and niobium-rich Laves phase. The microhardness of the cladding coating is greater than the structure. The cladding coating has excellent wear resistance under the condition of dry sliding wear, and the microploughing in the worn cladding coating is shallower and finer than the worn structure, which is related to composition changes caused by forming the nanoscale lamellar structure of Laves phase.

  11. Effect of one-step recrystallization on the grain boundary evolution of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy and its subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Ru; Yeh, An-Chou; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2016-02-29

    In this study, the grain boundary evolution of equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi, CoCrFeNi, and FeCoNi alloys after one-step recrystallization were investigated. The special boundary fraction and twin density of these alloys were evaluated by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Among the three alloys tested, FeCoNi exhibited the highest special boundary fraction and twin density after one-step recrystallization. The special boundary increment after one-step recrystallization was mainly affected by grain boundary velocity, while twin density was mainly affected by average grain boundary energy and twin boundary energy.

  12. Finite size effects and spin transition in ball-milled γ-(FeMn) 30Cu 70 nanostructured alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, J.; Greneche, J. M.; González, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Fe 15Mn 15Cu 70 alloys were prepared by high-energy ball milling over a wide range of grinding times from 15 min to 72 h. The corresponding magnetic properties were followed by means of vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy. By using a Rietveld structural analysis of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data, lattice parameter and grain size correlations with magnetization and coercive force were carried out. Results revealed a strong microstructural dependence of the magnetic properties with the grain size, resembling a finite size-driven magnetic transition at a critical crystallite value of around 8.5 nm. This behavior is endorsed by a partial low- to high-spin transition according to isomer shift results, at a critical unit-cell volume of around 50 Å 3 at 77 K attributed to strong local variations of the interatomic spacing as a consequence of the employed ball-milling procedure. Finally, as concerns to temperature behavior, samples exhibited a freezing temperature at around 61 K and a wide distribution of relaxation times ascribed to the presence of interacting CuMn and FeMnCu clusters.

  13. Investigations of a nanostructured FeMnSi shape memory alloy produced via severe plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gheorghe Gurau; Carmela Gurau; Vedamanickam Sampath; Leandru Gheorghe Bujoreanu

    2016-01-01

    Low-costiron-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) show great potential for engineering applications. The developments of new processing techniques have recently enabled the production of nanocrystalline materials with improved properties. These developments have opened avenues for newer applications for SMAs. The influence of severe plastic deformation induced by the high-speed high-pressure tor-sion (HSHPT) process on the microstructural evolution of an Fe–Mn–Si–Cr alloy was investigated. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of the alloy revealed the existence of nanoscale grains with an abundance of stacking faults. The high density of dislocations charac-teristic of severe plastic deformation was not observed in this alloy. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence ofε-martensite with an HCP crystal structure andγ-phase with an FCC structure.

  14. Effect of solution hardening on the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzaki, K.; Natsume, Y.; Maki, T. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Tomota, Y. [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Fe-high Mn-Si alloys, which undergo {gamma} (fcc) to {var_epsilon} (hcp) martensitic transformation, exhibit a pronounced shape memory effect. The origin of shape memory effect of these alloys is the reversion of stress-induced {var_epsilon} martensite. A shape change must hence be accomplish3ed by stress-induced martensitic transformation without permanent slip in austenite ({gamma}) in order to obtain a good shape memory effect. It is clear that the intrusion of permanent slip can be suppressed by increasing the strength of austenite and by decreasing the applied stress required for a shape change due to stress-induced martensitic transformation. It has been reported that the addition of the interstitial elements of C and N as well as the substitutional elements of Mo and V increases the 0.2% proof stress of austenite in Fe-high Mn alloys. However, there have been few studies on the effect of these alloying elements on the shape memory effect of Fe-high Mn based alloys. In the present study, it was aimed to improve the shape memory effect of Fe-high Mn based alloys by the strengthening of austenite through solution hardening due to C and Mo.

  15. The influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe-Mn random alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, T; Music, D; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Vitos, L; Dick, A; Hickel, T; Neugebauer, J; Schneider, J M

    2011-06-22

    We have studied the influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of face-centred-cubic (fcc) versus hexagonal-closed-packed (hcp) Fe-Mn random alloys, considering the influence of magnetism below and above the fcc Néel temperature. Employing two different ab initio approaches with respect to basis sets and treatment of magnetic and chemical disorder, we are able to quantify the predictive power of the ab initio methods. We find that the addition of Al strongly stabilizes the fcc lattice independent of the regarded magnetic states. For Si a much stronger dependence on magnetism is observed. Compared to Al, almost no volume change is observed as Si is added to Fe-Mn, indicating that the electronic contributions are responsible for stabilization/destabilization of the fcc phase.

  16. The Formation of Crystal Defects in a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy Under Cyclic Martensitic Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Vladimir I; Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2016-12-01

    Formation of crystalline defects due to cyclic martensitic transformations (CMT) in the iron-manganese Fe-18 wt.% Mn-2 wt.% Si alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Conditions for accumulation of fragment sub-boundaries with low-angle misorientations and chaotic stacking faults in crystal lattice of austenite and ε-martensite were analyzed.

  17. Pressure dependence of magnetic properties in Fe-Mn-B amorphous alloys: evidence for inhomogeneous ferromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, L F; Kemény, T; Bednarčík, J; Kamarád, J; Arnold, Z; Konôpková, Z; Liermann, H-P

    2013-08-28

    The pressure dependence of the saturation magnetization and Curie temperature was studied in melt-spun Fe60Mn20B20, Fe56Mn24B20 and Fe75B25 amorphous alloys up to 0.9 GPa, corresponding to volume changes up to 0.45%. In addition, in situ high-pressure (up to 40 GPa) x-ray diffraction was performed to determine the compressibility of the latter two alloys. Both the Curie temperature TC (at atmospheric pressure TC = 201 ± 3 and 159 ± 3 K) and the low-temperature saturation magnetization M5 K,5 T decrease remarkably with increasing pressure: dTC/dp =- 31 ± 0.5 and -32 ± 5 K GPa(-1) and dlnM5 K,5 T/dp =- 0.15 ± 0.02 and -0.13 ± 0.03 GPa(-1) for xMn = 20 and 24 at.%, respectively. Compared to dlnM5 K,5 T/dp =- 0.016 ± 0.003 GPa(-1) measured for Fe75B25, the pressure dependence of M5 K,5 T is one order of magnitude larger in the ternary alloys. The bulk moduli for the Fe56Mn24B20 and Fe75B25 glasses were measured to be 152 GPa and 173 GPa, respectively. These data are also compared with the pressure dependence of the hyperfine field and theoretical calculations of the saturation moment for Fe-B alloys reported in the literature. The results were interpreted within an inhomogeneous itinerant-electron model of ferromagnetism.

  18. Effect of austenite grain size in Fe-Mn alloys on {epsilon} martensitic transformation and their mechanical properties; Fe-Mn gokin no {epsilon} marutensaito hentai oyobi kikaiteki seishitsu ni oyobosu kessho ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsu, H. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-20

    The Fe-Mn two-components alloy samples varied with Mn content of 12 to 31 mass% were prepared by charging {gamma}-crystalline grain size using its recrystallization, and were surveyed on effects of the {gamma}-crystalline grain size on athermal {epsilon}-martensitic ({epsilon})-transformation and machining- induced {epsilon}-transformation. As a result of examining the relationship between the {gamma}-crystalline grain size or the {epsilon}-transformation and their mechanical properties, conclusion shown as follows is obtained. The athermal {epsilon} was formed at the alloy containing more than 10 mass% of Mn, maximum {epsilon} was shown at the composition containing about 17 mass% of Mn and the {epsilon} was almost not formed at the steel containing more than 27 mass% of Mn. When crushing the {gamma}-crystalline grain to fine powder, the {epsilon} martensitic transformation beginning temperature tended to reduce somewhat and production amount of the {epsilon} decreased extremely. On the steel containing Mn ranged 15 to 31 mass%, the fine powdering affected scarcely its durability but improved its elongation and its tensile strength. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of ageing temperature after tensile pre deformation on shape memory effect and precipitation process of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.Z. [College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, 24, South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China); Li, N., E-mail: yangshizhou@163.com [College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, 24, South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Wen, Y.H.; Peng, H.B. [College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, 24, South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} Precipitation process of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles depends on diffusion capacity of Cr atom. {yields} Directional segregation of carbon atom can act as aligned Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} in improving SME. {yields} Ageing temperature and ageing time greatly affect precipitation process of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}. {yields} NbC carbides in a FeMnSiCrNiNbC alloy are prone to dispersively precipitate. - Abstract: Researches showed that the shape memory effect (SME) of FeMnSiCrNiC alloys can be remarkably improved through aligned Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles or carbon atom segregation inside grains. To further study on influencing factors in improving SME and aligned precipitation process of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy, effect of ageing temperature after tensile pre deformation on shape memory effect and precipitation process of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy was studied. The results showed that aligned precipitation of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy mainly depends on diffusion capacity and directional segregation of carbon and chromium atoms, namely on ageing temperature, ageing time and the amount of tensile pre deformation.

  20. Plotting and evaluation on the Schaeffler diagram of Fe--Mn--Al--C low-density alloys with medium manganese and aluminum contents based on Thermo-Calc software%基于Thermo--Calc的中锰中铝Fe--Mn--Al--C低密度钢类Schaeffler相图绘制与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明达; 胡春东; 曹文全; 董瀚

    2016-01-01

    Low density steels attract the attention of structural steel researchers due to their good comprehensive mechanical prop-erties and low density characteristic. In this study, the thermodynamic equilibrium states of Fe-Mn-Al-C alloys with medium manga-nese and aluminum contents at different temperatures were calculated by Thermo-Calc software with TCFE 7 date base. The statistical data of phase ratio in the dual phase region were summarized and then processed by translation and correction methods to plot the Schaeffler diagram, which is applicable to design the composition and phase ratio of Fe-Mn-Al-C alloys with medium manganese and aluminum contents. Possible phases in these steels with different compositions were discussed according to the calculation of martensit-ic transformation temperatures. The accuracy and applicability of the Schaeffler diagram were verified by the experimental phase ratio and phase type of several typical Fe-Mn-Al-C alloys. The information of phase ratio and phase type in Fe-Mn-Al-C alloys can be obtained easily from the plotted Schaeffler phase diagram.%含铝低密度钢由于其较好的综合力学性能和低密度特征引起结构钢领域研究人员的广泛关注。本文利用Thermo-Calc热力学计算软件结合TCFE 7数据库,计算中锰中铝含量Fe-Mn-Al-C钢在不同温度的热力学平衡状态,总结其两相区相比例的变化规律,通过平移和修正等处理方法,绘制针对中锰中铝钢合金成分和相设计的类Schaeffler相图。结合马氏体转变温度的计算讨论对应不同合金成分条件下相种类存在可能,并通过已有材料的相比例和相形貌实验结果分析绘制的类Schaeffler相图的准确性和适用性。绘制的Fe-Mn-Al-C类Schaeffler相图可以直观地提供不同合金成分所对应的相比例、相种类等信息,可用于新型含铝低密度钢的合金设计。

  1. Structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties of a new series of quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeMnZ (Z=Si, As, Sb): A first-principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elahmar, M.H.; Rached, H.; Rached, D. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université Djillali Liabès de SidiBel-Abbès, SidiBel-Abbès 22000 (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Murtaza, G. [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmed, W.K. [ERU, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-11-01

    The structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties of the series of Heusler alloys CoFeMnZ (Z=Si, As, and Sb) have been investigated theoretically. The objective is to seek for stable half-metallic ferromagnets materials with Curie temperatures higher than room temperature. The series of CoFeMnZ (Z=Si, As and Sb) is found to exhibit half-metallic ferromagnetism with high magnetic moment and the localized moment in these magnetic compounds resides at the Mn atom. It has been observed that all our compounds have high Curie temperatures with high spin polarizations. - Highlights: • Density functional calculations for CoFeMnZ (Z=Si, As, Sb) compounds are performed. • Half-metallic ferromagnetism in CoFeMnZ (Z=Si, As, Sb) compounds is established. • The magnetic and mechanical properties for CoFeMnZ (Z=As, Sb) are studied for the first time. • The studied compounds possess high Curie temperatures with high spin polarizations.

  2. The half-metallicity of LiMgPdSn-type quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In): A first-principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y. C., E-mail: gaoyc1963@126.com [Department of Physics, college of science, North China University of Science And Technology (former Hebei United University), Tangshan, 063009 (China); Gao, X. [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Tangshan Branch, TangShan, 063000 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Based on the first-principles calculations, quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) including its phase stability, band gap, the electronic structures and magnetic properties has been studied systematically. We have found that, in terms of the equilibrium lattice constants, FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) are half-metallic ferrimagnets, which can sustain the high spin polarization under a very large amount of lattice distortions. The half-metallic band gap in FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys originates from the t{sub 1u}-t{sub 2g} splitting instead of the e{sub u}-t{sub 1u} splitting. The total magnetic moments are 3μB per unit cell for FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys following the Slater–Pauling rule with the total number of valence electrons minus 18 rather than 24. According to the study, the conclusion can be drawn that all of these compounds which have a negative formation energy are possible to be synthesized experimentally.

  3. The half-metallicity of LiMgPdSn-type quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In: A first-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the first-principles calculations, quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In including its phase stability, band gap, the electronic structures and magnetic properties has been studied systematically. We have found that, in terms of the equilibrium lattice constants, FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In are half-metallic ferrimagnets, which can sustain the high spin polarization under a very large amount of lattice distortions. The half-metallic band gap in FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In alloys originates from the t1u-t2g splitting instead of the eu-t1u splitting. The total magnetic moments are 3μB per unit cell for FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In alloys following the Slater–Pauling rule with the total number of valence electrons minus 18 rather than 24. According to the study, the conclusion can be drawn that all of these compounds which have a negative formation energy are possible to be synthesized experimentally.

  4. Microstructure and electrochemical properties of LaNi_(4-x)FeMn_x (x=0-0.8) hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Heng; CHEN Yungui; TAO Mingda; WU Chaoling

    2009-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost of LaNi5 based hydrogen storage alloys, effect of substitution of Mn for Ni on structural and electro-chemical properties of LaNi_(4-x)FeMn_x(x=0-0.8) hydrogen storage alloys was studied systematically. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that LaNi5 and La_2Ni_7 phases were invariably present in all alloy samples, and when x≥0.4, (Fe,Ni) phase was observed. Electrochemical studies revealed that the discharge capacity reached a maximum value of 306.4 mAh/g when x=0.2 and the cycling stability decreased with the increase of x.With the increase of Mn content, hydrogen diffusion coefficient decreased, whereas high rate discharge-ability (HRD) and exchange current density first increased slowly when x≤0.2 and then decreased markedly when x=0.8,indicating that electrochemical reaction on the surface of alloy electrodes had strong influence on kinetic property.

  5. A role of {alpha}' martensite introduced by thermo-mechanical treatment in improving shape memory effect of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Liu, Gang; Wang, Chaoping; Li, Ning [College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University Chengdu (China)

    2011-05-15

    The evolution of {alpha}' martensite with different thermo-mechanical treatment and its effect on the shape memory effect were studied in an Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni alloy. The {alpha}' martensite was introduced by only 5% pre-deformation, and its amount increased with increasing pre-deformation up to 20%. The {alpha}' martensite started to transform into austenite when the annealing temperature was 773 K. As the annealing temperature increased to 1 073 K, the {alpha}' martensite almost transformed fully into austenite. The {alpha}' martensite introduced by the thermo-mechanical treatment could prevent collisions between different {epsilon} martensite bands during deformation. The intrusion of {alpha}' martensite was another key reason that the stress-induced {epsilon} martensite bands in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys formed in a domain-specific manner in addition to that of uniformly distributed stacking faults after thermo-mechanical treatment. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Thermodynamic-state and kinetic-process dependent dual ferromagnetic states in high-Si content FeMn(PSi) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guijiang, E-mail: guijiangli@gmail.com [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Olle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Börje [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Vitos, Levente [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-12-07

    We have found that thermodynamic state and kinetic process co-determine the dual ferromagnetic (FM) orders in high-Si content FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} (0.25 < x < 0.5). Alloys undergoing high temperature annealing and quenching process prefer a high magnetic moment FM state in a chemically partial disordered structure with low c/a ratio. This mechanism is suggested to be responsible for the often discussed virgin effect as well. A chemically ordered structure obtained by a slow cooling process from a relatively low annealing temperature and the increase in Si content stabilize a metastable lattice with high c/a ratio and FM order with low magnetic moment. The non-simultaneity of the magnetic and structural transitions can be responsible for the occurrence of FM state in the high c/a range. Thus, a c/a ratio that changes from high to low is physically plausible to stabilize the metastable FM order at low temperature. Our theoretical observations indicate that suitable thermodynamic state and kinetic diffusion process is crucial for optimizing magnetocaloric properties and exploring feasible magnetocaloric materials.

  7. Finite size effects and spin transition in ball-milled {gamma}-(FeMn){sub 30}Cu{sub 70} nanostructured alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A. A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: jrestre@fisica.udea.edu.co; Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez, J.M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155. 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-12-31

    Fe{sub 15}Mn{sub 15}Cu{sub 70} alloys were prepared by high-energy ball milling over a wide range of grinding times from 15 min to 72 h. The corresponding magnetic properties were followed by means of vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy. By using a Rietveld structural analysis of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data, lattice parameter and grain size correlations with magnetization and coercive force were carried out. Results revealed a strong microstructural dependence of the magnetic properties with the grain size, resembling a finite size-driven magnetic transition at a critical crystallite value of around 8.5 nm. This behavior is endorsed by a partial low- to high-spin transition according to isomer shift results, at a critical unit-cell volume of around 50 A{sup 3} at 77 K attributed to strong local variations of the interatomic spacing as a consequence of the employed ball-milling procedure. Finally, as concerns to temperature behavior, samples exhibited a freezing temperature at around 61 K and a wide distribution of relaxation times ascribed to the presence of interacting CuMn and FeMnCu clusters.

  8. Hyperfine and Structural Properties of the Mechanically Alloyed (FeMn){sub 30}Cu{sub 70} System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, J., E-mail: jrestre@fisica.udea.edu.co [Universidad de Antioquia, A.A, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Greneche, J. M. [Universite du Maine, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087 (France)

    2004-12-15

    Nanostructured Fe{sub 15}Mn{sub 15}Cu{sub 70} alloys were prepared by high-energy ball milling. The alloying process spans grinding times from 15 minutes to 114 hours. The Moessbauer isomer shifts are analyzed at 77 K and 4.2 K as a function of the average lattice parameter determined from Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction data. Evidence of two different iron sites at 77 K to account for the asymmetry of the Moessbauer spectra is discussed by correlating hyperfine and structural parameters. This leads to conclude the occurrence of a low-spin to high-spin partial transition of iron at a critical volume of around 50 A{sup 3} at 77 K, supporting theoretical predictions.

  9. Reverse Shape Memory Effect Related to α → γ Transformation in a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Huang, Pan; Zhou, Tiannan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the shape memory behavior and phase transformations of solution-treated Fe43.61Mn34.74Al13.38Ni8.27 alloy between room temperature and 1173 K (900 °C). This alloy exhibits the reverse shape memory effect resulting from the phase transformation of α (bcc) → γ (fcc) between 673 K and 1073 K (400 °C and 800 °C) in addition to the shape memory effect resulting from the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' (fcc) → α (bcc) below 673 K (400 °C). There is a high density of hairpin-shaped dislocations in the α phase undergoing the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' → α. The lath γ phase, which preferentially nucleates and grows in the reversed α phase, has the same crystal orientation with the reverse-transformed γ' martensite. However, the vermiculate γ phase, which is precipitated in the α phase between lath γ phase, has different crystal orientations. The lath γ phase is beneficial to attaining better reverse shape memory effect than the vermiculate γ phase.

  10. Statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys and concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, FeNi, and FeCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaks, V. G.; Khromov, K. Yu., E-mail: khromov-ky@nrcki.ru; Pankratov, I. R. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Popov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys with arbitrary pairwise interatomic interactions based on the master equation approach is developed. Vacancy–atom correlations are described using both the second-shell-jump and the nearest-neighbor-jump approximations which are shown to be usually sufficiently accurate. General expressions for Onsager coefficients in terms of microscopic interatomic interactions and some statistical averages are given. Both the analytical kinetic mean-field and the Monte Carlo methods for finding these averages are described. The theory developed is used to describe sharp concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in several iron-based alloy systems. For the bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, and FeNi, we predict the notable increase of the iron self-diffusion coefficient with solute concentration c, up to several times, even though values of c possible for these alloys do not exceed some percent. For the bcc alloys FeCr at high temperatures T ≳ 1400 K, we show that the very strong and peculiar concentration dependencies of both tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients observed in these alloys can be naturally explained by the theory, without invoking exotic models discussed earlier.

  11. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation in FeMnNi alloys: A “grey alloy” object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiapetto, M., E-mail: mchiapet@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Becquart, C.S. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-07-15

    This work extends the object kinetic Monte Carlo model for neutron irradiation-induced nanostructure evolution in Fe–C binary alloys developed in [1], introducing the effects of substitutional solutes like Mn and Ni. The objective is to develop a model able to describe the nanostructural evolution of both vacancy and self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster populations in Fe(C)MnNi neutron-irradiated model alloys at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C), by simulating specific reference irradiation experiments. To do this, the effects of the substitutional solutes of interest are introduced, under simplifying assumptions, using a “grey alloy” scheme. Mn and Ni solute atoms are not explicitly introduced in the model, which therefore cannot describe their redistribution under irradiation, but their effect is introduced by modifying the parameters that govern the mobility of both SIA and vacancy clusters. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proved to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable defect clusters with increasing solute content. Solute concentration is explicitly taken into account in the model as a variable determining the slowing down of self-interstitial clusters; small vacancy clusters, on the other hand, are assumed to be significantly slowed down by the presence of solutes, while for clusters bigger than 10 vacancies their complete immobility is postulated. The model, which is fully based on physical considerations and only uses a few parameters for calibration, is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental trends in terms of density and size distribution of the irradiation-induced defect populations with dose, as compared to the reference experiment, thereby providing insight into the physical mechanisms that influence the nanostructural evolution undergone by this material during irradiation.

  12. Effect of Sintering Time on the Densification, Microstructure, Weight Loss and Tensile Properties of a Powder Metallurgical Fe-Mn-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the isothermal holding time dependence of the densification, microstructure, weight loss, and tensile properties of Fe-Mn-Si powder compacts. Elemental Fe, Mn, and Si powder mixtures with a nominal composition of Fe-28Mn-3Si (in weight percent were ball milled for 5 h and subsequently pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa. The compacted Fe-Mn-Si powder mixtures were sintered at 1200 °C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. In general, the density, weight loss, and tensile properties increased with the increase of the isothermal holding time. A significant increase in density, weight loss, and tensile properties occurred in the compacts being isothermally held for 1 h, as compared to those with no isothermal holding. However, further extension of the isothermal holding time (2 and 3 h only played a limited role in promoting the sintered density and tensile properties. The weight loss of the sintered compacts was mainly caused by the sublimation of Mn in the Mn depletion region on the surface layer of the sintered Fe-Mn-Si compacts. The length of the Mn depletion region increased with the isothermal holding time. A single α-Fe phase was detected on the surface of all of the sintered compacts, and the locations beyond the Mn depletion region were comprised of a dual dominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite.

  13. Effect of iron addition on the crystal structure of the α-AlFeMnSi phase formed in the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Álvarez, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubic and hexagonal α-phases, formed during thermal analysis experiments and specific isothermal treatments, have been analyzed for a series of Al-Mn-Si alloys with different iron contents. In these alloys, the Fe/Mn weight ratio was varied from 0.1 to 8.4. This study shows that in Al-Fe-Mn-Si alloys with Fe/Mn weight ratios up to 4, the a-phase has a cubic crystal structure, while in alloys with a Fe/Mn weight ratio of 5.3 or more, the a-phase has a hexagonal crystal structure. Hence, the critical Fe/Mn weight ratio for the cubic to hexagonal crystal structure transition falls between 4 and 5.3 for the studied alloys.Las fases α de estructura cristalina cúbica y hexagonal, formadas durante los ensayos de análisis térmico y tratamientos isotérmicos específicos, han sido analizadas para una serie de aleaciones Al-Mn-Si con diferente contenido de hierro. En estas aleaciones, la relación en peso Fe/Mn se varió de 0,1 a 8,4. Este estudio muestra que las aleaciones Al-13,4Si-1,1 Mn-Fe con relación en peso Fe/Mn menor o igual a 4, la fase a presenta estructura cristalina cúbica, mientras que en aleaciones con una relación Fe/Mn igual o mayor a 5,3, la fase a presenta estructura cristalina hexagonal. Por lo tanto, la relación crítica Fe/Mn para la transición de estructura cristalina de cúbica a hexagonal se encuentra entre 4 y 5,3 para las aleaciones estudiadas.

  14. 哈斯勒合金Ni-Fe-Mn-In的马氏体相变与磁特性研究∗%Martensitic transformation and magnetic features in Ni-Fe-Mn-In Heusler alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元磊; 李哲; 徐坤; 敬超

    2015-01-01

    The Ni50−xFexMn37In13(x=1, 3, 5) polycrystalline samples are prepared by arc melting method. The martensitic transformations and crystal structures for Ni50−xFexMn37In13(x = 1, 3, 5) samples are systematically analyzed by measuring the structure and magnetism. The results show that the three samples present different structures at room temperature. In the mean time, with the increase of the content of Fe, the martensitic transformation temperature rapidly decreases, while the ferromagnetism is gradually enhanced for these alloys. Furthermore, both the magnetoresistance and the magnetocaloric effect are also investigated in Fe3 and Fe5 alloys. For an applied magnetic field of 3 T, it is found that the magnetoresistance effects of two samples are about −46% and −15%, while their isothermal entropy changes are about 6 J·kg−1 and 9.5 J·kg−1·K−1 during reverse martensitic transformation, respectively. Accompanied with the disappearing of a very wide transforming range and a slight magnetic hysteresis loss, the net refrigerating capacity of Fe3 sample reaches 96 J·kg−1 in the process of reverse martensitic transformation.%利用电弧炉制备了Ni50−xFexMn37In13(x =1,3,5)多晶样品,通过结构和磁性测量,系统分析了Ni50−xFexMn37In13(x=1,3,5)样品的晶体结构和马氏体相变.结果表明,三样品在室温下呈现出了不同的晶体结构.同时,随着Fe含量的增加,样品的马氏体相变温度急剧下降,而铁磁性却逐渐增强.研究了Fe3和Fe5样品在反马氏体相变过程中的磁电阻和磁卡效应.在外加3 T的磁场下,两样品在反马氏体相变区域所表现出的磁电阻效应分别约为−46%和−15%,而等温熵变则约为6 J·kg−1·K−1和9.5 J·kg−1·K−1.然而,伴随非常宽的相变温跨和较小的磁滞损失, Fe3样品在反马氏体相变区域的净制冷量达到96 J·kg−1.

  15. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ErFeMn and ErFeMnH{sub 4.7} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylswamy, S [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China); Drozd, V [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China); Liu, R S [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China); Bagkar, N C [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China); Chou, C C [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Shen University, Kaoshiung 804, Taiwan (China); Sun, C P [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Shen University, Kaoshiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yang, H D [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Shen University, Kaoshiung 804, Taiwan (China); Paul-Boncour, V [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux de Paris Est, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 2-8 rue H Dunant, 94320 Cedex (France); Marchuk, I [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Filipek, S M [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Sheu, H-S [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Jang, L-Y [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2007-08-15

    ErFeMn intermetallic alloy after exposure to high hydrogen pressure transformed into the ErFeMnH{sub 4.7} hydride. Both parent material and hydride were investigated for their structural, electronic and magnetic properties by synchrotron XRD (x-ray diffraction), XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure) and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), respectively. Hydrogenation did not change the structure symmetry but caused large expansion of the lattice parameters. Mn and Fe K-edge XANES study of the parent alloy and its hydride reveals that charge on both Mn and Fe atoms remains the same and slightly increases after hydrogenation. Hydrogenation of ErFeMn alloy also caused decrease in the magnetic moment.

  16. Phase relationship of Dy-Fe-Mn system at 773 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜成梅; 马君; 姚路; 陈国坚; 杨通晗; 曾维敬; 何维

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth intermetallic compounds formed in many R-Fe-Mn (R=rare-earth element) systems exhibit excellent properties. In order to understand the existence and stability of the compounds in the system and further search for the potential application of R-Fe-Mn alloys in various aspects, it is necessary to investigate the phase relations of the Dy-Fe-Mn ternary system. A total of 96 samples of the Dy-Fe-Mn alloys were prepared by arc-melting and examined by metallographic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The phase relationship of the Dy-Fe-Mn system at 773 K was determined. It was found that the isothermal section was characterized by intermediate solid solutions based on the substitutions of Fe/Mn atoms and the large extensions of the binaries into the ternary domains. The solid solubilities of the third ele-ment in the binary compounds and the phase boundaries were also determined by XRD technique using the phase disappearing method combined with the lattice parameter method and SEM/EDS technique. Two pairs of corresponding binary compounds in the Dy-Fe and Dy-Mn systems (DyFe2 and DyMn2, Dy6Fe23 and Dy6Mn23) formed a continuous series of solid solution at 773 K, respectively.

  17. Differential thermal analysis of Al[sub 8]FeMnSi[sub 2] intermetallic phase particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Valdes, A.; Pech-Canul, M.I.; Mendez-Nonell, M.; Sukiennik, M. (Unidad Saltillo (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN)

    1994-02-15

    This paper is concerned with the use of differential thermal analysis to determine melting point, enthalpy and entropy of fusion of the Al[sub 8]FeMnSi[sub 2] intermetallic phase, currently present in Al-Si-Fe-Mn alloys as polyhedral precipitates. The procedure includes the evaluation of the enthalpy from measurements of the area under the peak of transformation on melting. The particular of this phase were obtained through preferential chemical dissolution of the matrix from several Al-Si-Fe-Mn alloys, as was discussed in a previous work.

  18. Kinetics of the β-AlFeSi to α-Al(FeMn)Si transformation in Al-Mg-Si alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, N.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    Among all the process steps of the production of aluminium extrusion products, the homogenisation of Al-Mg-Si aluminium billets is a very important one, since it gives significant changes in the microstructure of the alloy, leading to an improved extrudability of the material and improved properties

  19. Vibration mitigation by the reversible fcc/hcp martensitic transformation during cyclic tension-compression loading of an Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaguchi, Takahiro [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: sawaguchi.takahiro@nims.go.jp; Sahu, Puspendu [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Kikuchi, Takehiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kajiwara, Setsuo [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kushibe, Atsumichi [Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Otsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395 (Japan); Higashino, Masahiko [Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Otsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395 (Japan); Ogawa, Takatoshi [Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Otsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The present work concerns the damping behavior of an Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr-0.5NbC (mass%) shape memory alloy determined by low cycle fatigue tests, and the corresponding deformation mechanism under cyclic tension-compression loading. The specific damping capacity increases with increasing strain amplitude and reaches saturation at {approx}80%, above the strain amplitude of 0.4%. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analyses and microstructural observations using atomic force microscopy revealed that a significant amount of the tensile stress-induced {epsilon} martensite is reversely transformed into the austenite by subsequent compression; in other words, the stress-induced 'reverse' martensitic transformation takes place in the alloy.

  20. A Novel Training-Free Processed Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Undergoing δ → γ Phase Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Wang, Gaixia; Du, Yangyang; Wang, Shanling; Chen, Jie; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    We not only suppress the formation of twin boundaries but also introduce a high density of stacking faults by taking advantage of δ → γ phase transformation in a processed Fe-19.38Mn-5.29Si-8.98Cr-4.83Ni shape memory alloy. As a result, its shape memory effect is remarkably improved after heating at 1533 K (1260 °C) (single-phase region of δ ferrite) and air cooling due to δ → γ phase transformation.

  1. Influence of Heat-treatment on Shape Memory Effect of FeMnSiCrNi Alloy Locknut Component%热处理对FeMnSiCrNi合金防松螺母形状记忆效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彦良; 李俊良; 沈英明

    2005-01-01

    研究了固溶处理工艺、预应变大小和恢复退火温度对FeMnSiCrNi合金螺母形状记忆效应的影响规律.结果表明:对于这种螺母,最佳的固溶处理温度为950℃,最适当的预应变为5%,恢复处理温度不超过400℃.

  2. Hardness-gradient reversion in FeMnSiCr shape memory alloy modules produced by high-speed high pressure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujoreanu Leandru-Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure torsion (HPT processing technology, consisting in the obtainment of (ultrafine bulk metallic structure during 2–3 complete rotations of the superior anvil at low speed (~10-1 rpm under high applied pressure (~ GPa applied on the lower anvil, has been modified as to allow the application of elevated number of rotation numbers (~102 rpm. By high-speed high pressure torsion (HS-HPT, coned-disk spring shape modules were processed from an as cast Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr (mass % shape memory alloy (SMA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD studies revealed that the modules became nanostructured as an effect of HS-HPT processing. After processing, a hardness gradient was obtained along the truncated cone generator, increasing from inner to outer areas, due to different deformation degrees in these zones. After complete flattening, the measurements revealed that the hardness gradient maintained its value but reversed its variation sense.

  3. Mossbauer and XRD characterization of the phase transformations in a Fe-Mn-Al-C-Mo-Si-Cu as cast alloy during tribology test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Occidente (Colombia); Piamba, J. F. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento Física (Colombia); Sánchez, H. [Universidad del Valle, Escuela de Materiales (Colombia); Alcazar, G. A. Pérez, E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Departamento Física (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    In present study Fe-29.0Mn-6Al–0.9C-1.8Mo-1.6Si-0.4Cu (%w) alloy was obtained after melted in an induction furnace, and then molded as an ingot. From the as cast ingot it were cut samples for the different characterization measurements. The microstructure of the as-cast sample is of dendritic type and its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of the austenite, with a big volumetric fraction, and the lines of the martensite, with small volumetric fraction. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample was fitted with a broad singlet which corresponds to disordered austenite. After the tribology test, its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of two austenite phases, one similar to the previous one and other with bigger lattice parameter. The total volumetric fraction of the austenite is smaller than that obtained for sample without wear. It was added the lines of the martensite phase with bigger volumetric fraction than that of the previous sample. The Mössbauer spectrum of the weared sample was fitted with two paramagnetic sites which correspond to the two Fe austenite phases and a hyperfine magnetic field distribution which is associated to the disordered original martensite and the new one which appears in the surface as a consequence of the wear process. These results show that during wear process the original austenite phase is transformed in martensite and in a new austenite phase. The increases of the martensitic phase improves mechanical properties and wear behavior.

  4. Influence of strain aging on shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-C alloys with different Cr content%形变时效对不同Cr含量Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-C合金记忆效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶邦斌; 彭华备; 熊隆荣; 文玉华; 李宁

    2009-01-01

    研究了时效工艺对不同Cr含量Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-C合金形状记忆效应的影响,通过SEM分析了其微观组织变化.结果表明:Cr含量为12wt%的Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-C合金具有与Cr含量为8wt%的合金相当的形状记忆效应.直接时效时只有少量Cr23C6析出相在晶界和晶内析出.形变后时效不仅使得析出的Cr23C6数量更多,粒径更小,而且Cr23C6的析出具有方向性.形变时效后合金的形状回复率显著高于直接时效合金的形状回复率.

  5. Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fe-Mn-Al-C Low Density Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-feng ZHANG; Hao YANG; De-ping LENG; Long ZHANG; Zhen-yi HUANG; Guang CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature tensile tests of Fe-Mn-Al-C low density steels with four different chemical compositions were conducted to clarify the dominant deformation mechanisms.Parameters like product of strength and elongation, as well as specific strength and curves of stress-strain relations were calculated.The microstructures and tensile frac-ture morphologies were observed by optical microscope,scanning electron microscope and transmission electron mi-croscope.The tensile behavior of low density steel was correlated to the microstructural evolution during plastic de-formation,and the effects of elements,cooling process and heat treatment temperature on the mechanical properties of the steels were analyzed.The results show that the tensile strength of steels with different cooling modes is more than 1 000 MPa.The highest tensile strength of 28Mn-12Al alloy reached 1 230 MPa,with corresponding specific strength of 189.16 MPa.cm3 .g-1 ,while the specific strength of 28Mn-10Al alloy was 178.98 MPa.cm3 .g-1 , and the excellent product of strength and elongation of 28Mn-8Al alloy was over 69.2 GPa.%.A large number of ferrite reduced the ductility and strain hardening rate of the alloy,while the existence ofκcarbides may improve the strength but weaken the plasticity.Some fineκcarbides appeared in the water-quenched specimen,while coarseκcarbides were observed in the air-cooled specimen.High temperature heat treatment improved the decomposition ki-netics ofγphase and the diffusion rate of carbon,thus speeded up the precipitation of fineκcarbides.The dominant deformation mechanism of low density steel was planar glide,including shear-band-induced plasticity and microband-induced plasticity.

  6. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  7. Nanocrystalline WC with non-toxic Fe-Mn binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemiaszko, Dariusz [Military University of Technology, Department of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, ul. Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Rosinski, Marcin; Michalski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Cemented carbides, based on the tungsten carbide (WC), are very popular and useful in an industry. The most important metal us as a binder in this kind of materials is cobalt. It has many advantages as a binder: very good wettability, favourable solubility with WC and thermal conductivity similar to WC. However, cost of cobalt is very high because of its low natural resources. Cobalt is not also neutral for health. It is known as an allergen and same research shown that it could cause a cancer. This paper presents results of sintering the tungsten carbides with Fe-Mn alloys as the binders. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Influence of antiferromagnetic FeMn on magnetic properties of perpendicular magnetic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Chun; Li Baohe; Teng Jiao; Jiang Yong [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu Guanghua [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2009-02-27

    We studied the influence of an anitferromagnetic FeMn layer on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and perpendicular coercivity (H{sub C}-perpendicular ) of the CoCr/Pt multilayers and found that both PMA and H{sub C}-perpendicular can be enhanced by the FeMn layer. We observed an obvious exchange coupling between FeMn and CoCr/Pt multilayers which enhances PMA and may increase the density of pinning sites that can pin the domain wall of ferromagnetic layers and lifts up energy barrier during the propagation of domain walls. This leads to the enhancement of H{sub C}-perpendicular . Moreover, X-ray diffraction results shows that the (111) texture of the FeMn layer enhances that of the CoCr/Pt multilayers, leading to the increase of PMA and H{sub C}-perpendicular as well. This result is of great significance on improving magnetic properties of perpendicular magnetic recording media by using an antiferromagnetic manganese alloy.

  9. Effect of cold working on the aging and corrosion behavior of Fe-Mn-Al stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghayad, I.M.; Girgis, N.N.; Ghanem, W. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Hamada, A.S. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Eng., Faculty of Petrol. and Min. Eng., Suez Canal University, el-Shikg Zayed, 41522 Ismailia (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    The cold working; aging process; and corrosion behavior of the Fe-Mn-Al stainless steel having a composition of Fe-29wt%Mn-3.5wt%Al-0.5wt%C were investigated. Three different groups of specimens of the alloy were subjected to different procedures of cold working and aging. The first group were cold worked then solution treated at 1100 deg. C for 24 hr, coded as CW+ST. The second group were cold worked, solution treated at 1100 deg. C for 24 hr then cold worked again, coded as CW+ST+CW. The third group were solution treated at 1100 deg. C for 24 hr then cold worked, coded as ST+CW. Subsequent aging treatments of the controlled-worked alloy showed age hardening similar to that reported for the solution-treated alloys. The strengthening of the experimental alloy due to the controlled-working and aging is discussed on the basis of microstructural observations and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior of the different groups of the alloy, CW+ST; CW+ST+CW; ST+CW, with their peak aged and over aged conditions has been examined in 3.5% NaCl solution. The electrochemical techniques, potentiodynamic polarization and Tafel plots were employed. All the alloy groups did not passivate in 3.5% NaCl solution and the major corrosion type observed was general corrosion. The peak aged and over aged of the CW+ST+CW exhibited higher corrosion rates due to the formation of ferrite phase that formed a galvanic couple with the austenitic matrix. (authors)

  10. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in N i80F e20/FeMn /W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. Using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. The latter can extend to relatively large distances (≈9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  11. Low hysteresis FeMn-based top spin valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, V V; Krinitsina, T P; Milyaev, M A; Naumova, L I; Proglyado, V V

    2012-09-01

    FeMn-based top spin valves Ta/[FeNi/CoFe]/Cu/CoFe/FeMn/Ta with different Cu and FeMn layers thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was shown that low field hysteresis due to free layer magnetization reversal can be reduced down to (0.1 divided by 0.2) Oe keeping the GMR ratio higher 8% by using both layers thicknesses optimization and non-collinear geometry of magnetoresistance measurements. Dependence of low field hysteresis and GMR ratio on the angle between applied magnetic field and pinning direction are presented.

  12. Disassembly of irradiated lithium-bonded capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.

    1996-04-01

    Capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens from irradiation experiments in FFTF and EBR-II are being processed to remove the lithium bond and retrieve the specimens for testing. The work has progressed smoothly.

  13. Prediction of multiaxial fatigue life for notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. R.; Li, Z. X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Hu, X. T.; Song, Y. D. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-15

    Both the proportional and nonproportional multiaxial fatigue tests were conducted on two kinds of notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4. The multiaxial fatigue critical area of notched specimen is considered as the location experiencing the maximum damage. It is unsatisfactory to predict the multiaxial fatigue life with the local stress and strain in the fatigue critical area. The critical distance concepts are employed in the multiaxial life prediction method for notched specimens. The proposed method was checked by the test data of TC4 notched specimens. The prediction results are almost within a factor of three scatter band of the test results.

  14. Discrepancy of the magnetic behaviors and crystalline structure on the Co/FeMn and FeMn/Co interfaces with ultrathin Pt spacer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; FU Yanqiang; JIN Chuan; FENG Chun

    2010-01-01

    The exchange coupling at the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) interface is influenced by both the magnetic structure and the crystalline micro-structure.Co/FeMn/Co thin films with 0.4 nm Pt spacer layer inserted into the Co/FeMn and FeMn/Co interface respectively were deposited by means of magnetron sputtering.The two interfaces upon and beneath the FeMn layer show distinct behaviors before and after the Pt spacer inserted.There is a remarkable shrink of the interfacial uncompensated spins within the FeMn bottom interfacial monolayers,whereas a relaxation of the pinning strength of the FeMn interfacial spins along the out-of-plane direction occurs at the top interrace.XRD analysis indicates the Pt layer upon the FeMn layer forms an fcc (002) texture,implying the magnetic discrepancy between the top and bottom FeMn interfaces has crystalline structural origins.

  15. Structural stability, half-metallicity and magnetism of the CoFeMnSi/GaAs(0 0 1) interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhou, Ting; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong, E-mail: chenh@swu.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CoFeMnSi is one of LiMgPbSb-type Heusler alloy. • The phase diagram of various investigated interfaces is calculated. • Top-type MnMn-terminated interface preserves perfect 100% spin polarization. - Abstract: The ferromagnet/semiconductor interface plays a crucial role in the performance of advanced magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) built of ferromagnetic electrodes and semiconductor as a spacer. We investigate the interface character between LiMgPbSb-type Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi and semiconductor GaAs by using the first-principles density functional simulations. In our calculations, we build two kinds of interface structures, namely the top-type and the bridge-type structure by connecting the termination of nine CoFeMnSi layers to the top of the As-terminated GaAs layer and the bridge site between interface As atoms, respectively. The calculated phase diagram indicated that the CoFe-terminated interface is more stable in the bridge-type structure than in the top-type structure, and a favored MnMn- or MnSi-terminated interface will appear in the top-type structure instead of the bridge-type structure under Fe-rich conditions. Besides, our calculation reveals that interface Mn and interface Fe atoms prefer to extend outward and their atom-resolved spin magnetic moments are enhanced due to the rehybridization caused by the symmetry breaking at the interface, while interface Co atoms shrink inward and their moments are decreased compared with the bulk value. Further analysis on DOS and PDOS indicates that owing to the interface effect, the half metallicity of CoFe-, MnSi-, and SiSi-terminated interfaces is completely destroyed. However, the MnMn-terminated interface in the top-type structure preserves 100% spin polarization, indicating that the CoFeMnSi/GaAs heterostructure with the top-type MnMn-terminated interface has more advantages than other atomic terminations in spintronics applications.

  16. Exchange biased FeNi/FeMn bilayers with coercivity and switching field enhanced by FeMn surface oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svalov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FeNi/FeMn bilayers were grown in a magnetic field and subjected to heat treatments at temperatures of 50 to 350 °C in vacuum or in a gas mixture containing oxygen. In the as-deposited state, the hysteresis loop of 30 nm FeNi layer was shifted. Low temperature annealing leads to a decrease of the exchange bias field. Heat treatments at higher temperatures in gas mixture result in partial oxidation of 20 nm thick FeMn layer leading to a nonlinear dependence of coercivity and a switching field of FeNi layer on annealing temperature. The maximum of coercivity and switching field were observed after annealing at 300 °C.

  17. Shape memory characteristics of Ti-Ni alloys with several specimen sizes from micrometer to millimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Kuniaki; Fang, Dong; Tobushi, Hisaaki

    1996-02-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloys with nearly equiatomic compositions were made by three types of production methods, i.e., rolling, drawing and sputtering methods. These methods were used for making thin plates 0.1 mm thick, thick and thin wires 1.0 mm and 0.08 mm in diameter, and thin films 0.007 mm thick, respectively. These specimens were annealed at 673 K, 773 K, and 873 K in order to investigate the affect of annealing temperature on the shape memory characteristics in each specimen. The shape memory characteristics were compared among these specimens in order to investigate the effect of the production method.

  18. Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shufeng; Li, Run-Wei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yao, Kui; Wu, Yihong

    2016-03-01

    Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt bilayers with ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn has been characterized through planar Hall effect measurements. A large effective field of 2.05 ×10-5 to 2.44 ×10-5Oe (A-1cm2) is obtained for FeMn in the thickness range of 2-5 nm. The experimental observations can be reasonably accounted for by using a macrospin model under the assumption that the FeMn layer is composed of two spin sublattices with unequal magnetizations. The large effective field corroborates the spin Hall origin of the effective field, considering the much smaller uncompensated net moments in FeMn as compared to NiFe. The effective absorption of spin current by FeMn is further confirmed by the fact that spin current generated by Pt in NiFe/FeMn/Pt trilayers can only travel through the FeMn layer with a thickness of 1-4 nm. By quantifying the fieldlike effective field induced in NiFe, a spin diffusion length of 2 nm is estimated in FeMn, consistent with values reported in the literature by ferromagnetic resonance and spin-pumping experiments.

  19. Large recovery strain in Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory steels obtained by engineering annealing twin boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y H; Peng, H B; Raabe, D; Gutierrez-Urrutia, I; Chen, J; Du, Y Y

    2014-09-17

    Shape memory alloys are a unique class of materials that can recover their original shape upon heating after a large deformation. Ti-Ni alloys with a large recovery strain are expensive, while low-cost conventional processed Fe-Mn-Si-based steels suffer from a low recovery strain (twin boundaries. Reducing the density of twin boundaries is thus a critical factor for obtaining a large recovery strain in these steels. By significantly suppressing the formation of twin boundaries, we attain a tensile recovery strain of 7.6% in an annealed cast polycrystalline Fe-20.2Mn-5.6Si-8.9Cr-5.0Ni steel (weight%). Further attractiveness of this material lies in its low-cost alloying components and simple synthesis-processing cycle consisting only of casting plus annealing. This enables these steels to be used at a large scale as structural materials with advanced functional properties.

  20. Development of short fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy 2524-T3 specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvina, L. R.; Nesterenko, G. I.; Soldatenkov, A. P.; Demina, Yu. A.; Sviridov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    The development of short fatigue cracks in a 2524-T3 alloy is studied under cyclic tension conditions. Flat specimens with a stress concentrator in the form of a central hole are analyzed. The replica technique is used to determine the microcrack parameters and to estimate the cyclic damage characteristics of the alloy in the stress concentrator zone. The experimental results are compared to the fatigue lives estimated by a calculation-experimental method using the NASGRO software package. The experimental fatigue life at the stage of short crack initiation is found to be significantly shorter than the calculated fatigue life.

  1. FeMnMg氧化物Fenton催化降解有机废水%Research of FeMnMg Oxide Nano Particles Fenton-Degraded Methylene Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾若琨; 李佳

    2014-01-01

    采用高温煅烧硝化法制备FeMnMg氧化物纳米晶,并采用扫描电镜( SEM)对FeMnMg氧化物进行表征。结果表明,高温煅烧硝化法制备的FeMnMg氧化物粒径为纳米范围,具有均匀的粒子尺寸和晶体尺寸。采用不同配比的FeMnMg氧化物纳米晶催化剂对亚甲基蓝模拟的有机废水进行Fenton催化降解实验,对实验结果进行分析讨论。 FeMnMg的摩尔比为2∶3∶1的氧化物对亚甲基蓝的降解效果最好。当pH值为7左右,反应温度为25℃时,降解速率最快。 FeMnMg 氧化物催化剂的投加量为0.012 g,保证了亚甲基蓝较好的降解率。在反应体系中采用选取30% H2O20.5 mL(即2 mmol/L),能达到较好的氧化降解效果。%FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals were prepared by a high temperature calcination method,and they were characterized by scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) . The results showed that FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals prepared with temperature calcination method were nano particle size range, and the FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals had uniform particle size and crystallite size. The strong H2 O2-activating ability of FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals showed promising applications in the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants methylene blue. Using the best catalyst of degradation effect of methylene blue in the experiments,carried on the optimal Fenton catalytic conditions on the exploring experiment. We studied the dosing quantity of catalyst FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals,the addition content of H2 O2 ,pH value and reaction temperature effect influence on catalytic deg-radation of methylene blue solution.

  2. Aluminum Deoxidation Equilibria in Liquid Iron: Part III—Experiments and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Fe-Mn-Al-O System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Min-Kyu; Do, Kyung-Hyo; Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho; Pak, Jong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Deoxidation equilibria in high-Mn- and high-Al-alloyed liquid steels were studied over the entire Fe-Mn-Al composition range by both experiments and thermodynamic modeling. Effect of Mn on the Al deoxidation equilibria in liquid iron was measured by the different experimental techniques depending on the Al content. In order to confirm the reproducibility of the experimental results, the deoxidation experiments were carried out reversibly from high oxygen state by addition of Al as a deoxidizer, and from low oxygen state by addition of Fe2O3 or MnO as an oxygen source. For the Al-rich side, CaO flux was added on top of liquid iron in order to remove suspended Al2O3 inclusions in the melt. Based on the present experimental result and available critically evaluated literature data, the Al deoxidation equilibria in Fe-Mn-Al-O liquid alloy were thermodynamically modeled. The Modified Quasichemical Model was used in order to take into account a strong short-range ordering of atoms in molten state. Deoxidation equilibria and inclusion stability diagram for entire Fe-Mn-Al melt were successfully reproduced by the present model.

  3. Environmentally Asisted Cracking Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Simulated Acidic and Alkaline Ground Waters Using U-bend Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, D V; Estill, J C; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2003-10-17

    The model for the degradation of the containers for nuclear waste includes three modes of corrosion, namely general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research was to quantify the susceptibility of five nickel alloys to EAC in several environmental conditions with varying solution composition, temperature and electrochemical potential. These alloys included: Alloy 22 (N06022), Alloy C-4 (N06455), Alloy 625 (N06625), Alloy G-3 (N06985) and Alloy 825 (N08825). The susceptibility to EAC was evaluated using constant deformation (deflection) U-bend specimens in both the non-welded (wrought) and welded conditions. Results show that after more than five years exposure in the vapor and liquid phases of alkaline (pH {approx} 10) and acidic (pH {approx} 3) multi-ionic environments at 60 C and 90 C, none of the tested alloys suffered environmentally assisted cracking.

  4. Effect of Mn, Si, and Sb on High-temperature Oxidation of Fe-Mn-Al-Si-Sb-C Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Dong Bok [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    High Mn twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels with compositions of Fe-(18.0-18.17) Mn-1.51Al-(0.48-0.52)Si-(0.61-0.62)C-(0.52-0.54)Cr-(0.22-0.23)Ni-0.03Nb -(0-0.04)Sb (wt%) are oxidized at 650 ℃ and 750 ℃ for < 24 h in air in order to determine the effect of the alloying elements on the oxidation. They are oxidized parabolically to MnO{sub 2},Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3},FeO,Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and FeMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxides with relatively fast rates. The formed scales are prone to spallation and bi-layered. The outer scales that are formed by the outward diffusion of cations are rich in Fe and Mn, while the inner scales that are formed by the inward diffusion of oxygen are rich in Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, and Si. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance progressively increases with increments in the amount of Mn, Si, and Sb.

  5. Removal of tetracycline from water by Fe-Mn binary oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Yang; Kang, Jin; Fan, Maohong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-01-01

    Significant concerns have been raised over the presence of antibiotics including tetracyclines in aquatic environments. A series of Fe-Mn binary oxide with different Fe:Mn molar ratios was synthesized by a simultaneous oxidation and coprecipitation process for TC removal. Results showed that Fe-Mn binary oxide had higher removal efficiency than that of hydrous iron oxide and hydrous manganese oxide, and that the oxide with a Fe:Mn molar ratio of 5:1 was the best in removal than other molar ratios. The tetracycline removal was highly pH dependent. The removal of tetracycline decreased with the increase of initial concentration, but the absolute removal quantity was more at high concentration. The presence of cations and anions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, CO3(2-) and SO4(2-) had no significant effect on the tetracycline removal in our experimental conditions, while SiO3(2-) and PO4(3-) had hindered the adsorption of tetracycline. The mechanism investigation found that tetracycline removal was mainly achieved by the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by the tetracycline species and formation of surface complexes at the water/oxide interface. This primary study suggests that Fe-Mn binary oxide with a proper Fe:Mn molar ratio will be a very promising material for the removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions.

  6. Removal of tetracycline from water by Fe-Mn binary oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Liu; Yang Yang; Jin Kang; Maohong Fan; Jiuhui Qu

    2012-01-01

    Significant concerns have been raised over the presence of antibiotics including tetracyclines in aquatic environments.A series of FeMn binary oxide with different Fe:Mn molar ratios was synthesized by a simultaneous oxidation and coprecipitation process for TC removal.Results showed that Fe-Mn binary oxide had higher removal efficiency than that of hydrous iron oxide and hydrous manganese oxide,and that the oxide with a Fe:Mn molar ratio of 5:1 was the best in removal than other molar ratios.The tetracycline removal was highly pH dependent.The removal of tetracycline decreased with the increase of initial concentration,but the absolute removal quantity was more at high concentration.The presence of cations and anions such as Ca2+,Mg2+,CO32- and SO42- had no significant effect on the tetracycline removal in our experimental conditions,while SiO32- and PO43- had hindered the adsorption of tetracycline.The mechanism investigation found that tetracycline removal was mainly achieved by the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by the tetracycline species and formation of surface complexes at the water/oxide interface.This primary study suggests that Fe-Mn binary oxide with a proper Fe:Mn molar ratio will be a very promising material for the removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions.

  7. Scavenging of Cd through Fe/Mn oxides within natural surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Huang, Guo-he; Zhang, Bai-yu; Guo, Shu-hai

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of Cd scavenging from solutions by Fe/Mn oxides in natural surface coatings (NSCs) was investigated under laboratory conditions. Selective extraction methods were employed to estimate the contributions of Fe/Mn oxides, where hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.01 mol/L NH2OH x HCl + 0.01 mol/L HNO3), sodium dithionite (0.4 mol/L Na2S2O4) and nitric acid (10% HNO3) were used as extraction reagents. The Cd scavenging was accomplished with developing periods of the NSCs (totally 21 data sets). The resulting process dynamics fitted well to the Elovich equation, demonstrating that the amount of Cd scavenged was proportional to the increments of Fe/Mn oxides that were accumulated in the NSCs. The amount of Cd bound to Fe oxides (M,,) and Mn oxides (MCdMn could be quantified by solving two equations based on the properties of two extraction reagents. The amount of Cd scavenged by Fe/Mn oxides could also be estimated using MCdFe and MCdMn, divided by the total amounts of Fe and Mn oxides in the NSCs, respectively. The results indicated that the Cd scavenging by Fe/Mn oxides was dominated by Fe oxides, with less roles attributed to Mn oxides. The estimated levels of Cd scavenging through Fe and Mn oxides agreed well with those predicted through additive-adsorption and linear-regression models.

  8. Holographic Storage Properties of In:Fe:Mn:LiNbO3 Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In:Fe:Mn:LiNbO3(LN) crystals were grown in air atmosphere by Czochralski method with different concentration of In (0, 1, 2, 3 mol%) in the melts, while the contents of Fe2O3 and MnO were 0.1 and 0.5 mol%, respectively. The location of doping ions was analyzed by Ultravioletvisible absorption spectra and differential thermal analysis. The diffraction efficiency (η), writing time (τw) and erasure time (τe) of the crystals were measured by two-beam coupling experiment. The dynamic range and photorefractive sensitivity have also been calculated. The results showed that with the increase of In ions in the melt, the absorption edge of In:Fe:Mn:LN crystal shifts to the violet firstly and then makes the Einstein shift, the Curie temperature of crystal increases firstly and then decreases, the storage ratio speeds up, diffraction efficiency decreases, and dynamic range and photorefractive sensitivity increase. The mechanism of holographic storage properties of In:Fe:Mn:LN crystal with different doping concentration of In3+ was investigated, suggesting the In:Fe:Mn:LN crystals are excellent holographic storage materiel with better synthetical properties than Fe:Mn:LN crystals.

  9. Thickness dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers, which was found to be one order of magnitude larger than that of heavy metal and insulating ferromagnet or antiferromagnet bilayer systems, and comparable to that of NiFe/Pt bilayers. The spin Hall magnetoresistance shows a non-monotonic dependence on the thicknesses of both FeMn and Pt. The former can be accounted for by the thickness dependence of net magnetization in FeMn thin films, whereas the latter is mainly due to spin accumulation and diffusion in Pt. Through analysis of the Pt thickness dependence, the spin Hall angle, spin diffusion length of Pt and the real part of spin mixing conductance were determined to be 0.2, 1.1 nm, and 5.5 × 1014 Ω−1m−2, respectively. The results corroborate the spin orbit torque effect observed in this system recently.

  10. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2008-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  11. EFFECT OF SPECIMEN ASPECT RATIO ON FATIGUE LIFE OF CLOSED CELL Al-Si-Ca ALLOY FOAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amkee Kim; Ilhyun Kim

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-static and compressive fatigue tests on the closed cell Al-Si-Ca alloy foam specimens with three different aspect ratios were performed.It turned out that the onset of cyclic shortening of foam with a lower aspect ratio took place earlier and the fatigue strength was lower compared with the specimen with a higher aspect ratio,although aU the dimensions of specimen satisfied the seven times the cell size criterion,while the quasi-static stress-strain curves were almost same having same Young's modulus,yield stress and plateau stress.Therefore,the seven times the cell size criterion for the quasi-static compression behavior was not applicable to the fatigue analysis of Al-Si-Ca alloy foam.

  12. In-plane magnetic anisotropies in Ni/FeMn and Ni90Fe10/FeMn exchange biased bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, M. J. M.; de Oliveira, R. B.; Martins, M. D.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2007-12-01

    The in-plane magnetic anisotropy in Ni/FeMn and Ni90Fe10/FeMn exchange-biased bilayers prepared by co-evaporation under molecular beam epitaxy conditions is investigated employing longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The exchange anisotropy was induced by a magnetic field cooling immediately after the deposition of the bilayers. Besides the induced term, the presence of an additional uniaxial anisotropy in the FM layers was detected both by MOKE and FMR, and the characteristic directions of these two anisotropy terms are not coincident. The interplay between the anisotropy contributions is discussed considering micromagnetic simulations and the in-plane resonance condition for different magnetic field orientation. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to complement the characterization of the samples.

  13. Strain development during the phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We use powder X-ray diffraction to evaluate the temperature dependence of the crystalline properties during the magnetic phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz as a function of the Fe/Mn/Si ratio. Both the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases were observed as peak overlaps in the patterns around...... the Curie temperature (TC) occurring continuously in a temperature range of about 5 K around TC. Using the Williamson-Hall method, we evaluate the strain developing in the crystallites during the transition and find that it is associated with the growth of the paramagnetic phase as the transition occurs...

  14. Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Turgut

    2004-11-01

    Chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence yields of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds were investigated. Samples were excited using 59.5 keV energy photons from a 241Am radioisotope source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence yields (K) for Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds were observed. The values are compared with theoretical, semiempirical fit and experimental ones for the pure elements.

  15. Preparation of a novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite and its application for aqueous Hg(II) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingchun; Huang, Yao; Gong, Yanyan; Lyu, Honghong; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Jianli

    2016-10-05

    A novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (GO/Fe-Mn) composite was synthesized (molar ratio of Fe/Mn=3/1 and mass ratio of Fe/GO=1/7.5) and investigated for the sorption characteristics and mechanisms of aqueous mercury (Hg(2+)) as well as the biological effects to wheat and rice. Characterization tests showed that Fe-Mn oxides were impregnated onto GO sheets in an amorphous form through oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., CO, epoxy COC, carboxyl OCO, and CO) and π-π interactions. GO/Fe-Mn possessed large surface area, surface enhanced Raman scattering with more sp(3) defects, and greater thermal stability than GO. XPS analysis revealed that Fe2O3, FeOOH, MnO2, MnOOH, and MnO were the dominant metal oxides in GO/Fe-Mn. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Sips isotherm model fitted well with the sorption kinetic and isotherm data. The maximum sorption capacity for mercury was 32.9mg/g. Ligand exchange and surface complexation were the dominant mechanisms for mercury removal. GO/Fe-Mn greatly reduced the bioavailability of mercury to wheat and rice, even promoted the seedling growth. This work suggests that GO/Fe-Mn can be used as an effective and environmental-friendly adsorbent in heavy metal remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Superplasticity in a lean Fe-Mn-Al steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongho; Kang, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kawasaki, Megumi; Lee, Han-Joo; Ponge, Dirk; Raabe, Dierk; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-09-29

    Superplastic alloys exhibit extremely high ductility (>300%) without cracks when tensile-strained at temperatures above half of their melting point. Superplasticity, which resembles the flow behavior of honey, is caused by grain boundary sliding in metals. Although several non-ferrous and ferrous superplastic alloys are reported, their practical applications are limited due to high material cost, low strength after forming, high deformation temperature, and complicated fabrication process. Here we introduce a new compositionally lean (Fe-6.6Mn-2.3Al, wt.%) superplastic medium Mn steel that resolves these limitations. The medium Mn steel is characterized by ultrafine grains, low material costs, simple fabrication, i.e., conventional hot and cold rolling, low deformation temperature (ca. 650 °C) and superior ductility above 1300% at 850 °C. We suggest that this ultrafine-grained medium Mn steel may accelerate the commercialization of superplastic ferrous alloys.Research in new alloy compositions and treatments may allow the increased strength of mass-produced, intricately shaped parts. Here authors introduce a superplastic medium manganese steel which has an inexpensive lean chemical composition and which is suited for conventional manufacturing processes.

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of nanostructural evolution under post-irradiation annealing in dilute FeMnNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiapetto, M. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Mol (Belgium); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Universite de Lille 1, ENSCL, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Universite de Lille 1, ENSCL, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS, Etude et Modelisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Materiaux (EM2VM) (France); Domain, C. [EDF R and D, Departement Materiaux et Mecanique des Composants, Les Renardieres, Moret sur Loing (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS, Etude et Modelisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Materiaux (EM2VM) (France); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Mol (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    Post-irradiation annealing experiments are often used to obtain clearer information on the nature of defects produced by irradiation. However, their interpretation is not always straightforward without the support of physical models. We apply here a physically-based set of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations of the nanostructural evolution of FeMnNi alloys under irradiation to the simulation of their post-irradiation isochronal annealing, from 290 to 600 C. The model adopts a ''grey alloy'' scheme, i.e. the solute atoms are not introduced explicitly, only their effect on the properties of point-defect clusters is. Namely, it is assumed that both vacancy and SIA clusters are significantly slowed down by the solutes. The slowing down increases with size until the clusters become immobile. Specifically, the slowing down of SIA clusters by Mn and Ni can be justified in terms of the interaction between these atoms and crowdions in Fe. The results of the model compare quantitatively well with post-irradiation isochronal annealing experimental data, providing clear insight into the mechanisms that determine the disappearance or re-arrangement of defects as functions of annealing time and temperature. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Constitutive model development for lead free solder alloys at multiple specimen scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang

    A fundamental study of thermal-mechanical response of Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu at different specimen scales was conducted. The investigation includes aging effects on microstructure and tensile property. It also includes tensile creep behavior and microstructure changes. At all stages, we compared our Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu measurements with the well known 63Sn37Pb lead-tin eutectic. The constitutive models were then developed based on the experimental data. This work led to some important conclusions, which indicate that (i) the thin cast material exhibited a much finer as-quenched microstructure than the bulk material with the IMC phase restricted to a thin network. Both the bulk and thin cast materials continually softened during room temperature aging, while both materials initially softened and then subsequently hardened when aged at 120°C and 180°C. The thin cast material was in all cases significantly softer than the bulk material, and responded to aging as if it were bulk material aged at a higher temperature, (ii) the Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu alloy showed much lower absolute creep rates than the 63SnPb37. The power law defined stress exponent significantly increases with increasing stress in both the 63Sn37Pb and Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu alloys, therefore the Dorn model is unsuitable for these materials over large stress and temperature ranges. Both sets of experimental data were successfully fit with the present power law stress dependant energy barrier model and the Garofalo model, and (iii) the thin cast material is less creep-resistant than the bulk material. In the bulk material the relevant climb process occurs within a finely dispersed IMC eutectic which covers broad areas within the material. In the thin cast material the relevant climb process occurs primarily in the beta-Sn grains which continuously surround isolated, coarse IMC particles. This resulted in the activation energy of the bulk material being larger than that for the thin cast material. The strength deficiency of the thin cast

  19. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal.

  20. Effect of Cu surface segregation on the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The NiFe/FeMn bilayers with different buffer layers (Ta or Ta/Cu) were prepared by magnetron sputtering.Results show that the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn films with Ta buffer is higher than that of the films with Ta/ Cu buffer. We analysed the reasons by investigating the crystallographic texture, surface roughness and surface segregation of both films, respectively. We found that the decrease of the exchange coupling fields of NiFe/FeMn films with Ta/Cu buffer layers was mainly caused by the Cu surface segregation on NiFe surface.

  1. On the use of Arion ater to biomonitor environmental pollution by Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, with a special insight into the population variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, D; Bolón, M; Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A

    2015-05-01

    The suitability of Arion ater as a biomonitor of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn was assessed. Individual specimens were collected from 22 sampling sites. Slugs from 3 of the sites were analysed individually, whereas the slugs from the other sites were pooled to make a composite sample for each site. The tissue burdens did not differ between individuals from contaminated and uncontaminated sites, and there was no gradient of bioaccumulation of any of the elements in the surroundings of the smelter. Analysis of the individual specimens from the 3 sites revealed very high coefficients of variation for the metal concentrations. As a result of the high level of variation, large numbers of slugs are required to produce a low error in characterizing the mean concentration at each site. Furthermore, as a consequence of the similar mean concentrations and high variability, large numbers of samples are needed to detect significant differences between pairs of sites.

  2. Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Aluminum Alloy AISI 6061-T6 on Pre-corroded and Non-corroded Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Almaraz, Gonzalo M.; Dueñas Aburto, Antonio; Correa Gómez, Erasmo

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic fatigue tests are carried out on aluminum alloy 6061-T6 in order to analyze the fatigue endurance behavior under artificial pre-corrosion attack by hydrochloric acid for the pH concentrations of 0.47 and 0.80. The pre-corrosion attack is used to simulate the long-time environmental effect and the corresponding decay of fatigue life in regard to non-corroded specimens. Experimental results show that ultrasonic fatigue endurance under these two degrees of pre-corrosion attack decreases dramatically. Furthermore, it is observed that crack initiation is frequently associated with one or several pre-corrosion pitting holes at the specimen surface. Pitting holes are assumed to be semi-hemispherical and the stress concentration factors are evaluated taking into account the size and proximity of two crack initiation pitting holes. The crack growth rates are obtained for the pre-corroded specimens and compared to the non-corroded specimen. Finally, conclusions are listed concerning ultrasonic fatigue endurance of testing specimens, together with the fracture surfaces, crack paths, and crack growth rates.

  3. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 ± 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 980MPa grade Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yinghua; Xie, Chunqian

    2017-06-01

    Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight high strength steel, adding more Mn, Al and C elements into conventional AHSS, shows amazing mechanical properties, corrosion resistant and weight reduction than conventional AHSS. The mechanical properties and microstructure of Fe-15Mn-6.8Al-0.9C-0.2Ti steel after annealing process were investigated. The results show that the microstructures consisted of secondary phases TiC precipitate and ferrite in the austenite matrix. The tensile strength and elongation of the steel are 985MPa and 36%, respectively. The density is 6.86g/cm3. Continuous strain hardening behavior provides Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steel with perfect combination of strength and ductility.

  5. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG BinHui; LIU YongSheng; GAO Shan

    2008-01-01

    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 卤 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  6. Tuning the metamagnetic transition in the (Co, Fe)MnP system for magnetocaloric purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillou, F.; Brück, E.

    2013-01-01

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect taking place at the antiferro-to-ferromagnetic transition of (Co,Fe)MnP phosphides has been characterised by magnetic and direct ΔTad measurements. In Co0.53Fe0.47MnP, entropy change of 1.5 Jkg−1 K−1 and adiabatic temperature change of 0.6 K are found at room temper

  7. Interfacial strain and defects in asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayence, Arnaud; Wéry, Madeleine; Tran, Dung Trung; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds.Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials characterization, powder X-ray diffraction, EFTEM images, EELS spectra, HAADF-STEM. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01373b

  8. Study of Residual Stress Tensors in High-Speed Milled Specimens of Aluminium Alloys Using a Method of Indent Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Víctor Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available From data obtained using a method of indent pairs it was possible to analyse different residual stress states generated in high-speed milled specimens of AA 6082-T6 and AA 7075-T6 aluminium alloys. The present method integrates a special device of indentation into a universal measuring machine, allowing the introduction of elongated indents to significantly reduce the absolute error of measurement. Diverse protocols for operations of high-speed face milling allow us to compare residual stress tensors inherent to climb and conventional cutting zones. Through an exhaustive analysis of the Mohr’s circles corresponding to those zones, a relationship was detected, which expresses the sensitivity of both alloys to develop surface residual stresses.

  9. Selective extraction and separation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in river surficial sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-mei; WANG Xiao-li; LI Yu; GUO Shu-hai; ZHONG Ai-ping

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the adsorption mechanism of trace metals to surficial sediments (SSs), a selective extraction procedure was improved in the present work. The selective extraction procedure has been proved to selectively remove and separate Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials (OMs) in the non-residual fraction from the SSs collected in Songhua River, China. After screening different kinds of conventional extractants of Fe and Mn oxides and OMs used for separation of heavy metals in the soils respectively applied to selectively extract Mn oxides, Fe/Mn oxides and OMs. After the extraction treatments, the target components were removed with extraction efficiencies between 86.09%-93.36% for the hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment, 80.63%-101.09% for the oxalate solution extraction, and 94.76%-102.83% for the hydrogen peroxide digestion, respectively. The results indicate that this selective extraction technology was effective for the extraction and separation of Fe, Mn oxides and OMs in the SSs,and important for further mechanism study of trace metal adsorption onto SSs.

  10. Removal of thallium from aqueous solutions using Fe-Mn binary oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huosheng; Chen, Yongheng; Long, Jianyou; Li, Xiuwan; Jiang, Daqian; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Jianying; Huang, Xuexia; Liu, Juan; Xu, Ruibing; Gong, Jian

    2017-09-15

    In this study, Fe-Mn binary oxides, which harbor the strong oxidative power of manganese dioxide and the high adsorption capacity of iron oxides, were synthesized for Tl(I) removal using a concurrent chemical oxidation and precipitation method. The adsorption of Tl onto the Fe-Mn adsorbent was fast, effective, and selective, with equilibrium sorption reaching over 95% under a broad operating pH (3-12), and high ionic strength (0.1-0.5mol/L). The adsorption can be well fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and the kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra suggest that surface complexation, oxidation and precipitation were the main mechanisms for the removal of Tl. This study shows that the Fe-Mn binary oxides could be a promising adsorbent for Tl removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructures of NiFe/nonmagnetic metal spacer/FeMn films and their influences on exchange coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Minghua(李明华); YU; Guanghua(于广华); ZHU; Fengwu(朱逢吾); HE; Ke(何珂); LAI; Wuyan(赖武彦)

    2003-01-01

    Ta/NiFe/nonmagnetic metal spacer/FeMn films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The dependences of the exchange coupling field (Hex) between an antiferromagnetic FeMn layer and a ferromagnetic NiFe layer on the thickness of nonmagnetic metal spacer layers were systematically studied. The results show that the Hex dramatically decreases with the increase in the thicknesses of Bi and Ag spacer layers. However, it gradually decreases with the increase in the thickness of a Cu spacer layer. For a Cu space layer, its crystalline structure is the same as that of NiFe and the lattice parameters of them are close to each other. The Cu layer and FeMn layer will epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer in succession, so the (111) texture of the FeMn layer will not be damaged. As a result, the Hex gradually decreases with the deposition thickness of a Cu layer. For an Ag space layer, its crystalline structure is the same as that of NiFe, but its lattice parameter is very different from that of NiFe. Thus, neither an Ag nor an FeMn layer will epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer and the (111) texture of the FeMn layer will be damaged. The Hex rapidly decreases with the increase in the deposition thickness of an Ag layer. For a Bi spacer layer, not only its crystalline structure but also its lattice parameter is greatly different from that of NiFe. For the same reason, the Bi and FeMn layer cannot epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer. The texture of the FeMn layer will also be damaged. Therefore, the Hex rapidly decreases with the increase in the deposition thickness of a Bi layer as well. However, the research result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very small amount of surfactant Bi atoms will migrate to the FeMn layer surface when they are deposited on the NiFe/FeMn interface. Thus, the Hex will hardly decrease.

  12. On the Less Known Effects of Environment and Specimen Geometry on Creep Fracture of Nickel Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, M. C.; P. Rama Rao

    1990-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to the fact that during exposure of nickel to air at elevated temperatures, oxygen diffuses through the grain boundary and reacts with carbon forming gas bubbles of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide. Voids are produced due to the high pressure generated by the gas bubbles which cause creep embrittlement. Alloying nickel with 3.8 weight per cent aluminium, which is a stronger oxide forming element as compared to carbon, could not prevent diffusion of oxygen ...

  13. Irreversible structure change of the as prepared FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x}-structure on the initial cooling through the curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höglin, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hoglin@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Cedervall, Johan [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael Svante; Sarkar, Tapati; Nordblad, Per [Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlberg, Martin [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} experiences a first order para- to ferromagnetic transition at about 200 K. In common with some other alloy compositions crystallizing in the Fe{sub 2}P structure, the magnetic transition of the as prepared alloy occurs at a lower temperature than on subsequent cooling events. This virgin effect is found to be accompanied by a magnetostrictively induced irreversible structure change that persists on succeeding cooling heating cycles. These findings provide means to understand and control the thermal hysteresis of the (Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 2}P{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloy system which is a promising material class for use in magnetocaloric refrigerators. - Highlights: • FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} exhibits a first order phase transition at the Curie temperature (T{sub c}). • The lattice parameters exhibit a discontinuous change at the transition. • The structure is permanently altered by the initial cooling through T{sub c}. • The transition temperature on cooling is enhanced by initial cooling. • Subsequent cooling/heating does not cause further changes of T{sub c}.

  14. Synthesis, structural and dielectric properties of double perovskite Ho2FeMnO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-05-01

    A new double perovskite Ho2FeMnO6 was grown by nitrate route. Temperature dependent dielectric response was recorded at different frequencies. Relaxor-like-behavior is observed whose activation energy was calculated using Arrhenius equation. The dispersion is very small at room temperature. The Nyquist plot over a broad frequency range at room temperature provides evidence for the presence of three relaxations from sample electrode interface, grain boundary and grain. The corresponding values of resistance and capacitance were calculated from the equivalent circuit model analysis of the Nyquist plot.

  15. Exchange Bias in NiCo/FeMn Bilayers with Stripe Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jing; SHI Zhong; ZHOU Shi-Ming; ZHANG Xia; XIA Yun-Jie

    2009-01-01

    Exchange bias in NiCo/FeMn bilayers is established by alternating current (magnetic) field cooling, and stripe domains are induced as manifested by the "double" hysteresis loop. Only one resonance peak occurs at high magnetic fields in the in-plane ferromagnetic resonance spectra. The exchange field measured by both the magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonances is inversely proportional to the ferromagnetic layer thickness tfM.More remarkably, the exchange field determined by the ferromagnetic resonance is smaller than that of the magnetometry measurements.It is suggested to arise from the misalignment of the unidirectional anisotropic directions in neighboring domains.

  16. Study on a green synthetic method of TRPPMCI (M = Fe, Mn, Co)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing FAN; Yuanbin SHE; Aixin WANG

    2009-01-01

    A green synthetic method using mixted solvents of di-methyl formamide (DMF) and acids instead of single DMF to synthesize metalloporphyrins (TRPPMCI) from TRPPH2 and MC12 metallization was proposed in this paper. A series of TRPPMCI (M = Fe, Mn, Co) were synthesized through this innovative synthetic method, and these complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic techniques, including IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the metallization time was markedly reduced from about 10h to 0.5 h in contrast with the conventional synthetic methods.

  17. Microstructural Changes in a High-Manganese Austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural changes in the age-hardenable Fe-28wt.%Mn-9wt.%Al-1wt.%C steel during ageing at 550°C for various times have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The steel was produced in an induction furnace and the ingot, after homogenization at 1150°C for 3 hours under a protective argon atmosphere, was hot-rolled and subsequently cold-rolled up to 23% reduction. The sheet was then aged at 550°C for various times in an argon atmosphere and cooled in air. XRD analysis and TEM observations revealed a modulated structure and superlattice reflections produced by spinodal decomposition, which occurred during ageing at 550°C. Theexistence of satellites suggests that either (Fe, Mn3AlCx carbides were formed within the austenite matrix by spinodal decomposition during cooling or chemical fluctuactions occurred between the (Fe, Mn3AlCx carbides and the austenitic matrix.

  18. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications.

  19. The removal efficiency and insight into the mechanism of para arsanilic acid adsorption on Fe-Mn framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tista Prasai; Zhang, Gong; Koju, Rashmi; Qi, Zenglu; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-12-01

    Para arsanilic acid (p-ASA) is extensively used as feed additives in poultry industry, resulting contaminates soil and natural water sources through the use of poultry litter as a fertilizer in croplands. Thus, removal of p-ASA prior to its entering environments is significant to control their environmental risk. Herein, we studied Fe-Mn framework and cubic Fe(OH)3 as promising novel adsorbents for the removal of p-ASA from aqueous solution. The chemical and micro-structural properties of Fe-Mn framework and cubic Fe(OH)3 materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (SBET), zeta (ζ-) potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The maximum adsorption capacity for p-ASA on Fe-Mn framework and cubic Fe(OH)3 was determined to be 1.3mmolg(-1) and 0.72mmolg(-1) at pH4.0, respectively. Adsorption of p-ASA decreased gradually with increasing pH indicated that adsorption was strongly pH dependent. Azophenylarsonic acid was identified as an oxidation intermediate product of p-ASA after adsorption on Fe-Mn framework. Plausible removal mechanism for p-ASA by Fe-Mn framework was proposed. The obtained results gain insight into the potential applicability of Fe-Mn framework, which can be potentially important for the removal of p-ASA from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, Peter, E-mail: peter.savin@urfu.ru [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Guzmán, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lepalovskij, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Asenjo, Agustina [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vas’kovskiy, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vazquez, Manuel [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer. - Highlights: • FeNi/FeMn bilayers and FeNi/FeMn/FeNi trilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Post-deposition heat treatments at the temperatures below 200 °C during 5 min were made. • Annealing reduces the exchange field for the first FeNi layer in trilayers. • The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. • Exchange field changes are most likely caused by a modification of interface roughness.

  1. The character of FeMn-1# powder catalyst and its influence on the synthesis of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Q.; Ma, H. A.; Han, Q. G.; Hu, M. H.; Li, R.; Zeng, M. F.; Jia, X.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper industrial diamond crystal was synthesized using FeMn-1# powder catalyst in China-type cubic high-pressure apparatus at 5.7 GPa and 1400-1600 °C. The growth feature of diamond in the graphite-FeMn-1# system was researched. Optical microscope observation showed that all the diamond crystals were light yellow octahedral with grain size of 0.3-0.5 mm. There are also plenty of bubbles in the crystals. By SEM, we can see that the surface of diamond is smooth and the crystal is intact. Mössbauer spectrum was used to detect the impurity in the diamonds.

  2. Efficient removal of trace arsenite through oxidation and adsorption by magnetic nanoparticles modified with Fe-Mn binary oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified simultaneously with amorphous Fe and Mn oxides (Mag-Fe-Mn) were synthesized to remove arsenite [As(III)] from water. Mag-Fe-Mn particles were fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique by employing the maghemite as the magnetic core and Fe-Mn binary oxide (FMBO) as the coating materials. Powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the hybrid material. With a saturation magnetization of 23.2 emu/g, Mag-Fe-Mn particles with size of 20-50 nm could be easily separated from solutions with a simple magnetic process in short time (within 5 min). At pH 7.0, 200 μg/L of As(III) could be easily decreased to below 10 μg/L by Mag-Fe-Mn particles (0.1 g/L) within 20 min. As(III) could be effectively removed by Mag-Fe-Mn particles at initial pH range from 4 to 8 and the residual As was completely oxidized to less toxic arsenate [As(V)]. The co-occurring redox reactions between Mn oxide and As(III) was confirmed by XPS analysis. Chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, and nitrate at common concentration range had negligible influence on As(III) removal, whereas, silicate and phosphate reduced the As(III) removal by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. As(III) removal was not obviously affected by natural organic matter (up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Mag-Fe-Mn could be regenerated with ternary solution of NaOH, NaCl, and NaClO. Throughout five consecutive cycles, the adsorption and desorption efficiencies maintained above 98% and 87%, respectively. Mag-Fe-Mn had a larger adsorption capacity for As(III) (47.76 mg/g) and could remove trace As(III) more thoroughly than MNPs modified solely with either Fe or Mn oxide due to the synergistic effect of the coating Fe and Mn oxides. This research extended the potential applicability of FMBO to a great extent and provided a convenient approach to efficiently remove trace As

  3. Microstructural Influence on Dynamic Properties of Age Hardenable FeMnAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    dependent on the separation distance between the two crystal slabs and modeled using the universal binding energy relation ( UBER ) 28, 29: GC (x... UBER fit results for pure Fe3AlC gave a cleavage energy of GC=5.04 J/m2 and an ideal stress ζ max=40 GPa with the maximum stress and separation...distance λ at 163 0.46 Å, which corresponds to an ideal strain of 12.3%. The UBER fit results for a phosphorus doped Fe3AlC supercell showed that the

  4. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts within a continental margin environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Tracey A.; Hein, James R.; Paytan, Adina; Clague, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Fe-Mn crusts that form on seamounts along the California continental-margin (CCM), within the United States 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone. The study area extends from approximately 30° to 38° North latitudes and from 117° to 126° West longitudes. The area of study is a tectonically active northeast Pacific plate boundary region and is also part of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre with currents dominated by the California Current System. Upwelling of nutrient-rich water results in high primary productivity that produces a pronounced oxygen minimum zone. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts forming along the CCM show distinct chemical and mineral compositions compared to open-ocean crusts. On average, CCM crusts contain more Fe relative to Mn than open-ocean Pacific crusts. The continental shelf and slope release both Fe and Mn under low-oxygen conditions. Silica is also enriched relative to Al compared to open-ocean crusts. This is due to the North Pacific silica plume and enrichment of Si along the path of deep-water circulation, resulting in Si enrichment in bottom and intermediate waters of the eastern Pacific.The CCM Fe-Mn crusts have a higher percentage of birnessite than open-ocean crusts, reflecting lower dissolved seawater oxygen that results from the intense coastal upwelling and proximity to zones of continental slope pore-water anoxia. Carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) is not present and CCM crusts do not show evidence of phosphatization, even in the older sections. The mineralogy indicates a suboxic environment under which birnessite forms, but in which pH is not high enough to facilitate CFA deposition. Growth rates of CCM crusts generally increase with increasing water depth, likely due to deep-water Fe sources mobilized from reduced shelf and slope sediments.Many elements of economic interest including Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, W, and Te have slightly or significantly lower concentrations in CCM crusts relative to crusts from the Pacific

  5. Cyclic Degradation Behavior of < 001 \\rangle -Oriented Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Single Crystals in Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Kriegel, M. J.; Krooß, P.; Martin, S.; Klemm, V.; Weidner, A.; Chumlyakov, Y.; Biermann, H.; Rafaja, D.; Niendorf, T.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, functional fatigue behavior of a near 〈001〉-oriented Fe-Mn-Al-Ni single crystal was investigated under tensile load. An incremental strain test up to 3.5% strain and cyclic tests up to 25 cycles revealed rapid pseudoelastic degradation. Progressive microstructural degradation was studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy. The results show a partially inhibited reactivation of previously formed martensite and proceeding activation of untransformed areas in subsequent cycles. The preferentially formed martensite variants were identified by means of Schmid factor calculation and the Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. Post mortem transmission electron microscopy investigations shed light on the prevailing degradation mechanisms. Different types of dislocations were found promoting the progressive degradation during cyclic loading.

  6. Synthesis of Co/MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) Core/Shell Nanocomposite Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Xie, Jin; Sun, Shouheng

    2008-01-01

    Monodispersed cobalt nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable size (8-14 nm) have been synthesized using thermal decomposition of dicobaltoctacarbonyl in organic solvent. The as-synthesized high magnetic moment (125 emu/g) Co NPs are dispersible in various organic solvents, and can be easily transferred into aqueous phase by surface modification using phospholipids. However, the modified hydrophilic Co NPs are not stable as they are quickly oxidized, agglomerated in buffer. Co NPs are stabilized by coating the MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) ferrite shell. Core/shell structured bimagnetic Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites are prepared with tunable shell thickness (1-5 nm). The Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites retain the high magnetic moment density from the Co core, while gaining chemical and magnetic stability from the ferrite shell. Comparing to Co NPs, the nanocomposites show much enhanced stability in buffer solution at elevated temperatures, making them promising for biomedical applications.

  7. Determining the first-order character of La (Fe,Mn ,Si ) 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratko, Milan; Lovell, Edmund; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2017-02-01

    Definitive determination of first-order character of the magnetocaloric magnetic transition remains elusive. Here we use a microcalorimetry technique in two modes of operation to determine the contributions to entropy change from latent heat and heat capacity separately in an engineered set of La (Fe,Mn ,Si ) 13 samples. We compare the properties extracted by this method with those determined using magnetometry and propose a model-independent parameter that would allow the degree of first-order character to be defined across different families of materials. The microcalorimetry method is sufficiently sensitive to allow observation at temperatures just above the main magnetic transition of an additional peak feature in the low field heat capacity associated with the presence of Mn in these samples. The feature is of magnetic origin but is insensitive to magnetic field, explicable in terms of inhomogeneous occupancy of Mn within the lattice resulting in antiferromagnetic ordered Mn clusters.

  8. Magnetic, electronic, and optical properties of double perovskite Bi2FeMnO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Chen, Aiping; Yarotski, Dmitry A.; Trugman, Stuart A.; Jia, Quanxi; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2017-03-01

    Double perovskite Bi2FeMnO6 is a potential candidate for the single-phase multiferroic system. In this work, we study the magnetic, electronic, and optical properties in BFMO by performing the density functional theory calculations and experimental measurements of magnetic moment. We also demonstrate the strain dependence of magnetization. More importantly, our calculations of electronic and optical properties reveal that the onsite local correlation on Mn and Fe sites is critical to the gap opening in BFMO, which is a prerequisite condition for the ferroelectric ordering. Finally, we calculate the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of Fe and Mn ions (L2 and L3 edges) in BFMO.

  9. Adsorption Kinetic Properties of As(III) on Synthetic Nano Fe-Mn Binary Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yu; Yanxin Wang; Shuqiong Kong; Evalde Mulindankaka; Yuan Fang; Ya Wu

    2016-01-01

    The adsorptive removal of arsenic by synthetically-prepared nano Fe-Mn binary oxides (FM) was investigated. A novel method using potassium permanganate and ferric chloride as raw materials was used to synthesise FM. The molar ratio of Fe and Mn in the synthetic Fe-Mn binary oxides was 4 : 3. The FM-1 and FM-2 (prepared at different activation temperatures) having high specific surface areas (358.87 and 128.58 m2/g, respectively) were amorphous and of nano particle types. The amount of arsenic adsorbed on FM-1 was higher than that adsorbed on FM-2 particles. After adsorption by FM-1, residual arsenic concentration decreased to less than 10μg/L. The adsorption kinetics data were analyzed using different kinetic models including pseudofirst-order model, pseudo second-order model, Elovich model and in-traparticle diffusion model. Pseudo second-order kinetic model was the most appropriate model to describe the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption percentage of As(III) increased in the pH range of 2–3 while it de-creased with the increase of pH ( 3

  10. Model of the Evolution of Deformation Defects and Irreversible Strain at Thermal Cycling of Stressed TiNi Alloy Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Aleksandr E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This microstructural model deals with simulation both of the reversible and irreversible deformation of a shape memory alloy (SMA. The martensitic transformation and the irreversible deformation due to the plastic accommodation of martensite are considered on the microscopic level. The irreversible deformation is described from the standpoint of the plastic flow theory. Isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening are taken into account and are related to the densities of scattered and oriented deformation defects. It is supposed that the phase transformation and the micro plastic deformation are caused by the generalized thermodynamic forces, which are the derivatives of the Gibbs’ potential of the two-phase body. In terms of these forces conditions for the phase transformation and for the micro plastic deformation on the micro level are formulated. The macro deformation of the representative volume of the polycrystal is calculated by averaging of the micro strains related to the evolution of the martensite Bain’s variants in each grain comprising this volume. The proposed model allowed simulating the evolution of the reversible and of the irreversible strains of a stressed SMA specimen under thermal cycles. The results show a good qualitative agreement with available experimental data. Specifically, it is shown that the model can describe a rather big irreversible strain in the first thermocycle and its fast decrease with the number of cycles.

  11. Influence of heat input on weld bead geometry using duplex stainless steel wire electrode on low alloy steel specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Mondal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas metal arc welding cladding becomes a popular surfacing technique in many modern industries as it enhances effectively corrosion resistance property and wear resistance property of structural members. Quality of weld cladding may be enhanced by controlling process parameters. If bead formation is found acceptable, cladding is also expected to be good. Weld bead characteristics are often assessed by bead geometry, and it is mainly influenced by heat input. In this paper, duplex stainless steel E2209 T01 is deposited on E250 low alloy steel specimens with 100% CO2 gas as shielding medium with different heats. Weld bead width, height of reinforcement and depth of penetration are measured. Regression analysis is done on the basis of experimental data. Results reveal that within the range of bead-on-plate welding experiments done, parameters of welding geometry are on the whole linearly related with heat input. A condition corresponding to 0.744 kJ/mm heat input is recommended to be used for weld cladding in practice.

  12. Analysis of surface roughening behavior of 6063 aluminum alloy by tensile testing of a trapezoidal uniaxial specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang, Xiaosong, E-mail: hitxswang@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, Shijian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-08-30

    To determine the quantitative relationship between surface roughness and strain, the surface roughening behavior of a 6063 aluminum alloy tube was examined by tensile testing of a trapezoidal uniaxial specimen, that can provide a continuous strain distribution after tensile deformation. The surface roughness was measured using a laser scanning confocal microscope to reflect the degree of roughening. The microstructure and surface morphology were examined using electron back-scattered diffraction and in-situ scanning electron microscopy to determine the grain orientation and surface topography evolution. The surface roughness increased with strain when the strain was less than 0.067 and then decreased slightly, with a maximum surface roughness of 23.73 µm. Inhomogeneous deformation at the grain boundaries and inside the grains was enhanced with increasing strain, resulting in an increase of surface roughness when the strain was below a critical value. As the strain increased, a greater number of slip systems contributed to the further deformation. Thus, the strain became more homogeneous, and accordingly, the surface roughness slightly decreased.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T111 Aluminum Alloy Joints under Constant Stress Intensity Factor Range Control Testing (For L T Orientation Specimen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeui Han; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, as a series of studies aimed at investigating the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth for friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints, the fatigue crack growth behavior of FSWed 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints was investigated for L T orientation specimens. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted under constant stress intensity factor range (SEFOR) control for 5 specimens of the FSWed 7075-T111 aluminum alloy, including base metal (B M), heat affected zone (Haz), and weld metal (W M) specimens. The mean fatigue crack growth rate of W M specimens was found to be the highest, whereas that of Haz and W M specimens was the lowest. Furthermore, the variability of fatigue crack growth rate was found to be the highest in W M specimens and lowest in B M specimens.

  14. Electrical conduction mechanism of LaNi{sub x}Me{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} (Me = Fe, Mn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Eiki, E-mail: e-niwa@phys.chs.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Department of Integrated Sciences in Physics and Biology, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Maeda, Hiroki; Uematsu, Chie [Department of Integrated Sciences in Physics and Biology, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takuya [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Department of Integrated Sciences in Physics and Biology, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Compositional dependence of (a) electrical conductivity and (b) E{sub a} for hopping conduction of LaNi{sub x}Me{sub 1−x}O{sub 3} (Me = Fe, Mn). - Highlights: • Electrical conduction mechanism of LaNi{sub x}Me{sub 1−x}O{sub 3} (Me = Fe, Mn) was investigated. • Hopping conduction model could be applied for conductivity of both specimens. • The difference of E{sub a} due to that of energy level of Fe and Mn was observed. • Hole concentration estimated by iodimetry increases with increasing Ni content. - Abstract: Electrical conduction mechanism of LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} and LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O{sub 3+δ} expected as Sr-free new cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells was analyzed. Electrical conduction behaviors of both specimens could be well fitted by small polaron hopping conduction model. The electrical conductivity of LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} increased with increasing Ni content, showing agreement with decrease of activation energy for hopping conduction. The decrease of electrical conductivity and increase of activation energy of LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O{sub 3+δ} were observed with increasing Ni content for 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4. Further Ni substitution increased electrical conductivity and decreased activation energy for 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6. It was revealed using iodometry that the difference of hole carrier density between LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} and LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O{sub 3+δ} was small. It was suspected that the origin of the difference of electrical conduction behavior of LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} and LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}O{sub 3+δ} was difference of energy level of e{sub g} band composed of Fe 3d or Mn 3d orbitals and their overlapping quantity with O 2p and Ni 3d band.

  15. PWSCC susceptibility evaluation of mill annealed Alloy 600 SG tubings using mock-up specimens in lithium enhanced 360 C water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, T.; Okamoto, S.; Kitera, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Takamatsu, H.; Matsunaga, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator (SG) tubing in pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environments, or so called PWSCC, has been investigated since the first report by Coriou in 1959. The acceleration of PWSCC by elevating the test temperature up to 365 C, was first reported in 1980 by Bulischeck et al.. Since then, many results of PWSCC phenomena have been reported. It is important for preventive maintenance planning, to predict the life expectation at the operating temperature for a specific structural design. PWSCC susceptibility of mill annealed alloy 600 (MA 600) SG tubing was investigated using mock-up specimens, such as tube sheet expansion specimens and dent shape deformed specimens in lithium enhanced 360 C water (500ppm as B, 20ppm as Li, 45ccH{sub 2}/kgH{sub 2}O). Uniaxial constant load (UCL) tests were carried out for MA 600, thermally treated (TT) Alloy 600, and TT 690 to evaluate the effect of stress, and to evaluate the acceleration factor of the environment compared with the results in normal 360 C reactor coolant system (RCS) water (500ppm as B, 2ppm as Li, 30ccH{sub 2}/kgH{sub 2}O).

  16. Al-Fe-Si、Al-Mn-Si与Al-Fe-Mn-Si体系热力学描述的更新%Update of Al-Fe-Si, Al-Mn-Si and Al-Fe-Mn-Si thermodynamic descriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海林; 陈清; 杜勇; Johan BRATBERG; Anders ENGSTR(O)M

    2014-01-01

    采用Calphad方法对Al-Fe-Mn-Si四元系及其子体系进行热力学评估.首先,通过考虑文献中最新的实验研究结果以及对部分三元化合物应用新的热力学模型,修正Al-Fe-Si三系的热力学描述,显著地改善了整个成分范围内、尤其是富Al角的液相面投影图.随后,对三元化合物α-AlMnSi和β-AlMnSi采用新的模型,精修Al-Mn-Si体系富Al角的热力学描述.然后,通过模拟α-AlMnSi相在Al-Fe-Mn-Si体系中的固溶度,优化Al-Fe-Mn-Si四元系富Al角的热力学描述.在优化时,对α-AlMnSi作特殊考虑并加入限制条件,以确保其不会在Al-Fe-Si三元系中变得稳定.最后,将所获得的热力学描述加入TCAL数据库,通过一系列的相平衡计算与凝固模拟、以及与商业铝合金的实验数据的比较,对所获得的热力学描述进行全面的验证.更新后的TCAL数据库能够可靠地预测Al-Fe-Si基与Al-Fe-Mn-Si基合金中的相形成.

  17. A first-principles study of elastic, magnetic, and structural properties of PrX2 (X=Fe, Mn, Co) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabara, Reham M.; Aly, Samy H.

    2017-02-01

    The elastic, magnetic, and structural properties of PrX2 (X=Fe, Mn, Co) alloys, of the cubic Laves structure (MgCu2), have been evaluated by first-principles density functional theory using both local spin density (LSDA) and generalized gradient (GGA) approximations. The lattice constant, magnetic moment, density of states, band structure, bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative are calculated. At zero pressure, the total magnetic moments of PrFe2, PrCo2, and PrMn2 using GGA are 4.515, 1.05, and 4.79 μB respectively. The bulk moduli using LSDA are higher than those using GGA approximation. The evaluated Bulk moduli of PrFe2, PrMn2 and PrCo2 using GGA approximation are 48.1, 42.98, and 72.23 GPa respectively. The lattice constant and magnetic moment of PrFe2 using GGA approximation are 7.2 Ǻ and 4.51 μB respectively in good agreement with experimental results.

  18. Self-Organization of Friction Surface of Fe-Mn-C-B Coating With Increased Resistance to Abrasion / Samoorganizacja Powierzchni Tarcia Powłoki Fe-Mn-C-B O Zwiększonej Odporności Na Zużycie Ścierne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the research on self-organization of the surface of coating of hypoeutectic alloy Fe-Mn-C-B modified Si, Ni, Cr, Cu with friction with C45 steel. The coatings were obtained by arc welding using a flux-cored wire. Tests of resistance to wear were carried out for hypoeutectic coatings with use of the friction pair pin-on-disc in the conditions of sliding friction, in model lubricating environments. The surface-active (glycerol oil and inactive (Vaseline grease lubricant was used. Tribological tests carried out showed that cooperation of hypoeutectic alloy coating with counterbody of C45 steel with lubrication with surface-active lubricant results in a significant improvement in tribological properties than in case of the lubrication with surface-inactive lubricant. The resulting effect is related to the self-organization of friction surface. After deposition and wear resistance tests, the friction surface microstructure was analysed, as well as the surface and depth distribution of the elements.

  19. Distribution, Morphology, and Chemical Composition of Fe-Mn Nodules in Albeluvisols of the Carpathian Foothills, Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.SZYMA(N)SKI; M.SKIBA

    2013-01-01

    Iron and manganese oxides are common components of soils.They frequently occur in nodules constituting important soil sorbents and play a crucial role in a number of chemical reactions in the soil environment.In addition,the oxides are very sensitive to environmental changes (moisture,pH,Eh) constituting important indicators of soil-forming processes and water movement in the landscape.The objectives of the study were:i) to examine the distribution and size of Fe-Mn nodules in Albeluvisols containing a fragipan horizon; ii) to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the nodules,and iii) to estimate the effect of the fragipan horizon on water movement within the soil profile.An investigation was carried out on five soil profiles containing a fragipan horizon and classified as Fragic Albeluvisols within the Carpathian Foothills in Poland.In the Albeluvisols studied,the maximum concentration of Fe-Mn nodules occurred in the horizon lying directly on the fragipan horizon.This suggests that the pan acts as a natural barrier restricting water infiltration and leads to the seasonal development of a perched water table promoting redox processes.The most common are coarse (1-0.5 mm) and medium (0.5-0.25 mm) irregular Fe-Mn nodules showing a gradual boundary and undifferentiated internal fabric.Eluvial horizons contained also larger amounts of round and dense nodules with a sharp boundary,suggesting frequent oxidation and reduction.The fragipan horizon contained mainly irregular and soft nodules,suggesting longer saturation with water during the year.Concentrations of trace elements (Cu,Zn) and P were higher within Fe-Mn nodules than in the surrounding soil materials,showing that iron and manganese oxides adsorbed and immobilised these elements.

  20. Depositional cycles and Fe/Mn ratio in Upper Absheron substage succession in the western flank of the South Khazarian/Caspian depression of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    depositional environment during its sedimentation. Bedset I (a) is subdivided into 10 interbeds with total thickness 3m 82 cm. Lithologically represented by alternation of shelly sandstone, sandstone, sandy silt, sandy organogenic limestone, and sandy shales. We consider this series as transgressive system tract. Bedset I (b) is subdivided into 8 interbeds with total thickness 2m 98 cm. Lithologically represented by alternation of sandy silt, sandy organogenic limestone, shelly sandstone and sandy shales. We consider this series as transgressive system tract. In this bedset the measurement of Fe/Mn ratio was made only from 4 interbeds: Fe/Mn= 16,1 (Interbed 2); Fe/Mn = 27,8 (Interbed 4); Fe/Mn = 4,2 (Interbed 6); Fe/Mn = 15,8 (Interbed 8). Bedset I (c) is startigraphically younger portion of the same unit and displays lateral facial replacement of proximal, possible, shore face setting by distal shelf environment. Bedset consists of 22 interbeds with total thickness 1m 78 cm. Lithologically represented by alternation of sandy silts and sandstones with two interlayers of sandy limestones. Angle of dipping varies from 9° to 11°. We consider this series as transgressive system tract. In this bedset the measurement of Fe/Mn ratio was made from 19 interbeds: Fe/Mn = 17,6 (Interbed 2); Fe/Mn = 52,6 (Interbed 4); Fe/Mn = 8 (Interbed 5); Fe/Mn = 6,8 (Interbed 6); Fe/Mn = 41,3 (Interbed 7); Fe/Mn = 75,1 (Interbed 8); Fe/Mn = 22,2 (Interbed 9); Fe/Mn = 32,7 (Interbed 10); Fe/Mn = 24,4 (Interbed 11); Fe/Mn = 44,6 (Interbed 13); Fe/Mn = 12,8 (Interbed 14); Fe/Mn = 4,3 (Interbed 15); Fe/Mn = 7,6 (Interbed 16); Fe/Mn = 18,6 (Interbed 17); Fe/Mn = 59,8 (Interbed 18); Fe/Mn = 51,1 (Interbed 19); Fe/Mn = 29,1 (Interbed 20); Fe/Mn = 12,3 (Interbed 21); Fe/Mn = 48,5 (Interbed 22). Bedset II is the massive and homogeneous, thickness 80cm. Lithologically represented by organogenic limestones. Thickness of the bedset increases along striking from 22cm to 85cm. Bedset II lies with angular

  1. Enhancement of bimetallic Fe-Mn/CNTs nano catalyst activity and product selectivity using microemulsion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Zolfaghari; Ahmad; Tavasoli; Saber; Tabyar; Ali; Nakhaei; Pour

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Fe-Mn nano catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes(CNTs) were prepared using microemulsion technique with water-to-surfactant ratios of 0.4-1.6. The nano catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods and their activity and selectivity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis(FTS) have been assessed in a fixed-bed microreactor. The physicochemical properties and performance of the nanocatalysts were compared with the catalyst prepared by impregnation method. Very narrow particle size distribution has been produced by the microemulsion technique at relatively high loading of active metal. TEM images showed that small metal nano particles in the range of 3–7 nm were not only confined inside the CNTs but also located on the outer surface of the CNTs. Using microemulsion technique with water to surfactant ratio of0.4 decreased the average iron particle sizes to 5.1 nm. The reduction percentage and dispersion percentage were almost doubled. Activity and selectivity were found to be dependent on the catalyst preparation method and average iron particle size. CO conversion and FTS rate increased from 49.1% to 71.0% and 0.144 to 0.289 gHC/(gcat h), respectively. While the WGS rate decreased from 0.097 to 0.056 gCO2/(gcat h). C5+liquid hydrocarbons selectivity decreased slightly and olefins selectivity almost doubled.

  2. Fe/MnAs bilayers: Magnetic anisotropy and the role of the interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejandro, G., E-mail: galejand@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Milano, J. [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, UNCUyo-CNEA, (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Steren, L.B. [Centro Atomico Constituyentes-CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Gayone, J.E. [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, UNCUyo-CNEA, (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V.H. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, INSP, UPMC-Paris 6, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-08-15

    We have studied different aspects of the magnetic behavior of Fe(5 nm)/MnAs(100 nm) bilayers epitaxially grown on GaAs(1 0 0). Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were performed in order to characterize the magnetic anisotropies of the films and the interlayer coupling between them. The chemical composition of the interface was investigated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The iron layer FMR spectrum is highly temperature dependent between 280 K and 320 K as its parameters are strongly altered in the {alpha}/{beta} phase coexistence regime of the MnAs layer, revealing a strong interlayer coupling in this T-region. Additionally, the XPS experiments demonstrate the existence of an Fe-MnAs intermixed interface. This result would explain the appearance of an additional uniaxial anisotropy in the plane of the Fe films, together with a strong reduction in its magnetocrystalline anisotropy and a negligible direct exchange coupling in the MnAs ferromagnetic state.

  3. Magnetic anisotropy of Co/Pt/FeMn multilayers grown on polystyrene nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A., E-mail: alessandro.martins@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus de Jatai, 75800 000 Jatai (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, 74001 970 Goiania (Brazil); Soares, M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Fisica, 50670 901 Recife (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    The magnetic anisotropy of Co/Pt/FeMn multilayers grown onto two-dimensional arrays of nanospherical polystyrene particles is studied at room temperature using Ferromagnetic Resonance measurements with X-band microwave frequency. The in-plane and out-of-plane resonance spectra display two uniform absorption modes due to two distinct magnetic phases, revealing an inhomogeneous magnetization profile through the thickness and at the top and the equator of the magnetic caps. The in-plane measurements of the angular dependence of the two absorption fields reveal that the distinct magnetic phases exhibit the effects of twofold and fourfold magnetic anisotropy fields. Out-of-plane measurements show that the magnetization of each magnetic phase depends on the structure of the multilayer and is oriented at a specific direction oblique to the plane of the film. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multilayers investigated in this work were grown at room temperature by dc sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FMR data were taken at room temperature with X-band microwave system (9.6 GHz). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report distinct magnetic phases in the multilayer's. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic phase depends on the structure and is oriented at a specific direction.

  4. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, G. W., E-mail: gary.paterson@glasgow.ac.uk; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); O' Reilly, S.; Bowman, R. [ANSIN, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  5. Green Function Calculations of Properties for the Magnetocaloric Layered Structures Based Upon FeMnAsP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Osvaldo F.

    2016-11-01

    The alternating Fe-Mn layered structures of the compounds FeMnAsxP1-x display properties which have been demonstrated experimentally as very promising as far as commercial applications of the magnetocaloric effect are concerned. However, the theoretical literature on this and other families of magnetocaloric compounds still adopts simple molecular-field models in the description of important statistical mechanical properties like the entropy variation that accompanies applied isothermal magnetic field cycling, as well as the temperature variation following adiabatic magnetic field cycles. In the present paper, a random phase approximation Green function theoretical treatment is applied to such structures. The advantages of such approach are well known since the details of the crystal structure are easily incorporated in the model, as well as a precise description of correlations between neighbor spins can be obtained. We focus on a simple one-exchange parameter Heisenberg model, and the observed first-order phase transitions are reproduced by the introduction of a biquadratic term in the Hamiltonian whose origin is related both to the magnetoelastic coupling with the phonon spectrum in these compounds as well as with the values of spins in the Fe and Mn ions. The calculations are compared with experimental magnetocaloric data for the FeMnAsxP1-x compounds. In particular, the magnetic field dependence for the entropy variation at the transition temperature predicted from the Landau theory of continuous phase transitions is reproduced even in the case of discontinuous transitions.

  6. Fe-Mn binary oxide incorporated into diatomite as an adsorbent for arsenite removal: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fangfang; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Liu, Ruiping; Zhao, Xu

    2009-10-15

    Fe-Mn binary oxide incorporated into diatomite (FMBO-diatomite) was prepared by a simple coating method, and exhibited high oxidation and adsorption ability for arsenite [As(III)]. After being incorporated by Fe-Mn binary oxide, the surface area of diatomite increased 36%, and the pore volume increased five times. The pHzpc of FMBO-diatomite was determined to be 8.1. These characteristics are responsible for the increased As(III) adsorption efficiency. The adsorption equilibria of As(III) on FMBO-diatomite were described well by a Langmuir isotherm model due to the homogeneous distribution of Fe-Mn binary oxide on a diatomite surface. As(III) was oxidized into As(V), and then adsorbed by FMBO-diatomite. The oxidation and adsorption efficiencies for As(III) depended deeply on the pH of solution. When the pH was raised to 8.1, the As(III) adsorption efficiency of FMBO-diatomite was almost equal to the As(III) oxidation efficiency. Silicate and phosphate had negative effects on As(III) adsorption. Also the influence of silicate and phosphate with the pH variation was different.

  7. Non-collinear exchange coupling in Fe/Mn/Fe(0 0 1): insight from scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, D.T. E-mail: daniel.pierce@nist.gov; Davies, A.D.; Stroscio, J.A.; Tulchinsky, D.A.; Unguris, J.; Celotta, R.J

    2000-12-01

    The film growth and morphology of epitaxial Mn films grown on Fe(0 0 1) single-crystal whiskers measured with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) provides insight into the mechanism of interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Mn/Fe(0 0 1) trilayers. The proximity model of Slonczewski for exchange coupling through an antiferromagnet predicts that the coupling angle between the ferromagnetic layers will oscillate around a mean value of 90 deg. with an amplitude that is very sensitive to the width of the thickness distribution of the spacer layer. We measure the thickness distribution with the STM and find that the coupling angle variation predicted by the proximity model is qualitatively consistent with the actual coupling angle variations in Fe/Mn/Fe(0 0 1) measured with scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Going beyond the proximity model and allowing for a non-uniform magnetization of the thin Fe overlayer provides an improved explanation of the results. We contrast the behavior of Fe/Mn/Fe(0 0 1), where the proximity model appears applicable, to coupling through antiferro-magnetic Cr in Fe/Cr/Fe(0 0 1), where it is not, and discuss possible reasons for the difference.

  8. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  9. Analysis of anisotropic damage in forged Al–Cu–Mg–Si alloy based on creep tests, micrographs of fractured specimen and digital image correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariboldi, Elisabetta, E-mail: elisabetta.gariboldi@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34 20156 Milano (Italy); Naumenko, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.naumenko@ovgu.de [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Mechanics, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Ozhoga-Maslovskaja, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.ozhogamaslovskaja@gmail.com [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34 20156 Milano (Italy); Zappa, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.zappa@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to analyze anisotropic damage mechanisms in forged Al–Cu–Mg–Si alloy based on the results of creep tests. Smooth specimens are sampled in three forging directions. Creep strain vs. time curves as well as light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope observations illustrate basic features of damage growth. Flat notch specimens are sampled in different directions to analyze stress redistributions and damage in zones of stress concentration. The digital image correlation technique has been applied in situ in order to extract the strain values on the surface of the notched specimens. All observations demonstrate that the principal origins of anisotropic creep and damage are associated with elongated grains and second phase clustered particles located at grain boundaries. Longitudinal specimens possess nucleations of decohesion sites and growth of voids around second phase particles at grain boundaries. Damage evolution for radial and transverse specimens is due to the formation and growth of cracks in second phase particles orthogonal to the principal stress axis. Residual strains are confined to the notch root as well as to the flanges of advanced macrocrack, indicating the small scale yielding during the creep fracture process.

  10. Effects of applied stress and plastic strain on. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensitic transformation in high Mn alloy polyctystals. Ko Mn tetsu gokin takessho ni okeru. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensite hentai ni oyobosu gairyoku to hizumi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Piao, M.; Hasunuma, T.; Kimura, Y. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1990-06-20

    The influences of applied stress and plastic strain on a transformation austenite ({gamma}) to hcp martensite ({epsilon}) were studied on Fe-16wt%Mn, Fe-24wt%Mn, and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy, and a transformation mechanism and a shape memory phenomenon were more deeply examined. As the quenching structure of three kinds of the alloys consists of two phases of {gamma} and {epsilon}, the specimens were cooled after heated above the A {sub f} temperature to keep {gamma} single phase, and then the tensile tests were carried out. Positive temperature dependence was found under the 0.2% proof stress due to stress-induced {gamma}{yields} {epsilon} transformation in each of Fe-Mn alloy and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy. When {gamma} phase of Fe-24%Mn alloy stabilized due to cyclic transformation was stretched at room temperature, the yield stress was remarkably lowered by the stress-induced {gamma}{r arrow}{epsilon} transformation. When the specimens were stretched at 523K under stress which was larger than the yield strength and then cooled, the elongation along the applied stress direction due to martensitic tranformation was recognized. A shape recovery was remarkable in Si content alloys. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Electronic structure of liquid iron alloys with manganese, chromium, and vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, E. D.; Singer, V. V.; Radovskii, I. Z.; Dovgopol, S. P.; Vorontsov, B. S.; Gel'D, P. V.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical resistivity of liquid FeCr, FeV, and FeMn alloys has been measured in the concentration range between 0 and 70% (by weight) of the dopping element, and over the temperature interval from tmelting to 1750°C. Using the Faber-Ziman-Evans method, concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity of liquid FeCr, FeV, and FeMn alloys have been calculated. Concentration dependences of the number of electrons per atom have been estimated.

  12. Sharply notch cylindrical tension specimen for screening plane-strain fracture toughness. I - Influence of fundamental testing variables on notch strength. II Applications in aluminum alloy quality assurance of fracture toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.; Bucci, R. J.; Collis, S. F.; Kohm, R. F.; Kaufman, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of studies which have been conducted to establish an improved technology base for a use of the sharply notched cylindrical specimen in quality assurance tests of aluminum alloy products. The results are presented of an investigation of fundamental variables associated with specimen preparation and testing, taking into account the influence of the notch root radius, the eccentricity of loading, the specimen diameter, and the notch depth on the sharp notch strength. Attention is given to the statistical procedures which are necessary to establish correlations between the sharp notch strength and the plane-strain fracture toughness for high-strength aluminum alloys.

  13. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  14. Spin structure of exchange biased heterostructures. Fe/MnF{sub 2} and Fe/FeF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B.

    2006-12-18

    In this work, the {sup 57}Fe probe layer technique is used in order to investigate the depth- and temperature-dependent Fe-layer spin structure of exchange biased Fe/MnF{sub 2} and Fe/FeF{sub 2} (pseudo-twinned) antiferromagnetic (AFM) systems by conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) of synchrotron radiation. Two kinds of samples with a 10 A {sup 57}Fe probe layer directly at or 35 A away from the interface, labeled as interface and center sample, respectively, were studied in this work. The results obtained by CEMS for Fe/MnF{sub 2} suggests that, at 80 K, i.e., above T{sub N}=67 K of MnF{sub 2}, the remanent state Fe-layer spin structure of the two studied samples are slightly different due to their different microstructure. In the temperature range from 300 K to 80 K, the Fe-layer spin structure does not change just by zero-field cooling the sample in remanence. For Fe/FeF{sub 2}, a continuous non-monotonic change of the remanent-state Fe spin structure was observed by cooling from 300 K to 18 K. NRS of synchrotron radiation was used to investigate the temperature- and depth-dependent Fe-layer spin structure during magnetization reversal in pseudo-twinned Fe/MnF{sub 2}. A depthdependent Fe spin structure in an applied magnetic field (applied along the bisector of the twin domains) was observed at 10 K, where the Fe spins closer to the interface are not aligned along the field direction. The depth-dependence disappears at 150 K. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic structure of La2O3FeMnSe2: neutron diffraction and physical property measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsgesell, S; Blumenröther, E; Prokeš, K

    2013-02-27

    We report on the characterization of the mixed layered lanthanum iron manganese oxyselenide La(2)O(3)FeMnSe(2), where Fe and Mn share the same crystallographic position. The susceptibility data show a magnetic transition temperature of 76 K and a strong difference between field cooled and zero field cooled (ZFC) data at low fields. While the ZFC magnetization curve exhibits negative values below about 45 K, hysteresis measurement reveals, after an initial negative magnetic moment, a hysteresis loop typical for ferromagnetic material, pointing to competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. Resistivity and dielectric permittivity measurements indicate that La(2)O(3)FeMnSe(2) is a semiconductor. We performed x-ray diffraction at 295 K and neutron diffraction at 90 and 1.7 K. The nuclear and magnetic structure was refined in the space group I4/mmm with a = 4.11031 (3) Å and c = 18.7613 (2) Å at 295 K. We did not detect a structural distortion and the Fe and Mn atoms were randomly distributed. The magnetic order was found to be antiferromagnetic, with a propagation vector q = (0,0,0) and magnetic moments of 3.44 (5) μ(B) per Fe/Mn atom aligned within the a-b plane. This magnetic order is different with respect to the pure Fe or Mn compositions reported in other studies.

  16. Scattering-Suppression in Photochromic LiNbO3:Fe:Mn Non-volatile Holographic Recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德安; 刘立人; 刘友文; 周常河; 徐良瑛

    2001-01-01

    We propose and experimentally investigate a new scheme capable of suppressing light-induced scattering by periodical incoherent erasure during every non-volatile holographic recording cycle in photochromic LiNbO3:Fe:Mn crystals. The results demonstrate that the scattering noise is suppressed effectively, and the final diffraction efficiency of the fixed grating is significantly enhanced, rather than decreased, by about 30% compared with the conventional recording procedure. The period of the recording and incoherent erasure cycle is theoretically calculated and experimentally optimized.

  17. Effect of vanadium on structure-property relations of dual phase fe/mn/si/0.1c steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Alvin; Koo, J. Y.; Thomas, G.

    1981-11-01

    The role of vanadium on the structure-property relations of dual phase Fe/Mn/Si/0.1C steels has been investigated. After intercritical annealing at 800°C, the steels with and without V were either iced brine quenched or air cooled. The steels were also solution treated at 900°C and subsequently air cooled. Although V modified the resultant microstructure, especially the morphology of carbides, the corresponding mechanical properties are not significantly affected by the modified microstructures. It is concluded that V is not beneficial to such dual phase low carbon steels.

  18. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C. [CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France)

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  19. Fabrication of magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires with superior capability for removal of As(III) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao-Jie; Cai, Jie-Kui; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Baoling; Ai, Cui-Ling; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2014-08-30

    Magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires were successfully fabricated to efficient removal of As(III) from water. The adsorption capacity of the porous nanowires for As(III) obviously increased with increasing of manganese oxide in the composite, accompanying decrease of the saturation magnetization of the adsorbents. Magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires with an initial Fe:Mn molar ratio of 1:3 exhibited the highest absorption capacity for As(III) and enable magnetic separation from water. The maximal adsorption capacity value is 171mgg(-1) at pH 7.0. In the initial pH range from 3 to 9, 200μgL(-1) of As(III) could be easily decreased to below 10μgL(-1) by the magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires (0.05gL(-1)) within 75min, and the corresponding residual As was completely oxidized to less toxic As(V). The coexisting chloride, nitrate and sulfate had no significant effect on arsenic removal, whereas, phosphate and humic acid reduced the removal of As(III) by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. The resulting magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires could be a promising adsorbent for As(III) removal from water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid supercapacitor devices based on MnCo2O4 as the positive electrode and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Lee, Seong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2016-12-01

    MnCo2O4 nanosheets and FeMn2O4 nanospheres were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Choline chloride was used as the capping agent during the preparation of the nanoparticles. XRD patterns confirmed the spinel structure of MnCo2O4 and FeMn2O4. XPS measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the prepared spinel metal oxides. HRTEM images revealed the formation of hexagonal nanosheets of MnCo2O4 and nanospheres of FeMn2O4. Electrochemical measurements were made for both positive and negative electrodes using three electrode systems. MnCo2O4 Exhibits 282C g-1 and FeMn2O4 yields 110C g-1 at a specific current of 1 A g-1. Hybrid supercapacitor device was fabricated using MnCo2O4 as the positive and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode material. The hybrid supercapacitor device was delivered a maximum power of 37.57 kW kg-1.

  1. Fe-Mn substance in ocean as reason of regulation radionuclide pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Martynov, Konstantin; Konstantinova, Lia

    2013-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclide in marine sediments as yet little studied [Choppin & Wong 1998]. The work mainly focused on effects of nuclear test fallout. In the works are examined isotopes of Pu - 238; Th - 232; U -234;238; Pu - 239,240,241; Am - 241; Np - 237; Cm -244 [Holm 1995]. It has been shown that seems to accumulate radionuclides in marine sediments. In particular, the importance attached to carbonate complexes (corals, etc.). But questions about the possibility of re-mobilization of radionuclide, forms their concentration, their participation in global geochemical cycles in the ocean, remain open. We believe a major factor controlling the distribution of heavy metals is the formation of ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules hydrogenic at the bottom of the ocean and seamounts. It is likely that the process of formation of Fe-manganese hydrogenic can play a major role in the control of radioactive contamination in the oceanic sediment. At least for the U number of works on the subject [Sherman et al. 2008]. The high sensitivity of the Fe-manganese crust is known to the isotopic composition of lead [Loranger & Zayed 1994, Collen et al 2011]. Recent work [Wilkins etal 2006, Renshaw etal 2009] show a large role; Fe (III)-and Mn (IV)-reducing organisms that anaerobic bacteria in oxidation and therefore changes in mobility systems U and Pu. So much interest is data for sorption of radionuclide on hydroxides Fe and Mn. Unfortunately we are not aware of works on the subject. We have therefore taken their own experimental studies on sorption of radionuclide on natural Fe-Mn crusts (sample from Magellan seamount Pacific ocean) [Martynov et al 2012]. The results showed high sorption ability of material crusts for fixation of radionuclides: U-233, Np-237, Pu-238, Am-241. For all radionuclide experiment absorption has been reached already in the first hour it was 96.0% of total substance radionuclide absorbed from the solution, and after the first day it was reached

  2. A study of Fe2+xMn1-xAl alloys: Structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduani, C.; Migliavacca, A.; Pöttker, W. E.; Schaf, J.; Krause, J. C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Samudio Pérez, C. A.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Yoshida, M. I.

    2007-08-01

    The Fe2+xMn1-xAl alloys were studied experimentally to assess the effect of variations of composition around stoichiometric on the structural and magnetic properties of this system. The results indicate that the ordered L21(X2YZ) structure of full Heusler alloys can be stabilized with small deviations of composition from the stoichiometric 2:1:1. The saturation magnetization is strongly composition dependent and decreases with the increase of the Mn concentration, in spite of the fact that the Mn atoms carry the largest moment in the ordered phase. The highest Curie temperature was observed for the Fe-richer alloy. Magnetic measurements suggest that atomic disorder and competition of the antiferromagnetic Fe-Mn and Mn-Mn interactions with the ferromagnetic Fe-Fe, Mn-Mn and Fe-Mn interactions lead to a frustrated couplings ending in a reentrant spin-glass behavior at low temperature.

  3. Influence of Partial Pressure of Sulfur and Oxygen on Distribution of Fe and Mn between Liquid Fe-Mn Oxysulfide and Molten Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Joong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Takekawa, Jun; Kitamura, Shin-Ya; Yamaguchi, Katsunori; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2012-10-01

    The authors proposed an innovative process for recovering Mn from steelmaking slag. The process starts with the sulfurization of steelmaking slag to separate P from Mn by the formation of a liquid sulfide phase (matte). Then, the obtained matte is weakly oxidized to make a Mn-rich oxide phase without P. High-purity Fe-Mn alloys can therefore be produced by the reduction of the Mn-rich oxide phase. However, to the authors' knowledge, the sulfurization of molten slag containing P and Mn has not been sufficiently investigated. It was recently found that P was not distributed to the matte in equilibrium with the molten slag. To gain knowledge of the process's development, it is important to investigate the influence of the partial pressures of sulfur and oxygen on the equilibrium distribution of Mn and Fe between the matte and the molten slag. In the current work, a mineralogical microstructure analysis of the matte revealed that the existence of the oxysulfide and metal phases was dependent on the partial pressure of sulfur and oxygen. The Mn content of the matte increased with partial pressure of sulfur while the O content of the matte decreased. In contrast, the ratio of Mn/Fe in the matte was constant when the metal phase of the matte was observed at a log P_{{{{O}}2 }} below -11. These results also corresponded to the relationship between the activity coefficient ratio of MnS/FeS and the mole fraction of MnS/FeS in the matte. The γ MnS/ γ FeS value decreased exponentially as the mole fraction of MnS/FeS increased.

  4. Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic bimodal volcanic rocks along the western margin of the Yangtze Block: New constraints from Hf isotopes and Fe/Mn ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianhua; QI Changshi; LIU Ying; LIANG Xirong; TU Xianglin; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng

    2005-01-01

    High-precision major element and Hf isotope data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Suxiong volcanic rocks along the western margin of the Yangtze Block. These volcanic rocks have variable εHf(T) values and Fe/Mn ratios. The relatively primitive basalts have high Fe/Mn ratios and high Hf-Nd isotopic compositions, indicating that they were generated by partial melting of garnet clinopyroxene in mantle plume at high pressure. Thus, the Suxiong basalts are genetically related to the proposed Neoproterozoic superplume. On the contrary, a few differentiated basalts have low Fe/Mn ratios and low Hf-Nd isotopic compositions. They are likely to experience assimilation-fractional crystallization process. The Suxiong rhyolites have consistent Hf and Nd model ages of 1.3-1.4 Ga. They are likely generated by shallow dehydration melting of pre-existing young arc igneous rocks associated with the basaltic underplating/intrusion in a continental rift.

  5. Filtering of canted magnetic phase of SpFeMn(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3} in membrane nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, A.I. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities, Moscow 109240 (Russian Federation); Morgunov, R.B., E-mail: morgunov2005@yandex.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities, Moscow 109240 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    Ordered arrays of nanowires of pure SpFeMn(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3} collinear antiferromagnet have been synthesized in pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) 20 nm and 200 nm in diameter. It was found that the growth of spin-canted phase presented in the bulk samples is suppressed in nanowires. The decrease in the nanowires diameter results in magneto-crystalline anisotropy increase. - Highlights: • The method for separation of two magnetic phases of SpFeMn(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3} was developed. • Nanowires of collinear antiferromagnet SpFeMn(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3} was synthesized in pores of AAO. • Suppression of canted phase presented in the bulk samples was found in nanowires. • Magnetic anisotropy indicates monocrystallinity of nanowires grown in AAO pores. • The decrease of nanowires diameter results in magnetocrystalline anisotropy increase.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, F.A., E-mail: fernandafabianro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Aluísio Campos, Departamento de Física, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Pedra, P.P.; Filho, J.L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Aluísio Campos, Departamento de Física, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Duque, J.G.S.; Meneses, C.T. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, Departamento de Física, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic and structural properties have been investigated in La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction measurements allied to Rietveld method confirm the formation of LaCrO{sub 3}, LaFeO{sub 3} and LaMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles with crystal structure orthorhombic (Pbnm), orthorhombic (Pnma) and rhombohedral (R-3c), respectively. We also verified an decreasing in the average crystallite size from 73 to 26 nm, depending of the transition metal. The magnetic measurements reveal an antiferromagnetic behavior for the LaCrO{sub 3} sample with T{sub N}~289 K, and a weak ferromagnetic ordering for the LaMnO{sub 3} sample with T{sub c}~200 K. - Highlights: • La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method. • XRD results confirm the formation single phase in the compounds studied. • Magnetic property in the La(Fe,Cr,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles dependent on the TM. • La(Cr,Fe)O{sub 3} nanoparticles presented behavior antiferromagnetic and LaMnO{sub 3} ferromagnetic.

  7. [Analysis of the results and methods on proficiency testing of determination of Fe, Mn in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peiyao; Xiang, Xinhua; Zhao, Sujuan; Sun, Yan; Mu, Xiaoqun; He, Xiong

    2010-07-01

    To analyse the results and methods on proficiency testing(PT) for determination of Fe, Mn in drinking water and to discuss the influencing factors. With a view to the laboratory for accurate determination of drinking water iron and manganese to provide technical support. 180 labs from 30 provinces (cities), autonomous regions took part in the PT. Based on methods of PT, statistical analysis of the results, to find the causes of dissatisfactory results. According to the results of the report for the first time, the PT showed that 85.56% labs presented satisfactory results of determination of Fe and 87.71% labs presented satisfactory results of determination of Mn. In addition to ICP/MS, it showed that 76.00%, 88.89%, 93.75% respectively presented satisfactory results of the methods of AAS, ICP-AES and chemical of determination of Fe. It showed that 79.23%, 94.29%, 72.73% respectively presented satisfactory results of the methods of chemical, AAS and ICP-AES of determination of Mn. The initial results of 37 labs had dissatisfactory. Results of statistics showed that iron, manganese at the same time [ZB] > or = 3 for the 11 labs. Most of the labs that took part in the PT have good competence in analyzing Fe, Mn. The main reasons of the dissatisfactory results were larger systematic errors, experimental blank, matrix interference and feeble control ability of the key point of the experiment.

  8. Adsorption of Pb, Cd to Fe, Mn oxides in natural freshwater surface coatings developed in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, De-ming; Yang, Fan; Li, Yu; Hua, Xiu-yi; Lü, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2005-01-01

    Metal oxides( Fe, Mn oxides) in natural surface coatings(biofilms and associated minerals) are believed to play a significant role in the fate and transport of trace metal in aquatic environments. Seasonal variation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in surface coatings, which were developed periodically on glass slides in Nanhu Lake, Jilin Province, China over the time frame of three seasons, was investigated in order to understand the influence of metal oxides on Pb and Cd adsorption to heterogeneous surface coating materials (biofilm). Pb and Cd adsorption was measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25 degrees C and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. In general, components in the surface coatings varied greatly with seasons altering and obtained higher concentrations in summer while the content of iron oxides always exceeded that of manganese oxides. Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd and components in the surface coatings developed periodically indicated that Pb phase association with Mn oxides and Cd phase association with Fe oxides as well as Mn oxides were statistically significant. Effect of Mn oxides on Cd adsorption was confirmed in view of its higher content in the surface coatings. The importance of ferromanganese oxides for Pb and Cd adsorption to the natural surface coatings developed in different seasons was evidenced.

  9. Adsorption of Pb, Cd to Fe, Mn oxides in natural freshwater surface coatings developed in different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; YANG Fan; LI Yu; HUA Xiu-yi; L(U) Xiao-jun; ZHANG Jing-jing

    2005-01-01

    Metal oxides( Fe, Mn oxides) in natural surface coatings(biofilms and associated minerals) are believed to play a significant role in the fate and transport of trace metal in aquatic environments. Seasonal variation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in surface coatings, which were developed periodically on glass slides in Nanhu Lake, Jilin Province, China over the time frame of three seasons,was investigated in order to understand the influence of metal oxides on Pb and Cd adsorption to heterogeneous surface coating materials(biofilm). Pb and Cd adsorption was measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25℃ and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. In general, components in the surface coatings varied greatly with seasons altering and obtained higher concentrations in summer while the content of iron oxides always exceeded that of manganese oxides. Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd and components in the surface coatings developed periodically indicated that Pb phase association with Mn oxides and Cd phase association with Fe oxides as well as Mn oxides were statistically significant. Effect of Mn oxides on Cd adsorption was confirmed in view of its higher content in the surface coatings. The importance of ferromanganese oxides for Pb and Cd adsorption to the natural surface coatings developed in different seasons was evidenced.

  10. Effect of specimen thickness of fatigue-crack-growth behavior and fracture toughness of 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C. M.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 aluminum alloy sheet and plate. Specimen thicknesses ranged from 5.1 to 12.7 mm (0.20 to 0.50 in.) for 7075-T6 and from 1.3 to 6.4 mm (0.05 to 0.25 in.) for 7178-T6. The stress ratios R used in the crack growth experiments were 0.02 and 0.50. For 7075-T6, specimen thickness had relatively little effect on fatigue-crack growth. However, the fracture toughness of the thickness of the thickest gage of 7075-T6 was about two-thirds of the fracture toughness of the thinner gages of 7075-T6. For 7178-T6, fatigue cracks generally grew somewhat faster in the thicker gages than in the thinnest gage. The fracture toughness of the thickest gage of 7178-T6 was about two-thirds of the fracture toughness of the thinner gages of 7178-T6. Stress intensity methods were used to analyze the experimental results. For a given thickness and value of R, the rate of fatigue crack growth was essentially a single-valued function of the stress intensity range for 7075-T6 and 7178-T6. An empirical equation developed by Forman, Kearney, and Engle fit the 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 crack growth data reasonably well.

  11. Effect of intensive melt shearing on the formation of Fe-containing intermetallics in LM24 Al-alloy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Fe is one of the inevitable and detrimental impurities in aluminium alloys that degrade the mechanical performance of castings. In the present work, intensive melt shearing has been demonstrated to modify the morphology of Fe-containing intermetallic compounds by promoting the formation of compact α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si at the expense of needle-shaped β-AlFeSi, leading to an improved mechanical properties of LM24 alloy processed by MC-HPDC process. The promotion of the formation of α -Al(Fe, Mn)Si pha...

  12. Epoxy-bonded La(Fe,mn,si)13Hz As A Multi Layered Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Navickaité, Kristina; Lei, Tian;

    2016-01-01

    The high magnetocaloric effect and tunability of the Curie temperature over a broad range makes La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz a promising magnetocaloric material for applications. Due to a volume change across the transition and the brittleness of the material as well as erosion due to fluid flow, the particles...... of the material may break apart during operation. In this context, we studied epoxy-bonded La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz regenerators, in a small versatile active magnetic regeneration (AMR) test device with a 1.1 T permanent magnet source. The magnetocaloric material was in the form of packed irregular particles (250-500 µm...

  13. Fe-Mn-Al(Cr)-C系合金中体心结构相对耐磨性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玉娇; 何力; 张晓燕

    2001-01-01

    Fe-Mn-Al(Cr)-C系合金进行1100℃水冷,在250℃、350℃、420℃、520℃、600℃重新加热处理,经磨损实验表明:Fe-Mn-Al(Cr)-C系合金的耐磨性与其体心结构相的量有关.当体心结构相的量(体积百分比)大时,耐磨性提高.

  14. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  15. Influence of heat treatments for laser welded semi solid metal cast A356 alloy on the fracture mode of tensile specimens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunene, G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . Sample Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Zn Ti Cr Sr Al A356 Literature Spec10 6.5 - 7.5 0.2 max. 0.20 max. 0.10 max. 0.25 - 0.45 0.10 max. 0.20 max. - - 0.30 max Bal. Virgin material 7.33 0.13 0.01 0.01 0... for Laser Welded Semi Solid Metal Cast A356 Alloy on the Fracture Mode of Tensile Specimens G. Kunene1, a, G. Govender1,b, L. Ivanchev1,c, R. Knutsen2,d and H. Burger3,e 1CSIR: Materials Science and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 South...

  16. Numerical Analysis of Crack Progress in Different Areas of a Friction Stir Welded Bead for an 5251 H14 Aluminum Alloy Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kambouz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The assemblies welded by Friction Stir Welding have a major advantage which is the absence of a metal filler. This process contributes to the welding of materials that are known to be difficult to weld using the conventional techniques often employed in the field of transport, for example in the automobile body by applying a spot welding. The numerical modeling of this type of process is complex, not only in terms of the variety of physical phenomena which must be considered, but also because of the experimental procedure that must be followed in order to verify and validate numerical predictions. In this work, a finite element model is proposed in order to simulate the crack propagation under monotonic loading in different areas of the weld seam of a strain hardening CT-50 aluminum alloy 5251H14 specimen.

  17. Materials problems in fluidized-bed combustion systems. Appendix 3. Evaluation of boiler alloy specimens at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoruso, G.V.; Apblett, A.R. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) portion of a metallurgical investigation conducted to assess the corrosion behavior of various ferritic, austenitic, and nickel-base alloys which were exposed in a coal-burning fluidized bed test facility at nominal temperatures of 1000/sup 0/F, 1200/sup 0/F, 1400/sup 0/F, 1550/sup 0/F, and 1650/sup 0/F for 1000 and 2000 hour test exposure periods. The alloys included Corten, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, 405 SS, E-Brite 26-1, 310 SS, 329 SS, 347 SS, 22-13-5, 21-6-9, Incoloy 800, Manaurite 36X, Inconel 690, and RA 333. The investigation included material precharacterization studies and post-test metallurgical evaluations involving deposit/scale thickness measurements, selective chemical/microprobe analyses, specimen surface recession measurements, determination of depths of dealloying and corrosive constituent penetrations, grain-size determinations, hardness surveys, macro and microscopic examinations and study/recording of microstructural changes resulting as a consequence of test exposure.

  18. Combined effects of ultrasonic vibration and manganese on Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds and mechanical properties of Al-17Si alloy with 3wt.%Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research studied the combined effects of ultrasonic vibration (USV and manganese on the Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds and mechanical properties of Al-17Si-3Fe-2Cu-1Ni (wt.% alloys. The results showed that, without USV, the alloys with 0.4wt.% Mn or 0.8wt.% Mn both contain a large amount of coarse plate-like δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 phase and long needle-like β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase. When the Mn content changes from 0.4wt.% to 0.8wt.% in the alloys, the amount and the length of needle-like β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase decrease and the plate-like δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 phase becomes much coarser. After USV treatment, the Fe-containing compounds in the alloys are refined and exist mainly as δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 particles with an average grain size of about 20 μm, and only a small amount of β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase remains. With USV treatment, the ultimate tensile strengths (UTS of the alloys containing 0.4wt.%Mn and 0.8wt.%Mn at room temperature are 253 MPa and 262 MPa, respectively, and the ultimate tensile strengths at 350 °C are 129 MPa and 135 MPa, respectively. It is considered that the modified morphology and uniform distribution of the Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds, which are caused by the USV process, are the main reasons for the increase in the tensile strength of these two alloys.

  19. Sensitivity study of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using first order magnetocaloric material La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2015-01-01

    We present simulation results of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using the solid-state refrigerant La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy. This material presents a large, however quite sharp, isothermal entropy change that requires a careful choice of number of layers and working temperature for multi-layer r...

  20. On the preparation of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hx polymer-composites with optimized magnetocaloric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulov, Iliya A.; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Karpenkov, Dmitriy Yu.; Gottschall, Tino; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    A successful use of the magnetocaloric material in an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) requires its machining into heat exchangers with good mechanical and chemical stability. Most of the magnetocaloric materials currently available for room temperature application do not meet those requirements, they are brittle and are susceptible to corrosion. Adhesive-bonding techniques can provide mechanical stability, corrosion protection and net shaped modules in a single step manufacturing process. However, the magnetocaloric properties of the composite materials can be significantly lowered during this process e.g. due to improper adhesion, dilution, and compaction pressure. We report on a comprehensive study of the influence of powder particle size, adhesive type, adhesive concentration and compaction pressure on the magnetocaloric properties of polymer-bonded La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hx material.

  1. Magnetic relaxation dynamics driven by the first-order character of magnetocaloric La(Fe,Mn,Si)13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Edmund; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A David; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Ghivelder, Luis; Cohen, Lesley F

    2016-08-13

    Here, we study the temporal evolution of the magnetic field-driven paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the La(Fe,Mn,Si)13 material family. Three compositions are chosen that show varying strengths of the first-order character of the transition, as determined by the relative magnitude of their magnetic hysteresis and temperature separation between the zero-field transition temperature Tc and the temperature Tcrit, where the transition becomes continuous. Systematic variations in the fixed field, isothermal rate of relaxation are observed as a function of temperature and as a function of the degree of first-order character. The relaxation rate is reduced in more weakly first-order compositions and is also reduced as the temperature is increased towards Tcrit At temperatures above Tcrit, the metastability of the transition vanishes along with its associated temporal dynamics.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  2. Comparative in vitro Study on Pure Metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Zn and W)as Biodegradable Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Cheng; B.Liu; Y.H.Wu; Y.F.Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Five pure metals including Fe,Mn,Mg,Zn and W have been investigated on their corrosion behavior and in vitro biocompatibility by electrochemical measurement,static immersion test,contact angle measurement,cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility tests.It is found that the sequence of corrosion rate of five metals in Hank's solution from high to low is:Mg > Fe > Zn > Mn > W.Fe,Mg and W show no cytotoxicity to L929 and ECV304 cells,Mn induces significant cytotoxicity to both L929 and ECV304 cells,and Zn has almost no inhibition effect on the metabolic activities of ECV304 while largely reduces the cell viability of L929 cells.The hemolysis percentage of five pure metals is lower than 5% except for Mg and platelets adhered on Zn has been activated and pseudopodia-like structures can be observed while platelets on the other four metals keep normal.

  3. Effects of Mn doping on temperature-dependent magnetic properties of L10 FeMnPt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. B.; Chen, J. S.; Zhou, T. J.; Chow, G. M.

    2011-04-01

    We report the effect of Mn doping on temperature-dependent magnetic properties of L10 FeMnPt (001) epitaxial films. (001) textured L10 Fe50-xMnxPt50 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 at. %) films were prepared by cosputtering Fe, Pt, and Mn onto MgO single crystal substrates at 550 °C. θ-2θ XRD scans indicated the lattice parameter c increased whereas the ordering parameter S decreased with Mn doping. The thermal magnetic properties measured using a superconducting quantum interference device showed that Curie temperature TC could be reduced to 500 K with 15 at. % Mn doping, but Ku was decreased to 1.6 × 107 erg/cm3. The relation of temperature-dependent anisotropy and saturation magnetization showed that it did not obey the Callen-Callen theory.

  4. Mechanisms for the Movement of Fe,Mn,Cu and Zn to Plant Roots in Loessal Soil and Lou Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMINGGANG; ZHANGYIPING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The pot experiments were conducted in the artificial climate laboratories to determine the relative importance of mass flow and diffusion in supplying ,Fe,Mn,Cu,and Zn to wheat,soybean and maize plants growing in loessal soil and lou soil.It was found that the calculated relative contribution of mass flow of iron,manganese,copper and zinc to plant uptake varied from 5% to more than 100%,depending on the crop species and soil types as well as plant growth stage,soil moisture,atmosphere humidity,etc.The results also showed that the major transportation mechanisms of these micronutrients in soil-root system varied with the crop and its growth,climate and soil,singnificantly,In general,mass flow was more important for Cu and Zn and diffusion was more significant for Fe and Mn at the seedling stage.

  5. Superelastic effect in polycrystalline ferrous alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, T; Ando, K; Okano, M; Xu, X; Tanaka, Y; Ohnuma, I; Kainuma, R; Ishida, K

    2011-07-01

    In superelastic alloys, large deformation can revert to a memorized shape after removing the stress. However, the stress increases with increasing temperature, which limits the practical use over a wide temperature range. Polycrystalline Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys show a small temperature dependence of the superelastic stress because of a small transformation entropy change brought about by a magnetic contribution to the Gibbs energies. For one alloy composition, the superelastic stress varies by 0.53 megapascal/°C over a temperature range from -196 to 240°C.

  6. Arsenate uptake and arsenite simultaneous sorption and oxidation by Fe-Mn binary oxides: influence of Mn/Fe ratio, pH, Ca2+, and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Jefferson, William

    2012-01-15

    Arsenate retention, arsenite sorption and oxidation on the surfaces of Fe-Mn binary oxides may play an important role in the mobilization and transformation of arsenic, due to the common occurrence of these oxides in the environment. However, no sufficient information on the sorption behaviors of arsenic on Fe-Mn binary oxides is available. This study investigated the influences of Mn/Fe molar ratio, solution pH, coexisting calcium ions, and humic acids have on arsenic sorption by Fe-Mn binary oxides. To create Fe-Mn binary oxides, simultaneous oxidation and co-precipitation methods were employed. The Fe-Mn binary oxides exhibited a porous crystalline structure similar to 2-line ferrihydrite at Mn/Fe ratios 1:3 and below, whereas exhibited similar structures to δ-MnO(2) at higher ratios. The As(V) sorption maximum was observed at a Mn/Fe ratio of 1:6, but As(III) uptake maximum was at Mn/Fe ratio 1:3. However, As(III) adsorption capacity was much higher than that of As(V) at each Mn/Fe ratio. As(V) sorption was found to decrease with increasing pH, while As(III) sorption edge was different, depending on the content of MnO(2) in the binary oxides. The presence of Ca(2+) enhanced the As(V) uptake under alkaline pH, but did not significantly influence the As(III) sorption by 1:9 Fe-Mn binary oxide; whereas the presence of humic acid slightly reduced both As(V) and As(III) uptake. These results indicate that As(III) is more easily immobilized than As(V) in the environment, where Fe-Mn binary oxides are available as sorbents and they represent attractive adsorbents for both As(V) and As(III) removal from water and groundwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Ducu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast. Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence

  8. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of binary titanium alloys with beta-stabilizing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Nakajima, H; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2001-03-01

    Binary titanium alloys with the beta-stabilizing elements of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pd (up to 30%) and Ag (up to 45%) were examined through metallographic observation and X-ray diffractometry to determine whether beta phases that are advantageous for dental use could be retained. Corrosion behavior was also investigated electrochemically and discussed thermodynamically. Some cast alloys with Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Pd retained the beta phase, whereas those with Ag and Cu had no beta phase. In some alloys, an intermetallic compound formed, based on information from the phase diagram. The corrosion resistance deteriorated in the TiAg alloys because Ti2Ag and/or TiAg intermetallic compounds preferentially dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution. On the other hand, the remaining titanium alloys became easily passive and revealed good corrosion resistance similar to pure titanium since their matrices seemed to thermodynamically form titanium oxides as did pure titanium.

  9. INFLUENCE OF Ge ON THE ANTIFERROMAGNETIC TRANSITION AND γ → ε MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION OF Fe-24Mn ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Zhang; X. Lu; Z.X. Qin; H.B. Chang; X.Y. Ruan

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the work were to study the effect of Ge (0-6wt. %) on the paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition and martensitic transformation of Fe-Mn alloy using the susceptibility, microstructure examination, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and lattice parameter measurement. Ge lowers the Neel temperature, TN, and enhances the mag-netic susceptibility X, changing the Pauli paramagnetism above TN to paramagnetism state obeying the Curie Weiss law, which is essentially similar to that of γ-Fe-Mn alloys containing Al or Si; Ge depresses γ → ε martensitic transformation, which attribute to Ge increasing the stacking fault energy; Moreover, Ge increases the lat-tice parameter of 7 phase, and low content Ge increases the lattice parameter of γphase more than that of high Ge content. Comparing Ge(4s2 4p2 ) with Si(3s2 3p2 ) and Al(3s2 3p1), which have the same outer-shell of electron structures, we found that their effects on the martensitic transformation of Fe-Mn alloy are completely different. The result suggests the outer-shell of electron is not the main factor of governing the Ms temperature of Fe-Mn alloy although it is essential in the alloy's antiferromagnetic transition. The relation among the Ms temperature, stacking fault energy and lattice parameter of austenite, has been discussed in brief.

  10. Effect of metallurgical parameters on the hardness and microstructural characterization of as-cast and heat-treated 356 and 319 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tash, M. [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada); Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Samuel, F.H. [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: fhsamuel@uqac.ca; Mucciardi, F. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Doty, H.W. [General Motors Powertrain Group, Metal Casting Technology, Inc., Milford, NH (United States)

    2007-01-15

    {sub 2}Cu and Mg{sub 2}Si phase particles [P. Ouellet, F.H. Samuel, J. Mater. Sci. 34 (1999) 4671-4697; P.N. Crepeau, S.D. Antolovich, J.A. Worden, AFS Trans. 98 (1990) 813-822]. Iron-intermetallic volume fraction measurements were carried out on polished specimens of the 356 and 319 alloys using electron probe microanalysis, for both as-cast and heat-treated conditions. Copper-intermetallic volume fractions were also measured for the 319 alloys to determine the amount of undissolved CuAl{sub 2} phase. It was observed that the unmodified alloys displayed higher Fe-intermetallic surface fractions than the modified alloys. The copper-intermetallic surface fractions, on the other hand, were higher in the Sr-modified alloys than the unmodified alloys. These observations may be attributed to the effect of Sr on (a) the dissolution and fragmentation of the {beta}-Fe-intermetallics in the matrix, the solution heat treatment also contributing to this effect; (b) severe segregation of Al{sub 2}Cu and Al{sub 2}MgCu phases in areas away from the eutectic Si regions, slowing down the dissolution of the Al{sub 2}Cu phase during solution treatment; (c) altering the precipitation sequence of {alpha}-Al{sub 15}(Fe, Mn){sub 3}Si{sub 2} from post-dendritic to pre-dendritic, the latter being expected to improve the alloy strength due to its precipitation within the {alpha}-Al dendrites.

  11. Microstructure of laser-welded joints of Fe-Mn-Al-Si TRIP/TWIP steels%Fe-Mn-Al-Si系TRIP/TWIP钢激光焊接接头的微观组织研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盼; 伍翠兰; 艾倍倍; 陈汪林; 陈燕; 陈亚

    2013-01-01

    采用光纤激光器对两种锰含量分别为20wt.%和29wt.%的Fe-Mn-Al-Si系TRIP/TWIP钢进行激光焊接.利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)、电子背散射衍射仪(EBSD)和透射电子显微镜(TEM)对接头的显微组织进行研究.结果表明:靠近熔合线的焊缝组织以柱状晶为主,而焊缝心部为细小的等轴晶且出现大量AlN纳米颗粒;焊缝组织的孪晶界比例比母材的大幅度降低,但仍然达到了15.8%;熔合线宽1 μm,富Fe、Mn而贫Al、Si;焊缝在凝固过程中,先形成γ-奥氏体,当遇到应力集中时发生局部ε-马氏体的相变来缓解应力,避免裂纹形成.%Two types of Fe-Mn-Al-Si TRIP/TWIP steels with different Mn concentrations,which are respectively 20 wt% and 29 wt%,were welded by fiber laser welding technique.The microstructures of the weld joints were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM),X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS),electron backscatter diffraction technology (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results show that the fusion zone (FZ) adjacent to the fusion lines was made up of columnar grains while the centre of the FZ consisted of equiaxed grains,in which a great deal of AlN nano-particles were formed.The fraction of twin boundaries of FZ is about 15.8% although the twin boundaries have decreased greatly compared with that of the base materials.The fusion lines are rich in Fe and Mn but lack of Al and Si.In the process of solidification of the FZ,the austenite first formed and some austenite transformed into ε-martensite at the stress concentration regions,which can relieve some stress and prevent formation cracks.

  12. Effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yonglin, E-mail: leiyonglin@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: linxy@swust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liao, Huiwei, E-mail: liaohw@swust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions was studied. Structural and physical characterization of all the samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric (TG). The results revealed that the interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content, the grain size decreased with increasing Ni content, the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites by Fe{sup 2+} increased with increasing Fe content. And increase of iron could improve Ni-Fe-Mn-O high temperature stability. The low-temperature thermal removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 83.8%, 75.2%, 78.5% and 60.3% at 2400 min, respectively. And the microwave combining with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 96.5%,93.8%, 98.7% and 98% at 6.0 min, respectively. These results indicated that the Ni-Fe-Mn-O ceramics with appropriate increase of iron were useful for industrial applications on degrading organic pollute. - Highlights: • The relationship of composition and catalytic properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O was proposed. • The interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content. • The grain size decreased with increasing Ni content. • The substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral site by Fe{sup 2+} with increasing Fe content.

  13. Crystal structure and magnetism of YbFeMnO 5: A neutron diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Retuerto, M.; Alonso, J. A.; García-Hernández, M.; Krezhov, K.; Spirov, I.; Ruskov, T.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    We have studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of Y bFeMnO 5 obtained by substituting Fe 3+ for Mn 3+ in the parent Y bMn 2O 5 compound, through x-ray (XRD) and neutron (NPD) powder diffraction, magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were prepared in polycrystalline form by a soft chemistry route, followed by thermal treatments under high-oxygen pressure. The Rietveld analysis of diffraction data shows that Y bFeMnO 5 is isostructural with the oxides of stoichiometry RMn 2O 5 (R=rare earth, Y or Bi); the crystal structure is orthorhombic, Pbam space group, formed by chains of edge-sharing Mn 4+O 6 octahedra linked together by dimer groups of square pyramids Fe 3+O 5 and Y b 3+O 8 scalenohedra. A low level of disorder was established between the two transition metal positions 4 f and 4 h, occupied ideally by Mn 4+ and by Fe 3+: about 6% of Mn cations is replaced by Fe and 16% of Fe by Mn. Mössbauer spectroscopy data confirm the existence of two distinct crystallographic sites for Fe 3+. One of them corresponds to almost regular octahedra (at 4 f positions), characterized by nearly equal Mn/Fe-O distances of 1.890 Å at RT (from NPD data), giving a quadrupole doublet in the Mössbauer spectra at RT, broadened by the Fe/Mn disorder over this site. The second environment for Fe 3+ contributes to a less broadened, but more intensive doublet in the Mössbauer spectra, which corresponds to a distorted square pyramid Fe 3+O 5 (at 4h sites), for which NPD data demonstrates an axial distortion with three sets of Fe-O distances at 2.010(2) Å, 1.859(5) Å and 1.925(3) Å. Magnetic studies and the thermal evolution of the NPD patterns show that below a transition temperature Tc˜178 K a long-range magnetic order is developed, resolved from NPD data as a ferrimagnetic structure with propagation vector k=0. The spin arrangements for the Mn 4+ ions ( 4f site) and Fe 3+ ions ( 4h site) are given by the basis vectors ( 0,0,Fz) and ( 0,0,Fz

  14. Theoretical estimation for equilibrium Mo isotope fractionations between dissolved Mo species and the adsorbed complexes on (Fe,Mn)-oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M.; Liu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    surface of (Fe,Mn)-oxyhydroxides. We checked the solvation effects, salt effect, temperature effect on the fractionations. Our results show that the solvation effects can dramatically change the fractionation numbers from the ones in gas-phase. For example, the MoO42- - Mo(OH)6 fractionation at 25°C is 0.8‰ for gas-phase but it is changed to 2.0‰ in solution. Our results show that no matter the dominant aqueous species MoO42- is adsorbed on the (Fe,Mn)-oxyhydroxides by the mono-dentate or bi-dentate way, it only can produce less than 1 ‰ isotopic fractionation. The polymerized MoO42- forms (e.g. Mo3O9) also have quite similar fractionation relative to aqueous MoO42-. In another word, the 1.7 - 2‰ Mo isotope offset found between the seawater and the Fe,Mn-oxides, is unlikely caused by the absorption of MoO42- into such oxic sediments. This study provides a base for discussing the mechanism of Mo removal from the seawater.

  15. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-C Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-02-01

    The solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-C steel ingots containing different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by Thermo-Calc to assist development of the continuous casting technology of Fe-Mn-C steels. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is higher than that of the 3Mn steel. The thermal conductivity of the 6Mn steel is the lowest in the three kinds of steels below 1023 K (750 °C) and the highest above 1173 K (900 °C). The 0Mn steel has the highest value of the proportion of equiaxed grain zone area in the three kinds of steels, whereas the 3Mn steel has the lowest value of it in the steels. Manganese has the effect of promoting the coarsening of grains. The microstructure is martensite and a little retained austenite (3.8 mass pct) in the 6Mn steel, whereas the microstructure is bainite in the 3Mn steel. The 0Mn steel is characterized by ferrite and pearlite. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.6 × 10-5 K-1, and the determinations of mold tapers of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels can refer to low-carbon steel. Using RA steel is 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C), whereas those of the 3Mn steel and the 0Mn steel are 873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C) and 873 K to 1173 K (600 °C to 900 °C), respectively. In the 6Mn and 3Mn steels, the deformation-induced ferrite (DIF) forms in sufficient quantities cause the recovery of the ductility at the low temperature end. However, since low strains are present when straightening, sufficient quantities of DIF cannot be formed. Thus, the ductility of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels cannot be improved during the continuous casting process. Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region.

  16. Constant Molybdenum Isotope Composition of Ocean Water and Fe-Mn crusts for the Last 70 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Nagler, T. F.; von Blankenburg, F.; Kramers, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    In the relatively new field of heavy stable isotope geochemistry, molybdenum (Mo) is one of the very promising elements. Molybdenum is a redox-sensitive trace metal. Isotope fractionation during terrestrial processes such as low-temperature redox transitions, chemical weathering, changes in the composition of the atmosphere, hydrothermal activity and sedimentary cycling is likely. Molybdenum is also an essential element for biological nitrogen fixation. Therefore, biogeochemical Mo isotope fractionation is also probable. The oceans represent an important terrestrial Mo reservoir. Dissolved concentrations in seawater are relatively high (0.01 ppm). The global ocean residence time is corresponding high with 800 kyr. The aim of this study is to characterise the principle present day oceanic Mo reservoirs and their changes with time. Molybdenum isotopic compositions were determined precisely using a Nu instruments MC-ICP-MS. Instrumental and laboratory mass fractionation is separated from natural mass dependent fractionation by addition of a molybdenum double spike prior to chemical separation (Siebert et al., 2001). The external standard reproducibility is at or below 0.1 per mil for the 98Mo/95Mo ratio (2s.d.). We analysed ocean water samples from the Atlantic (n=3, 0m-2400m depth), the Pacific and the Indian Ocean (deep water). These yield a homogeneous Mo isotopic composition as would be expexted from the long residence time of Mo in the oceans. Ocean water has the heaviest Mo isotopic composition measured to date (+2.3 per mil on the 98Mo/95Mo ratio relative to a Johnson Mattey ICP standard solution, lot 602332B). In view of the homogeneous ocean water ratios, we propose the use of present day ocean water as an reference standard (Mean Ocean Molybdenum: MOMO). Significantly lighter compositions from -2.7 to -3.1 per mil on the 98Mo/95Mo ratio relative to MOMO were determined for six Fe-Mn crust surface layers. Pelagic clay (-2.7 per mil) and clastic sediments (-2

  17. A study of microstructure and properties of cast Fe-10Cr-1.5B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haibin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Fe-10Cr-1.5B (FCB alloy after different heat treatments were studied. The results showed that the as-cast microstructure of FCB alloy consists of ?Fe, M(M=Cr, Fe, Mn2(B, C and M(M=Cr, Fe, Mn7(C, B3 type borocarbides, and small amounts of pearlite and austenite. After oil quenching treatment, metal matrix transformed into the martensite from the mixture of martensite, pearlite and austenite. There are many M(M=Cr,Fe,Mn23(C,B6 type borocarbide precipitates in the metal matrix, and eutectic borocarbide appears with an apparent disconnection and isolated phenomenon. When the quenching temperature reaches 1,050 oC, the hardness of FCB alloy is the highest, but the change of quenching temperature has no obvious effect on impact toughness of FCB alloy. After tempering, the eutectic microstructure of FCB alloy appears with a "two links" trend. With the increase of tempering temperature, the hardness of FCB alloy decreases gradually and impact toughness increases gradually. Cast FCB alloy oil-quenched from 1,050 oC and tempered from 200 oC has excellent combined properties; its hardness and impact toughness are 61.5 HRC and 8.8 J.m-2 respectively.

  18. Thermal Stability and Reductive Property of CexZr1-xO2 Solid Solution Doped Simultaneously by Fe, Mn or Fe, Cu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhongjun; Yang Dong; Wen Mingfen; Chen Jing; Wang Jinggang; Gu Yongwan

    2005-01-01

    CexZr1-xO2 complex oxides doped by transition metal(Fe, Mn, Cu) were prepared by precipitation method. Thermal stability of samples was characterized by XRD, surface areas were measured by BET method and reductive property was characterized by TPR. The results show that MnO2 can be dispersed in solid solution after calcined at 1273 K, when the loading is 12%, while Fe and Cu is easy to separate from samples at this temperature. Samples doped simultaneously by Fe, Mn or Fe, Cu demonstrated high reactive property at low temperature. The starting reduction temperature are 413 and 373 K, respectively. TPR results also show a broad range of reductive temperature exists in these bi-metal doped samples.

  19. Abrasive Wear of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Stainless Steel: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christian Egidio Da; Bernardi, Heide Heloise; Otubo, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    This study was developed to understand the influence of chemical composition and austenitic grain size on the wear resistance in stainless shape memory steel. A two-body abrasive wear device was used to understand the wear mechanism involved. They were tested pins with the following chemical composition: Fe-10.3Mn-5.3Si-9.9Cr-4.9Ni-0.006C and Fe-14.2Mn-5.3Si-8.8Cr-4.6Ni-0.008C after being austenitized at 900 and 1050 °C, followed by water quenching. The surface characterization was performed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the roughness profile evaluation was also conducted. The weight loss was measured after conducting the wear testing, and the wear rates were estimated. The results demonstrated that the alloy with less manganese and higher chromium content has the best wear resistance (between 17.5 and 18.9%). With an increase of the austenitic grain size there was a small reduction on the wear resistance (between 3.0 and 4.1%). The chemical composition demonstrated to have higher influence on the wear behavior than the austenitic grain size.

  20. Superspace description of wagnerite-group minerals (Mg,Fe,Mn)2(PO4)(F,OH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Biljana; Armbruster, Thomas; Chopin, Christian; Grew, Edward S; Baronnet, Alain; Palatinus, Lukas

    2014-04-01

    Reinvestigation of more than 40 samples of minerals belonging to the wagnerite group (Mg, Fe, Mn)2(PO4)(F,OH) from diverse geological environments worldwide, using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, showed that most crystals have incommensurate structures and, as such, are not adequately described with known polytype models (2b), (3b), (5b), (7b) and (9b). Therefore, we present here a unified superspace model for the structural description of periodically and aperiodically modulated wagnerite with the (3+1)-dimensional superspace group C2/c(0β0)s0 based on the average triplite structure with cell parameters a ≃ 12.8, b ≃ 6.4, c ≃ 9.6 Å, β ≃ 117° and the modulation vectors q = βb*. The superspace approach provides a way of simple modelling of the positional and occupational modulation of Mg/Fe and F/OH in wagnerite. This allows direct comparison of crystal properties.

  1. [Low-temperature catalytic reduction of NO over Fe-MnOx-CeO2/ZrO2 catalyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Qin

    2012-06-01

    Fe-MnOx-CeO2/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared through impregnation method with nanometer ZrO2 as a carrier and used in selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature. Effects of active component ratio and loading of promoter on the catalyst activity were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, EDS and BET. The effects of temperature, SO2 and H2O on NO conversion were studied and the results showed that in the absence of SO2 and H2O, the catalyst of 8% Fe-10% MnOx-CeO2/ZrO2 had good activity and stability as well as the NOx removal efficiency reached 85.23% at 120 degrees C and 92.0% at 180 degrees C. The presence of SO2 and H2O results in the catalyst deactivated. Properties of the catalyst on different reaction stages were characterized by FT-IR to study the inactivation mechanism of the catalyst. The results showed that the catalyst deactivation was due to the deposition of ammonium sulfate on the catalyst and the sulphation of the catalyst.

  2. Magnetization and microstructure dynamics in Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001): Fe magnetization reversal by a femtosecond laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezzani, C; Ferrari, E; Allaria, E; Vidal, F; Ciavardini, A; Delaunay, R; Capotondi, F; Pedersoli, E; Coreno, M; Svetina, C; Raimondi, L; Zangrando, M; Ivanov, R; Nikolov, I; Demidovich, A; Danailov, M B; Popescu, H; Eddrief, M; De Ninno, G; Kiskinova, M; Sacchi, M

    2014-12-12

    Thin film magnetization reversal without applying external fields is an attractive perspective for applications in sensors and devices. One way to accomplish it is by fine-tuning the microstructure of a magnetic substrate via temperature control, as in the case of a thin Fe layer deposited on a MnAs/GaAs(001) template. This work reports a time-resolved resonant scattering study exploring the magnetic and structural properties of the Fe/MnAs system, using a 100 fs optical laser pulse to trigger local temperature variations and a 100 fs x-ray free-electron laser pulse to probe the induced magnetic and structural dynamics. The experiment provides direct evidence that a single optical laser pulse can reverse the Fe magnetization locally. It reveals that the time scale of the magnetization reversal is slower than that of the MnAs structural transformations triggered by the optical pulse, which take place after a few picoseconds already.

  3. Magneto-elastic coupling in La(Fe, Mn, Si13Hy within the Bean-Rodbell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique N. Bez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First order magnetic phase transition materials present a large magnetocaloric effect around the transition temperature, where these materials usually undergo a large volume or structural change. This may lead to some challenges for applications, as the material may break apart during field change, due to high internal stresses. A promising magnetocaloric material is La(Fe, Mn, Si13Hy, where the transition temperature can be controlled through the Mn amount. In this work we use XRD measurements to evaluate the temperature dependence of the unit cell volume with a varying Mn amount. The system is modelled using the Bean-Rodbell model, which is based on the assumption that the spin-lattice coupling depends linearly on the unit cell volume. This coupling is defined by the model parameter η, where for η > 1 the material undergoes a first order transition and for η  ≤ 1 a second order transition. We superimpose a Gaussian distribution of the transition temperature with a standard deviation σ T 0 , in order to model the chemical inhomogeneity. Good agreement is obtained between measurements and model with values of η  ∼ 1.8 and σ(T0 = 1.0 K.

  4. Specific heat and entropy change at the first order phase transition of La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Vittorio; Küpferling, Michaela; Curcio, Carmen; Bennati, Cecilia; Barzca, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Bratko, Milan; Lovell, Edmund; Turcaud, Jeremy; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of hydrogenated La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H with Mn substituting Fe to finely tune the transition temperature. We measured the specific heat under magnetic field cp(H, T) and the magnetic field induced isothermal entropy change Δs(H, T) of a series of compounds by direct Peltier calorimetry. Results show that increasing Mn from 0.06 to 0.46 reduces the transition temperature from 339 K to 270 K whilst the total entropy change due to a 1.5 T field is depressed from 18.7 J kg-1 K-1 to 10.2 J kg-1 K-1 and the thermal hysteresis similarly is reduced from 1.5 K to zero. In the paper, we interpret the results in terms of a magnetic phase transition changing from the first to the second order with increasing Mn content, and we discuss the value of the results for magnetic cooling applications.

  5. Itinerant antiferromagnetism in FeMn P0.8S i0.2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, B. C.; Susner, M. A.; Conner, B. S.; Yan, J. Q.; May, A. F.

    2015-09-01

    Compounds based on the F e2P structure have continued to attract interest because of the interplay between itinerant and localized magnetism in a noncentrosymmetric crystal structure, and because of the recent developments of these materials for magnetocaloric applications. Here we report the growth and characterization of millimeter-sized single crystals of FeMn P0.8S i0.2 with the F e2P structure. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, magnetization, resistivity, and Hall and heat capacity data are reported. The crystals exhibit itinerant antiferromagnetic order below 158 K with no hint of ferromagnetic behavior in the magnetization curves and with the spins ordered primarily in the a b plane. The room-temperature resistivity is close to the Ioffe-Regel limit for a metal. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction indicates a strong preference for Mn to occupy the larger pyramidal 3 g site. The cation site preference in the as-grown crystals and the antiferromagnetism are not changed after high-temperature anneals and a rapid quench to room temperature.

  6. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  7. Earth Abundant Fe/Mn-Based Layered Oxide Interconnected Nanowires for Advanced K-Ion Full Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanpeng; Xu, Xiaoming; Niu, Chaojiang; Meng, Jiashen; Huang, Meng; Liu, Xiong; Liu, Ziang; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-01-11

    K-ion battery (KIB) is a new-type energy storage device that possesses potential advantages of low-cost and abundant resource of K precursor materials. However, the main challenge lies on the lack of stable materials to accommodate the intercalation of large-size K-ions. Here we designed and constructed a novel earth abundant Fe/Mn-based layered oxide interconnected nanowires as a cathode in KIBs for the first time, which exhibits both high capacity and good cycling stability. On the basis of advanced in situ X-ray diffraction analysis and electrochemical characterization, we confirm that interconnected K0.7Fe0.5Mn0.5O2 nanowires can provide stable framework structure, fast K-ion diffusion channels, and three-dimensional electron transport network during the depotassiation/potassiation processes. As a result, a considerable initial discharge capacity of 178 mAh g(-1) is achieved when measured for KIBs. Besides, K-ion full batteries based on interconnected K0.7Fe0.5Mn0.5O2 nanowires/soft carbon are assembled, manifesting over 250 cycles with a capacity retention of ∼76%. This work may open up the investigation of high-performance K-ion intercalated earth abundant layered cathodes and will push the development of energy storage systems.

  8. Adsorption/Oxidation of arsenic in groundwater by nanoscale Fe-Mn binary oxides loaded on zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shuqiong; Wang, Yanxin; Zhan, Hongbin; Yuan, Songhu; Yu, Mei; Liu, Mingliang

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale Fe-Mn binary oxides loaded on zeolite (NIMZ) is synthesized and characterized. The as-synthesized adsorbent is amorphous with 126 m2/g surface area; it is effective for the adsorption of both As(III) and As(V) in synthetic groundwater. It has high adsorption capacities of 296.23 and 201.10 mg/g for As(III) and As(V), respectively. For the adsorption of 2 mg/L arsenic, the aqueous concentration quickly decreases to less than 10 /microg/L within 30 min. During the adsorption of As(III), the in-aqueous measurement of As(V) shows a low concentration in the initial stage and disappears afterward. The fraction of As(V) on NIMZ gradually increases with time, proving the oxidation of As(III). The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) decreases with increasing pH. The anions of SiO3(2-), H2PO4(-), and HCO3(-) significantly compete with arsenic for the adsorption sites. The innersphere surface complexes are formed by As(III) or As(V) with the hydroxyl groups on the surface of NIMZ.

  9. Application of high temperature DTA to micro-alloyed steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Smetana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with investigation of phase transitions temperatures for selected real grades of micro-alloyed steels. Temperatures of characteristic phase transitions were obtained using Setaram SETSYS 18TM. The DTA technique was selected for the study of micro-alloyed steels. Temperatures of phase transitions (liquidus, solidus etc. were obtained. Influence of admixed and alloyed elements on shift of temperatures was investigated. Resulting data were compared with temperatures of phase transitions of Fe-C, Fe-Mn systems and with temperatures calculated according to relations published in available literature. Thermodynamic-kinetic solidifi cation model IDS was used to calculate characteristic equilibrium temperatures of investigated systems.

  10. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  11. Corrosion and latent heat in thermal cycles for La(Fe,Mn,Si){sub 13} magnetocaloric compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie; Guan, Lin; Fu, Song; Sun, Yongyang; Long, Yi, E-mail: longy@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2014-03-15

    Corrosion and latent heat in thermal cycles for LaFe{sub 11.5−x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 1.5} (x=0.00, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.25) compounds were investigated for practical application. The corrosion resistance of the compounds was tested by means of potentiodynamic polarization and immersion test in the distilled water. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the compounds was improved by Mn doping. The latent heat of the compounds in the thermal cycles was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The latent heat decreased with the increase in the number of thermal cycles. The substitution of Mn in the compounds speeded up the decrease of the latent heat in the thermal cycles. But the latent heat of all compounds tended to be stable after eight thermal cycles. The maximum ΔS{sub M} under a low magnetic field (0–1 T) was 12.7, 9.9, 8.2 and 7.6 J/kg K with increasing of Mn content from x=0.00 to 0.25, respectively. The magnetic entropy changes and adiabatic temperature changes for LaFe{sub 11.5−x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 1.5} compounds decreased with the increase of Mn content. - Highlights: • Mn doping can improve the corrosion resistance of La(Fe,Mn,Si){sub 13} compounds. • Mn doping speeded up the decrease of the latent heat during the thermal cycles. • The latent heat of all compounds tends to be stable after eight thermal cycles. • −ΔS and ΔT{sub ad} decreased with the increase of Mn content.

  12. Antimony oxidation and adsorption by in-situ formed biogenic Mn oxide and Fe-Mn oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Jefferson, William A; Liang, Jinsong; Yang, Tingting; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-04-01

    Antimony (Sb), which can be toxic at relatively low concentrations, may co-exist with Mn(II) and/or Fe(II) in some groundwater and surface water bodies. Here we investigated the potential oxidation and adsorption pathways of Sb (III and V) species in the presence of Mn(II) and Mn-oxidizing bacteria, with or without Fe(II). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the oxidation and adsorption characteristics of Sb species in the presence of biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs), which were formed in-situ via the oxidation of Mn(II) by a Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1). Results indicated that Sb(III) ions could be oxidized to Sb(V) ions by BMO, but only Sb(V) originating from Sb(III) oxidation was adsorbed effectively by BMO. Introduced Fe(II) was chemically oxidized to FeOOH, the precipitates of which mixed with BMO to form a new compound, biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO). The BMO part of the BFMO mainly oxidized and the FeOOH of the BFMO mainly adsorbed the Sb species. In aquatic solutions containing both As(III) and Sb(III), the BFMO that formed in-situ preferentially oxidized Sb over As but adsorbed As more efficiently. Chemical analysis and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the presence of Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) accelerated the oxidation of Mn(II) but inhibited the activity of Mn-oxidizing bacteria. These results provide significant insights into the biogeochemical pathways of Sb, Mn(II) in aquatic ecosystems, with or without Fe(II). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The role of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides formed in situ for arsenic oxidation and adsorption in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Yang, Tingting; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    As(III&V), Mn(II), and Fe(II) may occur simultaneously in some groundwater and surface water. Studying their redox reactions and interactions is essential to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of these metal ions in aquatic ecosystems and to find effective methods to remove them simultaneously in drinking water treatment. Here, the formation of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO, defined as a mixture of biogenic Mn oxide (BMO) and Fe oxide) as well as its oxidation and adsorption of As in a Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) system were investigated. Batch experiments and structure characterization revealed that the BFMO was formed via a sequential precipitation of Fe oxide and BMO. The first formed Fe oxide was identified as FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and the latter formed BMO was identified as MnO2 (similar to hexagonal birnessite). In the BFMO mixture, the BMO part was mainly responsible for As(III) oxidation, and the Fe oxide part dominated As adsorption. Remarkably, the BMO could oxidize Fe(II) to form FeOOH, which may improve As adsorption. The optimum Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio for As removal was approximately 1:3 (mol/mol). Taken together, in Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe ecosystems, the in situ formation of BFMO could eliminate or decrease Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(III&V) species simultaneously. Therefore, based on this study, new approaches may be developed for As removal from water containing high concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-16

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L2(1) parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L2(1) parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  15. Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    The Mg98.5Gd1Zn0.5 alloy produced by a powder metallurgy route was studied and compared with the same alloy produced by extrusion of ingots. Atomized powders were cold compacted and extruded at 623 K and 673 K (350 °C and 400 °C). The microstructure of extruded materials was characterized by α-Mg grains, and Mg3Gd and 14H-LPSO particles located at grain boundaries. Grain size decreased from 6.8 μm in the extruded ingot, down to 1.6 μm for powders extruded at 623 K (350 °C). Grain refinement resulted in an increase in mechanical properties at room and high temperatures. Moreover, at high temperatures the PM alloy showed superplasticity at high strain rates, with elongations to failure up to 700 pct.

  16. Making Durable Specimens For Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Consistent metal-oxide cross sections prepared quickly. New process makes TEM/STEM cross sections of metal/oxide interfaces. After specimen bars oxidized, placed in specially designed mold. Following encapsulation in zinc alloy, 3-mm-diameter specimen bar sliced into disks suitable for further preparation steps. Technique used to prepare 3-mm-diameter specimens of cross sections of oxides of alloys intended for use at temperatures greater than approximately 600 degree C.

  17. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Fluid Inclusion Data from the Tumanpınarı Volcanic Rock-Hosted Fe-Mn-Ba Deposit, Balıkesir-Dursunbey, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haydar Gultekin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tumanpınarı mineralization is a volcanic rock-hosted epithermal Fe-Mn-Ba deposit located in the southwestern part of Dursunbey, Balıkesir, Turkey. The deposit constitutes one of the most important deposits of the Havran-Dursunbey metallogenic sub-province in which numerous Early Miocene Fe-Mn-Ba deposits are distributed. The ore occurs as open-space fillings in faults, fractures, and breccias in the andesite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for four types of hypogene alteration in decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization, hematization and argillic alteration. The mineral assemblage includes pyrolusite, psilomelane, hematite, and barite as well as minor magnetite, manganite, poliannite, limonite, braunite, bixbyite, galena, pyrite, and goethite. Mineralogically, three ore types are recognized as pyrolusite + psilomelane + hematite + barite ore, pyrolusite + psilomelane + poliannite ore and barite + pyrolusite + psilomelane + hematite ore (barite-dominant ore. In addition to Fe, Mn and Ba, the ore contains substantial quantities of Pb, Zn, As. Chemically, the transition from fresh to altered rocks has little effect on the elemental levels for Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Rb, Sr and H2O. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions hosted in the main stage quartz and barite ranged from 113 to 410 °C with salinities ranging from 0.4 to 14.9 eq. wt % NaCl, respectively. Overall, the available data suggest that the deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic and a dilute meteoric fluid.

  18. Band structure analysis on olivine LiMPO{sub 4} and delithiated MPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ting-Feng, E-mail: tfyihit@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Fang, Zi-Kui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Xie, Ying, E-mail: xieying@hlju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhu, Yan-Rong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Dai, Changsong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • The conductivity of Li{sub x}MPO{sub 4} were discussed relying on first principles technique. • Relationship between structure properties and microscopic bonding was addressed. • A mechanism responsible for the structural instability of MnPO{sub 4} was proposed. - Abstract: Olivine compounds, i.e. Li{sub x}MPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn), are now regarded as the most competitive positive-electrode materials for future applications of large-scale rechargeable lithium batteries. There are significant interests in their electronic structures, because the microscopic information is very important for elucidating the structural stability, electrochemical performance, and electronic conductivity issues of batteries for high-rate applications. The structure stabilities of LiMPO{sub 4} and MPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials are analyzed according to first principles calculations. The result shows that LiMPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn) materials exhibit good structure stability, which is mainly contributed to the extremely strong P-O covalent bonds. Furthermore, the introduction of P ions is also helpful for the chemical potential decrease of the materials. The band structure analysis reveals that the electronic conductance of LiFePO{sub 4}, LiMnPO{sub 4}, and FePO{sub 4} is poor, while MnPO{sub 4} possesses half metallic property. According to the electron distribution, it can be confirmed that Mn-O(II) bonds are weakened after Li{sup +} extractions, which is different from the variation trend of Fe-O(II) bonds. The decrease of Mn-O(II) bond strength is thus favorable for the phase transformation observed in experiments.

  19. Investigation on Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd fractions in the natural surface coating samples and surficial sediments in the Songhua River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shu-hai; WANG Xiao-li; LI YU; CHEN Jie-jiang; YANG Jun-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Natural surface coating samples (NSCSs) from the surface of shingles and surficial sediments (SSs) in the Songhua River,China were employed to investigate the relationship between NSCSs and SSs in fractions of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) using the modified sequential extraction procedure (MSEP). The results show that the differences between NSCSs and SSs in Fe fractions were insignificant and Fe was dominantly present as residual phase (76.22% for NSCSs and 80.88% for SSs) and Fe-oxides phase (20.33% for NSCSs and 16.15% for SSs). Significant variation of Mn distribution patterns between NSCSs and SSs was observed with Mn in NSCSs mainly present in Mn-oxides phase (48.27%) and that in SSs present as residual phase (45.44%). Zn, Cu,Pb and Cd were found dominantly in residual fractions (>48%), and next in solid oxides/hydroxides for Zn, Pb and Cd and in easily oxidizable solids/compounds form for Cu, respectively. The heavy metal distribution patterns implied that Fe/Mn oxides both in NSCSs and SSs were more important sinks for binding and adsorption of Zn, Pb and Cd than organic matter (OM), and inversely,higher affinity of Cu to OM than Fe/Mn oxides in NSCSs and SSs was obtained. Meanwhile, it was found that the distributions of heavy metals in NSCSs and SSs were similar to each other and the pseudo-total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in NSCSs were greater than those in SSs, highlighting the more importance for NSCSs than SSs in controlling behaviours of heavy metals in aquatic environments.

  20. Magneto-elastic coupling in La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy within the Bean-Rodbell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Norby, Poul;

    2016-01-01

    , due to high internal stresses. A promising magnetocaloric material is La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy, where the transition temperature can be controlled through the Mn amount. In this work we use XRD measurements to evaluate the temperature dependence of the unit cell volume with a varying Mn amount. The system...... superimpose a Gaussian distribution of the transition temperature with a standard deviation σT, in order to model the chemical inhomogeneity. Good agreement is obtained between measurements and model with values of η ∼ 1.8 and σ(T) = 1.0 K. ...

  1. Improved low temperature NH3-SCR performance of FeMnTiO(x) mixed oxide with CTAB-assisted synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiguo; Yao, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yuan; Zou, Weixin; Li, Lulu; Ma, Kaili; Tang, Changjin; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin

    2015-02-25

    FeMnTiOx mixed oxide is prepared by the CTAB-assisted co-precipitation method, and the transformation of anatase into rutile is inhibited by CTAB to some extent. The catalyst obtained in the present work shows nearly 100% NO conversion at 100-350 °C, more than 80% N2 selectivity at 75-200 °C, and excellent H2O durability for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 with a space velocity of 30,000 mL g(-1) h(-1).

  2. Virtual Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  3. Technique for preparation of transmission electron microscope specimens from wire samples of Al and Al-Al2O3 alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbo, Jørgen

    1966-01-01

    A technique for thinning 1 mm wire samples of aluminium and aluminium-alumina alloys for transmission electron microscopy is described. The essential feature of the technique, which involves spark machining and electropolishing in a polytetrafluoroethylene holder followed by chemical polishing...

  4. LY12铝合金试件拉伸声发射信号特征分析与状态识别%Acoustic Emission Signature Analysis and State Recognition for LY12 Tensile Aluminum Alloy Specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁立伟

    2014-01-01

    Taking LY12 duralumin with high strength as the research object , the acoustic emission testing sys-tem was employed to investigate acoustic emission signal feature of the tensile aluminum alloy specimen in elas -tic, yield, plastic deformation and fracture stages so that the relationship between specimen and acoustic emis -sion signal feature can be found; meanwhile , the independent experiment on the operating conditions of the pressure-maintaining and the repeated load was implemented and the laws of acoustic emission signal with dif -ferent working conditions were analyzed .The test results show that good corresponding relationship between LY12 aluminum alloy specimen and acoustic emission signal feature can be found .%以高强度硬铝LY12为研究对象,利用声发射试验系统研究拉伸铝合金试件在弹性、屈服、塑性变形和断裂阶段的声发射信号特征,揭示了试件状态与声发射信号特征间的关系。同时对保压和重复加载典型工况进行独立试验,分析不同工况下声发射信号的规律。试验结果表明:LY12铝合金试件状态与声发射信号特征之间存在着良好的对应关系。

  5. Evaluation of Ca3(Co,M2O6 (M=Co, Fe, Mn, Ni as new cathode materials for solid-oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Series compounds Ca3(Co0.9M0.12O6 (M=Co, Fe, Mn, Ni with hexagonal crystal structure were prepared by sol–gel route as the cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs. Effects of the varied atomic compositions on the structure, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion and electrochemical performance were systematically evaluated. Experimental results showed that the lattice parameters of Ca3(Co0.9Fe0.12O6 and Ca3(Co0.9Mn0.12O6 were both expanded to certain degree. Electron-doping and hole-doping effects were expected in Ca3(Co0.9Mn0.12O6 and Ca3(Co0.9Ni0.12O6 respectively according to the chemical states of constituent elements and thermal-activated behavior of electrical conductivity. Thermal expansion coefficients (TEC of Ca3(Co0.9M0.12O6 were measured to be distributed around 16×10−6 K−1, and compositional elements of Fe, Mn, and Ni were especially beneficial for alleviation of the thermal expansion problem of cathode materials. By using Ca3(Co0.9M0.12O6 as the cathodes operated at 800 °C, the interfacial area-specific resistance varied in the order of M=CoFe, Mn, Ni can be used as the cost-effective cathode materials for SOFCs.

  6. Changes in mobility and solubility of the redox sensitive metals Fe, Mn and Co at the seawater-sediment interface following CO2 seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Steinnes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CO2 seepage on the solubility and distribution of the redox-sensitive metals iron, manganese, and cobalt in seawater and sediment pore water has been studied in experiments in laboratory-scale 0.6 m3 chambers. The mobility and solubility of Fe, Mn and Co were investigated in seawater, membrane filtered seawater, and DGT samplers deployed in water and sediment during a 26 day CO2 seepage study. During the first phase of the experiment of CO2 seepage (0–16 days, total acid-leachable (pH≈1 and "dissolved" (<0.2 μm concentrations of Fe, Mn and Co (DFe, DMn and DCo in the seawater increased significantly; the ratios of concentrations of DFe, DMn and DCo in the CO2 chamber to the corresponding values in the control chamber (RDFe, RDMn and RDCo were as high as 6, 65 and 58, respectively. The second phase of experiment consisted of an additional 10 days of incubation, where the concentrations of all the metals studied still increased but at reduced rates for DMn and DCo. The highest values of RDFe, RDMn and RDCo were about 3 for all metals during this part of the experiment. DGT (diffusive gradients in thin film labile fractions denoted FeDGT, MnDGT and CoDGT were, respectively 50, 25 and 22 times higher in the CO2 seepage chamber than in the control chamber in the first phase of the experiment. During the second phase, all DGT labile metal concentrations still increased considerably, most notably for Fe. The ratio of FeDGT in the CO2 chamber to that in the control (RDGT-Fe was still high, about 5, in the second phase of the experiment, whereas the increase in MnDGT and CoDGT slowed down. Our results indicate that acidification following CO2 seepage enhances the mobility and solubility of Fe Mn and Co in sediment and overlying water with contribution of changing in redox conditions and seepage related re-suspension.

  7. Changes in mobility and solubility of the redox sensitive metals Fe, Mn and Co at the seawater-sediment interface following CO2 seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Steinnes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CO2 seepage on the solubility and distribution of the redox-sensitive metals iron, manganese, and cobalt in seawater and sediment pore water has been studied in experiments in laboratory-scale 0.6 m3 chambers. The mobility and solubility of Fe, Mn and Co were investigated in seawater, membrane filtered seawater, and DGT samplers deployed in water and sediment during a 26 day CO2 seepage study. During the first phase of the experiment of CO2 seepage (0–16 days, total acid-leachable (pH 1 and "dissolved" (<0.2 μm concentrations of Fe, Mn and Co (DFe, DMn and DCo in the seawater increased significantly; the ratios of concentrations of DFe, DMn and DCo in the CO2 chamber to the corresponding values in the control chamber (RDFe, RDMn and RDCo were as high as 6, 65 and 58, respectively. The second phase of experiment consisted of an additional 10 days of incubation, where the concentrations of all the metals studied still increased but at reduced rates for DMn and DCo. The highest values of RDFe, RDMn and RDCo were about 3 for all metals during this part of the experiment. DGT (diffusive gradients in thin film labile fractions denoted FeDGT, MnDGT and CoDGT were, respectively 50, 25 and 22 times higher in the CO2 seepage chamber than in the control chamber in the first phase of the experiment. During the second phase, all DGT labile metal concentrations still increased considerably, most notably for Fe. The ratio of FeDGT in the CO2 chamber to that in the control (RDGT-Fe was still high, about 5, in the second phase of the experiment, whereas the increase in MnDGT and CoDGT slowed down. Our results indicate that acidification following CO2 seepage enhances the mobility and solubility of Fe Mn and Co in sediment and overlying water with contribution of changing in redox conditions and seepage related re-suspension.

  8. Spatial Randomness of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T111 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints (Case of L T Orientation Specimen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeui Han; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study aims to investigate the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate for the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints. Our previous fatigue crack growth test data are adopted in this investigation. To clearly understand the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue crack growth tests were conducted under constant stress intensity factor range (SEFOR) control testing. The experimental data were analyzed for two different materials-base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM)-to investigate the effects of spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate and material properties, the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints, namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). The results showed that the variability, as evaluated by Wobble statistical analysis, of the WM is higher than that of the BM.

  9. Influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on development and efficacy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in tropical and subtropical plants. Einfluss von Al und den Schwermetallen Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb und Cd auf die Effizienz der VA-Mykorrhiza bei tropischen und subtropischen Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabig, B.

    1982-07-08

    In greenhouse experiments the influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the efficacy of VA-mycorrhizal fungi was tested with special regard to several soil pH levels and soil water regimes in different combinations. The most important results were: The inoculation led to a significantly better growth of all test plants in the presence of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd up to a specific amount of the soil-applied element; beyond this specific limit the efficacy of the mycorrhiza was more or less inhibited depending on the element. In correlation with the growth, the nearly always better P uptake of the inoculated plants was impaired only by the highest toxic amounts of the elements. In comparison with the uninoculated plants, all the inoculated plants showed higher P and Pb concentrations. The mycorrhizal plants generally had significantly higher concentrations of the elements Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd in the roots than the uninoculated plants. Generally even toxic levels of Fe in the soil did not lead to higher Fe concentrations in the plants. Even the highest amounts of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu did not cause microscopically visible injuries to the development of the mycorrhiza and did not impede the infection. Only the toxic levels of Pb led to a decrease of the infection rate of about 50%. Pb and Cd were the reason for morphological changes of the different developmental phases of the fungus. High amounts of Pb induced an increased formation of vesicles. The highest amounts of Cd were accompanied by the crowded occurrence of arbuscules.

  10. Properties and Application of Iron-based Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian-chen; Jiang Qing; Dai Jun

    2005-01-01

    The properties of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy were investigated. The results show that the best shape memory effect of Fel4Mn6Si9Cr5Ni alloy is 85%. The transformation amount of the ε→γ transformation is not complete after heating the alloy to 1000 K, As and Af points drop with increased transformation enthalpy ( △Hγ→ε) by thermal cycling and increased prestrain. The alloy shows also good creep and stress relaxation resistance. In addition, the alloy having a tensile force of 20 kN and a sealing pressure of 6 MPa can satisfy requirements for possible industrial application on pipe joints.

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of NaMF 3 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni) and their electrochemical properties as positive electrode materials for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocheva, Irina D.; Nishijima, Manabu; Doi, Takayuki; Okada, Shigeto; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    Mechanical treatment was used as a nonconventional solid-state process for large-scale preparation of fluoride materials as an alternative to the hazardous high-pressure fluorination route. Sodium fluoroperovskites of Fe, Mn, and Ni were achieved by mechanical grinding of NaF and binary metal fluorides for different periods of time under Ar. The obtained monophases were characterized by XRD measurements, AAS, ICP-OES, and IC. The electrochemical performance of the achieved materials was tested in a Na half-cell under different operating conditions. It was revealed that mechanochemically inserted sodium is electrochemically active for the NaFeF 3 positive electrode composition. In this pilot study, NaFeF 3 showed an initial discharge capacity of 130 mA h g -1 at 0.2 mA cm -2.

  12. Structure-dependent magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque in antiferromagnetic Fe |MgO |FeMn |Cu tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xingtao; Tang, Huimin; Wang, Shizhuo; Qin, Minghui

    2017-02-01

    We predict large magnetoresistance (MR) and spin transfer torque (STT) in antiferromagnetic Fe |MgO |FeMn |Cu tunnel junctions based on first-principles scattering theory. MR as large as ˜100 % is found in one junction. Magnetic dynamic simulations show that STT acting on the antiferromagnetic order parameter dominates the spin dynamics, and an electronic bias of order 10-1mV and current density of order 105Acm-2 can switches a junction of three-layer MgO, they are about one order smaller than that in Fe |MgO |Fe junction with the same barrier thickness, respectively. The multiple scattering in the antiferromagnetic region is considered to be responsible for the enhanced spin torque and smaller switching current density.

  13. Mechanical properties of ferrite-perlite and martensitic Fe-Mn-V-Ti-C steel processed by equal-channel angular pressing and high-temeperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, G. G.; Astafurova, E. G.; Tukeeva, M. S.; Naidenkin, E. V.; Raab, G. I.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    Using the method of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), submicrocrystalline structure is formed in lowcarbon Fe-Mn-V-Ti-C steel with the average grain size 260 nm in the ferrite-perlite state and 310 nm in the martensitic state. It is established that the ECAP treatment gives rise to improved mechanical properties (Hμ = 2.9 GPa, σ0 = 990 MPa in the ferrite-perlite and Hμ = 3.7 GPa, σ0 = 1125 MPa in martensitic states), decreased plasticity, and results in plastic flow localization under tensile loading. The high strength properties formed by the ECAP are shown to sustain up to the annealing temperature 500°C.

  14. Structure and magnetic properties of the double-perovskites Ba2(B,Re)2O6 (B = Fe, Mn, Co and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammeh, N.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Cheikkh-Rouhou, A.

    2006-09-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of Ba2(B,Re)2O6 (B = Fe, Mn, Co and Ni) double-perovskite oxides have been investigated. Rietveld analysis shows that all our synthesized samples are single phase and crystallize at room temperature in the cubic double-perovskite structure with Fm3m space group. Magnetization measurements versus temperature and versus magnetic applied field up to 5 T show that Ba2(Fe,Re)2O6, Ba2(Mn,Re)2O6 and Ba2(Ni,Re)2O6 are ferromagnetic at low temperature with TC = 318 K, 113 K and 32 K respectively while Ba2(Co,Re)2O6 is antiferromagnetic below TN = 25 K.

  15. Use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for predicting mineral composition (Ca, K, P, Fe, Mn, Na, Zn), protein and moisture in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, I; Hernández-Hierro, J M; González-Cabrera, J M

    2007-03-01

    In the present work we study the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for the analysis of major (Ca, K, P) and minor (Fe, Mn, Na, Zn) elements, protein and moisture in alfalfa. The method allows immediate analysis of the alfalfa without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on ground samples in the case of the mineral composition and on-ground and compacted (baled) samples in the case of protein and humidity. The regression method employed was modified partial least-squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using samples of alfalfa allowed the determination of Ca, K, P, Fe, Mn, Na and Zn, with a standard error of prediction (SEP(C)) and a correlation coefficient (RSQ) expressed in mg/kg of alfalfa of 1.37x10(3) and 0.878 for Ca, 1.10x10(3) and 0.899 for K, 227 and 0.909 for P, 103 and 0.948 for Fe, 5.1 and 0.843 for Mn, 86.2 and 0.979 for Na, and of 1.9 and 0.853 for Zn, respectively. The SEP(C) and RSQ values (in %) for protein and moisture in ground samples were 0.548 and 0.871 and 0.150 and 0.981, respectively; while in the compacted samples they were 0.564 and 0.826 and 0.262 and 0.935, respectively. The prediction capacity of the model and the robustness of the method were checked in the external validation in alfalfa samples of unknown composition, and the results confirmed the suitability of the method.

  16. From which soil metal fractions Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are taken up by olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis') in organic groves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Papaioannou, A; Gasparatos, D; Molassiotis, A

    2017-12-01

    Organic farming has been proposed as an alternative agricultural system to help solve environmental problems, like the sustainable management of soil micronutrients, without inputs of chemical fertilizers. The purposes of this study were: i) to assess Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu bioavailability through the determination of sequentially extracted chemical forms (fractions) and their correlation with foliar micronutrient concentrations in mature organic olive (cv. 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis') groves; ii) to determine the soil depth and the available forms (fractions) by which the 4 metals are taken up by olive trees. DTPA extractable (from the soil layers 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) and foliar micronutrient concentrations were determined in two organic olive groves. Using the Tessier fractionation, five fractions, for all the metals, were found: exchangeable, bound to carbonates (acid-soluble), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (reducible), organic (oxidizable), as well as residual form. Our results indicated that Fe was taken up by the olive trees as organic complex, mainly from the soil layer 40-60 cm. Manganese was taken up from the exchangeable fraction (0-20 cm); Zinc was taken up as organic complex from the layers 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as in the exchangeable form from the upper 20 cm. Copper was taken up from the soil layers 0-20 and 40-60 cm as soluble organic complex, and as exchangeable ion from the upper 20 cm. Our data reveal the crucial role of organic matter to sustain metal (Fe, Zn and Cu) uptake -as soluble complexes-by olive trees, in mature organic groves grown on calcareous soils; it is also expected that these data will constitute a thorough insight and useful tool towards a successful nutrient and organic C management for organic olive groves, since no serious nutritional deficiencies were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of hydrothermal Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides at the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Baoju; ZENG Zhigang; WANG Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides dredged at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea–Australia–Canada–Manus) hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin, have87Sr/86Sr=0.708 079–0.708 581;εNd=5.149 833–6.534 826;208Pb/204Pb=38.245–38.440;207Pb/204Pb=15.503–15.560;206Pb/204Pb=18.682–18.783.87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios are relatively homogeneous and close to the value of the surrounding seawater (0.709 16). The content of Sr in the samples contributed by seawater was estimated to be 76.7%–83.1% of total amount. The mixing temperature of hydrothermal fluids and seawater were ranging from 53.2°C to 72.2°C and the hydrothermal activities were unstable when the samples precipitated. TheεNd values of all the samples are positive, which differ from the values of ferromanganese nodules (crusts) with hydrogenic origin. Nd was mainly derived from substrate rocks leached by hydrothermal circulation and preserved the hydrothermal signature. Pb isotopic compositions of most samples show minor variability except Sample #9–2 that has relatively high values of Pb isotopes. The Pb may be derived from the Eastern Manus Basin rocks leached by the hydrothermal fluid. The slightly lower208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb values of the samples indicated that the hydrothermal circulation in PACMANUS was not entire and sufficient, or that hydrothermal circulation had transient changes in the past. Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides in the samples preserved the heterogeneities of local rocks.

  18. Magnetic properties of ball-milled Fe{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.1}Al{sub 0.3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolledo, A.F. [Insituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Madrid) (Spain); Romero, J.J. [Insituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Madrid) (Spain)]. E-mail: juanjromero@adif.es; Cuadrado, R. [Insituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Madrid) (Spain); Gonzalez, J.M. [Insituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Madrid) (Spain); Instittuo de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pigazo, F. [Instittuo de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instittuo de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Medina, M.H. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, La Julita, A. A. 097, Pereira (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G.A. [Insituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Madrid) (Spain); Depto. de Fisica, edificio 230, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2007-09-15

    The FeMnAl-disordered alloy system exhibits, depending on the composition and the temperature, a rich variety of magnetic phases including the occurrence of ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, paramagnetism and spin-glass and reentrant spin glass behaviors. These latter phases result from the presence of atomic disorder and magnetic dilution and from the competing exchange interactions taking place between an Fe atom and its Mn and Fe first neighbors. The use of mechanical alloying in order to prepare these alloys is specially interesting since it allows to introduce in a progressive way large amounts of disorder. In this work, we describe the evolution with the milling time of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.1}Al{sub 0.3} samples. The materials were prepared in a planetary ball mill using a balls-to-powder mass ratio of 15:1 and pure (99.95 at%) Fe, Mn and Al powders for times up to 19 h. The X-rays diffraction (XRD) spectra show the coexistence of three phases at short milling times. For milling times over 6 h, only the FeMnAl ternary alloy BCC phase is observed. Moesbauer spectroscopy reveals the complete formation of the FeMnAl alloy after 9 h milling time. The magnetic characterization showed that all the samples were ferromagnetic at room temperature with coercivities decreasing from 105 Oe (3 h milled sample) down to 5 Oe in the case of the sample milled for 19 h.

  19. Trace and Rare Earth Element Characteristics in Fe-Mn Carbonates Associated with Stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn Mineraliza-tion from the Lengshuikeng Ore District, Jiangxi Province:Implications for Their Genesis and Depositional Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Shaoyong Jiang

    2016-01-01

    We performed a systematic trace and rare earth element analysis for the bedded Fe-Mn carbonate rocks related to the stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization in the Lengshuikeng ore district, Jiangxi Province, South China. Three types of Fe-Mn carbonates are distinguished, namely, the massive, breccia, and vein types. Both carbonate and silicate fractions in the samples are analyzed for their trace and rare earth element concentrations using a step acid-leaching technique. Our results show that the carbonate fractions in the massive type samples have the lowest REE concentrations but pronounced positive Eu and Y anomalies with Eu/Eu* value from 1.3 to 6.2 and Y/Ho value from 40.1 to 59.5, and similar characteristics are also shown for the silicate fractions in the massive type samples (Eu/Eu*=1.0–6.7, Y/Ho=20.7–55.1). These REE characteristics are similar to those of Sedex type mas-sive sulfide deposits worldwide, and we suggest that the massive type Fe-Mn carbonate rocks were likely formed from an exhalative volcanic-hydrothermal fluid feeding the depression basin of a volcanic lake. The high concentrations of redox-sensitive elements and ratios such as U/Th, V/Cr and V/(V+Ni) indicate a dysoxic environment for the Fe-Mn carbonate deposition. In contrast, the breccia type and vein type Fe-Mn carbonate samples show different trace and rare earth element features from those of massive type samples, and they are more similar to the volcanic rocks and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in the Lengshuikeng ore district and may reflect strong overprinting from volcanic and sub-volcanic magmatism related to the porphyry type mineralization in the district.

  20. Searching for Next Single-Phase High-Entropy Alloy Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Alman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable technological interest in high-entropy alloys (HEAs since the initial publications on the topic appeared in 2004. However, only several of the alloys investigated are truly single-phase solid solution compositions. These include the FCC alloys CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi based on 3d transition metals elements and BCC alloys NbMoTaW, NbMoTaVW, and HfNbTaTiZr based on refractory metals. The search for new single-phase HEAs compositions has been hindered by a lack of an effective scientific strategy for alloy design. This report shows that the chemical interactions and atomic diffusivities predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations which are closely related to primary crystallization during solidification can be used to assist in identifying single phase high-entropy solid solution compositions. Further, combining these simulations with phase diagram calculations via the CALPHAD method and inspection of existing phase diagrams is an effective strategy to accelerate the discovery of new single-phase HEAs. This methodology was used to predict new single-phase HEA compositions. These are FCC alloys comprised of CoFeMnNi, CuNiPdPt and CuNiPdPtRh, and HCP alloys of CoOsReRu.

  1. Characterisation of L21-ordered Ni2TiAl precipitates in FeMn maraging steels

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, F.; Sharp, J.; Rainforth, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitates formed in a new series of Fesingle bondMn maraging steels when aged at 500 °C were identified as the L21-ordered Ni2TiAl phase. The precipitate formed a coherent-coplanar microstructure analogously to γ/γ' Ni-based superalloys and maintained a high number density and homogeneous dispersion within α′-martensite matrix even after aging for 10,080 min. An increase in the Mn content of the alloy led to faster precipitation kinetics and thus rapid hardening kinetics.

  2. Statistical values of valence electron structure parameters applied to research on phase transition temperature and eutectoid reaction of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the statisti- cal values of valence electron structure parameters SnA and SEA which can char- acterize the properties of alloy phases are calculated, and influences of alloying elements (e.g., V, Nb, Mo, Hf, Zr, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Si, and so on) on the phase transi- tion temperature and eutectoid reaction of titanium alloy are discussed with the statistical values of valence electron structure parameters. The research results agree well with real situations.

  3. A study of Fe{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 1-x}Al alloys: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduani, C. [DF-UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040 900 SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: paduani@fisica.ufsc.br; Migliavacca, A. [DF-UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040 900 SC (Brazil); Poettker, W.E. [DF-UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040 900 SC (Brazil); Schaf, J. [IF-UFRGS, Porto Alegre, CEP 91501 970 RS (Brazil); Krause, J.C. [DCET-URI, Santo Angelo, CEP 98802 470 RS (Brazil); Ardisson, J.D. [CDTN, Belo Horizonte, CEP 30123 970 MG (Brazil); Samudio Perez, C.A. [ICE-UPF, Passo Fundo, CEP 99001 970 RS (Brazil); Takeuchi, A.Y. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22290 180 (Brazil); Yoshida, M.I. [DQ-ICEX-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, CEP 31270 901 MG (Brazil)

    2007-08-01

    The Fe{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 1-x}Al alloys were studied experimentally to assess the effect of variations of composition around stoichiometric on the structural and magnetic properties of this system. The results indicate that the ordered L2{sub 1}(X{sub 2}YZ) structure of full Heusler alloys can be stabilized with small deviations of composition from the stoichiometric 2:1:1. The saturation magnetization is strongly composition dependent and decreases with the increase of the Mn concentration, in spite of the fact that the Mn atoms carry the largest moment in the ordered phase. The highest Curie temperature was observed for the Fe-richer alloy. Magnetic measurements suggest that atomic disorder and competition of the antiferromagnetic Fe-Mn and Mn-Mn interactions with the ferromagnetic Fe-Fe, Mn-Mn and Fe-Mn interactions lead to a frustrated couplings ending in a reentrant spin-glass behavior at low temperature.

  4. Magnetic properties and atomic ordering of BCC Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, atomic disorder and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. BCC Fe2MnGa ribbon samples were prepared. Experimentally, a saturation magnetic moment (3.68 μB at 5 K) much larger than the theoretical value (2.04 μB) has been reported. First-principles calculations indicate that the difference is related to the Fe-Mn disorder between A, B sites, as can also be deduced from the XRD pattern. L21 type Fe2MnGa is a ferrimagnet with antiparallel Fe and Mn spin moments. However, when Fe-Mn disorder occurs, part of Mn moments will be parallel to Fe moments, and the Fe moments also clearly increase simultaneously. All this results in a total moment of 3.74 μB, close to the experimental value.

  5. Influence of specimen size and grain orientation to the life of a polycrystalline Ni-base alloy at LCF stress; Einfluss der Probengroesse und der Kornorientierung auf die Lebensdauer einer polykristallinen Ni-Basislegierung bei LCF-Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In the present work the LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) crack initiation life of the conventionally cast Ni-base alloy RENE 80 was analyzed as a function of specimen size and grain orientation. Five specimen geometries with distinctly different gauge sections were used: 3 geometries with cylindrical gauge section (G1-G3) and two notched geometries with a stress concentration factor of α{sub 1} = 1,62 (KG1) and α{sub 2} = 2,60 (KG2), resulting in a maximum difference of the damage relevant surface area up to a factor of approximately 72. Correction factors were determined by FEM calculations for all specimen geometries with highly reduced gauge sections where direct strain measurement was not possible. Additionally a uniform failure criterion with a relatively small crack size of 0,962 mm{sup 2} was defined. Totally, 116 isothermal LCF tests were carried out at the different specimen types at a temperature of 850 C in total strain control with a load ratio (minimum strain / maximum strain) of R{sub ε} = -1. The load cycles were applied with triangular waveform at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for high strain amplitudes and 1 Hz for low strain amplitudes, respectively. After the LCF-Tests the fracture surfaces of all samples were analyzed in more detail by SEM to identify the crack initiation mechanisms as well as the crack initiation sites. In this context it could be shown, that fatigue cracks were generally initiated at slip bands in surface grains. Accordingly, the grain orientations at the crack initiation sites were measured by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and the maximum shear stresses in the respective principal slip system (111) <110> was calculated using the Schmid approach. For this, longitudinal sections were be prepared exactly at the crack initiation sites of samples loaded with low strain amplitudes where clearly defined single crack initiation sites were observed. Afterwards the maximum shear stress in the principal slip system at the crack initiation

  6. Effect of equal-channel angular pressing on pitting corrosion resistance of anodized aluminum-copper alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Joon SON; Hiroaki NAKANO; Satoshi OUE; Shigeo KOBAYASHI; Hisaaki FUKUSHIMA; Zenji HORITA

    2009-01-01

    The effect of equal-channel angular pressing(ECAP) on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Cu alloy was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L AlCl3 and also by surface analysis. Anodizing was conducted for 20 min at 200 and 400 A/m2 in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L H2SO4 and 0.018 5 mol/L Al2(SO4)3-16H2O at 20 ℃. Anodized Al-Cu alloy was immediately dipped in boiling water for 20 min to seal the micro pores present in anodic oxide films. The time required before initiating pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Cu alloy is longer with ECAP than without, indicating that ECAP process improves the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Cu alloy. Second phase precipitates such as Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si-Fe-Mn intermetallic compounds are present in Al-Cu alloy and the size of these precipitates is greatly decreased by application of ECAP. Al-Cu-Mg intermetallic compounds are dissolved during anodization, whereas the precipitates composed of Si and Al-Cu-Si-Fe-Mn remain in anodic oxide films due to their more noble corrosion potential than Al. FE-SEM and EPMA observation reveal that the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Cu alloy occurs preferentially around Al-Cu-Si-Fe-Mn intermetallic compounds, since the anodic oxide films are absent at the boundary between the normal oxide films and these impurity precipitates. The improvement of pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Cu alloy processed by ECAP appears to be attributed to a decrease in the size of precipitates, which act as origins of pitting corrosion.

  7. Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in plants and choice of hyperaccumulator plant in the industrial town of Vian, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorestani B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various industrial activities contribute heavy metals to the soil environment directly or indirectly through the release of solid wastes, waste gases, and wastewater. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remedy metal-contaminated sites. A major step towards the development of phytoremediation of heavy metal-impacted soils is the discovery of the heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants. This study evaluated the potential of 7 species growing on a contaminated site in an industrial area. Several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied. The case study was represented by an industrial town in the Hamedan province in the central-western part of Iran. This study showed that most of the sampled species were able to grow in heavily metal-contaminated soils and were also able to accumulate extraordinarily high concentrations of some metals such as Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Camphorosma monospeliacum for Pb and Fe, and Salsola soda and Circium arvense for Pb can be classified as hyperaccumulators and, therefore, they have suitable potential for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  8. Training and recovery behaviors of exchange bias in FeNi/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valves at high field sweep rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, D.Z. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Kapelrud, A.; Saxegaard, M. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Wahlstroem, E., E-mail: erik.wahlstrom@ntnu.no [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    Training and recovery of exchange bias in FeNi/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valves have been studied by magnetoresistance curves with field sweep rates from 1000 to 4800 Oe/s. It is found that training and recovery of exchange field are proportional to the logarithm of the training cycles and recovery time, respectively. These behaviors are explained within the model based on thermal activation. For the field sweep rates of 1000, 2000 and 4000 Oe/s, the relaxation time of antiferromagnet spins are 61.4, 27.6, and 11.5 in the unit of ms, respectively, much shorter than the long relaxation time ({approx}10{sup 2}s) in conventional magnetometry measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure antiferromagnet (AFM) spin dynamic behaviors at high field sweep rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the field sweep rates will reduce the AFM recovery and relaxation time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM spin is in millisecond timescale, shorter the conventional report ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}).

  9. New materials for Li-ion batteries: synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Li2(FeMnCo)SiO4 cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefania; Mozzati, Maria Cristina; Lantieri, Marco; Spina, Gabriele; Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella

    2016-06-01

    Improving cathode materials is mandatory for next-generation Li-ion batteries. Exploring polyanion compounds with high theoretical capacity such as the lithium metal orthosilicates, Li2MSiO4 is of great importance. In particular, mixed silicates represent an advancement with practical applications. Here we present results on a rapid solid state synthesis of mixed Li2(FeMnCo)SiO4 samples in a wide compositional range. The solid solution in the P21/n space group was found to be stable for high iron concentration or for a cobalt content up to about 0.3 atom per formula unit. Other compositions led to a mixture of polymorphs, namely Pmn21 and Pbn21. All the samples contained a variable amount of Fe3+ ions that was quantified by Mössbauer spectroscopy and confirmed by the TN values of the paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition. Preliminary characterization by cyclic voltammetry revealed the effect of Fe3+ on the electrochemical response. Further work is required to determine the impact of these electrode materials on lithium batteries.

  10. The Influence of the East Pacific Rise Hydrothermal Field on the Distributions of Dissolved Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cd in the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, S.; Wu, J.

    2014-12-01

    East Pacific Rise (EPR) hosts the largest hydrothermal field in the world. The concentrations of dissolved key trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd) were determined in the seawater samples collected from EPR to Tahiti in the South Pacific along 10-15 ºS during U. S. GEOTRACES 2013 by means of Mg(OH)2 co-precipitation isotope dilution method using ICP-MS. Dissolved Mn was determined in these samples using a new method combining Mg(OH)2 co-precipitation with calibration with external standards of 57Fe, 52Cr and 59Co. The results show substantial mid-depth maxima of Fe and Mn extended from EPR. These hydrothermally-enriched Fe and Mn show long-distance westward transportation to the central South Pacific. The mid-depth enrichment of Zn was also observed at stations close to EPR. In contrast, Cu and Cd show depletions around the hydrothermal vent near EPR. Overall the results suggest that hydrothermal activity is a source for Fe, Mn and Zn and a sink for Cu and Cd.

  11. He, Ne and Ar isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts from the western and central Pacific Ocean and implications for their genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU WenRui; SHI XueFa; ZHANG MingJie; LIU JiHua; G.P. GLASBY

    2007-01-01

    The noble gas nuclide abundances and isotopic ratios of the upmost layer of Fe-Mn crusts from the western and central Pacific Ocean have been determined. The results indicate that the He and Ar nuclide abundances and isotopic ratios can be classified into two types: low 3He/4He type and high 3He/4He type. The low 3He/4He type is characterized by high 4He abundances of 191×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1 on average, with variable 4He, 20Ne and 40Ar abundances in the range (42.8-421)×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1, (5.40-141)×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1, and (773- 10976)×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1, respectively. The high 3He/4He samples are characterized by low 4He abundances of 11.7×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1 on average, with 4He, 20Ne and 40Ar abundances in the range of (7.57-17.4)×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1, (10.4-25.5)×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1 and (5354-9050)×10-9 cm3.STP.g-1, respectively. The low 3He/4He samples have 3He/4He ratios (with R/RA ratios of 2.04-2.92) which are lower than those of MORB (R/RA=8±1) and 40Ar/36Ar ratios (447-543) which are higher than those of air (295.5). The high 3He/4He samples have 3He/4He ratios (with R/RA ratios of 10.4-12.0) slightly higher than those of MORB (R/RA=8±1) and 40Ar/36Ar ratios (293-299) very similar to those of air (295.5). The Ne isotopic ratios (20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of 10.3-10.9 and 0.02774-0.03039, respectively) and the 38Ar/36Ar ratios (0.1886-0.1963) have narrow ranges which are very similar to those of air (the 20Ne/22Ne, 21Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar ratios of 9.80, 0.029 and 0.187, respectively),and cannot be differentiated into different groups. The noble gas nuclide abundances and isotopic ratios, together with their regional variability, suggest that the noble gases in the Fe-Mn crusts originate primarily from the lower mantle. The low 3He/4He type and high 3He/4He type samples have noble gas characteristics similar to those of HIMU (High U/Pb Mantle)- and EM (Enriched Mantle)-type mantle material, respectively. The low 3He/4He type samples with HIMU-type noble gas

  12. High pressure structural investigation on alluaudites Na2Fe3(PO4)3-Na2FeMn2(PO4)3 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Huang, Weifeng; Qin, Shan; Wu, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Alluaudites are promising electrochemical materials benefited from the open structure. Structural variations of alluaudites Na2M3(PO4)3 (M3=Fe3, Fe2Mn and FeMn2) system have been studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction combined with diamond anvil cell technique up to 10 GPa at room temperature. No phase transition is observed. The excellent structural stability is mainly due to the flexible framework plus strong covalent P-O bond. Mn2+ instead of Fe can be described as Na++2Fe2+→Mn2++Fe3++□ where □ represents a lattice vacancy. The replacement of Fe with larger Mn2+ is equivalent to applying negative chemical pressure to the material. And it causes a more compressible b-axis, lattice expansion, structural compressibility and intensifies the core/electron-electron interactions of Fe. External pressure effect produces anisotropic lattice shrinkage. Structural considerations related to these variations and promising application prospects are discussed.

  13. Site-Mixing Effect on the XMCD Spectrum in Double Perovskite Bi{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 6}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Chen, Aiping; McFarland, Brian; Wang, Qiang; Ohldag, Hendrik; Sandberg, Richard; Jia, Quanxi; Yarotski, Dmitry A.; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2016-06-13

    We investigate magnetization in double perovskite multiferroic Bi2FeMnO6 (BFMO) thin film using density functional theory (DFT) simulations, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. The exchange interaction between Fe and Mn sites gives rise to a ferrimagnetic ordering in BFMO. When grown without structural defects, distinct XMCD signal is expected from this system. The site resolved magnetization, thus, can be extracted using XMCD sum rules. Although our theoretical calculations are consistent with this expectation for the ideal BFMO system, experimental measurements find evidence of anomalous peak for the L-2 and L-3 edges of XMCD signals, and thus, the XMCD sum rules are no longer valid. We theoretically explain this phenomenon by considering both tetragonal (near interface), and monoclinic (bulk) phases of BFMO system, with Fe and Mn ions interchanged between their respective sites. Such site-mixing between magnetic cations are commonly found during the synthesis process. Our DFT calculations of XMCD for site interchanged Fe and Mn ions in the bulk phase (monoclinic) of BFMO are in good agreement with experimental XMCD signal and reproduce the anomalous peak features at L-2/L-3 edges.

  14. Preparation of Fe-Mn/K/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst and Its Catalytic Kinetics for the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Fazlollahi; M.Sarkari; H.Gharebaghi; H.Atashi; M.M.Zarei; A.A.Mirzaei; W.C.Hecker

    2013-01-01

    A K promoted iron-manganese catalyst was prepared by sol-gel method,and subsequently was tested for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to light olefins.The kinetic experiments on a well-characterized Fe-Mn/K/Al2O3 catalyst were performed in a fixed-bed micro-reactor in a temperature range of 280-380 ℃,pressure range of 0.1-1.2 MPa,H2/CO feed molar ratio range of 1-2.1 and a space velocity range of 2000-7200 h-1.Considering the mechanism of the process and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hogan-Watson (LHHW) approach,unassisted CO dissociation and H-assisted CO dissociation mechanisms were defined.The best models were obtained using non-linear regression analysis and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.Consequently,4 models were considered as the preferred models based on the carbide mechanism.Finally,a model was proposed as a best model that assumed the following kinetically relevant steps in the iron-Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis:(1) CO dissociation occurred without hydrogen interaction and was not a rate-limiting step; (2) the first hydrogen addition to surface carbon was the rate-determining steps.The activation energy and adsorption enthalpy were calculated 40.0 and-30.2 kJ· mol-1,respectively.

  15. A thermo-mechanical correlation with driving forces for hcp martensite and twin formations in the Fe-Mn-C system exhibiting multicomposition sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Jinichiro

    2013-02-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the Fe-Mn-C system were investigated by using an analytical model constructed by a CALPHAD approach. The stacking fault energy (SFE) of the fcc structure with respect to the hcp phase was always constant at T0, independent of the composition and temperature when other related parameters were assumed to be constant. Experimental limits for the thermal hcp formation and the mechanical (deformation-induced) hcp formation were separated by the SFE at T0. The driving force for the fcc to hcp transition, defined as a dimensionless value -dGm/(RT), was determined in the presence of Fe-rich and Mn-rich composition sets in each phase. Carbon tended to partition to the Mn-rich phase rather than to the Fe-rich phase for the compositions studied. The results obtained revealed a thermo-mechanical correlation with empirical yield strength, maximum true stress and maximum true strain. The proportionality between thermodynamics and mechanical properties is discussed.

  16. Health Risk Assessment of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr in Drinking Water in some Wells and Springs of Shush and Andimeshk, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sakizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current study,the hazard quotient, the hazard index (HI and spatial variations of Fe,Mn,Cu and Cr in drinking water sources of Andimesk-Shush, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iranaquifer were assessed. Methods: We compared theconcentrations of aforementioned heavy metals in wells and springs inAndimeshk and Shush regions. The non-carcinogenic risk assessment of heavy metals was implemented usingUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA index.The spatial maps in the area were developed by geostatistical methods. Results: Mean concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater sources of the study area in decreasing order was as follows: Cu >Mn> Fe> Cr. Except for iron,mean heavy metal concentrations were higher than the standard levels. Manganese concentration in 41.5% of the samples exceeded the permissible limits. Copper was higher than the safety limit in 74% of the samples, and chromium in 54% of the cases. The spatial pattern of heavy metals concentrations indicated higher concentrations in the southern parts of the region. The mean hazard quotients of most samples for the four heavy metals were lower than one, indicating that there was no immediate threat due to the exposure to these heavy metals. The calculated accumulated hazards of these heavy metals produced different results, with hazard indices of higher than one. Conclusion: The accumulated hazard indicesfor the evaluated metals were higher than one, indicating that chronic ingestion of these waters threatens the health of local consumers on the long run.

  17. Average widths of grain boundaries in nanophase alloys synthesized by mechanical attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, B.; Kuwano, H.; Ouyang, H.

    1995-04-01

    Many binary ferrous alloys were synthesized by mechanical attrition in a high-energy ball mill. X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to measure grain sizes, which were as small as a few nanometers in several alloys. The nanocrystalline alloys showed new features in their Mössbauer spectra, which we associated with 57Fe atoms at and near grain boundaries. The experimental data on the fraction of 57Fe atoms at and near grain boundaries were correlated to the measured grain sizes to obtain an average width of the grain boundaries. The average grain-boundary widths of the fcc alloys Fe-Mn and Ni-Fe were approximately 0.5 nm, but the average widths of grain boundaries in the bcc alloys Cr-Fe, Mo-Fe, and Fe-Ti were somewhat larger than 1 nm.

  18. Relative effects of enthalpy and entropy on the phase stability of equiatomic high-entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Frederik [ORNL; Yang, Ying [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High configurational entropies have been hypothesized to stabilize solid solutions in equiatomic, multi-element alloys which have attracted much attention recently as high-entropy alloys with potentially interesting properties. To evaluate the usefulness of configurational entropy as a predictor of single-phase (solid solution) stability, we prepared five new equiatomic, quinary alloys by replacing individual elements one at a time in a CoCrFeMnNi alloy that was previously shown to be single-phase [1]. An implicit assumption here is that, if any one element is replaced by another, while keeping the total number of elements constant, the configurational entropy of the alloy is unchanged; therefore, the new alloys should also be single-phase. Additionally, the substitute elements that we chose, Ti for Co, Mo or V for Cr, V for Fe, and Cu for Ni, had the same room-temperature crystal structure and comparable size/electronegativity as the elements being replaced to maximize solid solubility consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules. For comparison, the base CoCrFeMnNi alloy was also prepared. After three-day anneals at elevated temperatures, multiple phases were observed in all but the base CoCrFeMnNi alloy suggesting that, by itself, configurational entropy is generally not able to override competing driving forces that also govern phase stability. Thermodynamic analyses were carried out for each of the constituent binaries in the investigated alloys (Co-Cr, Fe-Ni, Mo-Mn, etc,). Experimental results combined with the thermodynamic analyses suggest that, in general, enthalpy and non-configurational entropy have bigger influences on phase stability in equiatomic, multi-component alloys. Only when the alloy microstructure is a single-phase, approximately ideal solid solution does the contribution of configurational entropy to the total Gibbs free energy become dominant. Thus, high configurational entropy provides a way to rationalize, after the fact, why a solid solution

  19. Kr and Xe isotopic compositions of Fe-Mn crusts from the western and central Pacific Ocean and implications for their genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Wenrui; SHI Xuefa; LI Li; ZHANG Mingjie; GP Glasby; LIU Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Kr and Xe nuclide abundance and isotopic ratios of the uppermost layer of Fe-Mn Crusts from the western and central Pacific Ocean have been determined. The results indicate that the Kr and Xe isotopic composi-tions, like that of He, Ne and Ar, can be classified into two types: low3He/4He type and high3He/4He type. The low3He/4He type crusts have low84Kr and132Xe abundance, while the high3He/4He type crusts have high84Kr and132Xe abundance. The82Kr/84Kr ratios of the low3He/4He type crusts are lower than that of the air, while the83Kr/84Kr and86Kr/84Kr ratios are higher than those of the air. The Kr isotopic ratios of the high-er3He/4He type crusts are quite similar to those of the air. The128Xe/132Xe,130Xe/132Xe and131Xe/132Xe ratios of the low3He/4He type sample are distinctly lower than those of the air, whereas the129Xe/132Xe,134Xe/132Xe and136Xe/132Xe ratios are higher than those of the air. The low3He/4He type samples have the diagnostic characteristics of the MORB, with excess129, 131, 132, 134, 136Xe relative to130Xe compared with the solar wind. The128Xe/132Xe,130Xe/132Xe and131Xe/132Xe ratios of the high3He/4He type samples are slightly higher than those of the air, and the129Xe/132Xe,134Xe/132Xe and136Xe/132Xe ratios are qiute similar to those of the air. The noble gases in the Fe-Mn crusts are derived from the lower mantle, and they are a mixture of lower mantle primitive component, radiogenic component and subduction recycled component. The helium isotopic ra-tios of the low mantle reservoir are predominantly controlled by primitive He (3He) and U and Th radiogenic decayed He (4He), but the isotopic ratios of the heavier noble gases, such as Ar, Kr and Xe, are controlled to different extent by recycling of subduction components. The difference of the noble isotopic compositions of the two type crusts is the result of the difference of the noble isotopic composition of the mantle source reservoir underneath the seamounts the crusts occurred, the noble

  20. Efektivitas Unit Pengolahan Air di Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang (DAMIU Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Logam (Fe, Mn dan Mikroba di Kota Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:The number of drinking-water-refill center were increasing only in quantity but not in providing the quality of water. Therefore it takes a special handling and attention, not only because the low-quality of water causing various diseases.The data from the Pekalongan City Health servic showed that only 13 of 55 drinking-water-refill center (24% which have actively examined their sample water each month in bacteriological test, 3 of them (20% proved to be unqualified. Furthermore, while for chemical examination, there were only 6 (11% which actively doing it, and 2 of them (33% mentioned as unqualified. After doing examination to the raw water, it was found that the content of Fe metal was 2.51 mg/1, Mn metal was 2.41 mg/1, the parameters found was beyond the standard. Methode:The kind of research held was explanatory research using cross sectional design. The sample was taken by proportional sampling. The number of samples was 35 refill centers.The data would be analyzed uding Chi-Square,pairedt-test,Kruskall Wallis, McNemar Test and multivariate test (Logistc regression. Result:The results of this research showed that 23 samples (66% had an unqualified Fe metal content with the average content was 0,34 mg/l, 19 samples (54% had an unqualified Mn metal content, with the average content was 0.47 mg/1, 26 samples (74% with The unqualified quality of E.coli. The other test carried out in the drinking-water refill, resulted that 25 samples (71% had a qualified Fe metal content, the average was 0.29/1 and 22 samples (63% had a qualified E.coli content.The results of Bivariate analysis showed that the condition of raw water, the equipment, the processing, the sanitation, the SOP compliance, significantly related to the decreasing of Fe, Mn metal content and E.coli (p. <0.05. While the results of the multivariate analysis from 5 variables, 1 of which were statistically proven that there was a asosiation relationship between raw water

  1. Phosphorites, Co-rich Mn nodules, and Fe-Mn crusts from Galicia Bank, NE Atlantic: Reflections of Cenozoic tectonics and paleoceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco Javier; Somoza, Luis; Hein, James R.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Urgorri, Victoriano; Reyes, Jesús; Martín-Rubí, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of marine mineral deposits were recovered from 750 to 1400 m water depths on Galicia Bank, Iberian margin. Mineral deposits include: (1) carbonate fluorapatite phosphorite slabs and nodules that replaced limestone and preserved original protolith fabric. (2) Ferromanganese vernadite crusts with high Mn and Fe (Mn/Fe = 1) contents, and thick stratabound layers consisting mainly of Mn (up to 27% MnO) and Fe (15% Fe2O3), which impregnated and replaced the phosphorite. (3) Co-rich Mn nodules are composed of romanechite and todorokite laminae. Mn-rich layers (up to 58% MnO) contain up to 1.8% Co. (4) Goethite nodules with Fe up to 67% Fe2O3 have low Mn and trace metals. We interpret this mineralization paragenesis to be related to major changes in oceanographic and tectonic regimes. Three phosphatization generations formed hardgrounds dated by 87Sr/86Sr isotopes as late Oligocene, early Miocene, and latest early Miocene. During the latest early Miocene, the hardground was fractured and breached due to regional intraplate tectonism, which was coeval with a widespread regional erosional unconformity. The stratabound layers and Co-rich manganese nodules were derived from low-temperature geothermally driven hydrothermal fluids, with fluid conduits along reactivated faults. During middle and late Miocene, the introduction of vigorous deep water flow from the Arctic generated growth of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Finally, growth of diagenetic Fe-rich nodules (late Pliocene) was promoted by the introduction of hypersaline Mediterranean Outflow Water into the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  3. 新疆某铁锰矿石选矿试验研究%Beneficiation Study on a Fe-Mn Ore in Sinkiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治国; 刘全军; 冉金城

    2014-01-01

    针对新疆某复杂铁、锰多金属矿石进行了选矿试验,原矿中含Fe 14.65%,Mn 18.05%。根据矿石工艺矿物学特点,确定采用弱磁选回收铁,强磁选回收锰的工艺流程。试验表明:在磨矿细度为-0.074 mm含量占85.70%时,可获得铁精矿Fe品位63.52%、回收率54.66%,锰精矿Mn品位31.25%、回收率65.44%的较好指标,为选厂技术改造提供了依据。%A complex polymetallic Fe -Mn ore in Sinkiang consists of 14.65% Fe and 18.05%Mn.According to mineralogy properties , low intensive magnetic separation process ( LIMS) was a-dopted to separate iron minerals and high intensive magnetic separation ( HIMS) was used to recov-er manganese minerals .Under a grinding fineness -0 .074 mm and content 85 .70%, a Fe con-centrate assaying 63 .52%Fe with a recovery of 54 .66%and a Mn concentrate assaying 31 .25%Mn with a recovery of 65 .44%were finally obtained .The study provides a basis for the technical reform of dressing plant .

  4. Overheating temperature of 7B04 high strength aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng-hua; LI Nian-kui; TIAN Ni; SUN Qiang; LIU Xian-dong; ZHAO Gang

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and overheating characteristics of the direct chill semicontinuous casting ingot of 7B04 high strength aluminum alloy, and those after industrial homogenization treatment and multi-stage homogenization treatments, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), optical microscopy(OM) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM-EDX). The results show that the microstructure of direct chill semicontinuous casting ingot of the 7B04 alloy contains a large number of constituents in the form of dendritic networks that consist of nonequilibrium eutectic and Fe-containing phases. The nonequilibrium eutectic contains Al, Zn, Mg and Cu, and the Fe-containing phases include two kinds of phases, one containing Al, Fe, Mn and Cu, and the other having Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Si and Cu. The melting point of the nonequilibrium eutectic is 478 ℃ for the casting ingot of the 7B04 alloy which is usually considered as its overheating temperature. During industrial homogenization treatment processing at 470 ℃, the nonequilibrium eutectic dissolves into the matrix of this alloy partly, and the remainder transforms into Al2CuMg phase that cannot be dissolved into the matrix at that temperature completely. The melting point of the Al2CuMg phase which can dissolve into the matrix completely by slow heating is about 490 ℃. The overheating temperature of this high strength aluminum alloy can rise to 500-520 ℃. By means of special multi-stage homogenization, the temperature of the homogenization treatment of the ingot of the 7B04 high strength aluminum alloy can reach 500 ℃ without overheating.

  5. Metallogenesis of the Tuomoerte Fe-(Mn) Deposit in Altay, Xinjiang%新疆阿尔泰托莫尔特铁(锰)矿成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富全; 郭旭吉; 黄承科; 刘锋; 柴凤梅; 耿新霞; 张保江

    2012-01-01

    新疆托莫尔特中型铁(锰)矿床赋存于上志留-下泥盆统康布铁堡组上亚组变质火山-沉积岩系中.本研究利用硫同位素和年代学,探讨该矿床的成矿物质来源、成矿时代和成矿作用.结果表明,矿床的形成经历火山沉积期、岩浆热液叠加改造期和区域变质期.火山沉积期为铁和锰主要成矿期,岩浆热液叠加改造期形成少量铁和铜矿化.火山沉积期黄铁矿的δ34S变化于6.2‰ ~ 13.1‰和- 20‰,表明硫主要来自火山岩,也有少量来自细菌还原海水中的硫酸盐.岩浆热液叠加改造期硫化物的δ34S变化于- 1.8‰ ~ 8.5‰,主要集中在-1.8‰~3.8‰,表明硫主要来自黑云母花岗斑岩脉.含矿岩系变流纹岩锆石SHRIMP U- Pb年龄为(406.7±4.3)Ma,穿切矿体的黑云母花岗斑岩脉锆石激光剥蚀-多接收器电感耦合等离子体质谱(LA - MC - ICPMS)U - Pb年龄为(401.6 ±0.6) Ma,表明托莫尔特铁矿火山沉积期形成的Fe - Mn矿化及岩浆热液叠加改造期形成的Fe - Cu矿化出现在早泥盆世(407~401 Ma),为火山喷发沉积和岩浆侵入活动的产物.%The Tuomoerte medium type iron deposit can be found in the metavolcanic-sedimentary sequence of the upper Kangbutiebao Formation from the Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian. The source of ore materials, mineralogenetic epoch and metallogenesis were studied by S stable isotope and geochronology and are reported in this paper. Three periods of mineralization can be distinguished on the basis of field evidence and petrographic analyses; volcano-sedimentation, magmatic-hydrothermal, and regional metamorphism. The majority of the Fe-Mn metallogenic activity occurred during the volcano-sedimentation period, some Fe and the majority of Cu mineralization occurred during the magmatic-hydrothermal period. The 8 S values of pyrite from the volcano-sedimentation period ranged from 6. 2%e to 13. \\%c and -20%e, indicating that the sulfur was mainly derived

  6. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  7. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  8. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, H.O., E-mail: hmosca@cnea.gov.ar [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Grosso, M.F. del [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  9. Influence of powder bonding on mechanical properties and magnetocaloric effects of La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}(Fe,Mn){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Wei [Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of Functional Materials, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot 010022 (China); Baotou Research Institute of Rare Earth, Baotou 014030 (China); Huang, Jiaohong, E-mail: jiaohongh@163.com [Baotou Research Institute of Rare Earth, Baotou 014030 (China); Sun, Naikun [School of Science, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159 (China); Lui, Cuilan [Baotou Research Institute of Rare Earth, Baotou 014030 (China); Ou, Zhiqiang; Song, Lin [Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Physics and Chemistry of Functional Materials, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot 010022 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Bonded La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}(Fe,Mn){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} are prepared by bonding technology. • After bonding the samples have better mechanical properties than bulk alloys. • The T{sub c} of La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} is adjusted by adding Mn atoms. • After bonding the good magnetocaloric effects can be remained. - Abstract: Bonded samples of La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} and La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 11.41}Mn{sub 0.29}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} with NaZn{sub 13}-type cubic structure have been prepared, and their mechanical properties and magnetocaloric effects have been investigated. The bonded samples show a very good compressive strength of 320 and 332 MPa, about 10% and 14% higher than that of bulk LaFe{sub 10.99}Co{sub 0.91}Si{sub 1.1}B{sub 0.2} compound. By partial substitution of Mn for Fe, the Curie temperature (T{sub c}) of bonded La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} decreases remarkably from 325 to 279 K. The magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) for bonded La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} and La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 11.41}Mn{sub 0.29}Si{sub 1.3}H{sub 1.8} slightly reduces compared with hydride alloys, but still maintains large values of 8.8 and 7.9 J/kg K. The two bonded samples exhibit the same adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad}) of about 2.6 K under a field change from 0 to 1.5 T. The bonded La{sub 0.9}Ce{sub 0.1}(Fe,Mn){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3} hydrides samples with good magnetocaloric effects and better mechanical properties are promising as high performance magnetic refrigerants materials.

  10. Synthesis, identification and thermal decomposition of double sulfites like Cu2SO3·MSO3·2H2O (M=Cu, Fe, Mn or Cd)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.17–27 Double sulfites with empirical formula Cu2SO3·MSO3·2H2O (where M is Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd) were obtained by saturation with sulfur dioxide gas of an aqueous mixture of MII sulfate and copper sulfate at room temperature. The salts obtained were identified by infrared spectra, X-ray powder diffraction and elemental analysis. The compounds studied are isostructural with the CuII replacement by MnII, FeII, and CdII in Chevreul’s salt (Cu2SO3·CuSO3·2H2O). Th...

  11. Surface composition of Cd{sub 1–x}Fe(Mn){sub x}Te{sub 1–y}Se{sub y} systems exposed to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundaleski, Nenad [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Radisavljević, Ivana, E-mail: iva@vin.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Trigueiro, João [Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Tolstogouzov, Alexander [Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Ryazan State Radio Engineering University, Gagarin 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation); Rakočević, Zlatko; Medić, Mirjana [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Teodoro, Orlando M.N.D. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Romčević, Nebojša [University of Belgrade–Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanović, Nenad [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-03-01

    Using X–ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Time–of–Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Atomic Force Microscopy we have investigated elemental composition, structure and oxidation process taking place at the surfaces of polycrystalline Cd{sub 0.99}Fe{sub 0.01}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} and Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} systems stored in ambient conditions. The surface oxidation destroys the native CdTe matrix and provokes substantial atomic rearrangement in the first few atomic layers. The near–surface region of both systems is enriched in Cd and to some extent Te–deficient, but the surface structure, morphology and the native oxide composition are all found to be considerably different. In Cd{sub 0.99}Fe{sub 0.01}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} system both Fe and Se dopants diffuse into the bulk and oxidation of its surface results in formation of a thin CdTeO{sub 3} layer which covers the CdTe matrix. In Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} system oxygen–rich atmosphere triggers Mn and Se out–diffusion and the nonuniform oxide layer predominantly consists of MnO and a small amount of Te–oxide which both lay underneath a thin layer of metallic Cd segregated at the top of the surface. - Highlights: • Nature of the CdFe(Mn)TeSe surfaces exposed to air is substantially different. • Near–surface region is enriched in Cd and to some extent Te–deficient. • Presence of Mn drastically changes the surface oxidation conditions. • The surface oxidation in ambient conditions undergoes different mechanisms. • Oxygen triggers Mn out–diffusion, while Fe diffuses into the bulk.

  12. Biogeochemistry of Metalliferous Peats: Sulfur Speciation and Depth Distributions of dsrAB Genes and Cd, Fe, Mn, S, and Zn in Soil Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez,C.; Yanez, C.; Yoon, S.; Bruns, M.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial relationships between concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, S, and Zn and bacterial genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction were studied in soils of the Manning peatland region in western New York. Peat cores were collected within a field exhibiting areas of Zn phytotoxicity, and pH and elemental concentrations were determined with depth. The oxidation states of S were estimated using S-XANES spectroscopy. Soil microbial community DNA was extracted from peat soils for ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of diversity profiles with depth. To assess the presence of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM), DNA extracts were also used as templates for PCR detection of dsrAB genes coding for dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase. Elemental distributions, S redox speciation, and detection of dsrAB genes varied with depth and water content. The pH of peat soils increased with depth. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cd, and S occurred at intermediate depths, whereas Mn concentrations were highest in the topmost peat layers. Iron showed a relatively uniform distribution with depth. Concentrations of redox sensitive elements, S and Mn, but not Fe, seemed to respond to variations in water content and indicated vertical redox stratification in peat cores where topmost peats were typically acidic and oxidizing and deeper peats were typically circumneutral and reducing. Even then, S-XANES analyses showed that surface peats contained >50% of the total S in reduced forms while deep peats contained generally <5% of the total S in oxidized forms. While bacterial RISA profiles of the peats were diverse, dsrAB gene detection followed redox stratification chemistry closely. For the most part, dsrAB genes were detected in deeper peats, where S accumulation was evident, while they were not detected in topmost peat layers where Mn accumulation indicated oxic conditions. Combined chemical, spectroscopic, and microbiological analyses indicated that prolonged exposure to dry

  13. Adsorption of antimony(V) onto Mn(II)-enriched surfaces of manganese-oxide and FeMn binary oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Xu, Wei; He, Zan; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Prasai, Tista

    2015-11-01

    Manganese(IV) oxide [Mn(IV)] potentially oxidizes antimony(III) [Sb(III)] to antimony(V) [Sb(V)] and improves Sb removal by FeMn binary oxide (FMBO) through an oxidation-adsorption mechanism. This study focused on the effect of Mn(IV) reductive dissolution by potassium sulfite (K2SO3) on Sb(V) adsorption onto manganese oxide (Mn-oxide) and FMBO. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption (Qmax,Sb(V)) increased from 1.0 to 1.1 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and from 0.4 to 0.6 mmol g(-1) for Mn-oxide after pretreatment with 10 mmol L(-1) K2SO3. The addition of 2.5 mmol L(-1) Mn(2+) also significantly improved Sb(V) adsorption, and the observed Qmax,Sb(V) increased to 1.4 and 1.0 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and Mn-oxide, respectively, with pre-adsorbed Mn(2+). Neither K2SO3 nor Mn(2+) addition had any effect on Sb(V) adsorption onto iron oxide (Fe-oxide). Mn(2+) introduced by either Mn(IV) dissolution or addition tended to form outer-sphere surface complexes with hydroxyl groups on Mn-oxide surfaces (MnOOH). Mn(2+) at 2.5 mmol L(-1) shifted the isoelectric point (pHiep) from 7.5 to 10.2 for FMBO and from 4.8 to 9.2 for Mn-oxide and hence benefited Sb(V) adsorption. The adsorption of Sb(V) onto Mn(2+)-enriched surfaces contributed to the release of Mn(2+), and the X-ray photoelectron spectra also indicated increased binding energy of Mn 2p3/2 after the adsorption of Sb(V) onto K2SO3-pretreated FMBO and Mn-oxide. Sb(V) adsorption involved the formation of inner-sphere complexes and contributed to the release of Mn(2+). In the removal of Sb(III) by Mn-based oxides, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by Mn(IV) oxides had an effect; however, Mn(IV) dissolution and Mn(2+)-enrichment also played an important role.

  14. Role of second phase particles in pitting corrosion of 3003 Al alloy in NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, Y.F. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The second phase particles in 3003 aluminum (Al) alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. The role of second phase particles in Al alloy pitting corrosion was investigated by cyclic polarization measurement, and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Results demonstrated that the second phase particles in 3003 Al alloy are mainly Al{sub x}(Fe,Mn) intermetallics, with an average diameter of about 5 {mu}m. The enrichment of Mn in second phase particles forms a galvanic cell effect relative to the adjacent Al alloy substrate. The initiation of pitting corrosion of 3003 Al alloy is the local dissolution of Al substrate around the second phase particles. When a sufficient amount of Al is dissolved away, the second phase particles drop off from the Al substrate, forming large pitting cavities that are usually linked each other. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Composition optimizaton and electrochemical characteristics of Co-free Fe-containing AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys through uniform design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Dongliang; CHEN Yungui; ZHU Changrong; WU Chaoling; ZHU Ding

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost of AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys,effects of substitution of Ce for La (A side) and Fe,Mn,A1 for Ni (B side) on structural and electrochemical propeaies of (LaCe)1(NiFeMnAl)5 alloys were studied systematically.To make component uniform and operation easy,uniform design (UD) method was introduced into the study of composition optimization of Co-free Fe-containing AB5-type alloys for the first time.X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the designed alloys were of single CaCu5-type structure phase.The replacement of Fe had a severe effect on electrochemical capacity,and the substitution of Fe and Al had a synergetic action among the unit cell volume,cycling stability and high rate discharge property.Interestingly,it was found that the hydrogen storage alloys with excessively high plateau pressure showed a tilted line in Nyquist plot instead of the semicircle,and the current decayed rapidly to near zero at the beginning of the step in constant potential step (CPS),indicating that electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and CPS cannot accurately measure the electrochemical kinetics process of the hydrogen storage alloys with excessively high plateau pressure.

  16. Design of new face-centered cubic high entropy alloys by thermodynamic calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Mi; Jung, Seungmun; Jo, Yong Hee; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2017-09-01

    A new face-centered cubic (fcc) high entropy alloy system with non-equiatomic compositions has been designed by utilizing a CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) - type thermodynamic calculation technique. The new alloy system is based on the representative fcc high entropy alloy, the Cantor alloy which is an equiatomic Co- Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni five-component alloy, but fully or partly replace the cobalt by vanadium and is of non-equiatomic compositions. Alloy compositions expected to have an fcc single-phase structure between 700 °C and melting temperatures are proposed. All the proposed alloys are experimentally confirmed to have the fcc single-phase during materials processes (> 800 °C), through an X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that there are more chances to find fcc single-phase high entropy alloys if paying attention to non-equiatomic composition regions and that the CALPHAD thermodynamic calculation can be an efficient tool for it. An alloy design technique based on thermodynamic calculation is demonstrated and the applicability and limitation of the approach as a design tool for high entropy alloys is discussed.

  17. Produção de grãos e absorção de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn pelo milho em solo adubado com lodo de esgoto, com e sem calcário Corn yield and uptake of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn from sewage sludge-amended soil with and without liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. C. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O lodo de esgoto (LE, apesar do seu reconhecido valor como fertilizante, ainda é motivo de preocupação quando usado na agricultura, em virtude do potencial de absorção excessiva de metais pesados pelas plantas e entrada na cadeia alimentar. Para avaliar o efeito da adição de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 Mg ha-1 (com base no material seco de LE, aplicado de forma única ou parcelada em 2, 3 e 4 anos nas doses de 40, 60 e 80 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, com e sem calcário, na produção de grãos e massa seca da parte aérea e na absorção de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn pelo milho, foi realizado, em Cordeirópolis (SP, um experimento em condições de campo, utilizando um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, no período de 1983 a 1987. Foi utilizado o experimento em faixas ("split block" com quatro repetições. A maior dose de LE adicionou ao solo, em kg ha-1, 63, 3040, 25 e 152 de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, respectivamente. A produção de grãos e de massa seca da parte aérea aumentou linearmente com a adição de LE nos anos estudados. O LE aumentou significativamente as concentrações de Zn nas folhas e na parte aérea e provocou a redução nas concentrações de Fe e Mn, mas não alterou as de Cu. As concentrações dos metais nos grãos não foram influenciadas de forma significativa pela adição de LE, estando mesmo nas maiores doses, dentro dos níveis aceitáveis, sem causar restrição ao consumo humano. A absorção de Zn, Fe e Mn pelo milho foi significativamente reduzida pela adição de calcário. O Zn foi o metal que mais teve reduzida sua concentração na parte aérea pela adição de calcário. O parcelamento das doses de lodo de 40 a 80 Mg ha-1 provocou, de modo geral, aumento das quantidades absorvidas de metais pelo milho, sendo o Fe e o Zn os elementos que mais se acumularam na planta em resposta a esse parcelamento.Although the value of sewage sludge (SS as a fertilizer has long been recognized, it is still a matter of considerable concern

  18. 新型铁锰复合氧化物催化低温脱除NOx%Removal of NOx Using Novel Fe-Mn Mixed-Oxide Catalysts at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志航; 李雪辉; 杨青; 李华; 高翔; 江燕斌; 王芙蓉; 王乐夫

    2009-01-01

    A series of novel Fe-Mn mixed-oxide catalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method.X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to characterize the active phase and the effects of the n(Fe)/(n(Fe)+n(Mn)molar ratio as well as the calcination temperature on the catalytic properties were investigated.This catalytic system had good selective catalytic reduction(SCR)properties for Nox by ammonia at low temperatures(80-220℃).We achieved 90.6%conversion of Nox with 100%selectivity of N2 on an Fe(0.4)-MnOx mixed oxide(the molar ratio of n(Fe)/(n(Fe)+n(bln))=O.4 and calcined at 500 ℃)at 80℃with a space velocity of 30000 h-1.XRD characterization results showed that a new Fe3MN3OA8 phase was generated for Fe-Mnx The oxidation activity of NO to N02 by 02 on these Fe.MnOx catalysts suggested that the existence of Fe3MN3O8 was beneficial for an increased oxidation rate of NO to N02,which improved the activity of low-temperature SCR.%采用溶胶-凝胶法合成了一系列铁锰复合氧化物催化剂,利用X射线衍射(XRD)对催化剂的活性相态进行研究,并考察了铁锰摩尔比及焙烧温度对催化性能的影响.结果表明,该催化剂体系征低温(80-220℃)下选择性催化氨还原NOx反应中显示出优异的活性.其中Fe(0.4)-MnOx(500)(即摩尔比n(Fe)/(n(Fe)+n(Mn))=0.4,焙烧温度500℃)催化剂具有最佳低温催化活性,在空速30000 h-1,温度80℃的条件下,NOx转化效率达到90.6%,N2 选择性达100%.Fe-MnOx复合氧化物催化剂中形成的Fe3Mn3O8晶相有利于促进NO氧化成NO2,从而提高低温选择性催化还原的活性.

  19. 初始尺寸对超声疲劳试样的影响及铝合金6063疲劳试验验证%Effect of initial size on ultrasonic fatigue specimen and the ultrasonic fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy 6063

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沙古; 刘荣凤; 刘永杰; 王清远

    2012-01-01

    The middle equal section is the effective area of dog-bone-shaped specimen for ultrasonic fatigue test. Design of specimen could be completed by using catenary equation instead of circle equation. The result show that error had been less than 3% when the initial sizes of specimen are in definite range. The specimen length could be reduced by enhancing the length of variational section or the ratio of radius. Enhancing the length of variational section would reduce the displacement-stress coefficient. Comparatively, the dog-bone-shaped specimen could save more materials, and sandglass specimen could obtain more high stress magnification level. The design of dog-bone-shaped specimen was testified by the The ultrasonic fatigue test of aluminum alloy 6063. The results show that the S-N curve of aluminum alloy 6063 is a continuum descend curve. Its fatigue crack is expanded by shear and subsurface crack initiation. Obvious sidestep could be found between crack initiation area and expanding area.%狗骨形试样具有中间等截面段试验有效区.采用悬链线代替圆弧线的轮廓方程,获得了狗骨形试样的解析计算方法.分析结果表明,试样初始尺寸在一定范围内取值时轮廓方程代替所引起的误差控制在3%以内.可通过增大变截面段长度或粗、细端的半径比来缩短试样长度,但增大变截面长度会降低试样位移应力系数.尽管狗骨形试样的位移应力系数不如沙漏形试样,但狗骨形比沙漏形更节省试验材料.而且其位移应力系数也足够满足试验要求.铝合金6063的超声疲劳试验表明,狗骨形试样的设计等式是可行的.铝合金6063的S-N曲线呈现持续下降的趋势,其疲劳裂纹扩展以剪切方式进行,并且呈现裂纹表面萌生机制.疲劳源区与裂纹扩展区之间存在明显的台阶.

  20. Effect of solution treatment on intermetallic phases morphology in AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panušková

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work was investigated the influence of solution treatment by 505°C, 515°C and 525°C±2°C with different holding times 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours on microstructural elements of commercial AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy. During this heat treatment was observed the spheroidization of eutectic Si, gradual disintegration of iron rich intermetallic phases on base Al(FeMnMgSi, shortening and thinning of Al5FeSi iron needles and the dissolving of Al-Al2Cu-Si intermetallic phase by temperature 525°C.

  1. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  2. Utilization of aluminum to obtaining a duplex type stainless steel using high energy ball milling; Obtencao de um aco inoxidavel de estrutura duplex do sistema FeMnAl processado por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, I.E.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: eng.igorpavlak@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Capocchi, J.D.T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The obtaining of stainless steel using aluminum in its composition - FeMnAl system, has been researches subject since the sixties, by good mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation presented, when compared with conventional FeNiCr stainless steel system. In another point, the aluminum and manganese are low cost then traditional elements. This work, metallic powders of iron, manganese and pure aluminum, were processed in a Spex type high-energy ball mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The milling products were compressed into pastille form and sintered under inert atmosphere. The final products were characterized by optical and electronic microscopy and microhardness test. The metallographic analysis shows a typical austenite and ferrite duplex type microstructure. The presence of these phases was confirmed according X ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  3. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  4. Methane Oxidation to Synthesis Gas Using Lattice Oxygen of La1-xSrxMO3-λ (M = Fe, Mn) Perovskite Oxides Instead of Molecular Oxygen%La1-xSrxMO3-λ(M=Fe,Mn)氧化物中的晶格氧代替分子氧用于甲烷氧化制取合成气的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李然家; 余长春; 朱光荣; 沈师孔

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen of La1-xSrxMO3-λ (M=Fe,Mn) perovskite oxides instead of molecular oxygen was investigated. The radox circulation between 11% O2/Ar flow and 11% CH4/He flow at 900℃ shows that methane can be oxidized to CO and H2 with a selectivity of over 90.7% using the lattice oxygen of La1-xSrxFeO3-λ (x≤0.2) perovskite oxides in an appropriate reaction condition, while the lost lattice oxygen can be supplemented by air re-oxidation. It is viable for the lattice oxygen of La1-xSrx FeO3-λ (x≤0.2) perovskite oxides instead of molecular oxygen to react with methane to synthesis gas in the redox mode.

  5. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  6. Effect of Mo on stability of quasicrystalline phase in Al–Mn–Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Katarzyna, E-mail: k.stan@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow 30-059, 25, Reymonta St. (Poland); Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow 30-059, 25, Reymonta St. (Poland); Lábár, János L. [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege ut 29-33 (Hungary); Góral, Anna [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow 30-059, 25, Reymonta St. (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Microstructure evolution of melt spun Al–Mn–Fe–Mo ribbon after annealing was studied. ► In as spun state quasicrystals enriched in Fe, Mn and Mo coexist with α-(Al). ► After annealing Al{sub 6}(Mn, Fe) and Al{sub 12}(Mn, Mo) phases were formed. ► Small addition of Mo improves thermal stability of quasicrystals in Al–Mn–Fe alloy. -- Abstract: Microstructure evolution in rapidly solidified Al{sub 91}Mn{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}Mo{sub 1} ribbons after annealing was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy including in situ heating experiment in TEM. As spun ribbons consisted of icosahedral quasicrystalline particles enriched in Fe, Mn and Mo embedded in an aluminium matrix. A small amount of quasicrystals containing Fe and Mn which coexisted with the Al{sub 3}(Fe, Mn) phase was also observed between the aluminium grains. Further annealing experiments and subsequent analysis of microstructure changes in the sample showed that the quasicrystalline particles underwent a transformation into stable crystalline phases at temperatures which depended on their composition. It was observed that quasicrystals enriched in Mn and Fe transformed at much lower temperatures than primary quasicrystals with Mo content. It was noticed that two different crystalline phases formed in dependence on the temperature of annealing. The Al{sub 6}(Mn, Fe) phase appeared first at the quasicrystal/matrix interface. At higher temperature, the Al{sub 12}(Mn, Mo) phase formed due to reaction of the Al{sub 6}(Mn, Fe) phase with the aluminium matrix. Microstructural and DSC investigations showed that addition of molybdenum improved thermal stability of the quasicrystals in Al–Mn–Fe system.

  7. PdM nanoparticles (M = Ni, Co, Fe, Mn) with high activity and stability in formic acid oxidation synthesized by sonochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Md. Abdul; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic alloy PdnM (n = 1 for M = Mn, Fe, and Co; n = 1, 2, and 3 for M = Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized on carbon supports by sonochemical reactions of Pd(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) with M(acac)2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) or Fe(acac)3 in ethylene glycol. The NPs are characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy to determine their crystal structures, particle sizes, morphology, and elemental compositions. Alloy formation of the NPs is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line profiles using scanning TEM. The electronic structures and the surface compositions of NPs are analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. PdnM NPs are applied as electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation. The incorporation of M in Pd reduces the poisoning by surface hydroxyl groups. Activities based on the current densities are in the order of PdNi > PdFe > PdCo > PdMn. Within the PdnNi series, the activity is in the order of PdNi > Pd2Ni > Pd3Ni. The PdnM NP electrocatalysts show higher activity by a factor of 2-3.5 and improved durability than similarly prepared Pd NP electrocatalyst.

  8. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of Al-2024 alloy processed via a rheocasting route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Behnam; Khosravi, Hamed; Haddad-Sabzevar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the effects of stirring speed and T6 heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-2024 alloy synthesized by a rheocasting process. There was a decrease in grain size of α-Al particles corresponding to an increase in stirring speed. By increasing the stirring speed, however, the globularity of matrix particles first increased and then declined. It was also found that the hardness, compressive strength, and compressive strain increased with the increase of stirring speed. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of nonsoluble Al15(CuFeMn)3Si2 phase in the vicinity of CuAl2 in the rheocast samples. The required time for the solution treatment stage was also influenced by stirring speed; the solution treatment time decreased with the increase in stirring speed. Furthermore, the rheocast samples required a longer homogenization period compared to conventionally wrought alloys. Improvements in hardness and compressive properties were observed after T6 heat treatment.

  9. Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys with Various Iron Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The Al-Cu 206 cast alloys with varying alloy compositions ( i.e., different levels of Fe, Mn, and Si) were investigated to evaluate the effect of the iron-rich intermetallics on the tensile properties. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with increasing iron content, but its overall loss is less than 10 pct over the range of 0.15 to 0.5 pct Fe at 0.3 pct Mn and 0.3 pct Si. At similar iron contents, the tensile properties of the alloys with dominant Chinese script iron-rich intermetallics are generally higher than those with the dominant platelet phase. In the solution and artificial overaging condition (T7), the tensile strength of the 206 cast alloys with more than 0.15 pct Fe is satisfactory, but the elongation does not sufficiently meet the minimum requirement of ductility (>7 pct) for critical automotive applications. However, it was found that both the required ductility and tensile strength can be reached at high Fe levels of 0.3 to 0.5 pct for the alloys with well-controlled alloy chemistry and microstructure in the solution and natural aging condition (T4), reinforcing the motivation for developing recyclable high-iron Al-Cu 206 cast alloys.

  10. A rapid stress-corrosion test for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Stressed alloy specimens are immersed in a salt-dichromate solution at 60 degrees C. Because of the minimal general corrosion of these alloys in this solution, stress corrosion failures are detected by low-power microscopic examination.

  11. Study of angular dependence of exchange bias and misalignment in uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy in NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/CoFeB(amorphous) stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Braj Bhusan; Chaudhary, Sujeet, E-mail: sujeetc@physics.iitd.ac.in

    2015-07-01

    We report the investigation of the in-plane azimuthal angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in the ion beam sputtered exchanged biased NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/CoFeB(amorphous) stack. Compared to the as-deposited case, the magnetic annealing resulted in 3 fold enhancement in exchange bias but decrease in coercivity. The observed cosine dependence of exchange biased CoFeB layer on the in-plane azimuthal angle of applied field is corroborated with Meiklejohn and Bean model. The training effect associated with the exchange bias showed unconventional increase in coercivity after first cycle of hysteresis loop, while the exchange bias decreases sharply, and for subsequent cycles the exchange bias follows the empirical relation based on the energy dissipation in the AF layer. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements also exhibited the in-plane azimuthal angle dependence of the magnetic resonance field indicating that the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies are not collinear, although they lie in the same plane. However, no misalignment between the unidirectional anisotropy and the exchange bias direction is observed. The misalignment angle between the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy, as measured by FMR, is found to be 10° and 14° for CoFeB and NiFe, respectively. This misalignment is attributed to the interface roughness as revealed by x-ray reflectance measurements. - Highlights: • In-plane azimuthal angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in the ion beam sputtered exchanged biased NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/ CoFeB(amorphous) stack. • The observed cosine dependence of exchange biased CoFeB layer on the in-plane azimuthal angle of applied field is corroborated with Meiklejohn and Bean model. • In-plane azimuthal angle dependence of the magnetic resonance field indicates that the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies are not collinear, although they lie in the same plane. • The misalignment angle between the uniaxial and

  12. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  13. 流变铸造不同铁含量过共晶Al-Si合金在干摩擦条件下的磨损行为%Dry sliding wear behavior of rheocast hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with different Fe contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林冲; 吴树森; 吕书林; 曾劲彪; 安萍

    2016-01-01

    The effect of iron content on wear behavior of hypereutectic Al−17Si−2Cu−1Ni alloy produced by rheocasting process was investigated. The dry sliding wear tests were carried out with a pin-on-disk wear tester. The results show that the wear rate of the rheocast alloy is lower than that of the alloy produced by conventional casting process under the same applied load. The fine particle-likeδ-Al4(Fe,Mn)Si2 and polygonalα-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phases help to improve the wear resistance of rheocast alloys. As the volume fraction of fine Fe-bearing compounds increases, the wear rate of the rheocast alloy decreases. Moreover, the wear rate of rheocast alloy increases with the increase of applied load from 50 to 200 N. For the rheocast alloy with 3% Fe, oxidation wear is the main mechanism at low applied load (50 N). At higher applied loads, a combination of delamination and oxidation wear is the dominant wear mechanism.%研究铁含量对流变铸造过共晶Al−17Si−2Cu−1Ni合金在干摩擦条件下磨损行为的影响。磨损测试是在销−盘式摩擦磨损试验机上进行的。结果表明,在同等载荷下,流变铸造合金试样比传统重力金属型铸造试样的磨损率小。细小颗粒状δ-Al4(Fe,Mn)Si2相和多边形状α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2相有助于提高流变铸造合金的耐磨性。随着细小富铁相体积分数的增加,流变铸造合金试样的磨损率减小。此外,随着载荷从50增大至200 N,流变铸造合金试样的磨损率增大。对于含3% Fe的流变铸造合金,在低载荷(50 N)时,磨损机制以氧化磨损为主;在高载荷时,磨损机制以氧化磨损和剥层磨损的联合作用为主。

  14. Effect of manganese on the ferrum phases of B319 aluminum alloy in lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua WU

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available By using ICP spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis, X-ray diffraction, SEM and microscope analysis, the effects of Mn on the structure of B319 aluminum alloy are studied. The results show that without addition of Mn, there are coral-like Al2Cu phase and needle like Al5FeSi phase in the structure of casting with lost foam casting (LFC. Precipitation of Al2Cu can take plasce along the long sides of the Al5FeSi needles. Under the rapid cooling rates, such as ones in metallic mold, the Fe phase appears in the form of Chinese script α-Fe. With the addition of Mn, there are Chinese script α-Fe phases (Al15(Mn, Fe3Si2 in the structure of LFC casting. When Fe/Mn≦1.5, the needle-like β-Fe phases transform to Chinese script α-Fe completely. With the decrease of Fe/Mn ratio, the tensile strength and elongation increase, especially the elongation increases greatly. When Fe/Mn ratio decreases from 2.5 to1, the elongation ncreases from 1.2 to 1.9 % by 58 %.

  15. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties, The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fine equiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing) is superior to that of the later (tradition), leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  16. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxia LIU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties. The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fineequiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing is superior to that of the later (tradition, leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  17. Study on the behavior of the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and {sup 137}Cs in an estuarine ecosystem using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: the case of Thermaikos gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique [Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Mavro Lithari, 46.7 Km Athens-Sounio, Anavyssos Attikis 19013 (Greece)]. E-mail: cats@ath.hcmr.gr; Florou, H. [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Ag. Paraskevi 153 10, Athens (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bioindicators and used in Mussel Watch programs, because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in relation to pollutant biological availability in the marine environment. The present study deals with the use of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a local bioindicator of heavy metal and {sup 137}Cs contamination in an estuarine ecosystem (Thermaikos gulf, Greece in Eastern Mediterranean). M. galloprovincialis samples were collected monthly from two aquaculture farms during the period April to October 2000. Analyses for the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and {sup 137}Cs showed that the concentrations measured were low and similar to those from other non-polluted Mediterranean areas. In terms of the two sampling stations, there were no statistically significant differences between them. On the contrary, the seasonal evolution of either heavy metals or {sup 137}Cs levels presented high variation. The levels were found to increase during the cold period of the year, especially for Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr which are essential for life. Stable metals were positively inter-related and moreover, metals more involved in biochemical activities seem to present more correlations than others with less significant role in the metabolism of the organisms.

  18. Study of angular dependence of exchange bias and misalignment in uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy in NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/CoFeB(amorphous) stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Braj Bhusan; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2015-07-01

    We report the investigation of the in-plane azimuthal angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in the ion beam sputtered exchanged biased NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/CoFeB(amorphous) stack. Compared to the as-deposited case, the magnetic annealing resulted in 3 fold enhancement in exchange bias but decrease in coercivity. The observed cosine dependence of exchange biased CoFeB layer on the in-plane azimuthal angle of applied field is corroborated with Meiklejohn and Bean model. The training effect associated with the exchange bias showed unconventional increase in coercivity after first cycle of hysteresis loop, while the exchange bias decreases sharply, and for subsequent cycles the exchange bias follows the empirical relation based on the energy dissipation in the AF layer. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements also exhibited the in-plane azimuthal angle dependence of the magnetic resonance field indicating that the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies are not collinear, although they lie in the same plane. However, no misalignment between the unidirectional anisotropy and the exchange bias direction is observed. The misalignment angle between the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy, as measured by FMR, is found to be 10° and 14° for CoFeB and NiFe, respectively. This misalignment is attributed to the interface roughness as revealed by x-ray reflectance measurements.

  19. The rhizosphere pH change of Pinus koraiensis seedlings as affected by N sources of different levels and its effect on the availability and uptake of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dark brown forest soil was collected from the upper 20 cm soil layer in Changbai Mountain Research Station of Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The soil was amended with two different forms of nitrogen fertilizers: NO3- as Ca(NO3)2, NH4+ as NH4Cl at the concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg?kg-1 respectively. The experiment was carried out with 2-yr-old Pinus koraiensis seedlings in pot. The pH change of rhizosphere soil and the contents of available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in soil and leaves were analyzed. The result indicated that the addition of NH4--N decreased the rhizosphere pH value, while the addition of NO3--N increased the rhizosphere pH value in contrast with the control treatment. The direction and extent of the pH change mainly depended on N source and its concentrations applied. The rhizosphere pH change had a remarkable influence on the availability of the micronutrients in the rhizosphere, and thereafter affected the nutrient uptake by the seedlings. The contents of available mineral nutrients had a negative correlation with the pH value in the rhizosphere soil. The contents of available mineral nutrients in leaves were positively correlated to the levels of the available nutrients in the rhizosphere soils.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral ludlamite (Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2ṡ4H2O - A mineral found in lithium bearing pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda M.

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze ludlamite (Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2ṡ4H2O from Boa Vista mine, Galiléia, Brazil and to assess the molecular structure of the mineral. The phosphate mineral ludlamite has been characterized by EMP-WDS, Raman and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The mineral is shown to be a ferrous phosphate with some minor substitution of Mg and Mn. Raman bands at 917 and 950 cm-1 are assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of HOPO32- and PO43- units. Raman bands at 548, 564, 599 and 634 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4PO43- bending modes. Raman bands at 2605, 2730, 2896 and 3190 cm-1 and infrared bands at 2623, 2838, 3136 and 3185 cm-1 are attributed to water stretching vibrations. By using a Libowitzky empirical function, hydrogen bond distances are calculated from the OH stretching wavenumbers. Strong hydrogen bonds in the structure of ludlamite are observed as determined by their hydrogen bond distances. The application of infrared and Raman spectroscopy to the study of ludlamite enables the molecular structure of the pegmatite mineral ludlamite to be assessed.

  1. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  2. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  3. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  4. Specimen Holder For Flammability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Fixture holds sheet specimens for flammability tests. Frame and clamps designed to minimize local overstress on specimen. Heat capacity of fixture low, interfering less with interpretation of results of test by drawing less heat away from specimen. Accepts films, fabrics, foams, and other sheets, rigid or flexible. Specimens thin or thick, or of variable thickness. Bent to accommodate curved rigid specimens. Also used for such other tests as particle-impact tests.

  5. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  6. Modelling of Specimen Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    the plate center. An end load of 1.0 MPa was applied. 1 2 3 Modelling of Specimen Fracture – Final Report 11 TR-13-47 Figure 2.5: Crack Geometry Figure...Christopher Bayley DRDC Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory Pacific CFB Esquimalt, Building 199 PO Box 17000, Station Forces Victoria, British Columbia Canada...q The weighting function, q , can be any arbitrary function within the J-integral domain, and must be zero on the domain boundary . An easy function

  7. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    noted during the event that the actu.al number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  8. 反铁磁层厚度对垂直磁各向异性钴/铂/铁锰多层膜磁性质的影响∗%The effect of the AFM layer thickness on the magnetic properties of Co/Pt/FeMn multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂颖; 任楚苏; 周仕明; 时钟; 阎文盛; 桑海

    2014-01-01

    在室温下用超高真空磁控溅射系统制备了一系列的Pt(4.0 nm)/[Co(0.5 nm)/Pt(0.3 nm)]3-FeMn(tAF nm)多层膜样品,研究了反铁磁层厚度对于易轴垂直于样品表面的Co/Pt/FeMn多层膜磁性质的影响。在室温下利用样品的剩磁进行了 X 射线磁圆二色测量(XMCD),结果表明在铁磁/反铁磁界面有反铁磁层铁锰的净磁矩,这些净磁矩仅来自于铁元素。铁的磁矩倾向于垂直于膜面排列。磁测量结果表明,随着铁锰层厚度的增加,交换偏置场H EB 增加直到饱和,而HC 先增加,然后轻微减少,在tAF>7.5 nm 以后,H EB 和H C 都几乎不变了。没有观察到磁锻炼效应。%A set of Pt(40 nm)/[Co(5 nm)/Pt(3 nm)]3/FeMn(tAF nm)multilayer samples deposited on the Si (100)wafer at room temperature was prepared using an ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering system.We have studied the effect of the AF layer thickness tAF on the magnetic properties of Co/Pt/FeMn multilayer films with out-of-plane magnetic easy axis.X-ray magnetic circular dichroic (XMCD)measurement was performed by using the remnant magnetization of the samples at room temperature.The result shows that the net magnetic moment of the FeMn,which mainly originated from Fe,exists at the FM/AFM interface only,and the moment of Fe tends to be perpendicular to the sample plane.In the results of magnetic measurement,the exchange bias, H EB ,increases gradually and then flatly,meanwhile the coercivity,HC,increases first and then decreases slightly with increment of the FeMn layer thickness.Both HEB and HCare almost unchanged after tAF goes be-yond about 7.5 nm.The training effect has not been observed in the samples.

  9. Effect of Fe-rich intermetallics on the microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed A380 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Gencalp Irizalp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of α-Fe and β-Fe intermetallics concentration and morphology as well as α-Al morphology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed and gravity cast A380 alloy was reported. The α-Al15Si2(Fe,Mn3 intermetallic particle was observed polyhedral morphology in thixoforming while it was observed Chinese script morphology in conventional gravity casting. The β-Al5FeSi particle was solidified in the form of small plate in thixoforming while it was solidified in the form of needle-like in gravity casting at the grain boundaries of α-Al. The mechanical properties of the alloys have been enhanced by thixoforming compared with the conventional cast condition.

  10. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  11. Experimental and Computational Investigation of High Entropy Alloys for Elevated-Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, Peter [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhang, Fan [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Chuan [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Xie, Xie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Diao, Haoyan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kuo, Chih-Hsiang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); An, Zhinan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemphill, Michael [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-07-30

    To create and design novel structural materials with enhanced creep-resistance, fundamental studies have been conducted on high-entropy alloys (HEAs), using (1) thermodynamic calculations, (2) mechanical tests, (3) neutron diffraction, (4) characterization techniques, and (5) crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling (CPFEM), to explore future candidates for next-generation power plants. All the constituent binary and ternary systems of the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni systems were thermodynamically modeled within the whole composition range. Comparisons between the calculated phase diagrams and literature data are in good agreement. Seven types of HEAs were fabricated from Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni systems. The AlxCrCuFeMnNi HEAs have disordered [face-centered cubic (FCC) + body-centered cubic (BCC)] crystal structures, not FCC or BCC single structure. Excessive alloying of the Al element results in the change of both microstructural and mechanical properties in AlxCoCrFeNi HEAs. There are mainly three structural features in AlxCoCrFeNi: (1) the morphology, (2) the volume fractions of the constitute phases, and (3) existing temperatures of all six phases. After homogenization, the Al0.3CoCrFeNi material is a pure FCC solid solution. After aging at 700 °C for 500 hours, the optimal microstructure combinations, the FCC matrix, needle-like B2 phase within grains, and granular σ phase along grain boundary, is achieved for Al0.3CoCrFeNi. The cold-rolling process is utilized to reduce the grain size of Al0.1CoCrFeNi and Al0.3CoCrFeNi. The chemical elemental partitioning of FCC, BCC, B2, and σphases at different temperatures, before and after mechanical tests, in Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni systems are quantitatively characterized by both synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction with levitation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), advanced atom probe

  12. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapetto, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe-C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe-C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  13. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian; Miller, Brandon D.; Robinson, Adam B.; Madden, James W.; Ross Finlay, M.; Moore, Glenn; Medvedev, Pavel; Meyer, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research and test reactors. U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up to a final temperature of 500 °C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U-7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Finally, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 3 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice (FGS) in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ∼20 nm diameter) during blister testing and, in many areas, are no longer organized as a superlattice.

  14. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  15. Short Notes ON THE γ—ε TRANSFORMATION BELOW THE NEEL TEMPERATURE IN Fe—Mn—Si ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.LIU; Z.T.ZHAO; 等

    1999-01-01

    There are two tpyes of phase transformations in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Si alloys when the temperature is decreased,γ(fcc)→ε(hcp) martensitic transformation(MT) and paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition (AMT) of γ phase.From the thermodynamic point of view,the former usually appears in a slightly higher temperature range than the latter because if is generally accepted that the magnetic tansition has a suppressing effect on the thermally induced ε martensite(Sato et al.,1984.,Bogachev and Zvigintzeva,1976;Murakami et al.,1987:Yang et al.,1992) Gartstein and Robinkin(1979) even thought that the γ-ε transformation should be terminated below Neel temperature(TN) due to the decrease of free energy arising from the AMT of γ phase.However,some experimental results hae indicated the formation of ε phase below T(Li and Wayman,1994:Fujimori.1966).In the present wert.the behavor of γ-ε transformation below TN was furtherinvestigated by clectrical resistance measurements.

  16. Smaller is Softer : An Inverse Size Effect in a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzerga, A.A.; Hong, S.S.; Kim, K.S.; Needleman, A.; van der Giessen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The stress–strain curves of A356 cast aluminum alloys exhibit an unusual size effect on flow properties: the finer the microstructure, the lower the tensile flow strength. Tensile tests were carried out on specimens made of an A356 alloy with 7% Si as the main alloying element. The specimens were

  17. Smaller is Softer : An Inverse Size Effect in a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzerga, A.A.; Hong, S.S.; Kim, K.S.; Needleman, A.; van der Giessen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The stress–strain curves of A356 cast aluminum alloys exhibit an unusual size effect on flow properties: the finer the microstructure, the lower the tensile flow strength. Tensile tests were carried out on specimens made of an A356 alloy with 7% Si as the main alloying element. The specimens were ca

  18. Comparison of the heat treatment response of wrought and SSM-HPDC alloy 6082

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Möller, H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP, www.ttp.net. (ID: 41.17.255.219-15/06/11,17:35:52) Table 1: Chemical composition in wt% of alloy 6082 used in this study Si Mg Fe Mn Cu Ti Al 0.82 0.84 0.22 0.58 0.03 0... (HPDC) machine. Samples were solution treated at 540oC for 1 h, quenched in room temperature water, naturally aged (NA) for either 0, 1 or 120 h, followed by artificial aging (AA) at 180oC. Vickers hardness numbers (VHN) were determined from...

  19. Microstructure and property characterization of a modified zinc-base alloy and comparison with bearing alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Patwardhan, A. K.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    1998-02-01

    The microstructure and physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of a modified zinc-base alloy have been characterized. In order to assess its utility as a bearing alloy, its properties have also been compared with those of a similarly processed conventional zinc-base alloy and a leaded-tin bronze (conforming to ZA27 and SAE 660 specifications, respectively) used for bearing applications. The modified zinc-base alloy shows promise in terms of better elevated-temperature strength and wear response at higher sliding speeds relative to the conventional zinc-base alloy. Interestingly, the wear behavior (especially the seizure pressure) of the modified alloy was also comparable to that of the bronze specimens at the maximum sliding speed, and was superior at the minimum sliding speed. The modified alloy also attained lower density and better hardness. Alloy behavior has been linked to the nature and type of the alloy microconstituents.

  20. Corrosion of dental copper, nickel, and gold alloys in artificial saliva and saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B I; Lemons, J E; Hao, S Q

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the tarnish and corrosion of three commercial copper alloys, three experimental copper alloys, two nickel alloys, and one high-gold alloy by exposing the specimens for four weeks to artificial saliva and saline solutions. Half of the specimens were brushed, and the solutions were changed regularly. The copper-based and the beryllium-containing nickel alloys exhibited significant surface alterations after exposure to either solution. The potential of elevated release of ions to the oral cavity and to the target organs by some of the investigated alloys should be considered if dental usage of these alloys is to be extended.

  1. The Fatigue of Powder Metallurgy Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    v1o -2- MATERIALS AND TESTS Table 1 provides a complete listing of the alloys studied in this program together with their chemical compositions ...use can minimize material waste and minimize machining costs. In addition there is the potential for the development of more fine-grained and...out under fully reversed loading conditions in the high cycle range with smooth specimens. X7090 and X7091 are P/M alloys, 7075 is an ingot alloy

  2. Influence of intermetallic Fe and Co on crystal structure disorder and magnetic property of Ni50Mn32Al18 Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notonegoro, H. A.; Kurniawan, B.; Setiawan, J.; Nanto, D.; Manaf, A.

    2016-11-01

    This works reports a study on structure and magnetic properties influenced by both Fe and Co on Ni50Mn32Al18 Heusler alloy as a candidate of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) materials. The Ni-Fe-Mn-Co-Al sample was prepared by arc melting furnace (AMF) in high purity argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction investigation and magnetic hysteresis were conducted to characterize the synthesized sample. X-ray diffraction using Cu-Kα pattern shows that both Fe and Co introduce a tungsten type disorder of Ni50Mn32Al18 Heusler alloy which partially replace the site position of Ni and Mn respectively. However, in this tungsten type disorder, it is difficult to distinguish the exact position of each constituent atom. Therefore, we believe it may allow any exchange interaction of each electron possessed the atom. Interestingly, it produced a significant increase in the value of the hysteresis magnetic saturation.

  3. Internal friction mechanism of Fe-19Mn alloy at low and high strain amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shuke, E-mail: huangshuke@163.com [Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Huang, Wenrong; Liu, Jianhui [Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Teng, Jin; Li, Ning; Wen, Yuhua [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Fe-Mn damping alloy, which can decrease the vibrating and noise effectively, will be widely applied to household appliances, automobiles, industrial facilities, etc. In this paper, the internal friction mechanism of Fe-19Mn alloy at low strain amplitude (10{sup -5} range) and high strain amplitude (10{sup -4} range) was investigated. The internal friction was measured using multifunction internal friction equipment and reversal torsion pendulum. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The phase transformation temperatures were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicated that the internal friction of Fe-19Mn alloy after solution treating was related to strain amplitude. The internal friction mechanism was believed to the movements of four damping sources ({epsilon}-martensite variant boundaries, stacking fault boundaries in {epsilon}-martensite and {gamma}-austenite, {gamma}/{epsilon} interfaces), which could be explained using the interactive movements of Shockley partial dislocations and point defects. At low strain amplitude (10{sup -5} range), the bowing out movements of Shockley partial dislocations are the main moving mode of generating internal friction. At high strain amplitude (10{sup -4} range), however, the breaking away movements of Shockley partial dislocations are the high internal friction mechanism of Fe-19Mn alloy.

  4. Localized Corrosion Behavior of Al-Si-Mg Alloys Used for Fabrication of Aluminum Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, M. A.; Giridharagopal, R.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; Coral-Escobar, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between microstructure and localized corrosion behavior in neutral aerated chloride solutions was investigated with SEM/EDAX, conventional electrochemical techniques, and with scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) for two custom-made alloys with Si/Mg molar ratios of 0.12 and 0.49. In this order, Al3Fe, Al3Mg2, and Mg2Si intermetallics were identified in the first alloy and Al(FeMn)Si and Mg2Si particles in the second one. Anodic polarization curves and corrosion morphology showed that the alloy with higher Si/Mg molar ratio exhibited a better corrosion performance and evidence was shown that it had a more corrosion-resistant passive film. The corrosion process for both alloys in aerated 0.1 M NaCl solutions was localized around the Fe-rich intermetallics. They acted as local cathodes and produced dissolution of the aluminum matrix surrounding such particles. Mg2Si and Al3Mg2 exhibited anodic behavior. SKPFM was successfully used to map the Volta potential distribution of main intermetallics. The localized corrosion behavior was correlated with a large Volta potential difference between the Fe-rich intermetallics and the matrix. After immersion in the chloride solution, such Volta potential difference decreased.

  5. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Surface Structure of 6082 Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, N.; Carlberg, T.

    2017-10-01

    The β-Al5FeSi intermetallic phase and coarse Mg2Si particles have negative effects on extrudability and workability of 6xxx Al alloys billets. To achieve extruded products with a high surface quality, the as-cast billets are heat-treated before extrusion. During heat treatment, the undesired intermetallic particles, i.e., β-AlFeSi platelets are transformed to rounded α-Al(FeMn)Si intermetallic phases. Although the heat treatment of the bulk areas of the 6xxx Al alloys has been the focus of many previous studies, the process of phase transformation at the very surface has not been paid the same attention. In this study, microstructures of a homogenized billet of a 6082 alloy at the area very close to the surface were investigated. By comparing the X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of heat-treated samples as a function of different holding times, the gradual phase transformations could be followed, and using GDOES and map analysis by EDX, the alloying elemental redistribution was analyzed. Partial remelting and porosity growth was detected, and transformation rates were faster than in bulk material and from what is known from industrial processes.

  6. Equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloys: A material perspective for spintronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Suresh, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    agreement with those estimated using the Slater-Pauling rule in most of the cases. Electrical resistivity and Hall measurements are being used to distinguish between SGS and HMF nature in detail. The current spin polarization value, P = 0.70 ± 0.01, for CoFeMnGe is found to be highest among the EQHAs. CoFeMnSi and CoFeCrGa are found to show SGS behavior with high Curie temperatures, thus making them suitable substitutes for diluted magnetic semiconductors. CoRuFeSi is found to have the highest TC among EQHAs. Theoretical prediction of magnetic properties on the basis of electronic structure calculations has also been reported in a few systems, which are also discussed in this review. Thus, this review presents a consolidated picture of the magnetic and spintronic properties of this important, but relatively new class of Heusler alloys. It is expected that this will stimulate further interest in these alloys, thereby paving the way for the identification of more HMF and SGS materials. As a result of this, it is expected that more efficient spintronic devices using these alloys would emerge in the near future.

  7. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Au, Hastelloy C-276 Alloy and Monel 400 Alloy in Molten Lithium Fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chang-shui; GUO; Jun-kang

    2013-01-01

    For searching better corrosion-resistant material in high temperature,we investigated the corrosion behavior of Au,Haynes C-276 alloy and Monel 400 alloy in molten lithium fluoride at 950℃.The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),scanning electron microscope(SEM),energy dispersive

  9. Corrosion behavior of the friction-stir-welded joints of 2A14-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hai-long; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Da-tong; Zhuang, Qian-yu

    2015-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of friction-stir-welded 2A14-T6 aluminum alloy was investigated by immersion testing in immersion exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) solution. Electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed for analyzing the corrosion mechanism. The results show that, compared to the base material, the corrosion resistance of the friction-stir welds is greatly improved, and the weld nugget has the highest corrosion resistance. The pitting susceptibility originates from the edge of Al-Cu-Fe-Mn-Si phase particles as the cathode compared to the matrix due to their high self-corrosion potential. No corrosion activity is observed around the θ phase (Al2Cu) after 2 h of immersion in EXCO solution.

  10. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  11. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  12. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids and Fe-Mn Crusts From the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field, 15°N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Time Series Study in an Ultramafic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Koschinsky, A.; Seifert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges are of special interest concerning the elemental and isotopic input to the oceans and the close relationship between hydrothermal fluids and related ecosystems. Until now, only scarse data are published about the temporal variability of chemical and physicochemical parameters in hydrothermal fields. Changes in salinity, gas and metal concentration, mainly caused by magmatic or tectonic events, have a first order effect on the microbial and faunal association. Within the Special Priority Program 1144, funded by the German Research Foundation DFG, the temporal variability of hydrothermal fluids in an ultramafic environment is investigated at different time scales (within years and thousands of years, respectively). The target area of this work is the Logatchev Field located at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N, in a slow-spreading ridge segment dominated by tectonic spreading and characterized by outcrops of serpentinized mantle rocks. The water depth ranges between 2950m and 3050m. Geochemical data obtained for hydrothermal fluids sampled during our first two research cruises in 2004 and 2005 (out of 6 planned), show high concentrations of CH4 and H2, higher concentrations of certain trace metals and a lowered silica concentration, compared to a basaltic system. This signature is caused by the alteration of ultramafic rocks. The fluids show a slightly lowered chlorinity compared to seawater (10-20%), indicating phase separation near the critical point of seawater and the emanation of the vapor phase. Spatial variations in the geochemistry of fluids between different vent sites were observed in samples obtained in 2004. A first evaluation of a temporal variability between 1996 (Douville et al., 2002), 2004 and 2005 show slight changes in the chlorinity, silica, gas, and metal concentrations. Fe-Mn deposits are used for the reconstruction of long-term changes in the Logatchev vent field. They were sampled in different settings

  13. Effect of titanium addition on fracture toughness behavior of ZL108 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Yong-gang; LI Zi-jing; LIU Zhi-yong; LIU Wen-cai; WANG Ming-xing; SONG Tian-fu

    2006-01-01

    Two different titanium alloying methods were applied to ZL108 alloy for preparing specimens containing titanium. The specimens were tested on the MTS 810 material test system for studying their behavior of the plane strain fracture toughness KIC. The experimental data were analyzed by the statistical significance tests. The results show that the fracture toughness of the ZL108 alloy containing titanium is superior to that of common ZL108 alloy containing no titanium, but there is no significant difference for different titanium alloying methods. Therefore titanium addition is an effective method for improving the fracture toughness of the alloy ZL108.

  14. Non-alloyed Ni3Al based alloys – preparation and evaluation of mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcharcziková

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the fabrication and mechanical properties of Ni3Al based alloy, which represents the most frequently used basic composition of nickel based intermetallic alloys for high temperature applications. The structure of the alloy was controlled through directional solidification. The samples had a multi-phase microstructure. The directionally solidified specimens were subjected to tensile tests with concurrent measurement of acoustic emission (AE. The specimens exhibited considerable room temperature ductility before fracture. During tensile testing an intensive AE was observed.

  15. Use of macroalgae stored in an Environmental Specimen Bank for application of some European Framework Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, I G; Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Real, C; Villares, R; Carballeira, A

    2010-03-01

    Different European Framework Directives have established a series of objectives for conservation of the coast, and monitoring tools must be made available to test compliance with these aims. In the present study the use of macroalgae deposited in an Environmental Specimen Bank was evaluated as a possible environmental tool for monitoring the coastal ecosystem. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in three species of the genus Fucus (Fucus spiralis, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) were measured at sampling sites distributed along the coast of Galicia (NW Spain). In the period 1990-2001, the concentrations of the metals were higher in 1990 than in 2001, with the exception of: i) Mn in F. ceranoides and Fe in F. spiralis-F. vesiculosus, for which there were no differences between the sampling periods, and ii) Zn in F. vesiculosus and Fe in F. ceranoides, for which the concentrations were higher in 2001 than in 1990. In the period 2001-2007 concentrations of the metals were more stable, especially in F. ceranoides (e.g. Al, Fe, Hg, Ni and V). The concentrations were also more stable vin F. vesiculosus in 2005 (i.e. Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn). The population density distributions are consistent with the results of the statistical tests. The results indicate that macroalgae of the genus Fucus may be useful for applying different European Framework Directives, given that the macroalgae are sufficiently sensitive to changes in concentrations of metals, and may be suitable for long-term monitoring and used for the detection of increased concentrations of metals (real-time monitoring). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal Properties of Al-50%Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Nishimoto; Katsuya Akamatsu; Kazuyoshi Nakao; Kazuo Ichii

    2004-01-01

    In order to prepare a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), Al-50was produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) and ingot metallurgy (I/M). P/M specimen was prepared by mechanical alloying(MA) and pulsed electric-current sintering (PECS). The microstructures of specimens were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Vickers microhardness and CTE measurements were performed. The grains in the P/M specimen were refined with increasing MA time. Primary Si and eutectic Si in the I/M specimen were remarkably refined by adding minute amounts of Sr. The CTE of P/M and I/M specimens were estimated as 7.8×10-6 and 10.7×10-6, respectively. These values were as same as a CTE of Al2O3 ceramics.

  17. Summary of the U.S. specimen matrix for the HFIR 13J varying temperature irradiation capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US specimen matrix for the collaborative DOE/Monbusho HFIR 13J varying temperature irradiation capsule contains two ceramics and 29 different metals, including vanadium alloys, ferritic/martensitic steels, pure iron, austenitic stainless steels, nickel alloys, and copper alloys. This experiment is designed to provide fundamental information on the effects of brief low-temperature excursions on the tensile properties and microstructural evolution of a wide range of materials irradiated at nominal temperatures of 350 and 500 C to a dose of {approximately}5 dpa. A total of 340 miniature sheet tensile specimens and 274 TEM disks are included in the US-supplied matrix for the irradiation capsule.

  18. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  19. Melting processes and performance improvement of kilogram-grade V-based BCC hydrogen storage alloy%钒基贮氢合金的公斤级熔炼工艺与性能改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凡; 陈云贵; 吴朝玲; 周晶晶

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of melting processes (vacuum induction and non-consumable vacuum arc melting) on the microstructure and hydrogen storage performance of kilogram-grade V-60% (TiCrFeMn) hydrogen storage alloys were investigated. The results show that the performance of alloy melted by medium frequency induction deteriorates because its oxygen content is too high, which results from the reaction of the liquid alloy and the crucible during melting process. The alloy made by non-consumable vacuum arc melting has a much better performance,where the initial hydrogen absorption and desorption capacity is 3.69 % and 2.25wt% respectively, and the hydrogen desorption plateau pressure is O. 45MPa.%研究了V-60%(TiCrFeMn)贮氢合金的公斤级熔炼工艺和热处理工艺,采用真空中频感应和非自耗真空电弧熔炼两种不同的熔炼方法制备公斤级钒基贮氢合金,采用高温退火方法改善合金的性能.结果表明,采用真空中频感应熔炼的合金由于熔炼过程中合金液与坩埚反应,致使合金含氧量过高,合金性能恶化,而采用非自耗真空电弧熔炼的合金表现出优良的吸放氢性能,初始吸氢量为3.69%(质量分数),放氢量达到了2.25%(质量分数),平台压为0.45MPa.

  20. ICP-AES Determination of Si, Fe, Mn and Zn in Silicon Bronze%电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定硅青铜中硅、铁、锰和锌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宏田

    2011-01-01

    电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定硅青铜中硅、铁、锰和锌的含量.用盐酸、硝酸和氢氟酸溶解试样,过量的氢氟酸用饱和硼酸络合.选择251.61,238.20,257.61,206.20 nm等4条谱线依次作为硅、铁、锰、锌4种元素的分析线.由所加试剂引起的干扰通过空白试验予以消除,铜的基体干扰则在制作工作曲线时用基体匹配法予以消除.硅、铁、锰、锌的线性范围分别为0.10%~5.00%,0.10%~3.00%,0.10%~3.50%,0.10%~5.00%,检出限(3S)分别为0.39,0.29,0.24,0.45 mg·L-1,方法用于2个硅青铜标准样品分析,相对标准偏差(n=6)均小于0.1%.%ICP-AES was applied to the determination of Si, Fe, Mn and Zn in silicon bronze. The sample was dissolved in HCl, HNO3 and HF, and excess of HF was complexed by addition of sat'd boric acid solution.Spectral lines of 251.61, 238. 20, 257. 61 and 206. 20 nm were selected as analytical lines for Si, Fe, Mn and Zn respectively. Interference due to reagents used was eliminated by making blank test, and the matrix interference of copper was eliminated by the matching method in preparation of santadard working curves. Linearity ranges were obtained between 0. 10%-5.00% (for Si), 0.10%-3.00% (for Fe), 0.10%-3.50% (for Mn) and 0.10%-5.00% (for Zn). Values of detection limit (3s) found were 0.39, 0.29, 0.24, 0.45 mg·L-1 for Si, Fe, Mn and Zn respectively. Two standard samples were analyzed by the proposed method, giving values of RSD's (n=6) less than 0.1%.

  1. Study of the Precipitation Hardening Behaviour and Intergranular Corrosion of Al-Mg-Si Alloys with Differing Si Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Si addition on the precipitation hardening behaviour and evolution of intergranular corrosion (IGC of Al-Mg-Si alloys were investigated using hardness tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. With an increase of the Si content, the peak hardness of the Al-Mg-Si alloys considerably increased by enhancing the density of the β″ (Mg5Si6 phase inside the grains. The microstructures affecting the IGC performance consisted of MgSi particles, Si particles, Al-Fe-Mn-Si intermetallics, and the precipitate-free zone (PFZ. The IGC susceptibility of the Al-Mg-Si alloys was mainly attributed to the high electrochemical potential difference between the MgSi particles and solute-depleted zones. Excess Si improved the IGC susceptibility of the alloys, mainly due to an increase of the grain boundary MgSi precipitates. Furthermore, the evolution of the IGC process was discussed in detail.

  2. The Mechanical properties and microstructural relationships in iron--manganese--chromium alloys. [14 to 20% Mn, 13 to 18% Cr, Al and Ti additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    The relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties were studied for a series of Fe--Mn--Cr alloys. A combination of optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDAX analysis, and x-ray diffractometry was used to characterize the microstructures. Tensile testing and Charpy V-notch impact testing were utilized to study the mechanical properties. Triplex structures of gamma (fcc), alpha (bcc), and epsilon (hcp) were obtained in air-cool and quench-and-refrigeration heat treatments. Increasing volume fractions of metastable austenite and epsilon-martensite phases, which transform during testing, were found to have beneficial effects on the toughness and ductility properties, without significant losses in strength properties. A chromium concentration of 13 percent led to a better combination of strength and ductility than a concentration of 18 percent. The mechanical properties and preliminary corrosion results for the air-cooled 18Mn--13Cr and 16Mn--13Cr alloys are comparable to those of AISI 300 series austenitic stainless steels. These alloys show promise, therefore, as base systems for replacement austenitic stainless alloys. In addition, the 18Mn--13Cr air-cooled alloy exhibits excellent cryogenic properties, i.e., a yield strength of 360 MPa (53 ksi), an ultimate strength of 1110 MPa (161 ksi) an elongation of 60 percent, and a reduction in area of 17 percent at -196/sup 0/C. 62 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Effects of Zn application on uptake of Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu by maize plants under different water conditions in soil layers%土层水分非均匀供应下施锌对玉米植株中Ca、Fe、Mn、Cu吸收积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洪; 刘荣乐; 金继运

    2012-01-01

    进行分层盆栽试验,模拟田间土壤剖面上下层水分不均匀分布条件,研究表层土壤施锌对玉米植株吸收Ca、Fe、Mn和Cu养分的影响.结果表明:上层土壤干旱抑制了苗期玉米植株生长,降低了地上部Ca、Fe、Mn分配比例.上层土壤干旱情况下,增加下层土壤水分供应,并没有提高植株生长和养分元素的吸收量.施锌明显促进了玉米地上部生长,在土壤水分充足时,施锌对植株生长效果更明显.不论土壤水分状况如何,施锌显著降低了植株中Ca、Fe、Mn、Cu浓度,对植株吸收积累Fe有拮抗作用;上层土壤干旱条件下,施锌还降低了地上部和整株中Mn以及根部Cu的积累量.施锌对植株体内Ca、Fe、Mn、Cu向上运输没有显著性影响.研究表明土壤表层干旱条件下,即使增加土壤水分,尚不能提高玉米植株生长和对Ca、Fe、Mn、Cu等养分的吸收利用.施用锌肥可以提高作物对土壤水分利用,但要注意对作物吸收Fe与Mn的拮抗作用,适当配合铁锰等养分供应.%A pot experiment with splitting vertically layer culture systems was conducted to study the effects of Zn application in topsoil on maize plant growth and the uptake of Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu in two soil layers under different water conditions. The results showed that plant growth was inhibited by soil water deficit in topsoils, even when the water sup-ply in subsoils was improved. The translocation of Ca, Fe and Mn to shoots in maize plants was decreased by drought in topsoil. The shoot biomass and Zn accumulation in shoots were significantly enhanced by Zn application. Under adequate moisture supply in whole soil layers, the increases of plant growth and Zn uptake due to Zn application were more re-markable than that under drying conditions. Whatever soil water condition, Zn application decreased Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in shoots and plant Fe accumulation. However, Zn application did not affect Ca, Fe, Mn or Cu

  4. Thermochimica Acta Volume 360, Issue 1, 31 August 2000, Pages 17–27 Cover image Synthesis, identification and thermal decomposition of double sulfites like Cu2SO3·MSO3·2H2O (M=Cu, Fe, Mn or Cd)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    p.17–27 Double sulfites with empirical formula Cu2SO3•MSO3•2H2O (where M is Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd) were obtained by saturation with sulfur dioxide gas of an aqueous mixture of MII sulfate and copper sulfate at room temperature. The salts obtained were identified by infrared spectra, X-ray powder diffraction and elemental analysis. The compounds studied are isostructural with the CuII replacement by MnII, FeII, and CdII in Chevreul’s salt (Cu2SO3•CuSO3•2H2O). The thermal behavior of the double ...

  5. Chemical disorder determines the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule for Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys: evidences from neutron diffraction and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, J. C. G.; Pedro, S. S.; Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Cruz, C.; Andrade, V. M.; dos Santos, A. M.; Carvalho, A. M. G.; Costa, M.; Venezuela, P.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Fe2MnSi fails to follow the Slater-Pauling rule. This phenomenon is thought to originate from either: (i) an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Mn ions at low temperature and/or (ii) chemical disorder. An important insight on this issue could be achieved by considering Fe2MnSi1-x Ga x compounds, thoroughly studied here by means of magnetization, neutron diffraction and density functional calculations (DFT). Our results indicate that chemical disorder (and not the antiferromagnetic arrangement) is responsible for the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule on Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys. Furthermore, evidences suggest that Ga substitution into Si site favors the Fe/Mn disorder, further enhancing the observed deviation.

  6. Chemical disorder determines the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule for Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys: evidences from neutron diffraction and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, J C G; Pedro, S S; Caraballo Vivas, R J; Cruz, C; Andrade, V M; Dos Santos, A M; Carvalho, A M G; Costa, M; Venezuela, P; Rocco, D L; Reis, M S

    2016-11-30

    Fe2MnSi fails to follow the Slater-Pauling rule. This phenomenon is thought to originate from either: (i) an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Mn ions at low temperature and/or (ii) chemical disorder. An important insight on this issue could be achieved by considering Fe2MnSi1-x Ga x compounds, thoroughly studied here by means of magnetization, neutron diffraction and density functional calculations (DFT). Our results indicate that chemical disorder (and not the antiferromagnetic arrangement) is responsible for the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule on Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys. Furthermore, evidences suggest that Ga substitution into Si site favors the Fe/Mn disorder, further enhancing the observed deviation.

  7. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  8. A predictive fatigue life model for anodized 7050 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaussumier, Michel; Mabru, Catherine; Shahzad, Majid; Chieragatti, Rémy; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this study is to predict fatigue life of anodized 7050 aluminum alloy specimens. In the case of anodized 7050-T7451 alloy, fractographic observations of fatigue tested specimens showed that pickling pits were the predominant sites for crack nucleation and subsequent failure. It has been shown that fatigue failure was favored by the presence of multiple cracks. From these experimental results, a fatigue life predictive model has been developed including...

  9. Behavior of Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Renguo; YANG Fanger; BLAWERT Carsten; DIETZEL Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was employed to study the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of ZE41 magnesium alloy in 0.01 M NaCl solution. Smooth tensile specimens with different thicknesses were strained dynamically in both longitudinal and transverse direction under permanent immersions at a strain rate of 10-6 s-1. It is found that ZE41 magnesium alloy is susceptible to SCC in 0.01 M NaCl solution. The SCC susceptibility of the thinner specimen is lower than that of the thicker specimen. Also, the longitudinal specimens are slightly more susceptible to SCC than the transverse specimens. The SCC mechanism of magnesium alloy is attributed to the combination of anodic dissolution with hydrogen embrittlement.

  10. Specimen Collection and Submission Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    a validated test algorithm . If there is insufficient specimen volume for testing, there may be delays, and the request may be referred to management...Additional guidance on packing and shipping infectious substances can be found through American Society for Microbiology: http://www.asm.org...images/pdf/Clinical/ pack -ship-7-15-2011.pdf TR-16-161 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED

  11. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  12. Initial cytotoxicity of novel titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M; Lockwood, P E; Wataha, J C; Okabe, T

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the biological response to several novel titanium alloys that have promising physical properties for biomedical applications. Four commercial titanium alloys [Super-TIX(R) 800, Super-TIX(R) 51AF, TIMETAL(R) 21SRx, and Ti-6Al-4V (ASTM grade 5)] and three experimental titanium alloys [Ti-13Cr-3Cu, Ti-1.5Si and Ti-1.5Si-5Cu] were tested. Specimens (n = 6; 5.0 x 5.0 x 3.0 mm(3)) were cast in a centrifugal casting machine using a MgO-based investment and polished to 600 grit, removing 250 mum from each surface. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti: ASTM grade 2) and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) were used as positive controls. The specimens were cleaned and disinfected, and then each cleaned specimen was placed in direct contact with Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts for 72 h. The cytotoxicity [succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity] of the extracts was assessed using the MTT method. Cytotoxicity of the metals tested was not statistically different compared to the CP Ti and Teflon controls (p > 0.05). These novel titanium alloys pose cytotoxic risks no greater than many other commonly used alloys, including commercially pure titanium. The promising short-term biocompatibility of these Ti alloys is probably due to their excellent corrosion resistance under static conditions, even in biological environments.

  13. Formation and characterization of Al-Ti-Nb alloys by electron-beam surface alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, S.; Petrov, P.; Lazarova, R.; Bezdushnyi, R.; Dechev, D.

    2016-12-01

    The combination of attractive mechanical properties, light weight and resistance to corrosion makes Ti-Al based alloys applicable in many industrial branches, like aircraft and automotive industries etc. It is known that the incorporation of Nb improves the high temperature performance and mechanical properties. In the present study on Al substrate Ti and Nb layers were deposited by DC (Direct Current) magnetron sputtering, followed by electron-beam alloying with scanning electron beam. It was chosen two speeds of the specimen motion during the alloying process: V1 = 0.5 cm/s and V2 = 1 cm/s. The alloying process was realized in circular sweep mode in order to maintain the melt pool further. The obtained results demonstrate a formation of (Ti,Nb)Al3 fractions randomly distributed in biphasic structure of intermetallic (Ti,Nb)Al3 particles, dispersed in α-Al solid solution. The evaluated (Ti,Nb)Al3 lattice parameters are independent of the speed of the specimen motion and therefore the alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters and thus, does not form additional residual stresses, strains etc. It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. The metallographic analyses demonstrate a formation of surface alloys with very high hardness. Our results demonstrate maximal values of 775 HV [kg/cm2] and average hardness of 673 HV [kg/cm2].

  14. Crystallographic Characteristic of Intermetallic Compounds in Al-Si-Mg Casting Alloys Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Yongzhi; XU Zhengbing; HE Juan; ZENG Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    The Al-Si-Mg alloy which can be strengthened by heat treatment is widely applied to the key components of aerospace and aeronautics. Iron-rich intermetallic compounds are well known to be strongly influential on mechanical properties in Al-Si-Mg alloys. But intermetallic compounds in cast Al-Si-Mg alloy intermetallics are often misidentified in previous metallurgical studies. It was described as many different compounds, such as AlFeSi, Al8Fe2Si, Al5(Fe, Mn)3Si2 and so on. For the purpose of solving this problem, the intermetallic compounds in cast Al-Si alloys containing 0.5% Mg were investigated in this study. The iron-rich compounds in Al-Si-Mg casting alloys were characterized by optical microscope(OM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer(EDS), electron backscatter diffraction(EBSD) and X-ray powder diffraction(XRD). The electron backscatter diffraction patterns were used to assess the crystallographic characteristics of intermetallic compounds. The compound which contains Fe/Mg-rich particles with coarse morphologies was Al8FeMg3Si6 in the alloy by using EBSD. The compound belongs to hexagonal system, space group P2m, with the lattice parameter a=0.662 nm, c=0.792 nm. The β-phase is indexed as tetragonal Al3FeSi2, space group I4/mcm, a=0.607 nm and c=0.950 nm. The XRD data indicate that Al8FeMg3Si6 and Al3FeSi2 are present in the microstructure of Al-7Si-Mg alloy, which confirms the identification result of EBSD. The present study identified the iron-rich compound in Al-Si-Mg alloy, which provides a reliable method to identify the intermetallic compounds in short time in Al-Si-Mg alloy. Study results are helpful for identification of complex compounds in alloys.

  15. Formation mechanism of solute clusters under neutron irradiation in ferritic model alloys and in a reactor pressure vessel steel: clusters of defects; Mecanismes de fragilisation sous irradiation aux neutrons d'alliages modeles ferritiques et d'un acier de cuve: amas de defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin-Chiffon, E

    2007-11-15

    The embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under irradiation is partly due to the formation of point defects (PD) and solute clusters. The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the formation mechanisms of solute clusters in low copper ([Cu] = 0.1 wt%) FeCu and FeCuMnNi model alloys, in a copper free FeMnNi model alloy and in a low copper French RPV steel (16MND5). These materials were neutron-irradiated around 300 C in a test reactor. Solute clusters were characterized by tomographic atom probe whereas PD clusters were simulated with a rate theory numerical code calibrated under cascade damage conditions using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The confrontation between experiments and simulation reveals that a heterogeneous irradiation-induced solute precipitation/segregation probably occurs on PD clusters. (author)

  16. Rapidly solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, C. M.; Ercuta, A.; Mitelea, I.; Valeanu, M.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.

    2008-05-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys have been manufactured by various techniques involving rapid solidification. Bulk alloys have been obtained by extracting the melted alloy in especially designed copper molds; glass coated wires have been obtained by drawing the melt from glass recipients followed by water cooling and ribbons have been fabricated by melt-spinning. Microstructural observations show particular solidification aspects of fractured areas, while ferromagnetic behavior has been detected in glass coated wires obtained by rapid solidification. The martensitic microstructure was observed on Co-Ni-Ga rapid solidified bulk alloys and Fe-Pd ribbons. The memory effect was detected using a Vibran system that allows the detection of the phase transition for the ribbons and by visual observation for other specimens. The conclusions of the observations are related to the comparison between the ferromagnetic behaviors of shape memory alloys solidified using different techniques.

  17. Dynamic reverse phase transformation induced high-strain-rate superplasticity in low carbon low alloy steels with commercial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenquan; Huang, Chongxiang; Wang, Chang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-08-23

    Superplastic materials are capable of exhibiting large tensile elongation at elevated temperature, which is of great industrial significance because it forms the basis of a fabrication method to produce complex shapes. Superplasticity with elongation larger than 500% has been widely realized in many metals and alloys, but seldomly been succeeded in low carbon low alloy steel, even though it is commercially applied in the largest quantity. Here we report ultrahigh superplastic elongation of 900-1200% in the FeMnAl low carbon steels at high strain rate of 10(-2)-10(-3) s(-1). Such high-strain-rate superplasticity was attributed to dynamic austenite reverse phase transformation from a heavily cold rolled ferrite to fine-grained ferrite/austenite duplex microstructure and subsequent limited dynamic grain coarsening, under which a large fraction of high angle boundaries can be resulted for superplastic deformation. It is believed that this finding of the low carbon low alloy steel with ultrahigh superplasticity and relative low cost would remarkably promote the application of superplastic forming technique in automobile, aeronautical, astronautical and other fields.

  18. Effects of nanometric inclusions on the microstructural characteristics and strengthening of a friction-stir processed aluminum–magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, F., E-mail: farzadkhodabakhshi83@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Boulevard, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Švec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Simančík, F. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, Bratislava (Slovakia); Gerlich, A.P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-26

    An aluminum–magnesium alloy was friction-stir processed in the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles which were pre-placed in a groove on the surface to produce a composite. Field emission-scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies show that solid state chemical reactions occur between the Al–Mg matrix and the ceramic particles upon the severe plastic deformation process. The microstructure of the aluminum alloy consists of a coarse grain structure, large complex (Fe,Mn,Cr){sub 3}SiAl{sub 12} particles, and small Mg{sub 2}Si precipitates. After friction stir processing, a deformed grain structure containing rod-like Al–Fe–Mn–Si precipitates is attained, along with cuboidal (~100 nm) Cr{sub 2} precipitates and spherical (~100 and 5 nm) Mg{sub 2}Si particles. In the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium aluminide (Al{sub 3}Ti) nanophases are formed. It is shown that these microstructural modifications lead to a significant enhancement in the hardness and tensile strength of the aluminum alloy. The relationship between the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties and the role of hard inclusions are presented and discussed. An analysis based on strengthening models indicates that the yield strength of the nanocomposite is mainly controlled by dislocations and grain boundaries rather than the nano-scale inclusions.

  19. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of Al-2024 alloy processed via a rheocasting route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnam Rahimi; Hamed Khosravi; Mohsen Haddad-Sabzevar

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the effects of stirring speed and T6 heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-2024 alloy synthesized by a rheocasting process. There was a decrease in grain size ofα-Al particles corresponding to an increase in stirring speed. By increasing the stirring speed, however, the globularity of matrix particles first increased and then declined. It was also found that the hardness, compressive strength, and compressive strain increased with the increase of stirring speed. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of nonsoluble Al15(CuFeMn)3Si2 phase in the vicinity of CuAl2 in the rheocast samples. The required time for the solution treatment stage was also influenced by stirring speed;the solution treatment time decreased with the increase in stirring speed. Furthermore, the rheo-cast samples required a longer homogenization period compared to conventionally wrought alloys. Improvements in hardness and compres-sive properties were observed after T6 heat treatment.

  20. Nucleation barrier of fcc(γ)→hcp(ε) martensitic transformation in Fe-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xing; CHEN Shipu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the dislocation theory and Olson's stacking fault model, a model describing the nucleation of an hcp(ε) martensite embryo at low-angle grain boundary is proposed with the influence of external stress field taken into account. The dependences of temperature (T), shear stress (τ) and dislocation density at grain boundary on the martensite nucleation in FeMnSi based alloy, as an example, are numerically simulated. It has been shown that there exist the subcritical and critical embryos during the course of ε-phase nucleation. The free energy difference between them is just the energy barrier of embryo growth. Depending on T and τ, the characteristic embryo sizes may vary in wide ranges and decrease with increasing σ and decreasing T. The energy condition of martensitic transformation at Ms and critical shear stress (τc) is discussed from the viewpoint of kinetics and thus the TEM observed result that stacking fault energy is not zero at Ms temperature is reasonably explained. Besides, it is predicted that the high dislocation density at grain boundary can promote the nucleation of fcc→hcp transformation in Fe-based alloys.

  1. Effects of H2 Atmospheres on Sintering of Low Alloy Steels Containing Oxygen-Sensitive Masteralloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oro Calderon, Raquel; Jaliliziyaeian, Maryam; Gierl-Mayer, Christian; Danninger, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    Processing of novel sintered steels with compositions including oxygen-sensitive elements requires deep understanding of the chemistry of sintering. The use of H2 atmospheres alleviates the oxygen transference from the base powder to the oxygen-sensitive particles. However, in H2, methane formation at 700-1200°C causes dramatic homogeneous decarburization of the part that affects both mechanical behavior and dimensional stability. The intensity and the critical temperatures of this effect depend strongly on the alloying elements, being significantly enhanced in presence of Si. When combining the alloying elements as Fe-Mn-Si masteralloys, methane formation is enhanced around 760°C due to the high Mn content (40 wt.%) in the masteralloys. Nevertheless, the benefits of H2 towards oxide reduction can still be advantageously used if diluting it in the form of N2-H2 atmospheres, or if limiting the use of H2 to temperatures below 500°C. Thus, decarburization due to methane formation can be successfully controlled.

  2. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  4. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  5. Recent results for bonding S-65C grade Be to copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, D.W. [Brush Wellman Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Novel processes for bonding beryllium to copper alloys without the use of a silver bonding aid have been developed at Brush Wellman. Tensile strength results will be presented at room temperature and elevated temperatures. A comparison will be made between bond strengths derived from rectangular tensile specimens and reduced section tensile specimens. Failure modes of the specimens at various temperatures will be shown.

  6. Irradiation of Fe-Mn Supersaturated Solid Solution with Ions of Various Atomic Masses (Ar+, Xe+) and Analysis of the Role of Nanosized Dynamic Effects in the Activation Processes of Long-Range Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Semionkin, V. A.; Shalomov, K. V.

    2017-05-01

    A multiple increase in the atom mobility in metastable supersaturated (quenched from 850 °C) Fe-8.16 at % Mn solid solution is detected at temperatures less than 250°C under irradiation with 5-keV Ar+ and Xe+ ions of different masses. The irradiation-induced atom redistribution in the entire volume of foils 30 μm thick at a projected Ar+ and Xe+ ion ranges as much as 20-30 nm only is found and studied by the transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Long-range effects at low irradiation doses and anomalously low temperatures are attributed to “radiation shaking” of metastable media with post-cascade solitary waves in contrast to thermally stimulated radiation-enhanced processes in the narrow nanoscale near-surface layers of the alloy. It has been shown that heavier Xe+ ions at higher irradiation doses have a stronger impact on the solid solution than Ar+ ions.

  7. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  8. Corrosion wear fracture of new {beta} biomedical titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinomi, M.; Fukunaga, K.-I. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technol. (Japan). Dept. of Production Syst. Eng.; Kuroda, D.; Morinaga, M.; Kato, Y.; Yashiro, T.; Suzuki, A.

    1999-05-15

    Metallic materials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloy, pure titanium and titanium alloys have been used for surgical implant materials. The {alpha} + {beta} type titanium alloy such as Ti-6Al-4V ELI has been most widely used as an implant material for artificial hip joint and dental implant because of its high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Toxicity of alloying elements in conventional biomedical titanium alloys like Al and V, and the high modulus of elasticity of these alloy as compared to that of bone have been, however, pointed out [1,2]. New {beta} type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr, Mo and Sn with lower moduli of elasticity, greater strength and greater corrosion resistance were, therefore, designed in this study. The friction wear properties of titanium alloys are, however, low as compared to those of other conventional metallic implant materials such as stainless steels and Co-Cr alloy. Tensile tests and friction wear tests in Ringer`s solution were conducted in order to investigate the mechanical properties of designed alloys. The friction wear characteristics of designed alloys and typical conventional biomedical titanium alloys were evaluated using a pin-on-disk type friction wear testing system and measuring the weight loss and width of groove of the specimen. (orig.) 8 refs.

  9. Foaming behaviour of Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. [Kongju National University (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cho, S.S. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea). School of Materials Engineering; Lee, H.J. [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea). Dept. of Building Service Engineering

    2004-12-15

    The powder metallurgical route was utilised to obtain the Al-5Si-4Cu-4Mg (alloy 544) and Al-3Si-2Cu-2Mg (alloy 322) foams. Various steps such as centrifugal atomisation, mixing alloy powder and foaming agent (1 wt-%TiH{sub 2}), cold compaction of mixture, hot extrusion and foaming in a preheated furnace were performed. Foaming behaviour of the alloys was investigated by digital microscopy, image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping in this study. It was found that alloy 544 takes a shorter period of time to initiate pore nucleation than alloy 322. Alloy 544 had a higher pore growth rate than alloy 322 at the same pre-set furnace temperature. In both alloys, crack-like pore nucleation occurred between aluminium alloy powders elongated in a direction parallel to the extrusion direction. Both alloys showed the same foaming sequence of crack-like pore nucleation, spherical pore growth, coalescence of neighbouring pores and collapse of pores adjacent to the free surface of specimen. The time required to start pore nucleation decreased with the increase of foaming temperature. The cell walls of both alloys consisted of {alpha}-Al phase and eutectic phase. (author)

  10. Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T; Hattori, M; Hasegawa, K; Yoshinari, M; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    2000-05-01

    Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys.

  11. PERSPECTIVES OF NANOPOWDERS APPLICATION FOR MANUFACTURING OF MODIFYING ALLOYING COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalinichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanomaterials for grain refining of metals and its allac is of great interest as it aimis achieveto higher physicalmechanical properties in finished parts. Analysis shows that to gain high effectiveness of nanoparticles it is important to provide proper input of these particles into alloying alloy. The aim of present research is study of initial nanoparticles structure on the base of titanium, boron, yttrium and carbon nanotubes as well as development of method to manufacture alloying alloys containing nanoparticles.Investigations of nanopowders phase compositions on the base of titanium, boron and yttrium have shown that active elements such as boron carbide, titanium carbide and nitride, yttrium oxide are base compounds of these nanopowders. Powder particles are formed by primary structural elements having mainly plate state (titanium and boron carbides and containing equiaxial inclusions with sizes of 5–200 nm. Chemical composition of specimens synthesized is uniform and contains 98.0 – 99.5% of main compound.Results of metal-protector and nanoparticles mixing have revealed that the increase of mixing duration from 2 to 6 hours assist to more uniform elements distribution through the pellet volume. Applying extrusion method specimens of alloying alloys have been produced and elements distribution in cross-section and longitudinal directions were determined.Analysis of research implemented has shown that distribution of active nanopowders in matrix is more uniform in extruded alloying alloys specimens compared to ones produced by methods of sintering or pressing of powder mixtures.

  12. The Isolation and Identification of an Efficient Fe/Mn-oxidizing Bacterial Strain P1,and the Optimization of Its Oxidizing Conditions%一株高效铁锰氧化细菌P1的分离鉴定及氧化条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星; 王淑婷; 李春艳

    2016-01-01

    By enrichment culture,a Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacterial strain P1 was isolated from the sludge samples of groundwater well that was rich in Fe/Mn. According to morphologic and physiological-biochemical characteristics as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis,strain P1 was identified as Bacillus cereus. Concurrently,single factor test was used to study the growth of strain P1 and its oxidation characteristics;and the response surface methodology(RSM)was employed to explore the effects of inoculation size,temperature and pH on the oxidation characteristics of strain P1 and further optimize the oxidation conditions. The results showed that the optimal oxidation conditions were temperature 28.54℃,pH 7.23,and inoculation size 4.35%. At the optimal conditions,the removal ratios of Mn and Fe were 93%and 100%respectively in the selective medium containing 200 mg/L Fe and 800 mg/L Mn after strain P1 was cultured for 3 d.%利用富集培养技术从富含铁锰的地下水井淤泥中分离得到1株能够氧化铁锰的细菌,命名为P1。经形态特征、生理生化特征和16S rDNA序列分析,将菌株P1鉴定为蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)。利用单因素实验探讨菌株P1的生长及氧化特性;采用响应面分析方法考察接种量、温度、pH值3个因素对菌株P1氧化特性的影响,进一步优化菌株的氧化条件。结果表明,菌株P1的最佳氧化条件:温度28.54℃,pH7.23,接种量4.35%。在此条件下,菌株P1在锰含量为200 mg/L、铁含量为800 mg/L的选择性培养液中培养3 d后,锰氧化率达93%以上,铁氧化率达100%。

  13. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  14. Precipitation hardening and hydrogen embrittlement of aluminum alloy AA7020

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar; T K G Namboodhiri

    2011-04-01

    AA7020 Al–Mg–Zn, a medium strength aluminium alloy, is used in welded structures in military and aerospace applications. As it may be subjected to extremes of environmental exposures, including high pressure liquid hydrogen, it could suffer hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen susceptibility of alloy AA7020 was evaluated by slow strain-rate tensile testing, and delayed failure testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of air-cooled, duplexaged, and water-quenched duplex agedmaterials. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of the alloy was found to be in the order of air-cooled duplex aged alloy > as-received (T6 condition) > water quenched duplex aged material.

  15. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  16. INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Riedler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

  17. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  18. Metallic alloy stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The dimensional stability of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional stability. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional stability and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional stability is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.

  19. Compatibility of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel specimens with liquid Na and NaK in irradiation rig of IFMIF

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In the high flux region of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the neutron irradiation damage for iron-based alloys will exceed 20 dpa/ year. An accurate specimen temperature measurement under a large amount of nuclear heating is a key issue but the change of heat transfer of gap between irradiation specimens and specimen holder during irradiation test is inevitable, if gap is filled with an inert gas and temperature is monitored by a thermocouple buried in the sp...

  20. Determination of Fe,Mn,Cu and Zn Elements in Oatmeal by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%火焰原子吸收分光光谱法测定燕麦片中铁、锰、铜、锌含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨葵华; 黎国兰; 谢丽; 邓文文

    2011-01-01

    采用HNO3-HClO4(4+1)湿法消解样品,用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定燕麦片中铁、锰、铜、锌的含量。测得铁、锰、铜、锌的回收率分别在98%~100%、99%~101%9、8%~99%9、6%~101%之间。平均回收率为96%~101%,RSD为0.3%~0.9%,表明该方法准确可靠。%To preprocess samples of oatmeal with HNO3-HClO4(4+1) wet digestion,the contents of Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn in oatmeal can be determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry,obtaining the recovery rate of 98%~100% for Fe,99%~101% for Mn,98%~99% for Cu,96%~101% for Zn.,and the average rate is 96%~101%,RSD is 0.3%~0.9%.The result of this experiment shows that the method is reliable and accurate for the test.

  1. Effects of RE on microstructure and properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    AZ91 magnesium alloy was adopted as master alloy and rare earths (RE) of 1%, 2% and 3% additions wereadded, respectively. The influence of RE on the microstructure was investigated. By casting fluidity spiral specimens, effect of RE on fluidity was achieved. The microhardness of the alloys was tested. By casting specimens in permanent mold,tensile properties of the alloys with different RE addition at ambient and elevated temperatures were studied. The fracturemechanisms of the alloys were studied by SEM. RE additions cause the formation of Al11 RE3 precipitation besides phasechange in the alloys. RE firstly decreases and then increases the fluidity. RE has little influence on ambient temperaturetensile properties but greatly improves high temperature tensile properties at 150 C. Tensile failure of the alloys are mainly brittle cleavage and/or quasi-cleavage fracture

  2. The Effect of Post-Bond Heat Treatment on Tensile Property of Diffusion Bonded Austenitic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sunghoon; Kim, Sung Kwan; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sah, Injin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Diffusion bonding is the key manufacturing process for the micro-channel type heat exchangers. In this study, austenitic alloys such as Alloy 800HT, Alloy 690, and Alloy 600, were diffusion bonded at various temperatures and the tensile properties were measured up to 650 ℃. Tensile ductility of diffusion bonded Alloy 800HT was significantly lower than that of base metal at all test temperatures. While, for Alloy 690 and Alloy 600, tensile ductility of diffusion bonded specimens was comparable to that of base metals up to 500 ℃, above which the ductility became lower. The poor ductility of diffusion bonded specimen could have caused by the incomplete grain boundary migration and precipitates along the bond-line. Application of post-bond heat treatment (PBHT) improved the ductility close to that of base metals up to 550 ℃. Changes in tensile properties were discussed in view of the microstructure in the diffusionbonded area.

  3. Effect of metal primers and tarnish treatment on bonding between dental alloys and veneer resin

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Seung-Sik; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra; Park, Chan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metal primers on the bonding of dental alloys and veneer resin. Polyvinylpyrrolidone solution's tarnish effect on bonding strength was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shape metal specimens (diameter 8 mm, thickness 1.5 mm) were made from 3 kinds of alloy (Co-Cr, Ti and Au-Ag-Pd alloy) and divided into 4 groups per each alloy. Half specimens (n=12 per group) in tarnished group were immersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone solu...

  4. Clinicopathological study of hysterectomised specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterectomy is the commonest major surgical procedure performed in gynecology. It can be done by abdominal or vaginal route and with the help of laparoscopy. Hysterectomy is an effective treatment option for many conditions like fibroid, abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease and cancer of reproductive organ when other treatment options are contraindicated or have failed, or if the woman no longer wishes to retain her menstrual and reproductive. The aim and objective of the study was to correlate indications of hysterectomy with histopathological findings in hysterectomised patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried on 113 hysterectomised cases over a period of one year from June 2015 to May 2016. The data regarding the patient’s age, parity, clinical diagnosis, type of hysterectomy and histopathological diagnosis were reviewed by the records and analyzed. Results: A total of 113 cases of hysterectomies were studied. Hysterectomies were distributed over a wide age ranging from 20 years to 75 years. Most common age group was 41-50 years. Among hystectomies majority were done through vaginal route 86 (76.1% and 26 (23% cases were done through abdominal route. Most common clinical diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 44(38.9% cases. Most of the hysterectomies were done for benign conditions. In final histopathological report most common diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 45(39.8% hysterectomy specimens. It was correlated well with clinical diagnosis. Next most common histopathological diagnosis was Adenomyosis. Conclusions: Histopathological analysis correlated well with preoperative clinical diagnosis in majority of cases. The commonest indication and histopathological finding in our study was fibroid uterus. Next most common histopathological finding was Adenomyosis. Most commonly hysterectomies were done through vaginal route in our study.

  5. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  6. Formation and evolution of MnNi clusters in neutron irradiated dilute Fe alloys modelled by a first principle-based AKMC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngayam-Happy, R. [EDF-R and D, Departement Materiaux et Mecanique des Composants (MMC), Les Renardieres, F-77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR CNRS 8207, Universite de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modelisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Materiaux (EM2VM) (France); Becquart, C.S., E-mail: charlotte.becquart@univ-lille1.fr [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR CNRS 8207, Universite de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modelisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Materiaux (EM2VM) (France); Domain, C. [EDF-R and D, Departement Materiaux et Mecanique des Composants (MMC), Les Renardieres, F-77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR CNRS 8207, Universite de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modelisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Materiaux (EM2VM) (France)

    2012-07-15

    An atomistic Monte Carlo model parameterised on electronic structure calculations data has been used to study the formation and evolution under irradiation of solute clusters in Fe-MnNi ternary and Fe-CuMnNi quaternary alloys. Two populations of solute rich clusters have been observed, which can be discriminated by whether or not the solute atoms are associated with self-interstitial clusters. Mn-Ni-rich clusters are observed at a very early stage of the irradiation in both modelled alloys, whereas the quaternary alloys contain also Cu-containing clusters. Mn-Ni-rich clusters nucleate very early via a self-interstitial-driven mechanism, earlier than Cu-rich clusters; the latter, however, which are likely to form via a vacancy-driven mechanism, grow in number much faster than the former, helped by the thermodynamic driving force to Cu precipitation in Fe, thereby becoming dominant in the low dose regime. The kinetics of the number density increase of the two populations is thus significantly different. Finally the main conclusion suggested by this work is that the so-called late blooming phases might as well be neither late, nor phases.

  7. Development of atom probe specimen preparation techniques for specific regions in steel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jun; Kawakami, Kazuto; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Sugiyama, Masaaki

    2007-09-01

    More elaborated specimen preparation techniques for atom probe analysis were developed using a focused ion beam with a sample lift-out system so as to expand the application field in steel materials. The techniques enable atom probe analysis of sample steel at site-specific regions of interest. The preferable form of the needle specimen was provided by electrostatic field calculation using a finite element method. The new techniques were applied to the observation of a bainite-ferrite interface in a low carbon steel, and atomic-scale partitioning and segregation of alloying elements at the phase interface were directly observed in three dimensions.

  8. Metallographic analysis of irradiated RERTR-3 fuel test specimens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Strain, R. V.; Clark, C. R.; Stuart, J. R.

    2000-11-08

    The RERTR-3 irradiation test was designed to investigate the irradiation behavior of aluminum matrix U-MO alloy dispersion fuels under high-temperature, high-fission-rate conditions. Initial postirradiation examination of RERTR-3 fuel specimens has concentrated on binary U-MO atomized fuels. The rate of matrix aluminum depletion was found to be higher than predictions based on low temperature irradiation data. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS) indicates that aluminum is present in the interior of the fuel particles. WDS data is supported by a mass and volume balance calculation performed on the basis of image analysis results. The depletion of matrix aluminum seems to have no detrimental effects on fuel performance under the conditions tested to date.

  9. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  10. RSB: Research Specimen Banking across the Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Pense, Rick; Grose, Tim; Anderson, Lynn; Lee, H

    2001-01-01

    Research Specimen Banking (RSB) system is a component of the translational investigations infrastructure at Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute. It was implemented to provide specimen management functions to support basic science cancer research taking place in conjunction with caner clinical trials. RSB handles the receipt and distribution of clinical specimens to the research labs, with identifiers that both mask personal identity and enable linkage of clinical data to correlative re...

  11. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuhiro.aoyama@fei.com; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  12. Effects of Alloying Element Ca on the Corrosion Behavior and Bioactivity of Anodic Films Formed on AM60 Mg Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawati Anawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of alloying element Ca on the corrosion behavior and bioactivity of films formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO on AM60 alloys were investigated. The corrosion behavior was studied by conducting electrochemical tests in 0.9% NaCl solution while the bioactivity was evaluated by soaking the specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF. Under identical anodization conditions, the PEO film thicknesses increased with increasing Ca content in the alloys, which enhanced the corrosion resistance in NaCl solution. Thicker apatite layers grew on the PEO films of Ca-containing alloys because Ca was incorporated into the PEO film and because Ca was present in the alloys. Improvement of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the PEO-coated AM60 by alloying with Ca may be beneficial for biodegradable implant applications.

  13. Study on microstructure and properties of Mg-alloy surface alloying layer fabricated by EPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dongfeng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AZ91D surface alloying was investigated through evaporative pattern casting (EPC technology. Aluminum powder (0.074 to 0.104 mm was used as the alloying element in the experiment. An alloying coating with excellent properties was fabricated, which mainly consisted of adhesive, co-solvent, suspending agent and other ingredients according to desired proportion. Mg-alloy melt was poured under certain temperature and the degree of negative pressure. The microstructure of the surface layer was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that a large volume fraction of network new phases were formed on the Mg-alloy surface, the thickness of the alloying surface layer increased with the alloying coating increasing from 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm, and the microstructure became compact. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the new phases. It showed that the new phases mainly consist of β-Mg17Al12, in addition to a small quantity of inter-metallic compounds and oxides. A micro-hardness test and a corrosion experiment to simulate the effect of sea water were performed. The result indicated that the highest micro-hardness of the surface reaches three times that of the matrix. The corrosion rate of alloying samples declines to about a fifth of that of the as-cast AZ91D specimen.

  14. Effect of alloying addition and microstructural parameters on mechanical properties of 93% tungsten heavy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kiran, U., E-mail: uravikiran@gmail.com [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Panchal, A.; Sankaranarayana, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nageswara Rao, G.V.S. [National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506004 (India); Nandy, T.K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India)

    2015-07-29

    Liquid phase sintering, heat treatment and swaging studies on three tungsten heavy alloys, 93W–4.9Ni–2.1Fe (wt%), 93W–4.2Ni–1.2Fe–1.6Co (wt%) and 93W–4.9Ni–1.9Fe–0.2Re (wt%) were carried out in detail with respect to microstructure, tensile and impact properties. All the alloys were sintered and swaged to 40% deformation. The results indicate that Re addition reduces the grain size of the alloy compared to W–Ni–Fe and W-Ni-Fe-Co alloys. W–Ni–Fe–Re alloy shows superior tensile properties in heat treated condition as compared to W–Ni–Fe and W–Ni–Fe–Co alloys. SEM study of fractured specimens clearly indicates that the failure in case of W–Ni–Fe–Re was due to transgranular cleavage of tungsten grains and W–W de-cohesion. W–Ni–Fe and W–Ni–Fe–Co alloys also failed by mixed mode failure. However, in these cases, ductile dimples corresponding the failure of the matrix phase was rarely seen. Thermo-mechanical processing resulted in significant changes in mechanical properties. While W–Ni–Fe–Re alloy showed the highest tensile strength (1380 MPa), W–Ni–Fe–Co exhibited the highest elongation (12%) to failure. A detailed analysis involving microstructure, mechanical properties and failure behavior was undertaken in order to understand the property trends.

  15. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  16. Effect of metal primers and tarnish treatment on bonding between dental alloys and veneer resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Seung-Sik; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metal primers on the bonding of dental alloys and veneer resin. Polyvinylpyrrolidone solution's tarnish effect on bonding strength was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shape metal specimens (diameter 8 mm, thickness 1.5 mm) were made from 3 kinds of alloy (Co-Cr, Ti and Au-Ag-Pd alloy) and divided into 4 groups per each alloy. Half specimens (n=12 per group) in tarnished group were immersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone solution for 24 hours. In Co-Cr and Ti-alloy, Alloy Primer (MDP + VBATDT) and MAC-Bond II (MAC-10) were applied, while Alloy Primer and V-Primer (VBATDT) were applied to Au-Ag-Pd alloys. After surface treatment, veneering composite resin were applied and shear bond strength test were conducted. RESULTS Alloy Primer showed higher shear bond strength than MAC-Bond II in Co-Cr alloys and Au-Ag-Pd alloy (Pveneer resin to Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloys. PMID:26576256

  17. Mechanical properties of hot rolled 2519 aluminum alloy plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭大暑; 陈险峰; 林启权; 张辉

    2003-01-01

    The effects of differences of temper on mechanical properties of T6, T7 and T8 plates of aluminum alloy 2519 were studied. The stress corrosion cracking(SCC) sensitivity was evaluated with parameters such as Kσ and Kδ.Tensile tests were divided into two groups: one was performed on tensile specimens without pre-corrosion, the other was performed on tensile specimens which were pre-corroded in 3.5%NaCl+1%H2O2 solution at 25 ℃.The results show that SCC resistance of alloy 2519 ranks in the order of T8>T7>T6 and the mechanical properties rank in the order of T6>T8>T7. SEM fractographs of the failed specimen show that the SCC sensitivity can be determined by the distribution of the second phase particles and size and the shape of grains in the alloy.

  18. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  19. Evaluation of Ion Irradiation Behavior of ODS Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Chul; Hong, Jun Hwa; Han, Chang Hee; Chang, Young Mun; Bae, Chang Soo; Bae, Yoon Young; Chang, Moon Hee

    2006-08-15

    FM steel (Grade 92) and ODS alloy(MA956) specimens were ion irradiated with 122 MeV Ne ions. Irradiation temperatures were about 450 and 550 .deg. C and the peak dose was 1, 5, and 10 dpa. Cross-sectional TEM samples were prepared by the electrolytic Ni-plating after pre-treatment of the irradiated specimens. Irradiation cavities in FM steel and ODS alloy specimens were not much different in size; about 20 nm in diameter in both specimens irradiated at around 450 .deg. C. However, the size distribution of cavities in FM steel specimens was broader than that in ODS alloy specimen, indicating that the cavity growth probably via coalescence). It was noticeable that the location and the preferential growth of the cavities in FM steel specimens: cavities on the PAGB (prior austenite grain boundary) was significantly larger than those within the grains. This could be an important issue for the mechanical properties, especially high temperature creep, fracture toughness, and so on. The dependency of the dose threshold and swelling on the ratio of the inert gas concentration/dpa was analysed for the various irradiation source, including He, Ne, Fe/He, and fast neutron, and the empirical correlation was established.

  20. Two-step phase shifting interferometry technique for evaluation of fatigue process zone parameters in notched specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravsky, Leonid I.; Picart, Pascal; Kmet', Arkady B.; Voronyak, Taras I.; Ostash, Orest P.; Stasyshyn, Ihor V.

    2016-08-01

    A new two-step phase shifting interferometry technique for evaluation of a fatigue process zone (FPZ) in notched metal and alloy specimens is proposed. In comparison with well-known destructive and nondestructive methods evaluating FPZ, this technique possesses higher accuracy and performance and allows defining the FPZ size for notched specimens made of metals and alloys with low, moderate or high plasticity. The technique is fulfilled by retrieval of a total surface relief of a studied notched specimen, extraction of surface roughness and waviness phase maps from the retrieved surface relief, calculation of a surface roughness parameter Ra spatial distribution and definition of the FPZ size by using an extracted surface roughness phase map. Obtained experimental results have confirmed assumption that the surface roughness of notched specimens after cyclic loading reaches its maximum values at the FPZ boundary. This boundary is produced as the narrow strip containing pixels possessing the maximum values on the spatial distribution of the roughness parameter Ra near a notch root. The basic distances d* defining the FPZ sizes were measured for notched specimens made of a low-carbon steel and aluminum alloys 2024-T6 and 7075-T3. Results of the distances d* measurement are very close to respective results obtained with the help of other methods for the FPZ evaluation.

  1. Comparison of the quantitative results corrected by fundamental parameter method and difference calibration specimens in X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. Y.; Zhuo, S. J.; Shen, R. X.; Wang, P. L.; Ji, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of standard specimens, including low-alloy steels (Japanese iron and steel CRM), glass from NIST and Chinese geological reference materials were analyzed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as unknown samples. The fundamental parameter method was used to correct the matrix effect and different specimens including pure element specimens and type specimens were employed as calibration samples. The quantitative results were compared in order to study the influence of calibration samples on the accuracy of quantitative results. The study showed that the fundamental parameter method could correct the matrix effects very well and relatively accurate quantitative results could be obtained, corrected by simple specimens, in case of type calibration specimens’ absence.

  2. Fatigue behavior of copper and selected copper alloys for high heat flux applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedy, K.D.; Stubbins, J.F.; Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.

    1996-04-01

    The room temperature fatigue behavior of standard and subsize specimens was examined for five copper alloys: OFHC Cu, two CuNiBe alloys, a CuCrZr alloy, and a Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy. Fatigue tests were run in strain control to failure. In addition to establishing failure lives, the stress amplitudes were monitored as a function of numbers of accrued cycles. The results indicate that the alloys with high initial yield strengths provide the best fatigue response over the range of failure lives examined in the present study: N{sub f} = 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6}. In fact, the fatigue performance of the best alloys is dominated by the elastic portion of the strain range, as would be expected from the correlation of performance with yield properties. The alumina strengthened alloy and the two CuNiBe alloys show the best overall performance of the group examined here.

  3. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002...

  4. Reconstituted Charpy impact specimens. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, J.S.; Wullaert, R.A.; McConnell, P.; Server, W.L.; Fromm, E.O.

    1982-12-01

    The arc stud welding process was used to produce new, full size Charpy V-notch impact specimens from halves of Charpy specimens which had been previously tested. The apparatus was developed such that it could be used not only for unirradiated specimens, but also so that it could be adapted for in-cell use to produce new reconstituted specimens of irradiated material. The materials studied are of interest in nuclear applications. They include A533B, A36, A516-80, submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal), HY80, cast duplex stainless steel, irradiated A533B, and irradiated submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal). Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were successfully produced and subsequently impact tested. In general, there was excellent agreement when comparing the original curves to the subsequent curves generated with reconstituted specimens. This program has shown that the arc stud welding process is well suited for producing reconstituted specimens at a reasonable cost using either unirradiated or irradiated material.

  5. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  6. Mode-II-Fracture Specimen And Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis; Succop, George

    1991-01-01

    Test specimen and loading frame developed for fatigue and fracture testing of materials under mode-II (sliding-mode) loading. Assembly placed in compression-testing machine. Loads directed oppositely along centerline cause self-similar crack to propagate. Enables consistently accurate alignment of specimens before insertion of specimen/frame assemblies into compression-testing machine. Makes design attractive for testing in hostile environments in which access to machine or furnace limited. Additional feature, with little or no modification, placed horizontally into impact testing machine and subjected to loading at high speeds.

  7. Alloy development for irradiation performance. Quarterly progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, B.G. (comp.)

    1980-04-01

    Progress is reported concerning preparation of a materials handbook for fusion, creep-fatigue of first-wall structural materials, test results on miniature compact tension fracture toughness specimens, austenitic stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, iron-base alloys with long-range crystal structure, ferritic steels, irradiation experiments, corrosion testing, and hydrogen permeation studies. (FS)

  8. Thermographic studies on IMI-834 titanium alloy during tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jalaj [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)], E-mail: k_jalaj@yahoo.com; Baby, Sony; Kumar, Vikas [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2008-11-25

    To study the material deformation kinetics under monotonic loading conditions, infrared radiation thermography (IRT) has been used in the present investigation. Studies were performed on IMI-834 titanium alloy, which is used in the compressor module of an aeroengine. The compressor has variable states of stress triaxialities at different locations. The effect of stress triaxiality on material deformation was investigated with the use of smooth and axisymmetrically notched round tensile specimens of the alloy. Instantaneous surface temperatures were measured on specimens during tensile deformation through IRT technique. The notched specimen exhibited localized and higher rate of temperature evolution during loading. Using surface temperature evolution curves, thermoelastic and inelastic regions were identified for smooth and notched specimens. With the help of Lord Kelvin's equation, stresses were predicted for thermoelastic region. A good correlation was found between the predicted and experimental stresses for this region.

  9. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marini marno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and solid specimens where a stress gradient exist, and thin-walled tubular specimens where a uniform stress state is commonly assumed, are also discussed. Von Mises and Tresca criteria has been used to predict the monotonic and cyclic deformation curve and compared to the torsional data obtained from the experiment. The S-N curve was used to present and evaluate the fatigue life of the specimens. Through fractographic analysis, failure criteria of fracture surfaces were observed and discussed. 

  10. Stifling of Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, K G; Gordon, G M; Rebak, R B

    2005-06-08

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  11. STIFLING OF CREVICE CORROSION IN ALLOY 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; G.M. Gordon; R.B. Rebak

    2005-07-01

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential, crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  12. Development of ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.G.; Pint, B.A.; Tortorelli, P.F.; McKamey, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this program is to develop an oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) version of Fe{sub 3}Al that has sufficient creep strength and resistance to oxidation at temperatures in the range 1000 to 1200 C to be suitable for application as heat exchanger tubing in advanced power generation cycles. The main areas being addressed are: (a) alloy processing to achieve the desired alloy grain size and shape, and (b) optimization of the oxidation behavior to provide increased service life compared to semi-commercial ODS-FeCrAl alloys intended for the same applications. The recent studies have focused on mechanically-alloyed powder from a commercial alloy vendor. These starting alloy powders were very clean in terms of oxygen content compared to ORNL-produced powders, but contained similar levels of carbon picked up during the milling process. The specific environment used in milling the powder appears to exert a considerable influence on the post-consolidation recrystallization behavior of the alloy. A milling environment which produced powder particles having a high surface carbon content resulted in a consolidated alloy which readily recrystallized, whereas powder with a low surface carbon level after milling resulted in no recrystallization even at 1380 C. A feature of these alloys was the appearance of voids or porosity after the recrystallization anneal, as had been found with ORNL-produced alloys. Adjustment of the recrystallization parameters did not reveal any range of conditions where recrystallization could be accomplished without the formation of voids. Initial creep tests of specimens of the recrystallized alloys indicated a significant increase in creep strength compared to cast or wrought Fe{sub 3}Al, but the specimens failed prematurely by a mechanism that involved brittle fracture of one of the two grains in the test cross section, followed by ductile fracture of the remaining grain. The reasons for this behavior are not yet understood. The

  13. Influence of time of annealing on anneal hardening effect of a cast CuZn alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Nestorović Svetlana; Ivanić Lj.; Marković Desimir

    2003-01-01

    Investigated cast copper alloy containing 8at%Zn of a solute. For comparison parallel specimens made from cast pure copper. Copper and copper alloy were subjected to cold rolling with different a final reduction of 30,50 and 70%. The cold rolled copper and copper alloy samples were isochronally and isothermally annealed up to recrystallization temperature. After that the values of hardness, strength and electrical conductivity were measured and X-ray analysis was performed. These investigatio...

  14. Characterization of the Corrosion Behavior of High Damping Alloys in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    the potential is increased, current increases, due to anodic dissolution . However, in some cases, as the specimen is scanned anodically, an oxide...34baseline" alloys were examined during this research. The nominal compositions of the high damping alloys are as follows: Delta Alloy C - 73.0% Cu, 21.0... ferritic stainless steel composition) are 72 ..... ..... presented in Figures 44 and 45, surfaces in Figures 46 to 51. Using the PDP and LPM plots (k

  15. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  16. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Diagnosis Exams and Tests for Cancer Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Waiting to hear ... who tell you whether the cells in your biopsy sample are cancer or not. How is cancer ...

  17. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  18. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  19. Vickers Microhardness Testing with Miniaturized Disk Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kayano, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The microhardness technique has been increasingly important for testing irradiated materials because of the necessity of small-scale specimen technology. In order to establish Vickers microhardness testing over a wide temperature range using miniaturized specimens such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks, an apparatus that permits the measurements in the temperature range of well below liquid nitrogen temperature to well above room temperature is developed. Effects of indentation ...

  20. Ultrasonic analysis of spherical composite test specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D.

    1984-08-22

    Filament wound spherical test specimens have been examined ultrasonically as part of a program to determine the effectiveness of various nondestructive evaluation techniques for analysis of mechanical characteristics of a composite with enclosed geometry. The Kevlar-epoxy composite specimens contained simulated defect conditions which were located, and the extent of damage determined, using ultrasonic analysis. Effects of transducer frequency and signal parameters have been examined to determine optimum conditions for flaw detection. The data were displayed in rectangular and axonometric projection.

  1. Structure evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy in SIMA process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong; ZHANG Fa-yun; JIE Xiao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of prior compressive deformation, isothermal temperature and holding time on the structure of AZ61 magnesium alloy fabricated by strain-induced melt activation(SIMA) processing was investigated. The specimens were subjected under deformation ratios of 0%, 22% and 40% and various heat treatment time and temperature regions. The results indicate that the ideal technological parameters of semi-solid AZ61 alloy produced with non-dendrites are recommended as 22% (prior compressive deformation), 595 ℃ (heat treatment temperature) and 40 min(time). The as-cast AZ61 magnesium alloy isn't fit for semi-solid forming.

  2. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    scale is similar to that which has already been proposed for cobalt . The oxide ions would react with the Al203 to form aluminate ions in the Na2S04...resistance of cobalt -base and nickel-base alloys. The contract was accomplished under the technical direction of Dr. H. C. Graham of the Aerospace Research...Oxidized Specimens RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. INTRODUCfiON 2. SODIUM SULFATE INDUCED HOT CORROSION OF COBALT a. Introduction b. Experimental c

  3. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O' Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  4. Evaluation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility Using Fracture Mechanics Techniques, Part 1. [environmental tests of aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprowls, D. O.; Shumaker, M. B.; Walsh, J. D.; Coursen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SSC) tests were performed on 13 aluminum alloys, 13 precipitation hardening stainless steels, and two titanium 6Al-4V alloy forgings to compare fracture mechanics techniques with the conventional smooth specimen procedures. Commercially fabricated plate and rolled or forged bars 2 to 2.5-in. thick were tested. Exposures were conducted outdoors in a seacoast atmosphere and in an inland industrial atmosphere to relate the accelerated tests with service type environments. With the fracture mechanics technique tests were made chiefly on bolt loaded fatigue precracked compact tension specimens of the type used for plane-strain fracture toughness tests. Additional tests of the aluminum alloy were performed on ring loaded compact tension specimens and on bolt loaded double cantilever beams. For the smooth specimen procedure 0.125-in. dia. tensile specimens were loaded axially in constant deformation type frames. For both aluminum and steel alloys comparative SCC growth rates obtained from tests of precracked specimens provide an additional useful characterization of the SCC behavior of an alloy.

  5. Aluminum-lithium alloy development for thixoforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, R.; Friedrich, B. [IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Puettgen, W.; Bleck, W. [IEHK Inst. for Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Balitchev, E.; Hallstedt, B.; Schneider, J.M. [MCh Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Bramann, H.; Buehrig-Polaczek, A. [GI Foundry Inst., RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Uggowitzer, P.J. [ETH Zuerich, Metal Physics and Technology (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a scientific contribution to the development of lightweight/high-performance Al-Li alloys suitable for semi-solid processing. Thermodynamic calculations identified the most promising compositions with focus on the solidus-liquidus interval, fraction of solid-versus-temperature and phase reactions. The synthesis of Al-Li precursor billets was performed by overpressure induction melting in controlled atmosphere. DTA and microstructure investigations on Al-Li specimens were carried out as well as thixocasting trials of demonstrator components. New rheocasting of Al-Li alloys was investigated to identify the potential of this alternative precursor material route. It is shown that specifically developed Al-Li alloys offer great potential for semi-solid manufacturing. (orig.)

  6. Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Matsui, H. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200--300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

  7. Resistance of a directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy to recrystallization. [Ni-base alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S. N.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Andrews, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    A lamellar nickel-base directionally-solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy has potential as an advanced gas turbine blade material. The microstructural stability of this alloy was investigated. Specimens were plastically deformed by uniform compression or Brinell indentation, then annealed between 750 and 1120 C. Microstructural changes observed after annealing included gamma prime coarsening, pinch-off and spheroidization of delta lamellae, and appearance of an unidentified blocky phase in surface layers. All but the first of these was localized in severely deformed regions, suggesting that microstructural instability may not be a serious problem in the use of this alloy.

  8. High-strength iron aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKamey, C.G.; Marrero-Santos, Y.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    Past studies have shown that binary Fe{sub 3}Al possesses low creep-rupture strength compared to many other alloys, with creep-rupture lives of less than 5 h being reported for tests conducted at 593{degrees}C and 207 MPa. The combination of poor creep resistance and low room-temperature tensile density due to a susceptibility to environmentally-induced dynamic hydrogen embrittlement has limited use of these alloys for structural applications, despite their excellent corrosion properties. Improvements in room temperature tensile ductility have been realized mainly through alloying effects, changes in thermomechanical processing to control microstructure, and by control of the specimen`s surface condition. Ductilities of 10-20% and tensile yield strengths as high as 500 MPa have been reported. In terms of creep-rupture strength, small additions of Mo, Nb, and Zr have produced significant improvements, but at the expense of weldability and room-temperature tensile ductility. Recently an alloy containing these additions, designated FA-180, was shown to exhibit a creep-rupture life of over 2000 h after a heat treatment of 1 h at 1150{degrees}C. This study presents the results of creep-rupture tests at various test temperatures and stresses and discusses the results as part of our effort to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved with heat treatment at 1150{degrees}C.

  9. Development of Al-TiC Alloys Using Powder Metallurgy as Grain Refiners for Aluminium and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Nasser .M. Omran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Al-Ti-C master alloys have been widely investigated for many years as grain refiner for aluminium and its alloys. In this work, the Al-Ti-C master alloys are synthesized using powder metallurgy technique through the mixing of aluminium and TiC powders with different TiC contents 3.75 (3, 5(4, 6.25(5 and 7.5(6 Wt% TiC(Wt% Ti. The mixing powders with different contents of TiC were pressed in cylinder shape. The pressed specimens were sintered from 450 oC in a tube furnace under argon atmosphere for 2 hrs. The produced alloys before and after sintering are examined using SEM, EDX and XRD. The results indicate that, the Al-TiC alloy containing fine TiC particles dispersed in all matrix was successfully prepared. The prepared Al-TiC alloys with different contents of TiC were evaluated using the KBI test mold as grain refiner for pure aluminum and its alloys. The results indicate that the prepared Al-TiC master alloy is high grain refining efficiency for pure aluminum and its alloys.

  10. A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun-Tae; Shin, Soo-Yeon

    2014-10-01

    The porcelain fused to gold has been widely used as a restoration both with the natural esthetics of the porcelain and durability and marginal fit of metal casting. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). And porcelain was applied on the center area of metal specimen. Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). The 3-point bending test showed the strongest (40.42 ± 5.72 MPa) metal-ceramic bond in the nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy, followed by millingable Pd-Ag alloy (37.71 ± 2.46 MPa), precious metal alloy containing 83% of gold (35.89 ± 1.93 MPa), and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold (34.59 ± 2.63 MPa). Nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold showed significant difference (P<.05). The type of metal-ceramic alloys affects the bond strength of porcelain. Every metal-ceramic alloy used in this study showed clinically applicable bond strength with porcelain (25 MPa).

  11. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated at ˜400°C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloczko, M. B.; Garner, F. A.; Eiholzer, C. R.

    1998-10-01

    Irradiation creep of three ferritic alloys at ˜400 ∘C has been studied. Specimens were in the form of pressurized tubes. In a joint US/UK creep study, two identical sets of creep specimens constructed from one heat of HT9 were irradiated in fast reactors, one in the Prototypic Fast Reactor (PFR) and the other in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The specimens in PFR were irradiated to a dose of ˜50 dpa, whereas the specimens in FFTF were irradiated to a dose of 165 dpa. The observed swelling and creep behavior were very different in the two reactors. Creep specimens constructed from D57, a developmental alloy ferritic alloy, were also irradiated in PFR to a dose of ˜50 dpa. Creep behavior typical of previous studies on ferritic alloys was observed. Finally, creep specimens constructed from MA957, a Y 2O 3 dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy, were irradiated in FFTF to a dose of ˜110 dpa. This alloy exhibited a large amount of densification, and the creep behavior was different than observed in more conventional ferritic or ferritic-martensitic alloys.

  12. THREE DIMENSIONAL COMPLEX SHAPES ANALYSIS FROM 3D LOCAL CURVATURE MEASUREMENTS. APPLICATION TO INTERMETALLIC PARTICLES IN ALUMINIUM ALLOY 5XXX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Parra-Denis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The studied material is a 5xxx aluminium alloys containing 2 types of intermetallic particles : Alx(Fe;Mn and Mg2Si. It is usually used in car industry as reinforcement pieces or in packaging industry, such as bottle liquid box lid. Scanning electronic microscope coupled with EDX analysis shows complex shapes of intermetallic particles. The particle shape is obtained during the solidification of alloys. Particles fill vacant spaces between aluminium grains. Therefore final sheet properties depend on intermetallic particles shapes and notably on the matrix-particle interface properties. The goal of the present study is to classify intermetallic particles versus their shapes using local curvature information. The aluminium alloys sample is observed by X ray micro tomography performed at the ESRF. Three dimensional images are segmented, and intermetallic particles are identified in a data base. Each particle is stored as a set of voxels. The surface of each particle is meshed by a marching cubes triangular meshing with the software Amira©. A simplification of the surface is performed by an algorithm contracting the edges. Finally, principal curvatures: kmin and kmax are estimated by Amira© on each facet centre of the mesh. From the full intermetallic population, the bivariate distribution of kmin and kmax is estimated. The obtained graph kmin ¡kmax shows geometrical properties of interface portions of the surface of particles. A factorial correspondence analysis is performed to summarize the information on all intermetallic particles. In the obtained subspace, particles are classified into five shape families, in relation with their interface geometrical properties.

  13. Evaluation of fatigue process zone dimensions in notched specimens by two-step phase shifting interferometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravsky, Leonid I.; Picart, Pascal; Kmet', Arkady B.; Voronyak, Taras I.; Ostash, Orest P.; Stasyshyn, Ihor V.

    2016-10-01

    A method for evaluation of fatigue process zone (FPZ) dimensions near a notch root in metal and alloy specimens by using a two-step phase shifting interferometry (TS PSI) technique is proposed. In comparison with other destructive and nondestructive methods evaluating the FPZ dimensions, it possesses higher accuracy and performance. The method uses a criterion for the FPZ dimensions definition based on an assumption that the surface roughness of notched specimens after cyclic loading reaches its maximum values at the FPZ boundary. To realize this method, first, a phase map (PM) of a total surface relief near a notch root is retrieved; second, roughness and waviness PMs are extracted from the retrieved total surface relief PM by using the TS PSI; and finally, a surface roughness parameter Ra spatial distribution is calculated according to the offered criterion and the FPZ size d* is defined. The FPZ size was measured for specimens made of low-carbon steel and aluminum alloys 2024-T6 and 7075-T3. Obtained experimental results have shown that the proposed criterion allows defining the FPZ size for notched specimens made of metals and alloys possessing high, moderate, and low plasticity.

  14. The fatigue life of a cobalt-chromium alloy after laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayaa, Nabil Jalal Ahmad; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fatigue life of laser welded joints in a commercially available cast cobalt-chromium alloy. Twenty rod shaped specimens (40 mm x 1.5 mm) were cast and sand blasted. Ten specimens were used as controls and the remaining ten were sectioned and repaired using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser welder. All specimens were subjected to fatigue testing (30N - 2Hz) in a controlled environment. A statistically significant difference in median fatigue life was found between as-cast and laser welded specimens (p welded specimens despite 70% penetration of the weld.

  15. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t permanent mold cast alloys due to the locally finer microstructure. Concurrent mechanisms related to the chemical composition, solidification conditions and heat treatment were found to control the impact properties of the alloys. While the trace element Ni exerted only minor effects on the impact toughness of the A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  16. Vortex spin-torque oscillator using Co2FexMn1 -xSi Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Seki, Takeshi; Takanashi, Koki

    2016-09-01

    We show spin-transfer-torque-driven vortex oscillations in current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance junctions using epitaxially grown Co2FexMn1 -xSi (CFMS) Heusler alloy thin films. The soft magnetic property and high spin polarization of CFMS enable us to realize vortex oscillation emitting large microwave power with a low threshold current. The output power is maximized for a certain Fe-Mn composition ratio associated with a reduction of the threshold current for the oscillation, which is in agreement with a general model for spin-torque oscillation. Through comparison with an analytical theory that describes the translational motion of a vortex core, we show that the vortex core motion excited in the present device is inhomogeneous along the thickness direction. In spite of the inhomogeneity, the gyration radius at the CFMS/spacer interface region was estimated to be ˜75 % of the actual ferromagnetic layer radius, which indicates that the CFMS-based all-metallic junction is useful for achieving large-amplitude vortex core motion. This comprehensive investigation would also be useful for designing high-performance all-metallic nano-oscillators based on magnetic vortex dynamics.

  17. Effect of the homogenisation conditions on the extrudability and high temperature fracture resistance of AA6063 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassance, D.; Pardoen, T.; Ryelandt, L.; Delannay, F. [Univ. catholique de Louvain, Dept. des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, PCIM, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Dille, J.; Delplancke, J.L. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Service Science des Materiaux et Electrochimie, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys International Services, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Homogenisation is an essential step in the preparation of aluminium billets for extrusion. It is designed to produce an homogeneous solid solution and to transform the {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi particles to the more equiaxed and thus more acceptable cubic {alpha}-Al{sub 12}(Fe{sub x},Mn{sub 1-x}){sub 3}Si variety. The effect of the homogenisation conditions on high temperature surface damage and fracture is investigated through full scale industrial extrusion experiments on AlMgSi alloy. The transformation of AlFeSi intermetallic particles from the {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi thin plate like shape to the more rounded {alpha}-Al{sub 12}(Fe,Mn){sub 3}Si form, quantified by EDS measurements, is shown to postpone the formation of surface defects. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of extruded samples close to the location of extrusion defects, reveals that damage initiates by microcracks within the brittle {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi particles or due to incipient melting caused by the eutectic transformation Al+{beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi+Si{yields}Liquid at 578 C. These microcracks open by plastic deformation around the cracked brittle phase and, after sufficient growth, coalesce into a large crack. (orig.)

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of 3003 Aluminum Alloy Joint Brazed with Al-Si-Cu-Zn Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si-Cu-Zn filler metal was developed to braze 3003 aluminum alloy. The microstructure and fracture surface of the joint were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDS, and the effects of brazing temperature on microstructure and property of the joint were investigated. The results show that good joints are obtained at brazing temperature of 540-580℃ for 10min. The brazed joint consists of α(Al solid solution, θ(Al2Cu intermetallic compound, fine silicon phase and AlCuFeMn+Si phase in the central zone of brazed seam, and α(Al solid solution and element diffusion layers at both the sides of brazed seam, and the base metal. The room temperature (RT shear fracture of the joint occurs at the interface between the teeth shape α(Al in the diffusion layer and the center zone of brazed seam, which is mainly characterized as brittle cleavage. As the brazing temperature increases, α(Al solid solution crystals in the diffusion zone grow up, and the interfacial bonding of the joint is in the form of interdigitation. Brazing at 560℃ for 10min, the RT shear strength of the joint reaches the maximum value of 92.3MPa, which is about 62.7% of the base material.

  19. Thermal fatigue and oxidation data of TAZ-8A and M22 alloys and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, K. E.; Humphreys, V. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and oxidation data were obtained on 36 specimens, representing 18 distinct variations (including the base systems) of TAZ-8A and M22 alloys. Double-edge wedge specimens for these systems were cycled between fluidized beds maintained at 1088 C and 316 C with a 180 s immersion in each bed. The systems included alloys TAZ-8A, M22, and 16 variations of these alloys. Each alloy variation consisted of a unique composition with an alternation in the percentage of carbon (C1 and C2), molydenum (M1 and M2), tungsten (W1 and W2), columbium (CB1, CB2, and CB3), tantalium (T1, T2, and T3), or boron (B1, B2, and B3) present. All of the alloys showed little weight change due to oxidation compared with other alloys previously tested in fluidized beds. Only both C1 alloy variation specimens survived 3500 cycles without cracking in the small radius, although substantial cracks were present, emanating from the end notches which were used for holding the specimens.

  20. The Value of Agricultural Voucher Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Barkworth,Mary; Wolf, Paul; Kinosian,Sylvia; Dyreson, Curtis; Pearse, Will; Brandt, Ben; Cobb,Neil

    2017-01-01

    Voucher specimens are the ultimate raw data of biodiversity studies because they document the interpretation of the names used in papers and reports resulting from such studies. The value of voucher specimens is increased by making their records web-accessible but they can be further enhanced by linking them to other online resources, particularly if the links are birectional.  In this presentation, we discuss the potential benefits of such links for a group of agricultural significance, the ...

  1. Tensile properties of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy after exposure in air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oxidation studies were conducted on V-5Cr-5Ti alloy specimens in an air environment to evaluate the oxygen uptake behavior of the alloy as a function of temperature and exposure time. The oxidation rates, calculated from parabolic kinetic measurements of thermogravimetric testing and confirmed by microscopic analysis of cross sections of exposed specimens, were 5, 17, and 27 {mu}m per year after exposure at 300, 400, and 500{degrees}C, respectively. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C on preoxidized specimens of the alloy to examine the effects of oxidation and oxygen migration on tensile strength and ductility. Correlations were developed between tensile strength and ductility of the oxidized alloy and microstructural characteristics such as oxide thickness, depth of hardened layer, depth of intergranular fracture zone, and transverse crack length.

  2. Corrosion of an aluminum alloy chilled in flowing seawater and the effect of cathodic prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yabuki, Akihiro; Yasunaga, David T.; Shibutani, Toshihiro; Shinkai, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    A new type of jet-in-slit testing apparatus for a specimen, chilled with a peltier element, was developed to investigate corrosion on the heat transfer surface of an aluminum alloy heat exchanger, in contact with a liquefaction gas at cryogenic temperature and in flowing seawater. The specimen can be chilled, even under flowing conditions, using this apparatus. Corrosion tests and polarization measurements of a specimen chilled by a peltier element were carried out in flowing seawater at vari...

  3. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus--basic components of the bone apatite--occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element.

  4. A study on the microstructural property and thermal property of Ti-alloys without Al as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Jae Sam; Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Kyu Zong [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Jin [Seo Kang collage, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Ti-10Ta-10Nb alloys were designed for surgical implants, dental and orthopedic materials without V and Al. Specimens of the Ti-10Ta-10Nb alloy were remelted three times through the consumable VAR process and were made into small rods. Homogenization heat treatment was carried out for 24 hours under a vacuum of 10{sup -3} torr and at constant temperature of 1050 .deg. C and then the specimens were cooled in water. After that, we observed the microstructure of the alloy by using an SEM. Rockwell (B) hardness, thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat of the Ti-10Ta-10Nb alloy were measured in order to examine the material properties. It was found that the mechanical property of the specimen was altered by the heat treatment, and thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat of the Ti-10Ta-10Nb alloy would be useful data for engineering processing design

  5. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A...

  7. Low temperature embrittlement behaviour of different ferritic-martensitic alloys for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.

    1996-10-01

    In the last few years a lot of different low activation CrWVTa steels have been developed world-wide. Without irradiation some of these alloys show clearly a better low temperature embrittlement behaviour than commercial CrNiMoV(Nb) alloys. Within the MANITU project a study was carried out to compare, prior to the irradiation program, the embrittlement behaviour of different alloys in the unirradiated condition performing instrumented Charpy impact bending tests with sub-size specimens. The low activation materials (LAM) considered were different OPTIFER alloys (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), F82H (JAERI), 9Cr2WVTa (ORNL), and GA3X (PNL). The modified commercial 10-11% CrNiMoVNb steels were MANET and OPTIMAR. A meaningful comparison between these alloys could be drawn, since the specimens of all materials were manufactured and tested under the same conditions.

  8. Bond strength of binary titanium alloys to porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, M; Konno, T; Takada, Y; Iijima, K; Griggs, J; Okuno, O; Kimura, K; Okabe, T

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bond strength between porcelain and experimental cast titanium alloys. Eleven binary titanium alloys were examined: Ti-Cr (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Pd (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Ag (10, 15, 20 wt%), and Ti-Cu (5, 10 wt%). As controls, the bond strengths for commercially pure titanium (KS-50, Kobelco, Japan) and a high noble gold alloy (KIK, Ishifuku, Japan) were also examined. Castings were made using a centrifugal casting unit (Ticast Super R, Selec Co., Japan). Commercial porcelain for titanium (TITAN, Noritake, Japan) was applied to cast specimens. The bond strengths were evaluated using a three-point bend test according to ISO 9693. Since the elastic modulus value is needed to evaluate the bond strength, the modulus was measured for each alloy using a three-point bend test. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/S-N-K test (alpha = 0.05). Although the elastic moduli of the Ti-Pd alloys were significantly lower than those of other alloys (p = 0.0001), there was a significant difference in bond strength only between the Ti-25Pd and Ti-15Ag alloys (p = 0.009). The strengths determined for all the experimental alloys ranged from 29.4 to 37.2MPa, which are above the minimum value required by the ISO specification (25 MPa).

  9. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... indicate membership in the collective organization. (5) A certification mark specimen must show how a... of a union or other organization performed the work or labor on the goods or services. (c) A... be a digitized image in .jpg or .pdf format....

  10. Fatigue Life of Cast Titanium Alloys Under Simulated Denture Framework Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Mari; Chan, Kwai S.; Hummel, Susan K.; Mason, Robert L.; Okabe, Toru

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the hypothesis that the mechanical properties and fatigue behavior of removable partial dentures (RPD) made from cast titanium alloys can be improved by alloying with low-cost, low-melting elements such as Cu, Al, and Fe using commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V as controls. RPD specimens in the form of rest-shaped, clasp, rectangular-shaped specimens and round-bar tensile specimens were cast using an experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy, Ti-5Al-1Fe, and Ti-1Fe in an Al2O3-based investment with a centrifugal-casting machine. The mechanical properties of the alloys were determined by performing tensile tests under a controlled displacement rate. The fatigue life of the RPD specimens was tested by the three-point bending in an MTS testing machine under a cyclic displacement of 0.5 mm. Fatigue tests were performed at 10 Hz at ambient temperature until the specimens failed into two pieces. The tensile data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) and the fatigue life data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (α = 0.05). The experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy showed a significantly higher average fatigue life than that of either CP-Ti or Ti-5Al-1Fe alloy ( p casting pores. Among the alloys tested, the Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy exhibited favorable results in fabricating dental appliances with an excellent fatigue behavior compared with other commercial alloys.

  11. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  12. Bonding Ni-Cr alloy to tooth structure with adhesive resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, B; Scherer, W; Cooper, H; Kokoletsos, N; Koifman, V

    1992-01-01

    This study was to determine the shear bond strengths of Ni-Cr alloy to Ni-Cr alloy (Group I), Ni-Cr alloy to enamel (Group II), and Ni-Cr alloy to dentin (Group III) using Imperva Dual, DC Metabond, All-Bond, Geristore, and Panavia. All bonded specimens were thermocycled 2000 x (5 degrees C-55 degrees C) after 24 hours and subjected to shear bond testing on a Universal Instron Testing Machine. In all groups of the study, Imperva Dual and CB Metabond had significantly (p bond values than Panavia.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Alloys Fabricated by Three New Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong-Ho; Lee, Dae-Ho; Ha, Jung-Yun; Hanawa, Takao; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary tensile test was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by three new manufacturing processes: metal milling, milling for soft metal, and rapid prototyping (n=6). For comparison, the three alloy materials were also used to fabricate specimens by a casting procedure. In all groups tested, the proof strength and elongation were over 500 MPa and 2%, respectively. The milled soft alloy in particular showed a substantially greater elongation, whereas the alloy fabricated by rapid prototyping exhibited a higher proof strength.

  14. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  15. Turbine Blade Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  16. F-Alloy: An Alloy Based Model Transformation Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gammaitoni, Loïc; Kelsen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy that allows the specification of functional Alloy modules. Module...

  17. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  18. Room temperature fatigue behavior of OFHC copper and CuAl25 specimens of two sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, A.; Stubbins, J.F.; Singh, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    requiring an understanding of their fatigue behavior.This paper describes the room temperature fatigue behavior of unirradiated OFHC (oxygen-free high-conductivity) copper and CuAl25 (copper strengthened with a 0.25% atom fraction dispersion of alumina). The response of two fatigue specimen sizes to strain......Copper and its alloys are appealing for application in fusion reactor systems for high heat flux components where high thermal conductivities are critical, for instance, in divertor components. The thermal and mechanical loading of such components will be, at least in part, cyclic in nature, thus...... controlled fatigue loading is examined, and differences in behavior are discussed. Specimens with the smaller size are now being irradiated in several reactors...

  19. Comparative study of cytotoxicity of direct metal laser sintered and cast Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puskar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented work investigated the cytotoxicity of direct metal laser sintered (DMLS and cast Co-Cr-Mo (CCM dental alloy. In vitro tests were done on human fibroblast cell line MRC-5. There was no statistically significant difference in the cytotoxic effects of DMLS and CCM alloy specimens. The results of this investigation show good potential of DMLS Co-Cr-Mo alloy for application in dentistry.

  20. Effect of thermomechanical processing on evolution of various phases in Ti–Nb alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banumathy; K S Prasad; R K Mandal; A K Singh

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the effect of thermomechanical processing on microstructural evolution of three alloys, viz. Ti–8Nb, Ti–12Nb and Ti–16Nb. The alloys were hot rolled at 800°C and then subjected to various heat treatments. Samples from hot-rolled alloys were given solution-treatment in and + phase fields, respectively followed by water quenching and furnace cooling. The solution-treated alloys were subsequently aged at different temperatures for 24 h. Phases evolved after various heat treatments were studied using X-ray diffractometer, optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The alloy Ti–8Nb exhibits and phases while the alloys Ti–12Nb and Ti–16Nb show the presence of '', and phases in the as-cast and hot-rolled conditions. The solution treated and water quenched specimen of the alloy Ti–8Nb displays '' phase while the alloys Ti–12Nb and Ti–16Nb exhibit '', and phases. The alloy Ti–8Nb shows the presence of , and phases while those of Ti–12Nb and Ti–16Nb display the presence of , '', and in + solution treated and water quenched condition. The observation of phase in solution treated condition depends on the cooling rate and the Nb content while in the aged specimens, it is governed by aging temperature as well as the Nb content.

  1. Effect of composition on the high rate dynamic behaviour of tungsten heavy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Kesemen; Kaan, Çalışkan N.; Emrah, Konokman H.; Nuri, Durlu

    2015-09-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are currently used as kinetic energy penetrators in military applications due to their high density and superior mechanical properties. In the literature, quasi-static properties of different tungsten heavy alloys based on W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe ternary systems are well documented and presented. However, comparison of the dynamic behaviour of these alloys in terms of the correlation between quasi-static mechanical characterization and dynamical properties is lacking. In the present study, dynamic properties of tungsten heavy alloys having different binder phase compositions (90W-7Ni-3Cu and 90W-8Ni-2Fe) at different projectile velocities were investigated. The examined and tested alloys were produced through the conventional powder metallurgy route of mixing, cold compaction and sintering. Mechanical characterization of these alloys was performed. In the ballistic tests, cylindrical tungsten heavy alloys with L/D ratio of 3 were impacted to hardened steel target at different projectile velocities. After the ballistic tests, deformation characteristics of test specimens during dynamic loading were evaluated by comparing the change of length and diameter of the specimens versus kinetic energy densities. The study concluded that 90W-8Ni-2Fe alloy has better perforation characteristics than 90W-7Ni-3Cu alloy.

  2. Corrosion behavior of an Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guangxing; TAO Binwu; LIU Jianhua; LI Songmei

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of an Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was studied and compared with that of an Al-6Mg-Zr alloy.The addition of scandium into the Al-6Mg-Zr alloy reduced the susceptibility to exfoliation corrosion. By using the constant load tensile method in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, the resistance to SCC of the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was higher than that of the Al-6Mg-Zr alloy. When the specimens were not applied with an anodic current, the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy was resistance to SCC and no brittle cracking was found on the fracture surface. When an anodic current was applied, the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy specimens failed as a result of accelerated corrosion rather than SCC. It was believed that the addition of scandium resulted in (Al3Sc, Zr) particles that greatly refmed grains and promoted the formation of homogeneous discontinuous distribution of β-phase in the alloy base, which much contributed to good corrosion resistance of the Al-6Mg-Sc-Zr alloy.

  3. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczorowski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening heat treatment. The age hardened specimens were evaluated using tensile test, hardness measurements and impact test. Moreover, the structure investigation were carried out using either conventional light Metallography and scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy. The two last methods were used for fractography observations and precipitation process observations respectively. It was concluded that the changes in chemical composition which can reach even 2,5wt.% cause essential differences of the structure and mechanical properties of the alloys. As followed from quantitative evaluation and as could be predicted theoretically, copper and silicon mostly influenced the mechanical properties of AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys. Moreover it was showed that the total concentration of alloying elements accelerated and intensifies the process of decomposition of supersaturated solid solution. The increase of Cu and Mg concentration increased the density of precipitates. It increases of strength properties of the alloys which are accompanied with decreasing in ductility.

  4. Effect of composition on the high rate dynamic behaviour of tungsten heavy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Kesemen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten heavy alloys are currently used as kinetic energy penetrators in military applications due to their high density and superior mechanical properties. In the literature, quasi-static properties of different tungsten heavy alloys based on W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe ternary systems are well documented and presented. However, comparison of the dynamic behaviour of these alloys in terms of the correlation between quasi-static mechanical characterization and dynamical properties is lacking. In the present study, dynamic properties of tungsten heavy alloys having different binder phase compositions (90W-7Ni-3Cu and 90W-8Ni-2Fe at different projectile velocities were investigated. The examined and tested alloys were produced through the conventional powder metallurgy route of mixing, cold compaction and sintering. Mechanical characterization of these alloys was performed. In the ballistic tests, cylindrical tungsten heavy alloys with L/D ratio of 3 were impacted to hardened steel target at different projectile velocities. After the ballistic tests, deformation characteristics of test specimens during dynamic loading were evaluated by comparing the change of length and diameter of the specimens versus kinetic energy densities. The study concluded that 90W-8Ni-2Fe alloy has better perforation characteristics than 90W-7Ni-3Cu alloy.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Investigation of the Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nickel-Base Alloys, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this program is to evaluate the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility of high chromium alloy 690 and its weld metals, establish quantitative measurements of crack-growth rates and determine relationships among cracking susceptibility, environmental conditions and metallurgical characteristics. Stress-corrosion, crack-growth rates have been determined for 12 alloy 690 specimens, 11 alloy 152/52/52M weld metal specimens, 4 alloy 52M/182 overlay specimens and 2 alloy 52M/82 inlay specimens in simulated PWR primary water environments. The alloy 690 test materials included three different heats of extruded control-rod-drive mechanism (CRDM) tubing with variations in the initial material condition and degree of cold work for one heat. Two cold-rolled (CR) alloy 690 plate heats were also obtained and evaluated enabling comparisons to the CR CRDM materials. Weld metal, overlay and inlay specimens were machined from industry mock ups to provide plant-representative materials for testing. Specimens have been tested for one alloy 152 weld, two alloy 52 welds and three alloy 52M welds. The overlay and inlay specimens were prepared to propagate stress-corrosion cracks from the alloy 182 or 82 material into the more resistant alloy 52M. In all cases, crack extension was monitored in situ by direct current potential drop (DCPD) with length resolution of about +1 µm making it possible to measure extremely low growth rates approaching 5x10-10 mm/s. Most SCC tests were performed at 325-360°C with hydrogen concentrations from 11-29 cc/kg; however, environmental conditions were modified during a few experiments to evaluate the influence of temperature, water chemistry or electrochemical potential on propagation rates. In addition, low-temperature (~50°C) cracking behavior was examined for selected alloy 690 and weld metal specimens. Extensive characterizations have been performed on material microstructures and stress-corrosion cracks by

  6. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn CL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  7. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  8. SQA specimen paper 2013, national 5, French

    CERN Document Server

    SQA

    2013-01-01

    Practise for your exam on the offical National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Plus each book includes additional model papers and extra revision guidance, making them an essential purchase for any student.; Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners.; Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections.; Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips

  9. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed...... and constraint conditionsquantified. The role of the notch shape is comprehensively examined from both triaxiality and notchfabrication perspectives. Afterwards, a methodology is presented to extract the micromechanical-basedductile damage parameters from the load-displacement curve of notched SPT samples...

  10. Grindability of cast Ti-Hf alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Sato, Hideki; Okuno, Osamu; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru

    2006-04-01

    As part of our systematic studies characterizing the properties of titanium alloys, we investigated the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Hf alloys. Alloy buttons with hafnium concentrations up to 40 mass% were made using an argon-arc melting furnace. Each button was cast into a magnesia-based mold using a dental titanium casting machine; three specimens were made for each metal. Prior to testing, the hardened surface layer was removed. The specimens were ground at five different speeds for 1 min at 0.98 N using a carborundum wheel on an electric dental handpiece. Grindability was evaluated as the volume of metal removed per minute (grinding rate) and the volume ratio of metal removed compared to the wheel material lost (grinding ratio). The data were analyzed using ANOVA. A trend of increasing grindability was found with increasing amounts of hafnium, although there was no statistical difference in the grindability with increasing hafnium contents. We also found that hafnium may be used to harden or strengthen titanium without deteriorating the grindability.

  11. Properties of splat-quenched 7075 aluminum type alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J. P. H. A.; Pelloux, R. M.; Grant, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The 7075 alloy belonging to the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, prepared by powder metallurgy techniques, was used in a study of alloys prepared from splat-quenched foils consolidated into bar material by hot extrusion. Ni and Fe were included in one alloy specimen, producing a fine dispersion of FeAl3 type particles which added to the strength of the aged alloy but did not coarsen upon heat treatment. Fine oxide films showing up on air-splatted foils induce finely dispersed oxide stringers (if the foils are not hot-worked subsequently) which in turn promote axial cracking (but longitudinal tensile strength is not seriously impaired). Splatting in a protective atmosphere, or thermomechanical processing, is recommended to compensate for this.

  12. Fatigue behaviour of high strength AA 7012 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Russo, E.; Ragazzini, R.; Buratti, M.; Ferrarin, C. (Aluminia-ISML, Novara (Italy) Caproni Vizzola costruzioni aeronautiche, Somma Lombarda (Italy))

    1990-02-01

    The alloy 7012 (Al, 6.2% Zn, 2% Mg, 1% Cn, 0.13% Mn, 0.14% Zn, 0.04% Ti) belongs to the 7XXX family of high mechanical resistance alloys containing Zr as the principal additive. Produced in the form of extrusions, sheets and forgings, the alloy finds application in the defense, transportation and power industry fields. This paper presents the results of experimental fatigue tests (10/sup 7/ cycles) on 7020 in the T6 and T73 temper conditions and draws comparisons with corresponding test results on 7075 and 2024 type alloys. A comparative analysis of S-N curves obtained from plane bending and axial fatigue tests on smooth and notched specimens evidences the superior performance of 7020 in terms of higher strength and corrosion cracking resistance.

  13. Thermal Oxidation Behavior of TiNi Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The thermal oxidation behavior of a near equi-atomic TiNi shape memory alloy was studied by the measurement of the weight-gain of specimens in oxidation and the analysis of the oxide films with Auger Electron Spectrometry. It is found that the oxidation kinetics of the alloy follows logarithmic rate law at both 400℃ and 500℃, while it follows a near parabolic oxidation law at 600℃. All the oxide films formed on TiNi alloy are primarily titanium dioxide independent of the exposure temperature and time. It is shown from the experimental results that shape memory treatment of the alloy at around 500℃ normally results in the formation of a thin oxide film within a 300 nm thickness, which is effective in screening the nickel content of the bulk material from direct contact with the environment.

  14. The Assessment of Modification of High-Zinc Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyska A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the influence of titanium-boron inoculant on the solidification, the microstructure, and the mechanical properties of AlZn20 alloy are presented. The examinations were carried out for specimens cast both of the non-modified and the inoculated alloy. There were assessed changes in the alloy overcooling during the first stage of solidification due to the nuclei-forming influence of the inoculant. The results of quantitative metallographic measurements concerning the refinement of the grain structure of casting produced in sand moulds are presented. The cooling rate sensitivity of the alloy was proved by revealing changes in morphology of the α-phase primary crystals. Differences in mechanical properties resulting from the applied casting method and optional inoculation were evaluated.

  15. Dynamic weakening of fault gouge affected by thermal conductivity of host specimen: implications for the high-velocity weakening mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Niemeijer, André

    2015-04-01

    Since many high-velocity weakening mechanisms are thermal in origin, we study the effects of thermal conductivity of host specimen on fault gouge friction behavior at seismic slip rates. By using host specimens made of brass, stainless steel, Ti-Al-V alloy and gabbro with thermal conductivities of 123, 15, 5.8 and 3.25 W/m/K, respectively, the experiments in this study produce completely different temperature conditions within the same gouge under the same slip rates and normal stresses. Fault gouges used in the experiments are a natural illite- and quartz-rich gouge from Longmenshan fault zone and pure periclase (MgO) nanopowder. High-velocity weakening of gouges were more pronounced with decreasing thermal conductivity of the specimens. Particularly, almost no dynamic weakening was observed in the tests performed with brass host specimens, while tests with specimens of gabbro and Ti-Al-V alloy exhibits quite similar dramatic weakening behaviors. Such differences in gouge frictional behavior cannot be explained by original flash heating model, since asperity contacts within the slip zone and experimental conditions are still same, even though host specimens are different. Microstructure observations under scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal that slip zone materials tend to change from individual ultrafine nanograins to larger sintered grains or aggregates, with decreasing thermal conductivities of host specimens. Calculated temperature together with observed microstructure indicate that bulk temperature rise may be also play an important role in fault weakening, as predicted by a recent theoretical analysis of the role of flash heating within the gouge zone [Proctor et al., 2014]. Current results demonstrate the importance of frictional heating in causing the dynamic weakening of gouge, and the powder lubrication hypothesis is not consistent with our experimental data.

  16. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  17. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  18. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  19. 42 CFR 493.1232 - Standard: Specimen identification and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Specimen identification and integrity... Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1232 Standard: Specimen identification and integrity. The... optimum integrity of a patient's specimen from the time of collection or receipt of the specimen through...

  20. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.