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Sample records for fe-doped zno nanocrystals

  1. Structural, optical and electronic properties of Fe doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karmvir; Devi, Vanita; Dhar, Rakesh; Mohan, Devendra

    2015-09-01

    Fe doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique on quartz substrate to study structural, optical and electronic structure using XRD, AFM, UV-visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. XRD study reveals that Fe doping has considerable effect on stress, strain, grain size and crystallinity of thin films. UV-visible study determines that band gap of pristine ZnO decreases with Fe doping, which can be directly correlated to transition tail width and grain size. Change in electronic structure with Fe doping has been examined by XAS study.

  2. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced spin relaxation in Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovhal, Manoj M.; Santhosh Kumar, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Khullar, Prerna [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Abhyankar, A.C., E-mail: ashutoshabhyankar@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method is utilized to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature and the effect of Iron (Fe) doping on structural, optical and spin relaxation properties also presented. As-synthesized pure and Fe doped ZnO NPs possess a perfect hexagonal growth habit of wurtzite zinc oxide, along the (101) direction of preference. With Fe doping, ‘c/a’ ratio and compressive lattice strain in ZnO NPs are found to reduce and increase, respectively. Raman studies demonstrate that the E{sub 1} longitudinal optical (LO) vibrational mode is very weak in pure which remarkably enhanced with Fe doping into ZnO NPs. The direct band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the ZnO NPs has been increased from 3.02 eV to 3.11 eV with Fe doping. A slight red-shift observed with strong green emission band, in photoluminescence spectra, is strongly quenched in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals spherical shape of ZnO NPs with 60–70 nm, which reduces substantially on Fe doping. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and elemental mapping confirms the homogeneous distribution of Fe in ZnO NPs. Moreover, the specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been measured using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. Further, the correlation of structural, optical and dynamic properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Pure ZnO and Fe doped ZnO NPs were successfully prepared by cost effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method. • The optical band gap of ZnO has been enhanced form 3.02–3.11 eV with Fe doping. • PL quenching behaviour has been observed with Fe{sup 3+} ions substitution in ZnO lattice. • Specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been varied with Fe doping and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs.

  3. Preparation and characterization of ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO films by sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Wang,Jiangang; Ma, Jing; Hu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO thin films are prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel method, and the surface morphology, structure and optical property are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that both films have a smooth surface and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with orienting along the (101) plane. Compared with the ZnO film, the surface of Fe-doped ZnO film becomes smoother, and its...

  4. First principles study of magneto-optical properties of Fe-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoqiang, Guo; Qingyu, Hou; Zhenchao, Xu; Chunwang, Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Studies on optical band gaps and absorption spectra of Fe-doped ZnO have conflicting conclusions, such as contradictory redshifted and blueshifted spectra. To solve this contradiction, we constructed models of un-doped and Fe-doped ZnO using first-principles theory and optimized the geometry of the three models. Electronic structures and absorption spectra were also calculated using the GGA+U method. Higher doping content of Fe resulted in larger volume of doped system, and higher total energy resulted in lower stability. Higher formation energy also led to more difficult doping. Meanwhile, the band gaps broadened and the absorption spectra exhibited an evident blue shift. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Given the unipolar structure of ZnO, four possible magnetic coupling configurations for Zn14Fe2O16 were calculated to investigate the magnetic properties. Results suggest that Fe doping can improve ferromagnetism in the ZnO system and that ferromagnetic stabilization was mediated by p-d exchange interaction between Fe-3d and O-2p orbitals. Therefore, the doped system is expected to obtain high stability and high Curie temperature of diluted magnetic semiconductor material, which are useful as theoretical bases for the design and preparation of the Fe-doped ZnO system's magneto-optical properties.

  5. Synthesis of Fe Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays that Detect Formaldehyde Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yoo Sang; Seo, Hyo Won; Kim, Su Hyo; Kim, Young Keun

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their chemical and thermal stability and doping effects on providing electrons to the conduction band, doped ZnO nanowires have generated interest for use in electronic devices. Here we report hydrothermally grown Fe-doped ZnO nanowires and their gas-sensing properties. The synthesized nanowires have a high crystallinity and are 60 nm in diameter and 1.7 μm in length. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to understand the doping effects on the microstructures and gas sensing properties. When the Fe-doped ZnO nanowire arrays were evaluated for gas sensing, responses were recorded through changes in temperature and gas concentration. Gas sensors consisting of ZnO nanowires doped with 3-5 at.% Fe showed optimum formaldehyde (HCHO) sensing performance at each working temperature.

  6. Raman scattering and photoluminescence of Fe-doped ZnO nanocantilever arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; ZHOU ShaoMin; WANG HaiWei; DU ZuLiang

    2008-01-01

    Single crystalline Fe-doped ZnO nanocantilever arrays have been synthesized by thermal evaporating amorphous Zn-Fe-C-O composite powder. The characterizations of composition, structure and phonon spectrum properties of the nanocantilevers have been performed. Arrays of uniform, perfectly aligned and single-crystal nanowires have been observed by electron microscopy. The results of the X-ray photo-electric spectra and the Raman spectrum provide the evidence that Fe is incorporated into the ZnO lattice at Zn site. Abnormally, the room temperature UV emission band of Fe-doped ZnO nanocantilevers disappears and the green one has a large red-shift, and the intensity of the green emission is strongly quenched because the Fe3+ enters the ZnO crystal lattice.

  7. Ferromagnetic behaviour of Fe-doped ZnO nanograined films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B. Straumal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the grain boundary (GB specific area sGB on the appearance of ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO has been analysed. A review of numerous research contributions from the literature on the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of Fe-doped ZnO is given. An empirical correlation has been found that the value of the specific grain boundary area sGB is the main factor controlling such behaviour. The Fe-doped ZnO becomes ferromagnetic only if it contains enough GBs, i.e., if sGB is higher than a certain threshold value sth = 5 × 104 m2/m3. It corresponds to the effective grain size of about 40 μm assuming a full, dense material and equiaxial grains. Magnetic properties of ZnO dense nanograined thin films doped with iron (0 to 40 atom % have been investigated. The films were deposited by using the wet chemistry “liquid ceramics” method. The samples demonstrate ferromagnetic behaviour with Js up to 0.10 emu/g (0.025 μB/f.u.ZnO and coercivity Hc ≈ 0.03 T. Saturation magnetisation depends nonmonotonically on the Fe concentration. The dependence on Fe content can be explained by the changes in the structure and contiguity of a ferromagnetic “grain boundary foam” responsible for the magnetic properties of pure and doped ZnO.

  8. Ferromagnetic behaviour of Fe-doped ZnO nanograined films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumal, Boris B; Protasova, Svetlana G; Mazilkin, Andrei A; Tietze, Thomas; Goering, Eberhard; Schütz, Gisela; Straumal, Petr B; Baretzky, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the grain boundary (GB) specific area s GB on the appearance of ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO has been analysed. A review of numerous research contributions from the literature on the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of Fe-doped ZnO is given. An empirical correlation has been found that the value of the specific grain boundary area s GB is the main factor controlling such behaviour. The Fe-doped ZnO becomes ferromagnetic only if it contains enough GBs, i.e., if s GB is higher than a certain threshold value s th = 5 × 10(4) m(2)/m(3). It corresponds to the effective grain size of about 40 μm assuming a full, dense material and equiaxial grains. Magnetic properties of ZnO dense nanograined thin films doped with iron (0 to 40 atom %) have been investigated. The films were deposited by using the wet chemistry "liquid ceramics" method. The samples demonstrate ferromagnetic behaviour with J s up to 0.10 emu/g (0.025 μB/f.u.ZnO) and coercivity H c ≈ 0.03 T. Saturation magnetisation depends nonmonotonically on the Fe concentration. The dependence on Fe content can be explained by the changes in the structure and contiguity of a ferromagnetic "grain boundary foam" responsible for the magnetic properties of pure and doped ZnO.

  9. First-Principles Study of Fe-Doped ZnO Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富春; 张威虎; 董军堂; 张志勇

    2011-01-01

    Using Srst-principles theory, we predict magnetic, electronic and optical properties in Fe-doped ZnO nanowires. The results show that ferromagnetic (FM) coupling of configuration V is the most stable, and the strong hybridization effect between FeZd and O2p states is found near the Fermi level, and it is obvious that the ferromagnetic system is electron-spin polarization of 100% and half-metallic. Given antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling, the system generates small spin polarization near the Fermi level, indicating metalh'city. The magnetic moments mainly arise from FeZd orbitals. In addition, the results of optical properties show that the Fe-doped ZnO nanowires have apparent absorption peaks in the ultraviolet band and that there is a small red shift and a strong blue shift in the near and far ultraviolet band, indicating that Fe-doped ZnO nanowires are a type of magneto-optical materials with great promise.%Using first-principles theory,we predict magnetic,electronic and optical properties in Fe-doped ZnO nanowires.The results show that ferromagnetic(FM)coupling of configuration V is the most stable,and the strong hybridization effect between Fe3d and O2p states is found near the Fermi level,and it is obvious that the ferromagnetic system is electron-spin polarization of 100% and half-metallic.Given antiferromagnetic(AFM)coupling,the system generates small spin polarization near the Fermi level,indicating metallicity.The magnetic moments mainly arise from Fe3d orbitals.In addition,the results of optical properties show that the Fe-doped ZnO nanowires have apparent absorption peaks in the ultraviolet band and that there is a small red shift and a strong blue shift in the near and far ultraviolet band,indicating that Fe-doped ZnO nanowires are a type of magneto-optical materials with great promise.

  10. First principles study of magneto-optical properties of Fe-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoqiang, Guo [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Qingyu, Hou, E-mail: by0501119@126.com [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Zhenchao, Xu [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Chunwang, Zhao [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Studies on optical band gaps and absorption spectra of Fe-doped ZnO have conflicting conclusions, such as contradictory redshifted and blueshifted spectra. To solve this contradiction, we constructed models of un-doped and Fe-doped ZnO using first-principles theory and optimized the geometry of the three models. Electronic structures and absorption spectra were also calculated using the GGA+U method. Higher doping content of Fe resulted in larger volume of doped system, and higher total energy resulted in lower stability. Higher formation energy also led to more difficult doping. Meanwhile, the band gaps broadened and the absorption spectra exhibited an evident blue shift. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Given the unipolar structure of ZnO, four possible magnetic coupling configurations for Zn{sub 14}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 16} were calculated to investigate the magnetic properties. Results suggest that Fe doping can improve ferromagnetism in the ZnO system and that ferromagnetic stabilization was mediated by p–d exchange interaction between Fe-3d and O-2p orbitals. Therefore, the doped system is expected to obtain high stability and high Curie temperature of diluted magnetic semiconductor material, which are useful as theoretical bases for the design and preparation of the Fe-doped ZnO system’s magneto-optical properties. - Highlights: • A biomonitoring tool for the freshwater zone of template estuaries. • Water quality characterization related to nutrients and organic matter enrichment. • The percentage of a group of 24 tolerant species were capable of detecting the impairment of the water quality. • Characterization of morpho-functional traits of the selected tolerant species.

  11. Evidence of a cluster glass-like behavior in Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. E.; Montero-Muñoz, M.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Rodríguez-Páez, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the study of the structural and magnetic properties of crystalline Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles with Fe content up to 10% synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The Rietveld analysis indicates that the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles are formed in a single phase wurtzite structure. DC magnetization (M) vs. applied magnetic field (H) curves obtained at 5 K show the occurrence of a ferromagnetic behavior. The coercive field and saturation magnetization depend on the Fe content. At room temperature, M vs. H curves show features consistent with a superparamagnetic state of nanoscale system. The temperature dependence of the AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities show features related to the thermal relaxation of the nano-sized particles. From the AC data analysis, a magnetic transition from the superparamagnetic to cluster-glass state is determined.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ball milled Fe-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Elilarassi; G. Chandrasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Fe-doped ZnO (Zn0.99Fe0.01O) powders are successfully prepared by ball milling with different milling time,and are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscope (SEM),ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy,vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.The structural analysis using XRD reveals that the Fe-doped ZnO milled at different milling time can crystallize in a wurtzite structure,and in the XRD patterns,the secondary phase related to Fe cluster with the sensitivity of the XRD instrument can not be found.The SEM image of the sample milled for 24 h shows the presence of spherical nanoparticles.From the optical analysis,the optical band gap is found to decrease with increasing the milling time,which indicates the incorporation of Fe2+ ions into the ZnO lattice.The magnetization measurement using VSM reveals that the nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature,and the magnetization increases gradually with increasing the milling time.The conclusion is further confirmed by the electron paramagnetic resonance of the nanoparticles examined at room temperature,which shows an intense and broad ferromagnetic resonance signal related to Fe ions.

  13. Photocatalytic, optical and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Khanesh; Chitkara, Mansi; Sandhu, Inderjit Singh [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory (NRL), Department of Applied Sciences, Chitkara University, Rajpura 140401, Punjab (India); Mehta, D. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kumar, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevkumar@chitkara.edu.in [Department of Physics, G.G.D.S.D. College, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O nanoparticles are synthesized using bottom-up wet chemical precipitation technique. • Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue dye. • Specific magnetization values of the synthesized materials are found to depend on Fe concentration. -- Abstract: Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) capped Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O (0.000001 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.1) nanocrystalline powders were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural, optical and magnetic characterizations of the annealed samples were performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence (PL) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. XRD and TEM studies reveal that the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals have hexagonal wurtzite structure with average crystalline size ∼8–15 nm. EDXRF and FTIR measurements confirmed the doping and incorporation of Fe impurities in ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized samples was determined by degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in aqueous solution under UV/sunlight exposure. The dependence of photocatalytic behavior and luminescence efficiency on the dopant concentration was studied in detail. Magnetic measurements performed at room temperature show that pure ZnO exhibits diamagnetic behavior, ferromagnetic order was clearly observed at minute concentration of Fe impurity (at 0.000010%) and large concentration of dopant (at 10%) leads to strong paramagnetic component in all the Fe-doped ZnO samples.

  14. Doping concentration driven morphological evolution of Fe doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, A.; Kumar, Y.; Agarwal, V.; Olive-Méndez, S. F.; Goswami, N.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, systematic study of structural, vibrational, and optical properties of undoped and 1-10 at.% Fe doped ZnO nanostructures, synthesized adopting chemical precipitation route, has been reported. Prepared nanostructures were characterized employing an assortment of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With Fe incorporation, a gradual morphological transformation of nanostructures is demonstrated vividly through SEM/TEM characterizations. Interestingly, the morphology of nanostructures evolves with 1-10 at. % Fe doping concentration in ZnO. Nanoparticles obtained with 1 at. % Fe evolve to nanorods for 3 at. % Fe; nanorods transform to nanocones (for 5 at. % and 7 at. % Fe) and finally nanocones transform to nanoflakes at 10 at. % Fe. However, at all these stages, concurrence of primary hexagonal phase of Zn1-xFexO along with the secondary phases of cubic ZnFe2O4 and rhombohedric Fe2O3, is revealed through XRD analysis. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of nanostructures was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered. Furthermore, vibrational properties analyzed through Raman and FTIR spectroscopies unravel the intricacies of formation and gradual enhancement of secondary phases with increased Fe concentration. UV-visible and PL spectroscopic analyses provided further insight of optical processes altering with Fe incorporation. The blue shift and gradual quenching of visible photoluminescence with Fe doping was found in accordance with structural and vibrational analyses and explicated accordingly.

  15. Doping concentration driven morphological evolution of Fe doped ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, A.; Goswami, N., E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307 (India); Kumar, Y.; Agarwal, V. [CIICAp-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, Cuernavaca 62209 (Mexico); Olive-Méndez, S. F. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-10-28

    In this paper, systematic study of structural, vibrational, and optical properties of undoped and 1-10 at.% Fe doped ZnO nanostructures, synthesized adopting chemical precipitation route, has been reported. Prepared nanostructures were characterized employing an assortment of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With Fe incorporation, a gradual morphological transformation of nanostructures is demonstrated vividly through SEM/TEM characterizations. Interestingly, the morphology of nanostructures evolves with 1–10 at. % Fe doping concentration in ZnO. Nanoparticles obtained with 1 at. % Fe evolve to nanorods for 3 at. % Fe; nanorods transform to nanocones (for 5 at. % and 7 at. % Fe) and finally nanocones transform to nanoflakes at 10 at. % Fe. However, at all these stages, concurrence of primary hexagonal phase of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O along with the secondary phases of cubic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and rhombohedric Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is revealed through XRD analysis. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of nanostructures was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered. Furthermore, vibrational properties analyzed through Raman and FTIR spectroscopies unravel the intricacies of formation and gradual enhancement of secondary phases with increased Fe concentration. UV-visible and PL spectroscopic analyses provided further insight of optical processes altering with Fe incorporation. The blue shift and gradual quenching of visible photoluminescence with Fe doping was found in accordance with structural and vibrational analyses and explicated accordingly.

  16. Fe-doped ZnO Supported with Montmorillonite: Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M. I.; Afifah, N.; Saleh, R.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, Fe-doped ZnO/MMT has been prepared by using co-precipitation method with the various amount of MMT (10, 20, 30, and 40 wt%). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The crystallite structure of ZnO did not change with the additional of dopant and MMT. The presence of MMT could be confirmed by using FTIR, which showed the bending vibration and stretching vibration of Si-O-Al and Si-O-Si. The degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange were examined by using montmorillonite (MMT) modified Fe-doped ZnO catalyst in photocatalytic process under UV light irradiation. The photocatalytic results indicated that certain amount of MMT could increase photocatalytic performance in degrading methylene blue and methyl orange. Methylene blue degradation increased with the increasing of pH value while the opposite trend occurred for methyl orange degradation.

  17. Investigation on structural and electrical properties of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Mast; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat; Kumar, Arun; Negi, N. S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, nanoparticles of Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) [Zn1-xFexO where x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05] were prepared by cost effective solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffractometry confirms the formation of single phase wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the micrsostructure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The DC electrical conductivity was found to increase with temperature and measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-473K. DC electrical conductivity increases with temperature and decreases with Fe doping concentration.

  18. Optical and sensing properties of Fe doped ZnO nanocrystalline thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla R.K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoped and Fe doped ZnO films of different molarities deposited by spray pyrolysis method using zinc nitrate and ferric chloride as precursors show polycrystalline nature and hexagonal wurtzite structure. Crystallite size decreases with an increase in dopant concentration from 0 at.% to 3 at.%. Doping improves the transmission of the films whereas it reduces the optical band gap of ZnO from 3.28 eV to 3.17 eV. The morphology resembles flake-like structures which collapse when the dopant is introduced. The samples are found to be sensitive to CO2 gas. Undoped ZnO shows maximum sensitivity at 350 °C for higher concentration of CO2. Doped samples show maximum sensitivity at 200 °C for all CO2 concentrations i.e. from 500 ppm to 4000 ppm. Maximum sensitivity is achieved at temperatures 350 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 450 °C for the samples prepared using precursor solution of 0.1 M molarity.

  19. Structural, elemental, optical and magnetic study of Fe doped ZnO and impurity phase formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Karamat; R.S. Rawat; P. Lee; T.L. Tan; R.V. Ramanujan

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a series of (ZnO)1-x(Fe2O3)x r 0.10 bulk samples with various concentrations of Fe dopant by ball milling and investigated their structural, compositional, optical and magnetic properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. Information about different impurity phases was obtained through Rietveld refinements of XRD data analysis. XPS results showed different valence states (Fe2 þ and Fe3 þ ) supported by shaking satellite peaks in samples. With increasing Fe doping percentage, the crystal quality deteriorated and a shift of E2 low band (characteristic of ZnO) has been observed in Raman spectra. Energy band gap estimated from reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy showed shift for all bulk samples. The magnetic behavior was examined using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), indicating ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature (300 K). The effective magnetic moment per Fe atom decreases with increase in doping percentage which indicates that ferromagnetic behavior arises from the substitution of Fe ions in the ZnO lattice.

  20. ZnO tetrapod nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus C. Newton

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO has received considerable attention because of its unique optical, piezoelectric, and magnetic properties. It also readily self-assembles into a family of nanocrystalline structures. We review the current status of research into ZnO tetrapod nanocrystals. These crystals consist of a ZnO core in the zinc blende structure from which four ZnO arms in the wurtzite structure radiate. The arms are cylinders of hexagonal cross section, with each arm of equal length and diameter. Possible applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, and piezoelectricity are discussed.

  1. Effect of Fe-doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, M.; Saravanan, S.; Soga, T.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of Fe-doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by simple solution combustion process are reported. The powder XRD pattern indicates that the Fe-doped ZnO samples exhibit primary and secondary phases. The primary phase indicates the hexagonal wurtzite structure with the average crystalline size of around 25-50 nm and the secondary phase is associated with the face centered cubic structure of magnetite iron oxide. The elemental composition of pure and Fe-doped samples are evaluvated by EDX. The results of FE-SEM and HR-TEM cleary show that particles morphology have changed with respect to the incorporation of doping agent and particles are in aggregating nature. The vibrational properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles are investigated by Raman scattering technique and it exhibits that the influence of Fe-doping significantly modify the lattice vibrational characteristics in ZnO sites. The optical properties of the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles are carried out by UV-vis absorption and PL spectra. The results of PL spectra show the near-band edge related emission as well as strong blue emissions in the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  2. Electrical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties of Fe-doped ZnO nanomaterials synthesized by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Cherif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol gel technique. Fine-scale and single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples were confirmed by SEM and XRD, respectively. The band gap energy depends on the amount of Fe and was found to be in the range of 3.11–2.53 eV. The electric and dielectric properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. AC conductivity data were correlated with the barrier hopping (CBH model to evaluate the binding energy (Wm, the minimum hopping distance (Rmin and the density of states at Fermi level, N(EF. Fe doping in ZnO also improved the photocatalytic activity. Thus, the sample Zn0.95Fe0.05O showed high degradation potential towards methylene blue (MB, i.e. it degrades 90% of BM in 90 min under UV light.

  3. Effect of Al and Fe doping in ZnO on magnetic and magneto-transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: skphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, College of Commerce, Arts & Science, Patna 800020, Bihar (India); Deepika [Department of Physics, College of Commerce, Arts & Science, Patna 800020, Bihar (India); Tripathi, Malvika [UGC DAE, Consortium for scientific research, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Vaibhav, Pratyush [Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Guna 473226, Madhya Pradesh (India); Kumar, Aman [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Kumar, Ritesh [Department of Physics, College of Commerce, Arts & Science, Patna 800020, Bihar (India); Choudhary, R.J., E-mail: ram@csr.res.in [UGC DAE, Consortium for scientific research, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Phase, D.M. [UGC DAE, Consortium for scientific research, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-12-01

    The structural, magnetic and magneto-transport of undoped ZnO, Zn{sub 0.97}Al{sub 0.03}O, Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O and Zn{sub 0.92}Al{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 0.05}O thin films grown on Si(100) substrate using pulsed laser deposition were investigated. The single phase nature of the films is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The possibility of Fe metal cluster in Fe doped/co-doped films is ruled out by Fe 2p core level photoelectron spectra. From O 1s core level spectra it is observed that oxygen vacancy is present in all the films. The undoped ZnO film shows magnetic ordering below ∼175 K, whereas Fe doped/codoped samples show magnetic ordering even at 300 K. The Al doped sample reveals paramagnetic behavior. The magneto-transport measurements suggest that the mobile carriers undergo exchange interaction with local magnetic moments. - Highlights: • Al, Fe, Al–Fe co-doped and undoped films of ZnO are deposited on Si by PLD. • Single phase (002) oriented Wurtzite ZnO phase is formed for all films. • Fe doped and Fe–Al co-doped ZnO films reveal magnetic hysteresis at 300 K. • Negative magnetoresistance is observed in undoped and Fe–Al co-doped ZnO film. • It is apparent that charge carriers are coupled with the local magnetic moment.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Lu, Chunxiao; Tang, Liang; Song, Yahui; Wei, Shengnan; Rong, Yang; Zhang, Zhaohong; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites were prepared by the sol-gel method. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Photo-degradation of azo fuchsine (AF) as a model dye under solar light irradiation was studied to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Co- and Fe-doped ZnO composites can be obviously enhanced by upconversion luminescence agent (Er3+: YAlO3). Besides, the photocatalytic activity of Er3+: YAlO3/Fe-doped ZnO is better than that of Er3+: YAlO3/Co-doped ZnO. The influence of experiment conditions, such as the concentration of Er3+: YAlO3, heat-treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites was studied. In addition, the effects of solar light irradiation time, dye initial concentration, Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO amount on the photocatalytic degradation of azo fuchsine in aqueous solution were investigated in detail. Simultaneously, some other organic dyes, such as Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RM-B), Acid Red B (AR-B), Congo Red (CR), and Methyl Blue (MB) were also studied. The possible excitation principle of Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar light irradiation and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of organic dyes were discussed.

  5. Optical and Magnetic Properties of Fe Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrothermal Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn1-xFexO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (x=0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Raman scattering spectra (Raman, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The experiment results show that all samples synthesized by this method possess hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with good crystallization, no other impurity phases are observed, and the morphology of the sample shows the presence of ellipsoidal nanoparticles. All the Fe3+ successfully substituted for the lattice site of Zn2+ and generates single-phase Zn1-xFexO. Raman spectra shows that the peak shifts to higher frequency. PL spectra exhibit a slight blue shift and the UV emission is annihilated with the increase of Fe3+ concentration. Magnetic measurements indicated that Fe-doped ZnO samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and the saturation magnetization is enhanced with the increase of iron doping content.

  6. Synthesis of Fe-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Rapid Mixing Hydrothermal Method and Its Application for High Performance UV Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Oeurn Chey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully synthesized Fe-doped ZnO nanorods by a new and simple method in which the adopted approach is by using ammonia as a continuous source of OH- for hydrolysis instead of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectra revealed that the Fe peaks were presented in the grown Fe-doped ZnO nanorods samples and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS results suggested that Fe3+ is incorporated into the ZnO lattice. Structural characterization indicated that the Fe-doped ZnO nanorods grow along the c-axis with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have single crystalline nature without any secondary phases or clusters of FeO or Fe3O4 observed in the samples. The Fe-doped ZnO nanorods showed room temperature (300 K ferromagnetic magnetization versus field (M-H hysteresis and the magnetization increases from 2.5 μemu to 9.1 μemu for Zn0.99Fe0.01O and Zn0.95Fe0.05O, respectively. Moreover, the fabricated Au/Fe-doped ZnO Schottky diode based UV photodetector achieved 2.33 A/W of responsivity and 5 s of time response. Compared to other Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky devices, the presented responsivity is an improvement by a factor of 3.9.

  7. The influence of Fe doping on the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Rosari, E-mail: rosari.saleh@ui.ac.id [Departemen Fisika, Fakultas MIPA-Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Prakoso, Suhendro Purbo [Departemen Fisika, Fakultas MIPA-Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Fishli, Adel [PTBIN-BATAN, Kawasan PUSPITEK Serpong (Indonesia)

    2012-03-15

    We report the results of an investigation of Fe-doped nanocrystalline ZnO particles synthesized using the co-precipitation method with doping concentrations from 5 up to 31 at%. To understand how the dopant influenced the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO particles, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and vibrating sample magnetometer were employed. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction, our Fe-doped nanocrystalline ZnO particles are identified as having the wurtzite crystal structure and the unit cell volume increases with increasing doping concentrations. However, impurity phases are observed for Fe contents higher than 21 at%. Sample structures were further studied by infrared spectra, from which a broad and strong absorption band in the range of 400-700 cm{sup -1} and -OH stretching vibrational mode at approximately 3400 cm{sup -1} were observed. Ultraviolet-visible measurements showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing Fe content, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. Magnetic measurements showed a ferromagnetic behavior for all samples. ESR results indicate the presence of Fe in both valence states Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Fe content {<=}31 at%) were prepared by co-precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All samples exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetization increased with increasing doping concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESR results indicate the presence of Fe in both valence states Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results are consistent with the result obtained from VSM measurements.

  8. A simple method to obtain Fe-doped CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J.M.A.; Santos, P.E.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Cardoso, L.P. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Quimica, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Meneses, C.T., E-mail: ctmeneses@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Ce{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanocrystals (0Fe-doped samples exhibit a weak ferromagnetism at room temperature, which increases with the increasing of the Fe content. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with spherical-like were synthesized at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples present a ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increasing in the moment has been observed with the increasing of doping.

  9. Effect of Al and Fe doping in ZnO on magnetic and magneto-transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Deepika; Tripathi, Malvika; Vaibhav, Pratyush; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Ritesh; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    The structural, magnetic and magneto-transport of undoped ZnO, Zn0.97Al0.03O, Zn0.95Fe0.05O and Zn0.92Al0.03Fe0.05O thin films grown on Si(100) substrate using pulsed laser deposition were investigated. The single phase nature of the films is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The possibility of Fe metal cluster in Fe doped/co-doped films is ruled out by Fe 2p core level photoelectron spectra. From O 1s core level spectra it is observed that oxygen vacancy is present in all the films. The undoped ZnO film shows magnetic ordering below ∼175 K, whereas Fe doped/codoped samples show magnetic ordering even at 300 K. The Al doped sample reveals paramagnetic behavior. The magneto-transport measurements suggest that the mobile carriers undergo exchange interaction with local magnetic moments.

  10. Decoloration of organic dyes using zeolites supported Fe-doped ZnO under UV light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M. I.; Afifah, N.; Saleh, R.

    2017-07-01

    Various weight percentages of natural zeolite (10 % - 40 %) had been coupled into Fe-doped ZnO (Fe:ZnO) nanoparticles using the co-precipitation method. The photocatalytic acivity of Fe:ZnO/Zeolites nanocomposites was monitored under UV light irradiation in decoloring methylene blue and methyl orange. The result shows that certain amount of natural zeolite in Fe:ZnO could increase the photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites. The synthesized samples were characterized using some measurements such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emment-Tellet (BET) surface area analysis. The FTIR spectra of the samples show the existance of zeolites in the samples. XRD patterns show that no crystal structure changes in ZnO after doping with Fe and supported with zeolites.

  11. Spectrophotometric studies of visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgari, Zohreh; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Khosravi, Alireza; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO(2) nanocrystals (Pc/Fe-TiO(2)) with different Fe doping content (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 3.0 mol% Fe) as photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange have been reported. The study carried out using XRD, FT-IR, EDX, BET, DRS, UV-Vis, SEM and TEM techniques. Results revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals possessed only the anatase phase with crystal sizes of about 10-23 nm and high surface areas of 2.8-37.3 m(2)/g. It can be seen phthalocyanine and Fe(3+) ion exist in photocatalysts based on analysis of FT-IR and EDX. The doping amount of Fe remarkably affects the activity of modified TiO(2) nanocrystals as catalysts. The 0.5 mol% Fe doping exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in this work. It was found that phthalocyanine and Fe induced a shift in the energy band gap to lower energies, which changes from 3.26 to 2.26 eV for pure TiO(2) and Pc/3% Fe-TiO(2) nanocrystals, respectively. Results of the degradation of methyl orange revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals showed much more photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2) under visible light which makes the applicability of TiO(2) photocatalysts even more versatile.

  12. A Mössbauer and magnetic study of ball milled Fe-doped ZnO Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Ligia E., E-mail: ligia.zamora@correounivalle.edu.co; Paz, J. C.; Piamba, J. F.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcázar, G. A. Pérez [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de física (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO are reported in this study, as obtained by mechanical alloying from elemental powders of ZnO and Fe. The properties of Zn{sub 0.90}Fe{sub 0.10}O samples alloying while varying the milling time (6, 12, 24 and 36 h) are also reported. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that the system presents two structures: the würtzite structure of ZnO and the bcc structure of α-Fe. The Mössbauer spectra show that the samples present three components: a ferromagnetic component, associated with the Fe phase and two paramagnetic components, associated with the Fe atoms, which penetrate inside the ZnO matrix behaving as Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. The milling time contributes to an increase in the paramagnetic sites, and a solubility limit of the Fe atoms in the ZnO lattice was detected. The VSM measurements at room temperature detected ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization of 11 emu/g and a coercive field of 330 Oe for the sample alloyed over 24 h. A similar behavior was shown by the other samples.

  13. Doped Colloidal ZnO Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizheng Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals are promising for a wide range of applications due to the combination of unique multifunctional nature and remarkable solution processability. Doping is an effective approach of enhancing the properties of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals in well-controlled manners. In this paper, we analyzed two synthetic strategies for the doped colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, emphasizing our understanding on the critical factors associated with the high temperature and nonaqueous approach. Latest advances of three topics, bandgap engineering, n-type doping, and dilute magnetic semiconductors related to doped ZnO nanocrystals were discussed to reveal the effects of dopants on the properties of the nanocrystalline materials.

  14. Compressibility and structural behavior of pure and Fe-doped SnO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, F.; Ferrari, S.; Pampillo, L. G.; Saccone, F. D.; Errandonea, D.; Santamaria-Perez, D.; Segura, A.; Vilaplana, R.; Popescu, C.

    2017-02-01

    We have performed high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on nanoparticles of pure tin dioxide (particle size ∼30 nm) and 10 mol % Fe-doped tin dioxide (particle size ∼18 nm). The structural behavior of undoped tin dioxide nanoparticles has been studied up to 32 GPa, while the Fe-doped tin dioxide nanoparticles have been studied only up to 19 GPa. We have found that both samples present at ∼13 GPa a second-order structural phase transition from the ambient pressure tetragonal rutile-type structure (P42/mnm) to an orthorhombic CaCl2-type structure (space group Pnnm). No phase coexistence was observed for this transition. Additionally, pure SnO2 presents a phase transition to a cubic structure at ∼24 GPa. The evolution of the lattice parameters with pressure and the room-temperature equations of state are reported for the different phases. The reported results suggest that the partial substitution of Sn by Fe induces an enhancement of the bulk modulus of SnO2. Results are compared with previous studies on bulk and nanocrystalline SnO2. The effects of pressure on Sn-O bonds are also analyzed.

  15. Disinfection of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli by Solar-Photocatalysis using Fe-doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Sinha, Sayantan; Das, Bhaskar; Jayabalan, R; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Mishra, Amrita; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tripathy, Suraj K

    2017-12-01

    Spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria through water, is a threat to global public health. Here, we report Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Fe/ZnO NPs) based solar-photocatalytic disinfection (PCD) of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli). Fe/ZnO NPs were synthesized by chemical precipitation technique, and when used as photocatalyst for disinfection, proved to be more effective (time for complete disinfection = 90 min) than ZnO (150 min) and TiO2 (180 min). Lipid peroxidation and potassium (K(+)) ion leakage studies indicated compromisation of bacterial cell membrane and electron microscopy and live-dead staining confirmed the detrimental effects on membrane integrity. Investigations indicated that H2O2 was the key species involved in solar-PCD of MDR E. coli by Fe/ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy studies showed that the Fe/ZnO NPs system remained stable during the photocatalytic process. The Fe/ZnO NPs based solar-PCD process proved successful in the disinfection of MDR E. coli in real water samples collected from river, pond and municipal tap. The Fe/ZnO NPs catalyst made from low cost materials and with high efficacy under solar light may have potential for real world applications, to help reduce the spread of resistant bacteria.

  16. Structural, FTIR and photoluminescence studies of Fe doped ZnO nanopowder by co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2014-10-15

    An investigation on Fe-doped ZnO (Zn1-xFexO, x=0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09mM) nanopowder have been synthesized by co-precipitated method annealed at 550°C were reported. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD spectrum shows all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structure. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding are confirmed by FT-IR. The PL spectra of the Zn1-xFexxO systems show that the shift in near band edge (NBE) UV emission from 344.54 to 364.21nm and a shift in green band (GB) emission from 484 to 540nm which conforms the substitution of Fe into the ZnO lattice. UV-Visible measurement showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing Fe content, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. It is also found that these results are in good agreement with other calculated and experimental results.

  17. Surfactant-Free Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fe-Doped ZnO Nanostars as Photocatalyst for Degradation of Tropaeolin O in Water under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz-Lung Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron-doped zinc oxide nanostar was synthesized by the microwave-assisted surfactant-free hydrolysis method. The as-synthesized Fe-doped ZnO nanostars catalyst was fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-DRA. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was investigated for the photocatalytic degradation of Tropaeolin O under visible light irradiation. It is observed that the doping of Fe ions enhances the absorption of the visible light and thus the photocatalytic degradation rate of Tropaeolin O would increase. Despite the Taguchi orthogonal experimental design method, the photocatalytic conversion could be achieved at 99.8% in the Fe-doped ZnO catalyzed photodegradation reaction under the optimal reaction conditions of catalyst loading (30 mg, temperature (60°C, light distance (0 cm, initial pH (pH = 9, and irradiation time (3 h. The Fe-doped ZnO photocatalyst can also be easily recovered and directly reused for eight cycles with over 70% conversion.

  18. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Co and Fe doped ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First-principle ultrasoft pseudo potential approach of the plane wave based on density functional theory has been used for studying the electronic characterization and optical properties of ZnO and Fe, Co doped ZnO. The results show that the doping impurities change the lattice parameters a little, but bring more changes in the electronic structures. The band gaps are broadened by doping. And the Fermi level accesses to the conduction band which will lead the system to show the character of metallic properties. The dielectric function and absorption peaks are identified and the changes compared to pure ZnO are analyzed in detail.

  19. Improved Resistance Switching Stability in Fe-Doped ZnO Thin Films Through Pulsed Magnetic Field Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongtao; Wu, Changjin; Xiahou, Zhao; Jung, Ranju; Li, Ying; Liu, Chunli

    2017-12-01

    Five percent of Fe-doped ZnO (ZnO:Fe) thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by a spin-coating method. The films were annealed without (ZnO:Fe-0T) and with a pulsed magnetic field of 4 T (ZnO:Fe-4TP) to investigate the magnetic annealing effect on the resistance switching (RS) behavior of the Pt/ZnO:Fe/Pt structures. Compared with the ZnO:Fe-0T film, the ZnO:Fe-4TP film showed improved RS performance regarding the stability of the set voltage and the resistance of the high resistance state. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the ZnO:Fe-4TP film contains more uniform grains and a higher density of oxygen vacancies, which promote the easier formation of conducting filaments along similar paths and the stability of switching parameters. These results suggest that external magnetic fields can be used to prepare magnetic oxide thin films with improved resistance switching performance for memory device applications.

  20. UV light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes with Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rosari; Djaja, Nadia Febiana

    2014-10-01

    Iron doped wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. The photocatalytic activities were also evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue under UV irradiation. The effects of various parameters, such as pH, dopant concentrations and photocatalytic dosage, were studied. The ESR results indicate the presence of Fe in both the Fe2+ and Fe3+ valence states. As the dopant concentrations increased, the number of spins due to Fe2+ ions increased and the number of spins due to Fe3+ ions decreased resulting in an increase in magnetization. The catalysts with the highest number of spins due to Fe2+ ions exhibited the optimum photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue. In addition, the role of photoactive species was investigated using a radical scavenger technique. The results indicated that the doping concentration is the most important factor in photocatalytic performance.

  1. Photoluminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lommens, P.; Smet, P.F.; De Mello Donega, C.

    2006-01-01

    We performed photoluminescence experiments on colloidal, Co -doped ZnO nanocrystals in order to study the electronic properties of Co in a ZnO host. Room temperature measurements showed, next to the ZnO exciton and trap emission, an additional emission related to the Co dopant. The spectral posit...

  2. Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals via ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, D.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Hansen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents for the precipit......A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents...

  3. Investigations on the preparation and optical properties of Fe-doped sheet-like ZnO crystal%Fe掺杂片状ZnO晶体的制备及光学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小红; 刘长珍; 孟大维; 谢静; 王君霞

    2011-01-01

    采用均匀沉淀法在常温开放体系下制备了片状ZnO晶体前驱物,经600℃煅烧得到纯ZnO晶体;在此基础上,采用原位掺杂的方法制备了片状掺Fe的ZnO晶体。通过体视显微镜、XRD、UV-Vis吸收和PL研究了Fe掺杂对片状ZnO晶体结构和光学性能的影响。结果显示掺Fe后ZnO晶体仍具有正六边形形貌和纤锌矿结构,其在398nm处的紫外发射峰和458nm处的蓝光发射峰位置保持不变,但晶片直径减小,禁带宽度增大,发光峰强度降低。%Sheet-like ZnO crystal and sheet-like Fe-doped ZnO crystal were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method and in-situ doping method in room temperature under open system,respectively.In order to investigate the influence of Fe-doping to ZnO,we used stereomicroscope,X-ray diffractometer,fluorescence spectroscope and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer to express the structure and optical properties of the samples.The result indicated that pure ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO both have hexagon shape,wurtzite structure and two photoluminescence peaks 398 and 458nm.Besides,Fe-doped ZnO crystal has 97.5% absorption rate of ultraviolet light in the range of 200 to 365nm.What's more,the diameter of the sheet-like Fe-doped ZnO crystal decreased and the energy gap increased compared to pure ZnO crystal.In addition,the lower light emission was observed when doping Fe into ZnO.

  4. Voltammetric Sensor Based on Fe-doped ZnO and TiO2 Nanostructures-modified Carbon-paste Electrode for Determination of Levodopa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaraki Firooz, Azam; Hosseini Nia, Bahram; Beheshtian, Javad; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2017-10-01

    In this study, undoped and 1 wt.% Fe-doped with ZnO, and TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method without using templates. The influence of the Fe dopant on structural, optical and electrochemical response was studied by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electrochemical characterization system. The electrochemical response of the carbon paste electrode modified with synthesized nanostructures (undoped ZnO and TiO2 as well as doped with Fe ions) toward levodopa (L-Dopa) was studied. Cyclic voltammetry using provided modified electrodes showed electro-catalytic properties for electro-oxidation of L-Dopa and a significant reduction was observed in the anodic overvoltage compared to the bare electrode. The results indicated the presence of the sufficient dopants. The best response was obtained in terms of the current enhancement, overvoltage reduction, and reversibility improvement of the L-Dopa oxidation reaction under experimental conditions by the modified electrode with TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Fe ions.

  5. Effect of Fe doping on the microstructure and electrical properties of transparent ZnO nanocrystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Young, S.L., E-mail: slyoung@mail.hust.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung 41280, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kung, C.Y., E-mail: cykung@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jhang, M.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, C.H. [Department and Graduate School of Electrical Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung 41280, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, M.C.; Chen, H.Z. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung 41280, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ou, C.R.; Cheng, C.C.; Lin, H.H. [Department and Graduate School of Electrical Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung 41280, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    The transparent ZnO and Zn{sub 0.96}Fe{sub 0.04}O nanocrystalline films were deposited on the glass substrates by sol–gel method followed by repaid thermal annealing treatment. The grain size of the ZnO films was decreased by the doping of Fe. X-ray diffraction measurements of the films showed the same wurtzite hexagonal structure and preferential orientation along the c-axis. Temperature dependence resistivity showed a semiconductor transport behavior for both compositions. At high temperature region, the transport mechanism can be fitted with semiconductor behavior by Arrhenius equation, σ(T) = σ{sub 0}exp[−(E{sub a}/kT){sup m}] with m = 1. The activation energy E{sub a} is increased from 0.47 meV for pure ZnO film to 0.69 meV for Zn{sub 0.96}Fe{sub 0.04}O film obtained from equation. At low temperature region, the resistivity can be fitted well with the behavior of Mott variable range hopping, σ(T) = σ{sub h0}exp[−(T{sub 0}/T){sup n}] with n = 1/4. The results demonstrate that the crystallization and the corresponding carrier transport behavior of the Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O films are affected by the doping of Fe in the Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O films.

  6. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumahoro, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 du CNRS, UDS-ECPM, BP 43, 23 Rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Moubah, R.; Schmerber, G.; Colis, S. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 du CNRS, UDS-ECPM, BP 43, 23 Rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Aouaj, M. Ait; Abd-lefdil, M.; Hassanain, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Berrada, A., E-mail: alamal39@hotmail.f [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Dinia, A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 du CNRS, UDS-ECPM, BP 43, 23 Rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2010-06-01

    Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O thin films with different Fe content were deposited on glass substrates at 450 {sup o}C by spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films was investigated. X-ray diffraction has shown that the films are polycrystalline and textured with the c-axis of the wurtzite structure along the growth direction. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the surface of the films are homogeneous. The magnetic measurements performed at 5 K using a SQUID magnetometer showed the co-existence of paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions.

  7. Photoluminescence quenching in cobalt doped ZnO nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sekika Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    Influence of cobalt doping on the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystals with average diameter of 3.0 nm is investigated. Time resolved measurements at 20 K show that the dark exciton luminescence is completely lost in the nanocrystals doped with cobalt, while the perturbed luminescence with slight red shift survives and exhibits a non-exponential decay curve reflecting random distribution of cobalt atoms. By analyzing the non-exponentiality, the increase of the decay rate of the band-ed...

  8. ZnO nanocrystals and allied materials

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.

  9. Synthesis of ZnO Nanocrystals and Application in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Wu, Jian; Hao, Hui-Ying; Xing, Jie; Liu, Hao; Gao, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Controllable synthesis of various ZnO nanocrystals was achieved via a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal process. The morphology evolution of the ZnO nanostructures was well monitored by tuning hydrothermal growth parameters, such as solution concentration, reaction temperature, and surfactant. As-obtained ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies, e.g., ZnO nanorods, nanotetrapods, nanoflowers, and nanocubes, were further introduced into the organic bulk heterojunction solar cells as the electron transport channel. It was found that the device performance was closely related to the morphology of the ZnO nanocrystals.

  10. Formation and stability of rocksalt ZnO nanocrystals in MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijt, S. W. H.; de Roode, J.; Schut, H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    Coimplantation of Zn and O ions into a single crystalline MgO and subsequent thermal annealing were applied in the synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals. Electron microscopy showed that rocksalt instead of wurtzite ZnO stabilizes for relatively large nanocrystals up to similar to 15 nm, resulting from its s

  11. Formation and stability of rocksalt ZnO nanocrystals in MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijt, S.W.H.; De Roode, J.; Schut, H.; Kooi, B.J.; De Hosson, J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Coimplantation of Zn and O ions into a single crystalline MgO and subsequent thermal annealing were applied in the synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals. Electron microscopy showed that rocksalt instead of wurtzite ZnO stabilizes for relatively large nanocrystals up to ~15 nm, resulting from its small latti

  12. Control of optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanocrystals by nanosecond-laser annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimogaki, T.; Ofuji, T.; Tetsuyama, N.; Kawahara, H.; Higashihata, M.; Ikenoue, H.; Nakamura, D.; Okada, T.

    2014-03-01

    Effects of laser annealing on electrical and optical properties of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals, which are expected as building blocks for optoelectronic devices, have been investigated in this study. In the case of fabricating p-n junction in single one-dimensional ZnO nanocrystal, phosphorus-ions implanted p-type ZnO nanocrystals were recrystallized and recovered in the optical properties by nanosecond-laser annealing using a KrF excimer laser. Antimony-doped p-type ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by irradiating laminated structure which antimony thin film were deposited on ZnO nanocrystals with the laser beam. Additionally, it is possible to control the growth rate of ZnO nanowires by using laser annealing. Irradiating with pulsed laser a part of ZnO buffer layer deposited on the a-cut sapphire substrate, then ZnO nanowires were grown on the ZnO buffer layer by the nanoparticle assisted pulsed laser deposition method. As a result, the clear boundary of the laser annealed and non-laser annealed area was appeared. It was observed that ZnO nanowires were grown densely at non-laser annealed area, on the other hand, sparse ones were grown at the laser-annealed region. In this report, the possibility of laser annealing techniques to establish the stable and reliable fabrication process of ZnO nanowires-based LD and LED are discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  13. One-Step Synthesis of Monodisperse In-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QingLing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method for the synthesis of high quality indium-doped zinc oxide (In-doped ZnO nanocrystals was developed using a one-step ester elimination reaction based on alcoholysis of metal carboxylate salts. The resulting nearly monodisperse nanocrystals are well-crystallized with typically crystal structure identical to that of wurtzite type of ZnO. Structural, optical, and elemental analyses on the products indicate the incorporation of indium into the host ZnO lattices. The individual nanocrystals with cubic structures were observed in the 5% In–ZnO reaction, due to the relatively high reactivity of indium precursors. Our study would provide further insights for the growth of doped oxide nanocrystals, and deepen the understanding of doping process in colloidal nanocrystal syntheses.

  14. YAlO3/Fe掺杂ZnO复合物的制备、表征及对酸性红B的降解%Synthesis and Characterization of YAlO3/Fe-doped ZnO and Its Photocatalytic Oxidation of Acid Red B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春萍

    2012-01-01

    In this work,YAlO3/Fe -doped ZnO composite,a novel photocatalyst, was synthesized by ultrasonic disper-sion and liquid boiling method and characterized by X - ray diffraction ( XRD ) and scanning electron microscope ( SEM) , and its photocatalytic activities were evaluated through the degradation of acid red B under visible light irradiation. The effects of preparation conditions such as YAlO3 content, heat - treated temperature and heat - treated time on the photocatalytic activity of YAlO3/Fe - doped ZnO composite were examined. In addition,the influences of visible light irradiation time and YAlO3/Fe - doped ZnO amount as well as organic dyes on the photocatalytic degradation were also investigated by HPLC techniques. The experimental results indicated that the YAlO3/Fe - doped ZnO composite can effectively utilize visible energy to degrade acid red B and its photocatalytic activity was much superior to that of Fe - doped ZnO composite under the same condition. Results revealed that the AlO3/Fe - doped ZnO showed higher activity and the maximum conversion of acid red B could reach 97.7% within 40 min.%采用溶胶-凝胶、超声分散和溶液沸腾法制备YAlO3/Fe掺杂ZnO复合物,在可见光的照射下,考察了酸性红B降解效果,并利用x-射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对光催化剂进行了表征,同时研究了YAlO3的包覆量、YAlO3/Fe掺杂ZnO的量、可见光照射时间、处理温度和处理时间等因素对酸性红B降解率的影响,其降解过程也用HPLC进一步进行验证.结果表明,YAlO3/Fe掺杂ZnO在40 min酸性红B的降解率达到97.7%,表现出更好的光催化活性.

  15. Williamson-Hall analysis and optical properties of small sized ZnO nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Amarjyoti; Kalita, Manos P. C.

    2017-08-01

    We apply Williamson-Hall (WH) method of X-ray diffraction (XRD) line profile analysis for lattice strain estimation of small sized ZnO nanocrystals (crystallite size≈4 nm). The ZnO nanocrystals are synthesized by room temperature chemical co-precipitation followed by heating at 40 °C. Zinc acetate, sodium hydroxide and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) are used for the synthesis of the nanocrystals. {100}, {002}, {101} and {200}, {112}, {201} line profiles in the XRD pattern are significantly merged, therefore determination of the full width at half maximum values and peak positions of the line profiles required for WH analysis has been carried out by executing Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern. Lattice strain of the 4 nm sized ZnO nanocrystals is found to be 5.8×10-3 which is significantly higher as compared to the literature reported values for larger ones (crystallite size≈17-47 nm). Role of ME as capping agent is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The band gap of the nanocrystals is determined from the UV-Visible absorption spectrum and is found to be 3.68 eV. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits emissions in the visible (408 nm-violet, 467 nm-blue and 538 nm-green) regions showing presence of zinc interstitial and oxygen vacancy in the ZnO nanocrystals.

  16. Quenching of photoluminescence of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals by nitronyl nitroxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroyuk, Oleksandr L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky avenue, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Yakovenko, Anastasiya V.; Raevskaya, Oleksandra E. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky avenue, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Plyusnin, Victor F. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Quenching of the photoluminescence of colloidal zinc oxide nanocrystals by a series of stable nitronyl nitroxide radicals was studied by means of stationary and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Among the studied radicals the most efficient quenchers of the ZnO luminescence are the carboxyl-substituted species. The meta-substituted radical was found to be a more active quencher, than para-substituted one due to a closer proximity of the radical center to the nanocrystals surface. The PL quenching has a complex dynamic/static character. The dynamic quenching arises from photocatalytic radical reduction by ZnO conduction band electrons, while the static quenching is caused by adsorption of the photoreduction products on the nanocrystal surface. The non-substituted and OH-substituted radicals are inferior to the products of their photoreduction in capability of adsorption of the ZnO surface, and the quenching is dominated by interactions between the nanocrystals and photoreduced hydroxylamines. In case of COOH-substituted radicals, however, the radicals compete with the photoreduction products for the surface sites of ZnO nanocrystals resulting in a dynamic character of photoluminescence quenching.

  17. Efficient solution route to transparent ZnO semiconductor films using colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suehiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanocrystals (NCs were synthesized by heating Zn (II acetylacetonate in oleic acid/oleylamine in the presence of 1,2-hexadecanediol at 220 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements revealed the formation of monodispersed ZnO NCs of ca. 7 nm. ZnO NC assembled films were fabricated on a glass substrate by deposition with the colloidal ZnO NCs dispersed in toluene. The film composed of the NCs showed good optical transparency in the visible to near-infrared region. A device coupling the ZnO NC film with a p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS NC film exhibited an obvious diode-like current–voltage behavior. The results suggest that the transparent ZnO film has a potentiality to be used for an n-type window layer in some optoelectronic applications.

  18. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  19. Fabrication and Superhydrophobic Property of ZnO Micro/Nanocrystals via a Hydrothermal Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic ZnO micro/nanocrystals were fabricated on a large scale using a facile one-pot hydrothermal process successfully. The morphologies and chemical composition of as-synthesized ZnO were investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The morphology of ZnO products changed from uniform size microrods to flower-like micronanostructures, when the temperature changed from 120°C to 180°C. The morphology of ZnO was strongly affected by the pH. The wettability of the as-synthesized ZnO micro/nanocrystals was studied by measuring water contact angle (CA. The largest static CA for water is 167°, which is closely related to both the ZnO micro/nanostructure and chemical modification. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZnO surface showed superhydrophobicity for some corrosive liquids such as basic and acidic aqueous solutions. The CAs of the surface modified with ZnO prepared at 160°C were over 155° in the range of pH = 1–13.

  20. Towards depleted heterojunction solar cells with CuInS2 and ZnO nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunemann, Dorothea; Wilken, Sebastian; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2013-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have shown remarkable improvements in performance during the last few years. Until now, mostly Pb- or Cd-based nanocrystals were used as absorber material, which might limit the potential application of nanocrystal solar cells due to toxicity issues. A promising, potentially less-toxic alternative are CuInS2 (CIS) nanocrystals. Here, we report about the realization of solar cells based on a heterojunction formed by solution-producible layers of colloidal CIS and ZnO nanocrystals. Device performance was found to be sensitive to illumination conditions, i.e., the presence of UV light. Although, power conversion efficiencies remain limited in this work, we modeled the possible photocurrents and show that the CIS nanocrystals have a high potential for light-harvesting in quantum dot solar cells.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of surfactant assisted Mn2+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shanmugam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and characterization of Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals, both in the free standing and PVP capped particle forms. The nanocrystals size could be controlled by capping them with polyvinylpyrollidone and was estimated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical compositions of the products were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy measurements reveal that the capping of ZnO leads to blue shift due to quantum confinement effect. The morphology of the particles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Both the Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA curves of the ZnO show no further weight loss and thermal effect at a temperature above 510 °C.

  2. Tunable surface plasmon resonance and enhanced electrical conductivity of In doped ZnO colloidal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; de, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The dopant induced shape evolution changes the hexagonal pyramid structured ZnO to a platelet like structure upon 8% In doping. The introduction of trivalent In3+ into the ZnO lattice and consequent substitution of divalent Zn2+ generates free electrons in the conduction band which produces a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region. The electron concentration controls plasmon frequency as well as the band gap of host ZnO. The variation of the band gap and the modification of the conduction band have been explained by the Burstein-Moss effect and Mie's theory respectively. The In dopant changes the defect chemistry of pure ZnO nanocrystals which has been studied by photoluminescence and other spectroscopic measurements. The nanocrystals are highly stable in the organic medium and can be deposited as a crack free thin film on different substrates. Careful ligand exchange and thermal annealing of the spin cast film lead to a good conductive film (720 Ω per square to 120 Ω per square) with stable inherent plasmonic absorption in the infrared and 90% transmittance in the visible region. A temperature induced metal-semiconductor transition was found for doped ZnO nanocrystals. The transition temperature shifts to a lower temperature with increase of the doping concentration.We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The

  3. Metal-Particle-Decorated ZnO Nanocrystals: Photocatalysis and Charge Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Hao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Shao, Pao-Wen; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2016-12-07

    Understanding of charge transfer processes is determinant to the performance optimization for semiconductor photocatalysts. As a representative model of composite photocatalysts, metal-particle-decorated ZnO has been widely employed for a great deal of photocatalytic applications; however, the dependence of charge carrier dynamics on the metal content and metal composition and their correlation with the photocatalytic properties have seldom been reported. Here, the interfacial charge dynamics for metal-decorated ZnO nanocrystals were investigated and their correspondence with the photocatalytic properties was evaluated. The samples were prepared with a delicate antisolvent approach, in which ZnO nanocrystals were grown along with metal particle decoration in a deep eutectic solvent. By modulating the experimental conditions, the metal content (from 0.6 to 2.3 at%) and metal composition (including Ag, Au, and Pd) in the resulting metal-decorated ZnO could be readily controlled. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra showed that an optimal Au content of 1.3 at% could effectuate the largest electron transfer rate constant for Au-decorated ZnO nanocrystals, in conformity with the highest photocatalytic efficiency observed. The relevance of charge carrier dynamics to the metal composition was also inspected and realized in terms of the energy level difference between ZnO and metal. Among the three metal-decorated ZnO samples tested, ZnO-Pd displayed the highest photocatalytic activity, fundamentally according with the largest electron transfer rate constant deduced in carrier dynamics measurements. The current work was the first study to present the correlations among charge carrier dynamics, metal content, metal composition, and the resultant photocatalytic properties for semiconductor/metal heterostructures. The findings not only helped to resolve the standing issues regarding the mechanistic foundation of photocatalysis but also shed light on the intelligent design

  4. Room temperature enhanced red emission from novel Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yongzhe; Wang Qijie [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Liu Yanxia; Li Xiaodong; Xie Erqing, E-mail: QJWANG@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2011-10-14

    Achieving red emission from ZnO-based materials has long been a goal for researchers in order to realize, for instance, full-color display panels and solid-state light-emitting devices. However, the current technique using Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO for red emission generation has a significant drawback in that the energy transfer from ZnO to Eu{sup 3+} is inefficient, resulting in a low intensity red emission. In this paper, we report an efficient energy transfer scheme for enhanced red emission from Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanocrystals by fabricating polymer nanofibers embedded with Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanocrystals to facilitate the energy transfer. In the fabrication, ZnO nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in polymer nanofibers prepared by the high electrical field electrospinning technique. Enhanced red emission without defect radiation from the ZnO matrix is observed. Three physical mechanisms for this observation are provided and explained, namely a small ZnO crystal size, uniformity distribution of ZnO nanocrystals in polymers (PVA in this case), and strong bonding between ZnO and polymer through the -OH group bonding. These explanations are supported by high resolution transmission emission microscopy measurements, resonant Raman scattering characterizations, photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence excitation spectra measurements. In addition, two models exploring the 'accumulation layer' and 'depletion layer' are developed to explain the reasons for the more efficient energy transfer in our ZnO nanocrystal system compared to that in the previous reports. This study provides an important approach to achieve enhanced energy transfer from nanocrystals to ions which could be widely adopted in rare earth ion doped materials. These discoveries also provide more insights into other energy transfer problems in, for example, dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot solar cells.

  5. Room temperature enhanced red emission from novel Eu3 + doped ZnO nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongzhe; Liu, Yanxia; Li, Xiaodong; Jie Wang, Qi; Xie, Erqing

    2011-10-01

    Achieving red emission from ZnO-based materials has long been a goal for researchers in order to realize, for instance, full-color display panels and solid-state light-emitting devices. However, the current technique using Eu3 + doped ZnO for red emission generation has a significant drawback in that the energy transfer from ZnO to Eu3 + is inefficient, resulting in a low intensity red emission. In this paper, we report an efficient energy transfer scheme for enhanced red emission from Eu3 + doped ZnO nanocrystals by fabricating polymer nanofibers embedded with Eu3 + doped ZnO nanocrystals to facilitate the energy transfer. In the fabrication, ZnO nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in polymer nanofibers prepared by the high electrical field electrospinning technique. Enhanced red emission without defect radiation from the ZnO matrix is observed. Three physical mechanisms for this observation are provided and explained, namely a small ZnO crystal size, uniformity distribution of ZnO nanocrystals in polymers (PVA in this case), and strong bonding between ZnO and polymer through the -OH group bonding. These explanations are supported by high resolution transmission emission microscopy measurements, resonant Raman scattering characterizations, photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence excitation spectra measurements. In addition, two models exploring the 'accumulation layer' and 'depletion layer' are developed to explain the reasons for the more efficient energy transfer in our ZnO nanocrystal system compared to that in the previous reports. This study provides an important approach to achieve enhanced energy transfer from nanocrystals to ions which could be widely adopted in rare earth ion doped materials. These discoveries also provide more insights into other energy transfer problems in, for example, dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot solar cells.

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of multi-morphological AuCu3-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Chen, Yuanzhi; Peng, Jian; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-10-16

    Noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals represent an important class of materials for many potential applications, especially for photocatalysis. The utilization of transition metals to form alloys with noble metals can not only reduce the preparation costs, but may also offer tunable optical and catalytic properties for a broader range of applications. In this study, we report on the solution synthesis of AuCu3-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with three interesting morphologies, including urchin-like, flower-like and multipod-like nanocrystals. In the synthetic strategy, Au-Cu bimetallic alloy seeds formed in situ are used to induce the heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of bimetallic alloy cores; thus different types of morphologies can be achieved by controlling the reaction conditions. Through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations, well-defined interfaces between ZnO and AuCu3 are observed, which indicate that ZnO has a (0001) orientation and prefers to grow on AuCu3 {111} facets. The as-prepared hybrid nanocrystals demonstrate morphology- and composition-dependent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption bands. In addition, much higher photocatalytic efficiency than pure ZnO nanocrystals is observed for the hybrid nanocrystals in the degradation of methylene blue. In particular, the multipod-like AuCu3-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals show the highest catalytic performance, as well as more than three times higher photocurrent density than the pure ZnO sample. The reported synthetic strategy provides a facile route to the effective combination of a plasmonic alloy with semiconductor components at the nanoscale in a controlled manner.

  7. Thermally induced growth of ZnO nanocrystals on mixed metal oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Alexandra; Makky, Ayman; Giraldo, Jose; Kuhnt, Andreas; Busse, Corinna; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-06-23

    An in situ method for the growth of ZnO nanocrystals on Zn/Al mixed metal oxide (MMO) surfaces is presented. The key to this method is the thermal treatment of Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (Zn/Al LDHs) in the presence of nitrate anions, which results in partial demixing of the LDH/MMO structure and the subsequent crystallization of ZnO crystals on the surface of the forming MMO layers. In a first experimental series, thermal treatment of Zn/Al LDHs with different fractions of nitrate and carbonate in the interlayer space was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and in situ XRD. In a second experimental series, Zn/Al LDHs with only carbonate in the interlayer space were thermally treated in the presence of different amounts of an external nitrate source (NH4NO3). All obtained Zn/Al MMO samples were analysed by electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption and powder X-ray diffraction. The gas phase formed during nitrate decomposition turned out to be responsible for the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. Accordingly, both interlayer nitrate and the presence of ammonium nitrate led to the formation of supported ZnO nanocrystals with mean diameters between 100 and 400 nm, and both methods offer the possibility to tailor the amount and size of the ZnO crystals by means of the amount of nitrate.

  8. Synthesis and optical characteristics of ZnO nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sridevi; K V Rajendran

    2009-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanomaterials with an average particle size of 20–30 nm are readily synthesized by the reaction of zinc acetate and oxalic acid under hydrothermal conditions. The samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The average crystal size of the as prepared ZnO nanopowder is determined by XRD and the values are in good agreement with the TEM analysis. UV absorption spectra revealed the absorption at wavelength < 370 nm indicating the smaller size of ZnO nanoparticles. The quality and purity of ZnO nanomaterial crystalline samples are confirmed by photoluminescence spectra

  9. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-07

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  10. Effect of different precursors in the chemical synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusatti, M.; Barroso, G.S.; Souza, D.A.R.; Rosario, J.A.; Lima, R.B.; Silva, L.A.; Riella, H.G.; Kuhnen, N.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DEQA/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Campos, C.E.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DF/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to evaluate the effect of ZnCl{sub 2} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O precursors in the synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals. The materials were obtained at a temperature of 90 deg C by a simple solochemical route. The resulting samples were characterized with respect to the determination of the formed phases, particle size and morphology, using the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These characterization techniques confirmed that the sample obtained with Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2.}6H{sub 2}O has hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and dimensions in the nanoscale. However, the material formed with ZnCl{sub 2} was composed of a mixture of the ZnO phase and another correspondent to the Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O phase. For both precursors, the predominant morphology of the obtained ZnO nanocrystals is rod- like structure.(author)

  11. Shape control of colloidal Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals and their visible light photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Li, Yaguang; Zhu, Liping; He, Haiping; Hu, Liang; Huang, Jingyun; Hu, Fengchun; He, Bo; Ye, Zhizhen

    2013-11-07

    For colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), shape control and doping as two widely applied strategies are crucial for enhancing and manipulating their functional properties. Here we report a facile and green synthetic approach for high-quality colloidal Mn doped ZnO NCs with simultaneous control over composition, shape and optical properties. Specifically, the shape of doped ZnO NCs can be finely modulated from three dimensional (3D) tetrapods to 0D spherical nanoparticles in a single reaction scheme. The growth mechanism of doped ZnO NCs with interesting shape transition is explored. Furthermore, we demonstrate the tunable optical absorption features of Mn doped ZnO NCs by varying the Mn doping levels, and the enhanced photocatalytic performance of Mn doped ZnO NCs under visible light, which can be further optimized by delicately controlling their shapes and Mn doping concentrations. Our results provide an improved understanding of the growth mechanism of doped NCs during the growth process and can be potentially extended to ZnO NCs doped with other metal ions for various applications.

  12. Raman probing of competitive laser heating and local recrystallization effect in ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J D; Parkinson, P; Ren, F F; Gu, S L; Tan, H H; Jagadish, C

    2012-10-01

    The competitive laser-induced local heating and recrystallization effects in ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a MgO/ZnO stack are reported via resonance Raman spectra. The dependence of the intensity, energy, and resonance effects of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon on laser excitation condition are discussed in the context of Fröhlich interaction. Redistribution of defects, impurity-diffusion, and grain regrowth caused by thermal and photochemical effects lead to significant changes in coupling strength of electron-phonon interaction, and the resonance behaviors are strongly affected by the interplay of local heating, heat trapping, and local structural modification in such nanostructures.

  13. Spinel ferrite nanocrystals embedded inside ZnO: magnetic, electronic andmagneto-transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Xu, Qingyu; Kuepper, K.; Talut, G.; Marko, D.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-08-21

    In this paper we show that spinel ferrite nanocrystals (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) can be texturally embedded inside a ZnO matrix by ion implantation and post-annealing. The two kinds of ferrites show different magnetic properties, e.g. coercivity and magnetization. Anomalous Hall effect and positive magnetoresistance have been observed. Our study suggests a ferrimagnet/semiconductor hybrid system for potential applications in magneto-electronics. This hybrid system can be tuned by selecting different transition metal ions (from Mn to Zn) to obtain various magnetic and electronic properties.

  14. A Facile Synthesis of Ag Modified ZnO Nanocrystals with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yanling; ZHAN Sha; WANG Ping

    2012-01-01

    Ag modified ZnO (Ag/ZnO) nanocrystals were prepared by a facile and low temperature wet chemical method.The phase structures,morphologies,and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),the Brumauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area,UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra,respectively.The photocatalytic performance of Ag/ZnO with diffent Ag contents was measured with the degradation of methyl orange (MO) at room temperature under UV light irradiation.The experimental results indicated that the well-crystalline ZnO nanopaticles with a size of ca.4.5 nm exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO with the apparent rate constant (k) of 1.57 × 10-2 min-1,and the photocatalytic activities of ZnO were further enhanced by modification with silver.When the Ag loading was 3mo1%,Ag/ZnO showed the highest photocatalytic acitivity with a k value of 5.452× 10-2 min-1,which is 3.5 and 2.5 time more than that of ZnO and commercial P25,respectively.

  15. Substitutional effect of Ni on different properties of ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawal, H. A.; Gawai, U. P.; Dole, B. N., E-mail: drbndole.phy@gmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431 004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Samples of pure and Ni doped ZnO nanocrystals with nominal compositions (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05) were successfully synthesized by Co-precipitation method. These samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). From XRD patterns it is confirmed that all samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure without formation any secondary phases. Atomic packing fraction (APF) and c/a ratio were calculated using XRD data. The lattice parameters of samples decrease with increasing Ni concentration. The average crystalline size was calculated by Scherrer’s formula and it is found that the average crystalline size is in the range 43-56 nm. The SEM micrographs of samples show the agglomeration of nanocrystals. Chemical species of the samples were detected using FTIR spectra. It confirms the formation of ZnO with the stretching vibrational mode around at 512 cm{sup −1}.

  16. Structural and optical properties of Na doped ZnO nanocrystals: Application to solar photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Asma; Bouslama, Wiem; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2017-02-01

    Na doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully produced by sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Raman scattering, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis indicated that all the prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Na related phases. The lattice distortion, calculated using Williamson hall equation, induces stress and a reduction of NCs size from 71.4 to 24.5 nm. TEM images showed NCs with hexagonal shape and a rather uniform size distribution. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirmed the high crystal quality along the direction and is consistent with the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The Raman spectra are dominated by E2high mode of ZnO. High Na doping shows the occurrence of anomalous local vibrational Raman modes close to 270 and 513 cm-1 that are related to intrinsic host lattice defects and distortion, respectively. Optical band gap was found to vary with Na content. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate the presence of a high density of defects in ZnO NCs which are mainly oxygen vacancies. Finally, the obtained NCs were used as a photocatalyst to degrade Rhodamine B (RhB) in solution, under solar irradiation. Na doping enhances the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs till an optimum concentration of 0.5% where a full degradation was observed after 120 min of sun light irradiation. Furthermore, this sample presents a good cycling stability and reusability. Based on scavangers test, it was found that both superoxide and hydroxyl oxidizing radicals are mainly actives.

  17. Mg doping induced high structural quality of sol–gel ZnO nanocrystals: Application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abed, Chayma; Bouzidi, Chaker [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: Habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Gelloz, Bernard [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 2-24-16 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Ferid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nancrystals doped with Mg were prepared from sol–gel method. • Structural and optical properties of ZnO:Mg nanocrystals were investigated. • Good crystalline quality of ZnO nanocrystals was reported after Mg doping. • Good photocatalytic activity of Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals was demonstrated under sun light illumination. - Abstract: Undoped and Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) ZnO:x%Mg (x = 1, 2, 3, and 5) were synthesized using sol–gel method. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectivity, and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis demonstrates that all prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Mg related phases. The NCs size varies from 26.82 nm to 42.96 nm with Mg concentrations; it presents an optimal value for 2% of Mg. The Raman spectra are dominated by the E{sub 2high} mode. For highly Mg doping (5%), the occurrence of silent B{sub 1(low)} mode suggested that the Mg ions do substitute at Zn sites in the ZnO lattice The band gap energy was estimated from both Tauc and Urbach methods and found to be 3.39 eV for ZnO:2%Mg. The PL spectra exhibit two emission bands in the UV and visible range. Their evolution with Mg doping reveals the reduction of defect density in ZnO at low Mg doping by filling Zn vacancies. In addition, it was found that further Mg doping, above 2%, improves the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under sunlight irradiation. The efficient electron–hole separation is the main factor responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of Mg doped ZnO NCs. Through this work, we show that by varying the Mg contents in ZnO, this material can be a potential candidate for both optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications.

  18. Near-infrared emission of Yb3+ through energy transfer from ZnO to Yb3+ in glass ceramic containing ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qun; Qiao, Xvsheng; Fan, Xianping; Zhang, Xianghua

    2011-08-01

    Yb(3+)-doped glass and glass ceramic containing ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by the melting-quenching method and subsequent heat treatment. Intense near-IR emission around 1000 nm that originated from the transition of Yb(3+):(2)F(5/2)→(2)F(7/2) was generated as a result of energy transfer from oxygen interstitials in ZnO nanocrystals to Yb(3+) with energy transfer efficiency of about 10%. The quantum yield for the near-IR emission of Yb(3+) under the excitation of 390 nm was about 16.7%. These materials have potential application in achieving high-efficiency Si solar cells via spectrum modification.

  19. Competition effects among size, dimensionality and pressure on modulating bandgap of CdSe and ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiao Bao, E-mail: jiangxb@just.edu.cn; Sheng, Hong Chao; Gu, Xiao Yan; Shi, Ming Xiao

    2015-12-15

    Size, dimensionality and pressure play important roles on modulating band gap (E{sub g}) of semiconductor nanocrystals, and have attracted extensive attention in recent years. In this letter, a simple thermodynamic model is developed and the competition relation among size, dimensionality and pressure effects on E{sub g} is discussed. The accuracy of our prediction is confirmed by the experimental data and simulation results of CdSe and ZnO nanocrystals. This model provides a new insight into the size, dimensionality and pressure effects on E{sub g} and guides the optimal selection as design quantum devices.

  20. Competition effects among size, dimensionality and pressure on modulating bandgap of CdSe and ZnO nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao Bao; Sheng, Hong Chao; Gu, Xiao Yan; Shi, Ming Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Size, dimensionality and pressure play important roles on modulating band gap (Eg) of semiconductor nanocrystals, and have attracted extensive attention in recent years. In this letter, a simple thermodynamic model is developed and the competition relation among size, dimensionality and pressure effects on Eg is discussed. The accuracy of our prediction is confirmed by the experimental data and simulation results of CdSe and ZnO nanocrystals. This model provides a new insight into the size, dimensionality and pressure effects on Eg and guides the optimal selection as design quantum devices.

  1. Characterization of defects in ZnO nanocrystals: Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Chaudhuri, S. K.; Mukherjee, S.; Priyam, A.; Saha, A.; Das, D.

    2007-11-01

    Defects present in ZnO nanocrystals prepared by a wet chemical method have been characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques. The as-prepared sample was heat treated at different temperatures to obtain nanocrystals in the size range of 19-39nm. X ray diffractograms confirmed the single-phase wurtzite structure formation. Photoluminescence measurements showed a strong violet band at 434nm, which has been identified as due to electronic transitions from the zinc interstitial defect level to the top of the valence band. A marked decrease in the intensity of the violet emission with increasing heat-treatment temperature has been observed, which is attributed to recombination of zinc interstitials with zinc vacancies. Positron annihilation spectroscopy has been employed to understand the dynamics of the vacancy-type defects and their annealing behavior. The observed variation of the defect related lifetime components with heat-treatment temperature has been successfully explained by using a three-state trapping model. The results of PL and PAS studies in the present case are found to be complementary to each other.

  2. Ultrafast Three-Dimensional X-ray Imaging of Deformation Modes in ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukara, Mathew J; Sasikumar, Kiran; Cha, Wonsuk; Narayanan, Badri; Leake, Steven J; Dufresne, Eric M; Peterka, Tom; McNulty, Ian; Wen, Haidan; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Harder, Ross J

    2017-02-08

    Imaging the dynamical response of materials following ultrafast excitation can reveal energy transduction mechanisms and their dissipation pathways, as well as material stability under conditions far from equilibrium. Such dynamical behavior is challenging to characterize, especially operando at nanoscopic spatiotemporal scales. In this letter, we use X-ray coherent diffractive imaging to show that ultrafast laser excitation of a ZnO nanocrystal induces a rich set of deformation dynamics including characteristic "hard" or inhomogeneous and "soft" or homogeneous modes at different time scales, corresponding respectively to the propagation of acoustic phonons and resonant oscillation of the crystal. By integrating the 3D nanocrystal structure obtained from the ultrafast X-ray measurements with a continuum thermo-electro-mechanical finite element model, we elucidate the deformation mechanisms following laser excitation, in particular, a torsional mode that generates a 50% greater electric potential gradient than that resulting from the flexural mode. Understanding of the time-dependence of these mechanisms on ultrafast scales has significant implications for development of new materials for nanoscale power generation.

  3. Rocksalt ZnO nanocrystal formation by beam irradiation of wurtzite ZnO in a transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Bo

    2016-10-01

    Under ambient conditions, ZnO crystallizes in a hexagonal wurtzite structure, but undergoes a phase transformation into a rocksalt structure with increasing hydrostatic pressure. However, in the present study, I have successfully demonstrated that intense beam irradiation of a wurtzite ZnO specimen in a transmission electron microscope produces nanoparticles of rocksalt ZnO as well as wurtzite ZnO, suggesting that the application of pressures is not a necessary condition for the formation of rocksalt ZnO.

  4. Synthesis,Crystal Structural and Electrical Conductivity Properties of Fe-Doped Zinc Oxide Powders at High Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan Colak; Orhan Trkoglu

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis,crystal structure and electrical conductivity properties of Fe-doped ZnO powders(in the range of 0.25-15 mol%) were reported in this paper.I-phase samples,which were indexed as single phase with a hexagonal(wurtzite) structure in the Fe-doped ZnO binary system,were determined by X-ray diffraction(XRD).The solubility limit of Fe in the ZnO lattice is 3 mol% at 950℃.The above mixed phase was observed.And the impurity phase was determined as the cubic-ZnFe 2 O 4 phase when compared with standard XRD data using the PDF program.This study focused on single I-phase ZnO samples which were synthesized at 950℃ because the limit of the solubility range is the widest at this temperature.The lattice parameters a and c of the I-phase decreased with Fe-doping concentration.The morphology of the I-phase samples was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope.The grain size of the I-phase samples increased with heat treatment and doping concentration.The electrical conductivity of the pure ZnO and single I-phase samples was investigated using the four-probe dc method at 100-950℃ in air atmosphere.The electrical conductivity values of pure ZnO,0.25 and 3 mol% Fe-doped ZnO samples at 100℃ were 2×10-6,1.7×10-3 and 6.3×10-4 S.cm-1,and at 950℃ they were 3.4,8.5 and 4 S.cm-1,respectively.

  5. Transition metals in ZnO nanocrystals: Magnetic and structural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuryliszyn-Kudelska I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wide-gap ZnO nanoparticles bear important potential application in electro-optical devices, transparent ultraviolet protection films, and spintronic devices. We have studied the magnetic properties of nanocrystals of ZnO(Fe, Co, Mn prepared by two methods of synthesis. We have used the microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis and traditional wet chemistry method followed by calcination. The detailed structural characterization was performed by means of X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. The morphology of the samples was studied by means of SEM and TEM microscopy. The results of systematic measurements of AC magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature and frequency as well as SQUID magnetization are presented. The SQUID magnetization measurements revealed a clear bifurcation of the FC and ZFC plots. Such behavior suggested superparamagnetic behavior above the blocking temperature. The dynamic magnetic measurements were performed at small AC magnetic field with amplitude not exceeding 5 Oe and different frequency values (from 7 Hz to 9970 Hz. For ZnO(Fe and ZnO(Mn, the AC susceptibility maxima has been found for in-phase susceptibility Re(χ and for out of phase susceptibility Im(χ. We analyzed the observed frequency dependence of the peak temperature in the AC susceptibility curve using the empirical parameter Φ that is a quantitative measure of the frequency shift and is given by the relative shift of the peak temperature per decade shift in frequency, as well as Vogel- Fulcher law. We observed two different types of magnetic behavior, spin-glasslike behavior or superparamagnetic behavior, depending on the synthesis process. For ZnO(Co nanocrystalline samples high temperature Curie-Weiss behavior in AC magnetic susceptibility was observed. We observed that the determined negative values of the Curie- Weiss temperature θ depend strongly on the nominal content of cobalt oxide. It was shown that for

  6. Growth Mechanism and Characterization of ZnO 3D Nanocrystals by Laser Irradiation & Coaxially Transporting O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Kaiyu; LI Boquan; ZHANG Huanyan

    2008-01-01

    Different three-dimension (3D) nanotetrapods,containing club-like nanocrystals,nanotetrapods and four-foot-like nanocrystals were synthesized from Zinc sheet via CO2 laser irradiation and coaxially transporting O2.Different nanoproducts were fabricated by changing the content of oxygen in the experiment.The morphologies,components,phase structures and optical properties of the products were investigated by a field-emission scanning electron microscopy,an X-ray diffraction,an energy dispersed X-ray spectrometer and a photoluminescence spectroscope.The X-ray diffraction spectra were obtained on a Rigaku D/max 2500PC diffractometer.The experimental results reveal that high quality ZnO nanotetrapods can be fabricated on the special parameters,and growth of ZnO nanotetrapods depends on Vapour-Liquid-Solid(VLS) model,and the content of oxygen in the gas,namely,oxygen partial pressure is one of main factors to control morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanotetrapods;these advantages above are important for realization of optoelectronic devices.

  7. ZnO nanorod/CdS nanocrystal core/shell-type heterostructures for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerguerian, Gariné; Elhordoy, Fernando; Pereyra, Carlos J.; Marotti, Ricardo E.; Martín, Francisco; Leinen, Dietmar; Ramos-Barrado, José R.; Dalchiele, Enrique A.

    2011-12-01

    ZnO/CdS core/shell nanorod arrays were fabricated by a two-step method. Single-crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays were first electrochemically grown on SnO2:F (FTO) glass substrates. Then, CdS nanocrystals were deposited onto the ZnO nanorods, using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique, to form core/shell nanocable architectures. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the nanorod heterojunctions were investigated. The results indicate that CdS single-crystalline domains with a mean diameter of about 7 nm are uniformly and conformally covered on the surface of the single-crystalline ZnO nanorods. ZnO absorption with a bandgap energy value of 3.30 ± 0.02 eV is present in all optical transmittance spectra. Another absorption edge close to 500 nm corresponding to CdS with bandgap energy values between 2.43 and 2.59 eV is observed. The dispersion in this value may originate in quantum confinement inside the nanocrystalline material. The appearance of both edges corresponds with the separation of ZnO and CdS phases and reveals the absorption increase due to CdS sensitizer. The photovoltaic performance of the resulting ZnO/CdS core/shell nanorod arrays has been investigated as solar cell photoanodes in a photoelectrochemical cell under white illumination. In comparison with bare ZnO nanorod arrays, a 13-fold enhancement in photoactivity was observed using the ZnO/CdS coaxial heterostructures.

  8. Study of energy transfer mechanism from ZnO nanocrystals to Eu(3+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Vivek; Pita, Kantisara; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the efficient energy transfer occurring between ZnO nanocrystals (ZnO-nc) and europium (Eu(3+)) ions embedded in a SiO2 matrix prepared using the sol-gel technique. We show that a strong red emission was observed at 614 nm when the ZnO-nc were excited using a continuous optical excitation at 325 nm. This emission is due to the radiative (5)D0 → (7)F2 de-excitation of the Eu(3+) ions and has been conclusively shown to be due to the energy transfer from the excited ZnO-nc to the Eu(3+) ions. The photoluminescence excitation spectra are also examined in this work to confirm the energy transfer from ZnO-nc to the Eu(3+) ions. Furthermore, we study various de-excitation processes from the excited ZnO-nc and their contribution to the energy transfer to Eu(3+) ions. We also report the optimum fabrication process for maximum red emission at 614 nm from the samples where we show a strong dependence on the annealing temperature and the Eu(3+) concentration in the sample. The maximum red emission is observed with 12 mol% Eu(3+) annealed at 450 °C. This work provides a better understanding of the energy transfer mechanism from ZnO-nc to Eu(3+) ions and is important for applications in photonics, especially for light emitting devices.

  9. White upconversion of rare-earth doped ZnO nanocrystals and its dependence on size of crystal particles and content of Yb3+ and Tm3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunxin; Xu, Changfu; Yang, Qibin

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical combustion method. Bright white upconversion (UC) luminescence with the CIE coordinates close to (0.33, 0.33) was obtained in Er+Tm+Yb tridoped ZnO nanocrystals under the excitation of a cost-effective 980 nm single-wavelength laser diode. The overall and relative UC luminescence intensities of RE doped ZnO nanocrystals were found to be depended highly on the diameter of crystal particles and the concentration of Yb3+ and Tm3+, for which the involved mechanisms were demonstrated. The investigation based on UC spectra, simplified energy level diagram, and excitation power dependence indicated that the remarkable enhancement of the green emission of the RE tridoped sample was due to a dual sensitization of Er3+ by Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions. The RE tridoped ZnO nanocrystals with the CIE coordinates close to (0.33, 0.33) are potentially suitable for the widely realistic application as the multicolor fluorescent labels, due to a fact that they could be cheaply and easily obtained and excited cost effectively.

  10. Preparation, characterization of Sb-doped ZnO nanocrystals and their excellent solar light driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Othmen, Walid Ben Haj; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, undoped and antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a simple and economical sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the purity of the obtained phase and its high crystallinity. Raman analysis confirms the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. According to the diffuse reflectance results, the band gap was found to decrease up to 3% of Sb doping (ZSb3 sample). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that Sb ions occupied both Zn and interstitials sites. The successful substitution of antimony in ZnO lattice suggests the formation of the complex (SbZn-2 VZn) acceptor level above the valence band. Particularly for ZSb3 sample, the UV photoluminescence (PL) band presents an obvious red-shift attributed to the formation of this complex. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped ZnO NCs under sunlight irradiation. It was found that oxygen vacancies play a major role in the photocatalytic process by trapping the excited electrons and inhibiting the radiative recombination. During the photocatalytic mechanism, the Sb doping, expressed through the apparition of the (SbZn-2 VZn) correspondent acceptor level, enhances the sunlight absorption within the ZnO band gap, which stimulates the generation of hydroxyl radicals and promotes the photocatalytics reaction rates. Such important contribution of the hydroxyl radicals was confirmed experimentally when using ethanol as scavenger in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation experiments reveal that ZSb3 sample exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity among all the prepared samples and presents a good cycling stability and reusability. The influence of the initial pH in the photodegradation efficiency was also monitored and discussed.

  11. EPR investigation of pure and Co-doped ZnO oriented nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoyant, A.; Alnoor, H.; Bertaina, S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pure and cobalt-doped zinc oxide aligned nanorods have been grown by the low-temperature (90 °C) aqueous chemical method on amorphous ZnO seed layer, deposited on a sapphire substrate. High crystallinity of these objects is demonstrated by the electron paramagnetic resonance investigation at liquid helium temperature. The successful incorporation of Co2+ ions in substitution of Zn2+ ones in the ZnO matrix has also been confirmed. A drastic reduction of intrinsic ZnO nanorods core defects is observed in the Co-doped samples, which enhances the structural quality of the NRs. The quantification of substitutional Co2+ ions in the ZnO matrix is achieved by comparison with a reference sample. The findings in this study indicate the potential of using the low-temperature aqueous chemical approach for synthesizing material for spintronics applications.

  12. Microstructural and photoluminescence properties of sol–gel derived Tb3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available to further elucidate the wurtzitic structure of the prepared samples. PL study revealed that among different Tb(sup3+) concentrations, 0.5 mol% Tb(sup3+) doped ZnO nanoparticles showed clear emission from the dopant originating from the 4f–4f intra...

  13. Photocatalytic enhancement of Mg-doped ZnO nanocrystals hybridized with reduced graphene oxide sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linqin Wang; Yan Wun; Fangyuan Chen; Xiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization of Mg-doped ZnO and reduced graphene oxide (MZO-RGO) were synthesized through one pot reaction process. Crystallization of MZO-RGO upon thermal decomposition of the stearate precursors was investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD studies point toward the particles size with 10-15 nm, which was confirmed by transmittance electronic microscopy, and also indicates that graphene oxide has been directly reduced into its reduced state graphene during the synthesis. Graphene hybridized MZO photocatalyst showed enhanced catalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The degree of photocatalytic activity enhancement strongly depended both on the coverage of graphene on the surface of MZO nanoparticles and the Mg doping concentration. The sample of 2 wt%graphene hybridized 5 at%Mg-doped ZnO showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which remained good photocatalytic activity after nine cycling runs.

  14. Synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals in sapphire by ion implantation and vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C.; Franco, N.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.; Alves, E.; Safran, G.; McHargue, C. J.

    2007-04-01

    The synthesis of embedded ZnO nanoparticles in m-cut sapphire was achieved through high fluence Zn ion implantation, 0.9 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature, followed by annealing at 1000 °C in vacuum. In c-cut samples subjected to similar annealing conditions only buried precipitates of Zn form. TEM results in these samples show a high concentration of faceted precipitates distributed along the c-plane and the presence of Kirkendall voids distributed along the entire implanted region. In both cases a strong loss of Zn is observed upon annealing, which depends on the sapphire host orientation.

  15. Synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals in sapphire by ion implantation and vacuum annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, C. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Franco, N. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R.C. da [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, E. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); McHargue, C.J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The synthesis of embedded ZnO nanoparticles in m-cut sapphire was achieved through high fluence Zn ion implantation, 0.9 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} at room temperature, followed by annealing at 1000 deg. C in vacuum. In c-cut samples subjected to similar annealing conditions only buried precipitates of Zn form. TEM results in these samples show a high concentration of faceted precipitates distributed along the c-plane and the presence of Kirkendall voids distributed along the entire implanted region. In both cases a strong loss of Zn is observed upon annealing, which depends on the sapphire host orientation.

  16. All-inorganic white light emitting devices based on ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannen, Ekaterina

    2012-09-21

    Semiconductor nanaocrystals (NCs) are very promising candidates for lightweight large-area rollable displays and light emitting devices (LEDs). They are expected to combine the efficiency, robustness and color tunability of conventional semiconductor LEDs with the flexible fabrication techniques known from OLED technology, since the NCs are compatible with solution processing and therefore can be deposited on virtually any substrates including glass and plastic. Today, NC-LEDs consist of chemically synthesized QDs embedded in organic charge injection and transport layers. The organic layers limit the robustness of the NC-LEDs and result in significant constrictions within the device fabrication procedure, such as organic evaporation steps, inert (i.e. humidity and oxygen free) atmosphere and obligatory encapsulation. These limitations during the production process as well as complex chemical synthesis route of the implemented NCs and organic components lead to high fabrication costs and low turnover. So far, only prototype devices have been introduced by several research groups and industrial companies. Still, the main concern retarding NC-LEDs from market launch is the high content of toxic heavy metals like Cd in the active nanocrystalline light emitting material. Within this work, possible environmentally safe and ambient-air-compatible alternatives to conventional QDs and organics were explored, with the main focus on design and fabrication of completely inorganic white NC-LEDs with commercial ZnO nanoparticles as an active light emitting material. While the electrical transport properties through the NC-network of the commercially available VP AdNano {sup registered} ZnO2O particles were already to some extent explored, their optical properties and therefore suitability as an active light emitter in NC-LEDs were not studied so far. (orig.)

  17. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of aluminium- and indium-doped ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Elin; Prodi-Schwab, Anna; Feldmann, Claus

    2009-06-01

    Microwave heating is applied to prepare suspensions of ZnO:In (IZO) and ZnO:Al (AZO) nanocrystals in diethylene glycol as a high-boiling multidentate alcohol (so-called polyol). Both n-doped zinc oxides are realized with high yields and in suspensions with solid contents up to 10 wt-%. These suspensions are colloidally stable for months. According to dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis as-prepared particles turn out to be single crystalline with an average diameter of 10-15 nm, a near monodisperse size distribution, and a low degree of agglomeration. As-prepared samples exhibit high resistivities due to the adhesion of DEG as a stabilizer on the particle surface. Subsequent to specific thermal post-treatment resistivities of 2.0 x 10(-1) and 5.7 x 10(-1) Omegacm are obtained for IZO and AZO powders, respectively. As a proof of the concept, thin layers are deposited on glass plates using a simple solvent evaporation technique. Post-treated layers exhibit a visible transmittance of about 80% and resistivities of 2.1 x 10(-1) Omegacm (IZO) and 2.6 x 10(-1) Omegacm (AZO). The bandgap of post-treated powders and thin layers is calculated to 3.2 and 3.3 eV, respectively.

  18. Mass production and photoelectric performances of P and Al Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals under different cooling post-processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ya-Juan; Lu, Yi [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Jin-Ku, E-mail: jkliu@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: yxh6110@yeah.net [Department of Chemistry, Chizhou University, Chizhou 247000 (China)

    2015-11-05

    The phosphorus and aluminum co-doped in zinc oxide (ZnO) called PAZO nano-crystals (NCs) have been mass synthesized by a combustion method, which shows a preferable photocatalytic capability and conductive ability. This article focuses on the properties of PAZO NCs experienced by three cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The influences of different cooling processes on the photocatalytic and conductive performances are discussed in details. From the research, we found the quenched-PAZO NCs showed the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs were generated in the quenching process. - Graphical abstract: This research focuses on the PAZO NCs experienced by different cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The quenched-PAZO NCs had the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because of generating excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs in the quenching process. - Highlights: • We presented a method to mass synthesize co-doped P and Al in ZnO nanocrystals. • The PAZO NCs have novel photoelectric performances. • The cooling post-process influence on the photoelectric properties was studied. • The excessive defects decline the photocatalytic and conductive activities.

  19. Effect of Al Doping on ZnO Nanocrystals Synthesized by Methanol Alcoholysis Method%Al掺杂对甲醇醇解法合成ZnO纳米粉体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义川; 胡跃辉; 张效华; 杨丰; 陈新华; 陈俊

    2011-01-01

    采用醇解法,在130℃的甲醇溶液中分别合成纯的和Al掺杂纳米氧化锌(ZnO)晶体.使用X射线衍射仪,透射电子显微镜,Fourier红外光谱和偏振稳态荧光光谱对其晶体结构和光学性能进行了表征.结果表明:在甲醇溶液中,在较低的温度(130℃)下,成功制备出纳米ZnO晶体.Fourier红外吸收光谱表明醇解法合成的ZnO纳米晶体含有较少的有机物杂质.荧光光谱结果可以看出,纯ZnO和Al掺杂的ZnO纳米晶体在可见光范围(400nm~700nm)内有一个高的蓝光发光带(峰位为440nm)和一个绿光发光带(纯的和Al掺杂的峰位分别为520nm和530nm).通过对比发现掺杂Al可以有效的改变ZnO纳米粉体的可见光发光特性.%Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by the methanol alcoholysis method at 130℃. Structure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that ZnO nanocrystals can be obtained in methanol solution at low temperature (130℃)). FTIR spectra show that ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by the methanol alcoholysis include a little organic impurity. PL spectra reveal that pure ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanocrystals have a blue band emission at 440 nm and a green band emission at 520 nm and 530 nm, respectively. Compared with the pure ZnO nanocrystals, the Al doping improves the luminescent properties.

  20. Photoluminescence of transparent glass-ceramics based on ZnO nanocrystals and co-doped with Eu3+, Yb3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzumanyan, Grigory M.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny A.; Zhilin, Aleksandr A.; Dymshits, Olga S.; Shemchuk, Daria V.; Alekseeva, Irina P.; Mudryi, Alexandr V.; Zhivulko, Vadim D.; Borodavchenko, Olga M.

    2016-12-01

    Glasses of the K2Osbnd ZnOsbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2 system co-doped with Eu2O3 and Yb2O3 were prepared by the melt-quenching technique. Transparent zincite (ZnO) glass-ceramics were obtained by secondary heat-treatments at 680-860 °C. At 860 °C, traces of Eu oxyapatite appeared in addition to ZnO nanocrystals. The average crystal size obtained from the X-ray diffraction data was found to range between 14 and 35 nm. Absorption spectra of the initial glasses are composed of an absorption edge and absorption bands due to electronic transitions of Eu3+ ions. With heat-treatment, the absorption edge pronouncedly shifts to the visible spectral range. The luminescence properties of the glass and glass-ceramics were studied by measuring their excitation and emission spectra at 300, 78, and 4.2 K. Strong red emission of Eu3+ ions dominated by the 5D0-7F2 (612 nm) electric dipole transition was detected. Changes in the luminescence properties of the Eu3+-related excitation and emission bands were observed after heat-treatments at 680 °C and 860 °C. The ZnO nanocrystals showed both broad luminescence (400-850 nm) and free-exciton emission near 3.3 eV at room temperature. The upconversion luminescence spectrum of the initial glass was obtained under excitation of the 976 nm laser source.

  1. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Fe-doped GaP nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiheidari, Farideh; Abbasian, Hamed; Mohammadi, Mahnaz

    2014-07-01

    In this work we aimed to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Fe-doped GaP nanotubes (GaPNTs). The method, utilized in this work is based on first-principle calculations that are applied to the case studies; (5,5) armchair, (8,0) zigzag GaPNTs, and Fe-doped GaPNTs. The results of simulation show that there is distortion around Fe impurity with respect to the pristine GaPNTs for Fe-doped (5,5) and (8,0) GaPNTs. The total density of states (DOS) indicates that Fe-doped GaPNTs show the metal behavior. Furthermore, it is perceived that both Fe-doped (5,5) and (8,0) GaPNTs are magnetic systems while pristine GaPNTs do not show magnetic behavior. The study suggests that such Fe-doped nanotubes may be useful in nanomagnets and spintronics.

  2. Photoluminescence of Ion Implanted ZnO Nanocrystals%离子注入氧化锌纳米晶体光致发光特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARRIMAN T A; HILDEBRAND D S; LUCCA D A; LEE J-K; WANG Y Q; NASTASI M

    2012-01-01

    A study of the effects of H+ and He+ implantation on the photoluminescence(PL) of ZnO nanocrystals is presented.This investigation is motivated by the need to further understand the effects of damage resulting from the implantation process on the luminescence response of the nanocrystals.Thin films of ZnO nanocrystals with diameters of either 4 nm or 9 nm were created on SiO2 substrates.The films were then implanted with H+ or He+ at room temperature and the resulting change in PL response due to the implantation was investigated. Implantation with He+ led to an increase in defect PL emission compared to the emission from as-grown nanocrystals,whereas the defect emission after H+ implantation was largely diminished indicating that H passivates the implantation damage.Comparing the near band edge(NBE) to defect emission ratio,the large (9 nm) nanocrystals showed an increase after H+ implantation and a decrease after He+ implantation.The NBE/defcct emission ratio for the small (4 nm) nanocrystals showed the same trends as the large nanocrystals,but the magnitude of the change after H+ implantation was considerably less.%为进一步了解离子注入过程对纳米晶体发光响应的损伤效果,研究了注入氢离子和氦离子对氧化锌纳米晶体光致发光(PL)特性的影响.首先在二氧化硅衬底上制备了直径为4 nm和9 nm的氧化锌纳米晶体薄膜,接着在室温下向生成的薄膜中注入氢离子和氦离子,并研究其PL响应变化.结果表明,与未注入离子的纳米晶体相比,注入氦离子导致缺陷PL发光增加,而当注入氢离子之后,缺陷发光大幅降低,表明氢原子对注入损伤有钝化作用.比较近谱带边沿(NBE)与缺陷发光之比发现,较大颗粒的纳米晶体其近谱带边沿与缺陷发光比在注入氢离子后增大,而在注入氦离子后降低.该规律同样适用于较小颗粒的纳米晶体,但其近谱带边沿与缺陷发光比在注入氢离子之后的增幅比大颗粒晶体的小得多.

  3. The effect of fe-dopant concentration on ethanol gas sensing properties of fe doped ZnO/ZnO shell/core nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatian, A.; Safa, S.; Azimirad, R.; Kashi, M. Almasi; Akhtarianfar, S. F.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, Fe-doped ZnO/ZnO shell/core nanostructures were synthesized through a simple two-step method and the effects of Fe dopant concentrations (between 0 and 9 at%) on the structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all of the samples are crystallized in the same wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure with (002) peak as the main orientation. Nevertheless, the morphology of shell/core nanorods remained stable with increasing of Fe dopant, but the crystallinity improved. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis showed that the Fe ions have coordination number of 3+ in the ZnO shell layer. The participation of Fe3+ ions into ZnO layer was also confirmed by Current-Voltage (I-V) curves where the resistance of nanorods was reduced with Fe concentration. Moreover, the ethanol-sensing properties of the Fe-doped ZnO/ZnO shell/core nanorod sensors were systematically investigated. According to the results, optimum gas sensing was obtained by the addition of 0.5 at% Fe to ZnO shell layer which lead to significant enhancement in ethanol gas response.

  4. Fe-doped TiO 2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Diana; Nica, Valentin; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail; Macovei, Dan

    2007-09-01

    The reactive sputtering technique was used to obtain undoped and Fe-doped TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrates. At 250 °C substrate temperature, undoped TiO 2 films crystallize in a mixed rutile/anatase phase, while Fe-doped films exhibit the rutile phase only. Presence of Fe 3+ ions into the TiO 2 lattice is suggested by the intensity variation of forbidden 1s → 3d transitions between the Ti and Fe K-edges. Ti K-edge EXAFS data are assessed to a mixture of the two kinds of surroundings, a rutile-like crystalline phase, identified also by X-ray diffraction, and a nanosized or amorphous anatase-like surrounding. The local atomic order about Fe atoms is quite different and could be related also to an amorphous phase. The Swanepoel method is used to obtain the dispersion of the refractive index below the interband absorption edge. The dispersion energy, the single-oscillator energy and the coordination number of the Ti atoms are evaluated using the single-oscillator model (Wemple-DiDomenico).

  5. Defect evolution and its impact on the ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals upon thermal treatment: A positron annihilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yuqian; Zhang, Q. K.; Qi, N.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, S. J.; Li, P. H.; Mascher, P.

    2017-01-01

    CuO/ZnO nanocomposites with 4 at. % CuO were annealed in air at various temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to produce Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals. X-ray diffraction shows that a CuO phase can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites annealed at different temperatures, and the Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals are identified to be of wurtzite structure. The main peak (101) appears at slightly lower diffraction angles with increasing annealing temperature from 400 up to 1200 °C, which confirms the successful doping of Cu into the ZnO lattice above 400 °C. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that most particles in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites are isolated when annealing at 100-400 °C, but these particles have a tendency to form clusters or aggregates as the annealing temperature increases from 700 to 1000 °C. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room-temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. However, there may be several different origins of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. At low annealing temperatures, the ferromagnetism originates from the CuO nanograins, and the ferromagnetism of CuO nanograins decreases with an increase in the grain size after subsequent higher temperature annealing, which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. After annealing from 400 to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism gradually vanishes. The ferromagnetism is probably induced by Cu substitution but is mediated by vacancy defects in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. The disappearance of ferromagnetism coincides well with the recovery of vacancy defects. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects that are distributed in the interface region.

  6. Ferromagnetic Behaviors in Fe-Doped NiO Nanofibers Synthesized by Electrospinning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Dong Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni1−xFexO nanofibers with different Fe doping concentration have been synthesized by electrospinning method. An analysis of the phase composition and microstructure shows that Fe doping has no influence on the crystal structure and morphology of NiO nanofibers, which reveals that the doped Fe ions have been incorporated into the NiO host lattice. Pure NiO without Fe doping is antiferromagnetic, yet all the Fe-doped NiO nanofiber samples show obvious room-temperature ferromagnetic properties. The saturation magnetization of the nanofibers can be enhanced with increasing Fe doping concentration, which can be ascribed to the double exchange mechanism through the doped Fe ions and free charge carriers. In addition, it was found that the diameter of nanofibers has significant impact on the ferromagnetic properties, which was discussed in detail.

  7. Morphological evolution and electronic alteration of ZnO nanomaterials induced by Ni/Fe co-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Cameron; Jiang, Yijiao; Sun, Chenghua; Amal, Rose

    2014-07-07

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals mono- and co-doped with nickel/iron were prepared using a facile solvothermal procedure. A significant change in the surface morphology from nanorods to plate-like nanoparticles was observed with an increase in the dopant concentration. The variations of their optical and electronic properties induced by metal dopants were investigated using a combination of characterization techniques and ab initio calculations. It is found that both nickel and iron atoms have been successfully incorporated into the crystal lattice rather than forming a secondary phase, suggesting good dispersion of dopants within the ZnO matrix. Doping with iron has red-shifted the absorption edges of ZnO towards the visible portion resulting in lower band gap energies with increasing dopant concentration. Evidenced by Raman and EPR spectroscopy, the addition of iron has been shown to promote the formation of more oxygen vacancy and crystal defects within the host lattice as well as increasing the free-electron density of the nanomaterial. The DFT plus Hubbard model calculations confirm that low concentration Ni-doping does not induce band gap narrowing but results in localized states. The calculations show that Fe-doping has the potential to greatly improve the optical absorption characteristics and lead to structural deformation, corroborating the UV-Vis, Raman, and EPR spectra.

  8. One-step thermal-treatment route to fabricate well-dispersed ZnO nanocrystals on nitrogen-doped graphene for enhanced electrochemiluminescence and ultrasensitive detection of pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ding; Du, Xiaojiao; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Lei; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kun

    2015-02-11

    Heteroatom doping enables graphene with novel properties and thus may broaden the potential of graphene-based materials. In this paper, novel ZnO-nanocrystal-decorated nitrogen-doped graphene (N-GR) composites were prepared through a one-step thermal-treatment route using glycine as the nitrogen source. ZnO nanocrystals with a size about 8 nm were well-dispersed and tightly anchored on the N-GR sheet. Compared with ZnO-nanocrystal-decorated undoped graphene, the ZnO/N-GR nanocomposites could not only enhance the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity by 4.3-fold but also moved the ECL onset potential positively for ∼200 mV. All these results could be ascribed to the presence of nitrogen in graphene which decreased the barrier of ZnO nanocrystals reduction. Furthermore, the ECL sensor based on ZnO/N-GR nanocomposites was fabricated for the ultrasensitive detection of pentachlorophenol (PCP). This recyclable and eco-friendly sensor has excellent performances including wide linear range (0.5 pM to ∼61.1 nM), low detection limit (0.16 pM, S/N=3), good selectivity, and stability, which is a promising sensor for practical application in environment analysis.

  9. Sequential coating upconversion NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with SiO2 and ZnO layers for NIR-driven photocatalytic and antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Meijie; Luo, Zhenguo; Bai, Song; Liu, Fangying; Chai, Qunxia; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhengquan

    2017-01-01

    ZnO is one of the most promising materials for both photocatalytic and antibacterial applications, but its wide bandgap requires the excitation of UV light which limits their applications under visible and NIR bands. Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize core-shell-shell hybrid nanoparticles consisting of hexagonal NaYF4:Yb,Tm, amorphous SiO2 and wurtzite ZnO. The upconversion nanocrystals are used as the core seeds and sequentially coated with an insulting shell and a semiconductor layer. Such hybrid nanoparticles can efficiently utilize the NIR light through the upconverting process, and display notable photocatalytic performance and antibacterial activity under NIR irradiation. The developed NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2@ZnO nanoparticles are characterized with TEM, XRD, EDS, XPS and PL spectra, and their working mechanism is also elucidated.

  10. Effect of bi-layer ratio in ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers on microstructure and functional properties of ZnO nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, K. C.; Levichev, S.; Buljan, M.; Bernstorff, S.; Kamakshi, Koppole; Chahboun, A.; Almeida, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J.; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in alumina (Al2O3) matrix were produced via rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of pulsed laser deposited ZnO/Al2O3 multilayered nanostructures. The effect of the thickness ratio ( R) between Al2O3 and ZnO in one bi-layer on the microstructure and functional properties of NCs has been investigated. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering confirmed the formation of nanocrystals after RTA. Grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering studies revealed that ZnO NCs have a high crystalline quality with (100) as preferred orientation. Tensile strain of NCs decreases with increasing R and is correlated to the distribution of NCs. From Raman analysis, it is noticed that the phonon frequency of the E2 mode, related to the ZnO wurtzite phase, in NCs is shifted towards that of bulk ZnO with increasing R. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the near edge peak position shifts from 382 nm to 371 nm as the ratio R changes from 1.5 to 4 and is attributed to the strain effect. The intensity of emission in the yellow-green region due to defects decreases significantly with increasing R. Current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of Al/ZnO NCs embedded in Al2O3/n-Si (100)/Al have shown a hysteresis behavior. The increasing width of the hysteresis with increasing R revealed that the origin of the hysteresis might be due to the existence of polar surface charges on well-separated NCs. The high-resistance and low-resistance states in I- V hysteresis curves seem to be governed by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and Schottky emission mechanisms, respectively.

  11. Fe doped TiO2-graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing -COOH functionalities using sol-gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO2 analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO2 were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO2. The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2.

  12. Fe-Doped Polycrystalline CeO2 as Terahertz Optical Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Qi-Ye; ZHANG Huai-Wu; YANG Qing-Hui; LI Sheng; XU De-Gang; YAO Jian-Quan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Fe-doped CeO2 is synthesized by ceramic method and the effects of Fe doping on the structure and properties are characterized by ordinary methods and terahertz-time domain spectrometer (THz-TDS) technique. Our results show that pure CeO2 only has a small dielectric constant ε of 4, while a small amount of Fe (0.9 at.%) doping into CeO2 promotes densification and induces a large ε of 23. From the THz spectroscopy, it is found that for undoped CeO2 both the power absorption and the index of re[faction increase with frequency, while for Fe-doped CeO2 we measure a remarkable transparency together with a flat index curve. The absorption coefficient of Fe-doped CeO2 at frequency ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 THz is less than 0.35 cm-1, implying that Fe-doped CeO2 is a potential THz optical material.

  13. The influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cui; Haibo, Yin; Lijuan, Jiang; Quan, Wang; Chun, Feng; Hongling, Xiao; Cuimei, Wang; Jiamin, Gong; Bo, Zhang; Baiquan, Li; Xiaoliang, Wang; Zhanguo, Wang

    2015-10-01

    Fe doping is an effective method to obtain high resistivity GaN epitaxial material. But in some cases, Fe doping could result in serious deterioration of the GaN material surface topography, which will affect the electrical properties of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in HEMT device. In this paper, the influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material is studied. The results of experiments indicate that the surface topography of Fe-doped GaN epitaxial material can be effectively improved and the resistivity could be increased after increasing the growth rate of GaN materials. The GaN material with good surface topography can be manufactured when the Fe doping concentration is 9 × 1019 cm-3. High resistivity GaN epitaxial material which is 1 × 109 Ω·cm is achieved. Project supported by the Knowledge Innovation Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YYY-0701-02), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61204017, 61334002), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China, and the National Science and Technology Major Project.

  14. Fe-doped epitaxial YBCO films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Yong Zhao; Wentao Wang; Min Pan; Ming Lei

    2014-01-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO)-coated conductors have wide-ranging potential in large-scale applications such as superconducting maglev trains and superconducting elec-tric cables, but low current carrying capability restrains the practical application of YBCO-coated conductors at high temperatures and high magnetic fields. It is crucial to develop YBCO-coated conductors with high critical cur-rent density. In this paper, epitaxial, dense, smooth, and crack-free Fe-doped YBCO films were prepared on a LaAlO3 single crystal substrate via a fluorine-free polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The effects of the dilute Fe doping on microstructure and superconduc-ting character of YBCO films were investigated. The crit-ical temperature for superconducting of the Fe-doped YBCO films decreases slightly. However, the in-field critical current density of YBCO films improves with dilute Fe doping of amounts less than x=0.005, compared to the pure YBCO film. Therefore, the current carrying capability of YBCO film can improve by doping with appropriate amounts of Fe. This means that dilute Fe doping in YBCO films may be a feasible way to prepare high-performance coated conductors.

  15. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 杨娟玉; 张俊山

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 with size of 60-70 nm was prepared by a sol-gel technique, followed by freeze-drying treatment for 2 h. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, laser diffraction particle size analyzer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer technologies were used to characterize the product. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of wastewater of paper-making. The effects of Fe ion implantation on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 were also discussed. The results show that the iron content plays an essential role in affecting the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 and the optimum content of Fe-doped is 0.05% (mass fraction). The photocatalytic activity of samples with lower content of Fe-doped is higher than that of pure TiO2 in the treatment of paper-making wastewater. The photo-degradation effect of paper-making effluent is the best by means of Fe-doped TiO2 with 0.05% Fe.

  16. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Fe-doped CoTiSb epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. Y.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Che, W. R.; Shan, R. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure and Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics and School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Qin, J., E-mail: juan-qin@staff.shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-11-07

    Epitaxial intrinsic and Fe-doped CoTiSb thin films with C1{sub b} structure were grown on MgO(100) substrates by magnetron sputtering. The semiconducting-like behavior in both intrinsic and Fe-doped thin films was demonstrated by temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity. The Fe-doped CoTiSb films with a wide range of doping concentrations can maintain semiconducting-like and magnetic properties simultaneously, while the semiconducting behavior is weakening with the increasing Fe concentration. For 21 at. % Fe-doped film, low lattice magnetic moment (around 0.65 μ{sub B}) and high resistivity (larger than 800 μΩ cm) are beneficial to its application as a magnetic electrode in spintronic devices. Anomalous Hall effect of 21 at. % Fe-doped film was also investigated and its behaviors can be treated well by recent-reported anomalous Hall scaling including the contribution of spin-phonon skew scattering.

  17. Stabilization of rock salt ZnO nanocrystals by low-energy surfaces and Mg additions : A first-principles study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits the wurtzite crystal structure, nanoscale ZnO was recently synthesized in the rock salt structure by addition of Mg. Using first-principles methods, we investigated two stabilization routes for accessing rock salt ZnO. The first route is stabilization by Mg add

  18. Fe-doped 8YSZ at different composition for solid electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johar B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ and Fe-doped (1 mol%, 2 mol% and 3 mol% YSZ electrolyte were prepared and sintered at 1550°C. Transition metal oxide is added into YSZ as sintering aided has a function to reduce the sintering temperature. The microstructure, crystal structure and ionic conductivity of pure YSZ and Fe-doped YSZ at different composition were investigated. The amount of cubic phase decreased as the amount of Fe increased. Fe-doped 8YSZ had higher conductivity than pure 8YSZ. The ionic conductivity of 3FeYSZ is 9.35×10−8 S/cm higher than 1FeYSZ which is 4.72×10−9 S/cm when operated at 300°C.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ruby; Kumar, Ashavani; Chaudhary, Ram Pal

    2013-09-01

    Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles (Zn1-xFexS; where x=0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrometer. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies show that the size of crystallites is in the range of 2-5 nm. Photocatalytic activities of ZnS and 3, 5 and 10 mol% Fe doped ZnS were evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. It was found that the Fe doped ZnS bleaches methylene blue much faster than the undoped ZnS upon its exposure to the visible light as compared to ultraviolet light. The optimal Fe/Zn ratio was observed to be 3 mol% for photocatalytic applications.

  20. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped In2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsaprom, Kwanruthai; Sonsupap, Somchai; Maensiri, Santi; Kidkhunthod, Pinit

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles of Fe-doped In2O3 [(In1- x Fe x )2O3, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10] are prepared by a simple polymerized complex method using indium (III) nitrate hydrate, iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as the starting materials. The XRD, Raman and electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the calcined samples have the cubic structure of In2O3. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used in order to address both qualitative and quantitative of doped Fe valence states. The undoped sample exhibits a diamagnetic behavior, whereas all the Fe-doped samples are ferromagnetic having the magnetizations of ~0.0019-0.2959 emu/g at 10 kOe. Our results indicate that room-temperature ferromagnetism of Fe-doped In2O3 system is intrinsic and is not a result of any ferromagnetic impurity phases.

  1. Synthesis of Fe-doped NiO nanofibers using electrospinning method and their ferromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohui; Jia, Jianfeng; Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shijiang; Wang, Xinchang; Song, Hongzhang; Hu, Xing

    2012-07-01

    To make p-type diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), Ni1-xFexO nanofibers with different Fe doping concentrations have been successfully synthesized by electrospinning method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O as starting materials. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, superconductivity quantum interference device (SQUID) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test. The results show that Fe doping has no influence on the diameter and surface morphology of NiO nanofibers, and the nanofibers are polycrystalline with NaCl structure. All Fe-doped samples show obvious ferromagnetic properties and the saturation magnetization is enhanced with increase of the doping concentration of Fe, which indicates that the doped Fe has been incorporated into the NiO host and results in room-temperature ferromagnetism in the Ni1-xFexO nanofibers.

  2. Improved gas sensing and dielectric properties of Fe doped hydroxyapatite thick films: Effect of molar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mene, Ravindra U. [PDEA' s, Annasaheb Waghire College of Science, Arts and Commerce, Otur 412409, M.S. (India); School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India); Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India); Mohite, K.C. [Haribhai. V. Desai College, Pune 411002, M.S. (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rskhairnarsps@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We report improved gas sensing and dielectric characteristics of Fe ion exchanged HAp films. • Fe doped HAp film shows maximum gas response at relatively lower temperature. • Response and gas uptake capacity of sensors is improved for appropriate amount of Fe ions in HAp matrix. • Fe-HAp films exhibit remarkable improvement in dielectric properties compared to pure HAp. • Fe doped HAp films show significant improvement in gas sensing as well as in dielectric properties. - Abstract: In the present work Fe doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HAp) thick films has been successfully utilized to improve the gas sensing as well as its dielectric properties. Initially, HAp nano powder is synthesized by chemical precipitation process and later on Fe ions are doped in HAp by ion exchange process. Structural and morphological modifications are observed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The sensing parameters such as operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity are experimentally determined. The Fe-HAp (0.05 M) film shows improved CO and CO{sub 2} gas sensing capacity at lower operating temperature compared to pure HAp. Moreover, variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure and Fe-HAp thick films are studied as a function of frequency in the range of 10 Hz–1 MHz. The study reveals that Fe doped HAp thick films improve the sensing and dielectric characteristics as compared to pure HAp.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, He; Han, Chong; Xue, Xiangxin

    2014-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) over Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light was investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results show that the doping with Fe significantly promoted the light absorption ability of CaTiO₃ in the visible light region. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than CaTiO₃ for the degradation of MB. However, the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped CaTiO₃ was greatly influenced by the calcination temperature during the preparation process. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ prepared at 500°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity, with degradation of almost 100% MB (10ppm) under UV-visible light for 180 min. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    The pure and Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles of the series Cu(1-x)Fe(x)O (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were successfully prepared by a simple low temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples were single phase crystallized in monoclinic structure of space group C2/c with average crystallite size of about 25 nm and unit cell volume decreases with increasing iron doping concentration. TEM micrograph showed nearly spherical shaped agglomerated particles of 4% Fe-doped CuO with average diameter 26 nm. Pure CuO showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with coercive field of 67 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties were greatly enhanced with Fe-doping in the CuO matrix. All the doped samples showed ferromagnetism at room temperature with a noticeable coercive field. Saturation magnetization increases with increasing Fe-doping, becomes highest for 4% doping then decreases for further doping which confirms that the ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles are intrinsic and are not resulting from any impurity phases. The ZFC and FC branches of the temperature dependent magnetization (measured in the range of 10-350 K by SQUID magnetometer) look like typical ferromagnetic nanoparticles and indicates that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is above 350 K.

  5. Fe-Doped TiO2 Thin Films for CO Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel technique on silicon substrate. The thin films were evaluated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) gas at room temperature. The TiO2 films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy. The characterization revealed that, as the doping concentration was increased, the grain size decreased. XRD patterns revealed the phase transition from rutile to anatase with addition of different percentages (weight/volume) of Fe. The bandgap determined from UV spectroscopy was found to decrease with increasing Fe doping concentration. Fe doping was observed to have a significant effect on the resistivity of the doped TiO2 thin films. The gas sensing behavior of the films was studied by exposure to different concentrations of CO gas with measurement of the electrical resistance. It was observed that Fe-doped (7% weight/volume) TiO2 exhibited high sensitivity and good response/recovery on exposure to CO gas in the concentration range from 100 ppm to 900 ppm in Ar.

  6. Photocatalytic performance of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Tripathi, P.; Azam, Ameer; Raza, Waseem; Ahmed, Arham S.; Ahmed, Ateeq; Muneer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present work focuses on the synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of a nanosized Fe-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. The samples were synthesized by the sol–gel method and characterized by using techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). The powder XRD spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are pure and crystalline in nature and show a tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2. The Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the formation of an anatase phase structure in both pure and Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The UV–visible and PL spectra illustrated the red shift in Fe-doped TiO2 NPs. The FTIR spectra indicated the vibrational band of the Ti–O lattice. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrate that Fe-doped TiO2 NPs effectively degrade MB under visible-light illumination. Interestingly, the prepared TiO2 NPs with a dopant concentration of 3.0 mole% showed the maximum photocatalytic activity under investigation.

  7. Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Produced via MOCVD: Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were produced via the metallorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD method at 700∘C. Different amounts of ferrocene as the Fe dopant source (0.001–0.05 g were introduced inside the reactor together with the titanium precursor in order to synthesize different Fe dopant concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles. Nitrogen (N2 adsorption results showed that increasing the Fe dopant concentration caused a slight increase in the surface area of the nanoparticles due to the decrease in nanoparticle size. The UV-diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated an absorption shift in Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles to longer wavelengths, thus showing an enhancement of the absorption in the visible spectrum. Bandgap energy values determined from the UV-diffuse reflectance spectra data decreased with an increase in the Fe dopant concentrations. The photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated via degradation of methylene blue under UV and fluorescent light. It was found that Fe doping reduced the photocatalytic activity of the samples. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS results, it is believed that this is due to the unfavourable location of Fe3+ inside the interior matrix of the TiO2 nanoparticles rather than on the exterior surface, which would affect photocatalytic behaviour.

  8. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R., E-mail: krp@unigoa.ac.in [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403 206 (India); Emura, S. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nigam, A. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  9. First-principle Calculations of V/Fe Doped Anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hong-hong; CHEN Qiang; WANG Tian-min

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structures of the titanium dioxide(TiO2) doped with V and Fe were analyzed by using first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory(DFT) with the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW). The fully optimized structure and the relaxation introduced by impurity were obtained by minimizing the total energy and atomic forces. The unit cell of the V-doped anatase TiO2 is smaller than that of the non-doped one, but for the Fe-doped one, the case is just the opposite. It is found that the apical Ti-O and impurity-O bond lengths of the V/Fe-doped anatase TiO2 are greater than those of the non-doped structure, but smaller for the equatorial bond length. Through the band structures and the density of states, the V-doped TiO2 is shown to be a kind of half-metal, while the Fe-doped TiO2 a kind of metal. The magnetic moments of the V/Fe-doped system are mainly generated by the dopants. The results may be helpful for us to understand the experimental outcome of this system.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide decorated with Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles for humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloman, D.; Popa, A.; Stan, M.; Socaci, C.; Biris, A. R.; Katona, G.; Tudorache, F.; Petrila, I.; Iacomi, F.

    2017-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles were fabricated via the electrostatic interaction between positively charged modified Fe-doped SnO2 oxide and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH). The decoration of rGO layers with SnO2:Fe nanoparticles was highlited by TEM microsopy. For composite sample the diffraction patterns coincide well with those of SnO2:Fe nanoparticles. The reduction of graphene oxide was evidenced using XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of SnO2:Fe-PAH-graphene composites was confirmed by FT-IR, Raman and EPR spectroscopy. Sensitivity tests for relative humidity (RH) measurements were carried out at five different concentrations of humid air at room temperature. The prepared composite sensor exhibited a higher sensing response as compared with Fe:SnO2 nanoparticles.

  11. The local structure and optical absorption characteristic investigation on Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Tianxing; Huang, Junheng; He, Jinfu; Liu, Qinghua; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    The local structures and optical absorption characteristic of Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD patterns show that all Fe-doped TiO2 samples have the characteristic anatase structure. Accurate Fe and Ti K-edge EXAFS analysis further reveal that all Fe atoms replace Ti atoms in the anatase lattice. The analysis of UV-Vis data shows a red shift to the visible range. According to the above results, we claim that substitutional Fe atoms lead to the formation of structural defects and new intermediate energy levels appear, narrowing the band gap and extending the optical absorption edge towards the visible region.

  12. Bio-green synthesis of Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticle thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Ketan P.; Ghule, Kalyani; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Dive, Avinash S.; Bagul, Sagar B.; Digraskar, Renuka V.; Sharma, Ramphal; Ghule, Anil V.

    2017-05-01

    Herein Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using simple, cost effective and ecofriendly biosynthesis method, in which remnant water (ideally kitchen waste) collected from soaked Bengal gram beans (Cicer arietinum L.) was used. This extract consists of different bio-molecules which acted as complexing as well as capping agents for synthesis of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed uniform size distribution with the average size of 6 nm and confirmed the formation of rutile structure with space group (P42/mnm) and nanocrystalline nature of the products with spherical morphology. Further, the gas sensing properties of the materials have been studied in comparison with other gases. The reported gas sensing results are promising, which suggest that the Fe-dopant is a promising noble metal additives to fabricate low cost SnO2 based sensor.

  13. Synthesis of Fe-doped NiO nanofibers using electrospinning method and their ferromagnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shaohui [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Jia Jianfeng, E-mail: Jiajf@zzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang Jiao [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Liu Shijiang [College of Physics and Electric Information, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wang Xinchang; Song Hongzhang; Hu Xing [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2012-07-15

    To make p-type diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), Ni{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O nanofibers with different Fe doping concentrations have been successfully synthesized by electrospinning method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Ni(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O as starting materials. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, superconductivity quantum interference device (SQUID) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test. The results show that Fe doping has no influence on the diameter and surface morphology of NiO nanofibers, and the nanofibers are polycrystalline with NaCl structure. All Fe-doped samples show obvious ferromagnetic properties and the saturation magnetization is enhanced with increase of the doping concentration of Fe, which indicates that the doped Fe has been incorporated into the NiO host and results in room-temperature ferromagnetism in the Ni{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O nanofibers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-doped NiO nanofibers of diameter about 80 nm and length of several millimeters have been successfully synthesized by the electrospinning method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferromagnetic properties of one-dimensional nanostructured materials were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tests of Raman spectroscopy, superconductivity quantum interference device (SQUID) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clarify that the room temperature ferromagnetism of NixFe1-xO nanofibers is intrinsic.

  14. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Mn and Fe-doped Co3O4 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mn and Fe-doped Co3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple precipitation method. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM techniques. XRD analysis showed the cubic structure of Co3O4. SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of interconnected nanoparticles. Mn and Fe-doped Co3O4 showed broad absorption in the visible region compared to undoped sample and the band gap values are red shifted. Five Raman active modes were observed from the Raman spectra. FTIR spectra confirmed the spinel structure of Co3O4 and the doping of Mn and Fe shifts the vibrational modes to lower wave number region. The magnetic measurements confirmed that Fe-doped Co3O4 shows a little ferromagnetic behavior compared to undoped and Mn-doped Co3O4, which could be related to the uncompensated surface spins and the finite size effects.

  15. Fe-doped cryptomelane synthesized by refluxing at atmosphere: Structure, properties and photocatalytic degradation of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui; Dai, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Mengqiang; Li, Feihu; Feng, Xionghan; Liu, Fan

    2015-10-15

    Fe-doped cryptomelanes were synthesized by refluxing at ambient pressure, followed by characterization with multiple techniques and test in photocatalytic degradation of phenol. The introduction of Fe(III) into the structure of cryptomelane results in a decrease in particle size and the contents of Mn and K(+), and an increase in the Mn average oxidation state (AOS), specific surface area and UV-vis light absorption ability. Mn and Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis indicates that some Fe(III) is incorporated into the framework of cryptomelane by replacing Mn(III) while the remaining Fe(3+) is adsorbed in the tunnel cavity. These Fe-doped cryptomelanes have significantly improved the photocatalytic degradation rate of phenol, with the sample of ∼3.04 wt.% Fe doping being the most reactive and achieving a degradation rate of 36% higher than that of the un-doped one. The enhanced reactivity can be ascribed to the increase in the coherent scattering domain size of the crystals, Mn AOS and light absorption, as well as the presence of sufficient K(+) in the tunnel. The results imply that metal doping is an effective way to improve the performance of cryptomelane in pollutants removal and has the potential for modification of Mn oxide materials.

  16. Effect of (Fe, Co) co-doping on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanocrystals prepared by solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Mast, E-mail: mastram1999@yahoo.com; Negi, N.S.

    2016-01-15

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub 0.05}Fe{sub x}O (where, x=0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mol%) nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method are reported. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) have been used for structural and compositional analysis. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the existence of hexagonal wurtzite structure of parent ZnO with co-doping. The microstructural studies reveal the dense nanostructured morphology of these samples. The DC electrical conductivity measurements have been carried out in the temperature range of 300–450 K. The DC electrical conductivity decreases with the increasing Fe concentration. The magnetic studies reveal room temperature ferromagnetisation in doped ZnO nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles improve with increasing Fe dopant concentration.

  17. Structural and spectroscopic study of the Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films for applications in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, N.R. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, IMP, Eje Central Lazaro CardenasSan Bartolo Atepehuacan (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Jacome, M.A.C.; Antonio, J.A.T. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, IMP, Eje Central Lazaro CardenasSan Bartolo Atepehuacan (Mexico); Morales, Erik R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-05-15

    In this work we are presenting the results of structural and optical investigations of TiO{sub 2} and Fe doped TiO{sub 2} films using XRD, XPS, UV-VIS transmittance spectroscopy, and the application of these films in photocatalysis is demonstrated. Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by sol-gel method. The concentration of Fe utilized for doping ranged from 0.5 to 4% by atomic weight. For lower concentrations of Fe the transformation from amorphous-to-polycrystalline occurred at 400 C. However, as the Fe concentration was increased to 4% this transformation occurred only after annealing at 600 C. The average grain size for 4% Fe doped sample was in the range of 13 nm. In the case of pure TiO{sub 2} the XPS analysis showed only the presence of Ti {sup 4+}, where the 4% Fe doped film showed the presence of two species of Ti atoms; one of unperturbed Ti atoms and another of negatively charged surface of Ti atoms due to the interaction with Fe atoms in the anatase lattice of TiO{sub 2}. The optical band gap was found to decrease with Fe concentration. The resistivity was found to decrease by one order after doping. The 4% Fe doped TiO{sub 2} films showed an increased photocatalytic activity. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. The impact of Fe doping on J sub c behavior of Bi2223/Ag tapes under magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, H; Song, W H; Du, J J; Sun, Y P

    2002-01-01

    Bi sub 1 sub . sub 8 Pb sub 0 sub . sub 4 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 sub . sub 2 Cu sub 3 sub - sub x Fe sub x O sub y silver-sheathed (Bi2223/Ag) tapes with different Fe-doping amounts, x=0.001, 0.002, 0.003, 0.004, were fabricated by powder-in-tube (PIT) technique. It is found that the magnetic field dependence of critical current density J sub c (H) is improved for samples with Fe-doping amounts of x=0.001, 0.002, and 0.003 at high magnetic fields, while the J sub c (H) behavior deteriorates with Fe-doping level increasing further. X-ray diffraction analyses manifest that a small amount of Fe-doping has little effect on the phase composition of Bi2223/Ag tapes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations do not show an obvious difference between un-doped and Fe-doped samples. It is concluded that the enhanced flux pinning originates from the introduction of effective pinning centers due to Fe ions partial substitution for Cu ions. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  20. Photoluminescence and Raman studies for the confirmation of oxygen vacancies to induce ferromagnetism in Fe doped Mn:ZnO compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, J., E-mail: jayashree304@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Mishra, D.K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Srinivasu, V.V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Sahu, D.R. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida (India); Roul, B.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2015-05-15

    With a motivation to compare the magnetic property, we synthesised undoped, transition metal (TM) Mn doped and (Mn:Fe) co-doped ZnO ceramics in the compositions ZnO, Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O and Zn{sub 0.96}(Mn{sub 0.02}Fe{sub 0.02})O. Systematic investigations on the structural, microstructural, defect structure and magnetic properties of the samples were performed. Low temperature as well as room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed for all our samples, however, enhanced magnetisation at room temperature has been noticed when ZnO is co-doped with Fe along with Mn. Particularly the sample with the composition Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.02}Fe{sub 0.02}O showed a magnetisation value more than double of the sample with composition Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O, indicating long range strong interaction between the magnetic impurities leading to higher ferromagnetic ordering. Raman and PL studies reveal presence of higher defects in form of oxygen vacancy clusters created in the sample due to Fe co doping. PL study also reveals enhanced luminescence efficiency in the co doped sample. Temperature dependent magnetisation study of this sample shows the spin freezing temperature around 39 K indicating the presence of small impurity phase of Mn{sub 2−x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 3} type. Electron Spin Resonance signal obtained supports ferromagnetic state in the co doped sample. Enhancement of magnetisation is attributed to interactions mediated by magnetic impurities through large number of oxygen vacancies created by Fe{sup 3+} ions forming bound magnetic polarons (BMP) and facilitating long range ferromagnetic ordering in the co- doped system. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic property of ZnO, Zn{sub 0.98}Mn {sub 0.02}O and Zn{sub 0.96}(Mn{sub 0.02}Fe{sub 0.02})O. • Observation of enhanced magnetisation at room temperature in (Mn,Fe) doped ZnO. • Raman and PL studies reveal presence of higher oxygen vacancy clusters. • Electron Spin Resonance signal supports

  1. Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in the Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng-Liang; Wang Dun-Hui; Chen Jian; Wang Ting-Zhi; Xie Guang-Xi; Zhu Chun

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effects in Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys are investigated. The substitution of Fe for Ni decreases the structural transition temperature remarkably,resulting in the magnetostructural transition occurring between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states in MnNil-xFex Ge alloy. Owing to the enhanced ferromagnetic coupling induced by the substitution of Fe,metamagnetic behaviour is also observed in TiNiSi-type phase of MnNil_yFe.Ge alloys at temperature below the structural transition temperature.

  2. Effect of thermal treatment in vacuum on Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilovol, V. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mudarra Navarro, A.M.; Rodriguez Torres, C.E. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CCT La Plata, CONICET (Argentina); Cabrera, A.F., E-mail: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CCT La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    A sample of 10 at% Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} powder was prepared by mechanical alloying and then thermally treated at 773 K in vacuum. The fit of the diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that the as milled sample was pure doped rutile. Fe dissolved into SnO{sub 2} was found in Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} ionic valence with mainly paramagnetic behavior. After the thermal treatment all techniques indicate the formation of the ternary Sn{sub 0.36}Fe{sub 2.64}O{sub 4} spinel phase, which is responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  3. Comparative study of (N, Fe) doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larumbe, S., E-mail: silvia.larumbe@unavarra.es [Departamento Física, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Monge, M. [Departamento de Química, Universidad de la Rioja, Centro de Investigación en Síntesis Química (CISQ), Complejo Científico Tecnológico, 26006 Logroño (Spain); Gómez-Polo, C. [Departamento Física, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Fe, N doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by sol–gel. • The nitrogen content controlled the mean size of nanoparticles and afterwards the modification of cell parameters with respect the undoped sample. • Both doping elements induced the increase of the anatase-rutile transition temperature. • A red-shift is observed in the absorption spectra with the introduction of both elements. • An improvement of photocatalytic activity is observed with the introduction of nitrogen under UV and Visible light. However for higher concentrations a decrease in kinetic constants was observed as consequence of the oxygen vacancies acting as recombination centers. On the contrary, a deterioration of photocatalytic efficiency is found for the Fe doped samples. • A correlation between magnetic behavior and photocatalytic activity was found. - Abstract: The effect of N and Fe doping on the structural, optical, photocatalytic and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is analyzed. Undoped, N and Fe doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by sol–gel method. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used as the alkoxyde precursor and iron (III) nitrate and urea were the employed precursors to obtain Fe and N doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA) enabled the analysis of the thermal decomposition process and the final calcination temperature. X-Ray Diffraction patterns of the calcined nanoparticles displayed a monophasic anatase structure in all the samples with mean crystallite diameter around 4–6 nm. The introduction of Fe or N induced a red-shift in the absorption spectra. Such a red-shift is characterized by a decrease in the band-gap energy and the occurrence of an absorption (Urbach) tail in the visible region. Finally, the photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated under UV and Visible light, obtaining an improvement of the kinetic constants in

  4. Fe-doping in hydride vapor-phase epitaxy for semi-insulating gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E.; Gridneva, E.; Weyers, M.; Tränkle, G.

    2016-12-01

    Fe-doping of GaN layers of 3 in. in diameter and a thickness of 1 mm in a vertical AIX-HVPE reactor is studied. Ferrocen was used as Fe source. It is shown that a sufficient uniformity of growth conditions, a high purity of undoped GaN layers, and a moderate Fe incorporation of 2×1018 cm-3 allow for growth of semi-insulating GaN layers with a sufficiently high specific resistivity even at elevated temperature. This makes the material suitable as substrate for electronic power devices at high power or in harsh ambient.

  5. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  6. Effect of Fe doping on the terahertz conductivity of GaN single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Paskova, Tanya; Evans, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Bulk single crystals of GaN with different degrees of Fe doping were studied using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy at high temperatures. Features due to free carriers were observed in the complex permittivity spectra with a pronounced dependence on both doping and temperature. Fitting the spectra using the Drude model made it possible to deduce a defect ionization energy of 16 meV in the undoped sample while the spectra of doped samples are consistent with an ionization energy of 60 meV. Also, the free carrier concentrations at temperatures from 300 to 900 K were estimated.

  7. Effect of Fe doping on the terahertz conductivity of GaN single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Paskova, Tanya; Evans, Keith [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    Bulk single crystals of GaN with different degrees of Fe doping were studied using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy at high temperatures. Features due to free carriers were observed in the complex permittivity spectra with a pronounced dependence on both doping and temperature. Fitting the spectra using the Drude model made it possible to deduce a defect ionization energy of 16 meV in the undoped sample while the spectra of doped samples are consistent with an ionization energy of 60 meV. Also, the free carrier concentrations at temperatures from 300 to 900 K were estimated.

  8. Structural and electronic properties of Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chao; Wang Chun-Lei; Li Ji-Chao; Yang Kun

    2007-01-01

    We have performed first principles calculations of Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. Dopant formation energy, structure distortion, band structure and density of states have been computed. The dopant formation energy is found to be 6.8 eV and 6.5 eV for Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 respectively. The distances between Fe impurity and its nearest O atoms and between Fe atom and Ba or Sr atoms are smaller than those of the corresponding undoped bulk systems. The Fe defect energy band is obtained, which mainly originates from Fe 3d electrons. The band gap is still an indirect one after Fe doping for both BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, but the gap changes from Г-R point to Г-X point.

  9. Tuning of ultra-violet to green emission by choosing suitable excitation wavelength in ZnO: Quantum dot, nanocrystals and bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L. Robindro [Department of Physics, PU College, Mizoram University, Aizawal, 796001 (India); Ningthoujam, R.S., E-mail: rsn@barc.gov.i [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Singh, S. Dorendrajit [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, 795 003 (India)

    2009-11-13

    ZnO particles (quantum dots to bulk) have been prepared using urea hydrolysis and are dispersible in methanol. In photoluminescence study, as-prepared sample shows the main emission peaks at 375 and 394 nm, which are assigned to the exciton and band-edge emissions, respectively. The former peak disappears when as-prepared sample is heated at 300, 500, 700 and 900 deg. C due to particle size effect. Interestingly, higher heated samples shows emission peak at 505 nm and it is attributed to oxygen vacancy created in ZnO lattice. The intensity ratio of UV-light at 394 nm to green light at 505 nm can be adjusted by choosing suitable excitation wavelengths and also particle size or heat-treatment. Optimum emission intensities at 394 and 505 nm can be obtained on 360-370 and 320-330 nm excitations, respectively. These materials will be useful in optoelectronic applications.

  10. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material...... for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications can be controlled by adjusting the electrolyte composition. Compared to Fe-doped TiO2 films prepared with traditional phosphate- or silicate-based electrolytes, our newly synthesised Fe–TiO2 films contain solely Fe dopants, which results in excellent photocatalytic...

  11. Structural, optical and room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of Fe-doped CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Basith, N.; Judith Vijaya, J.; John Kennedy, L.; Bououdina, M.

    2013-09-01

    Pure CuO and Fe-doped CuO nanostructures with different weight ratios (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 at wt% of Fe) were synthesized via the microwave combustion method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD patterns refined by the Rietveld method indicated the formation of single-phase monoclinic structure and also confirmed that Fe ions successfully incorporated into CuO crystal lattice by occupying Cu ionic sites. Interestingly, the morphology was found to change considerably from nanoflowers to nano-rod and disk-shaped then to nanoparticles with the variation of Fe content. The optical band gap calculated using DRS was found to be 2.8 eV for pure CuO and increases up to 3.4 eV with increasing ‘Fe’ content. Photoluminescence measurements also confirm these results. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained nanostructures are found to be room temperature ferromagnetism (RTF) with an optimum value of saturation magnetization at 2.0 wt% of Fe-doped CuO, i.e. 1.2960×10-3 emu/g.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalysis of Fe-Doped : A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 was prepared by hydrothermal treating Ti peroxide sol with different amount of iron nitrate. Fe ions can enter TiO2 lattice by substituting Ti4+ ions, which significantly affect the crystallinity and morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles. Fe doping also influences the UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence of TiO2, due to the change of electronic structure. It is shown that Fe ions are more easily doped on TiO2 surface than in bulk. The theoretical computation based on the density functional theory (DFT shows that the Fe ions in TiO2 bulk are localized and mainly act as the recombination centers of photoinduced electrons and holes. Some results support that the Fe3+ ions on surface can form intermediate interfacial transfer pathway for electrons and holes, which is beneficial for increasing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity first increases and then decreases as the Fe concentration increases, which is coaffected by the bulk-doped and surface-doped Fe ions.

  13. Superior acidic catalytic activity and stability of Fe-doped HTaWO6 nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, He

    2017-07-26

    Fe-doped HTaWO6 (H1-3xFexTaWO6, x = 0.23) nanotubes as highly active solid acid catalysts were prepared via an exfoliation-scrolling-exchange process. The specific surface area and pore volume of undoped nanotubes (20.8 m2 g-1, 0.057 cm3 g-1) were remarkably enhanced through Fe3+ ion-exchange (>100 m2 g-1, 0.547 cm3 g-1). Doping Fe ions into the nanotubes endowed them with improved thermal stability due to the stronger interaction between the intercalated Fe3+ ions and the host layers. This interaction also facilitated the preservation of effective Brønsted acid sites and the generation of new acid sites. The integration of these functional roles resulted in Fe-doped nanotubes with high acidic catalytic activities in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of anisole and the esterification of acetic acid. Facile accessibility to active sites, generation of effective Brønsted acid sites, high stability of the tubular structure and strong acid sites were found to synergistically contribute to the excellent acidic catalytic efficiency. Additionally, the activity of cycled nanocatalysts can be easily recovered through annealing treatment.

  14. 掺铁纳米氧化锌的制备及其光催化活性研究%Preparation and Photo - catalytic Activity of Fe - doped Zinc Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马会宣; 赵晓岚; 贺永强; 李军

    2016-01-01

    以乙酸锌和三氯化铁为原料,草酸为沉淀剂,柠檬酸三铵为表面改性剂,溶胶-凝胶法,制备纯纳米氧化锌和掺铁纳米氧化锌。用XRD、固体紫外、物理吸附仪(BET)以及扫描电镜(SEm)等手段对所得产物进行结构表征,通过光催化降解模拟污染废水亚甲基蓝溶液,研究催化剂的光催化活性,考察了不同铁掺量、不同焙烧温度和不同 pH 的催化体系对催化效果的影响。结果显示:掺铁后的样品,运用歇乐公式估算,并结合 SEm 照片,粒径在纳米范围且减小,500℃焙烧的掺铁0.5%的氧化锌样品与纯氧化锌比较,形貌由小球堆积状变为多孔的棒状结构,BET 比表面积从15.9 m2/ g 增大到171.9 m2/ g,催化光降解亚甲基蓝,降解率可达92.6%。与相近文献比较,使用光源功率缩小175W,降解时间缩短2 h。%ZnO and Fe - doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the sol - gel method,using zinc acetate as Zn sources,iron trichloride as Fe sources,ethanedioic acid as precipitant and citric acid three ammonium as surface modification agent. Then the structure of the materials was characterized by XRD,UV - Vis,BET and SEm. The photocatalytic performance of different Fe -doped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated taking methylene blue as target compounds. The effects of Fe - doping amount, calcination temperature and the pH were systematically studied. The results show that 0. 5% Fe - doped ZnO porous rod nanoparticles were formed with a specific surface area of 171. 9 m2 / g,calcinated at 500℃,and its photo - catalytic activity was the best,the degradation rate up to 92. 6% under the conditions(125W high pressure mercury lamp as light source,reaction 3 h,and methylene blue solution initial pH 7. 40). It is more important that compared with similar papers,both the time and the power ware significantly decreased.

  15. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qing Lan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); School of Electronics and Information, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Xiong, Rui [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072 (China); Zhai, Bao-gai [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Huang, Yuan Ming, E-mail: dongshanisland@126.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating Zn microcrystals in water. • A fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is a self-assembly of ZnO nanoplates along one ZnO nanorod. • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than ZnO nanocrystals. • The branched hierarchical structures are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves.

  16. XRD analysis of undoped and Fe doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Williamson Hall method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Bandna; Barman, P. B.; Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.kumar@juit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan-173234, H.P. (India)

    2015-08-28

    Undoped and Fe doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature. The synthesized samples were annealed at 500°C. For structural analysis, the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} and Fe doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were calculated by Scherer’s formula, and was found to be 15 nm and 11 nm, respectively. Reduction in crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} with Fe doping was observed. The anatase phase of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. By using Williamson-Hall method, lattice strain and crystallite size were also calculated. Williamson–Hall plot indicates the presence of compressive strain for TiO{sub 2} and tensile strain for Fe-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles annealed at 500°C.

  17. Effects of Fe Doping on the Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Dang Xuan; Trung, Vu Quoc; Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Khang, Nguyen Cao; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-11-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by the hydrolysis method. The effects of Fe doping on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the Ti1- x Fe x O2 ( x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10, 0.13) materials were thoroughly investigated by a combination of various methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. Analysis of the TEM and XRD measurements showed that the resulting powders had nanoscale particle size. The Fe-doped samples were found to be paramagnetic at room temperature (by magnetization measurements), with Fe acting as substitutional impurity at Ti sites in the anatase TiO2 phase. Substitution of Fe at Ti sites was also confirmed by Raman spectra. The paramagnetic nature of the Ti1- x Fe x O2 samples was further investigated using density functional theory calculations of their electronic band structure and density of states. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 samples was studied by investigating their photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue.

  18. Meso-macroporous Fe-doped Cu O: Synthesis, characterization, and structurally enhanced adsorption and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑飞; 肖奇

    2015-01-01

    The meso-macroporous Fe-doped Cu O was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller N2 adsorption-desorption analyses and UV-vis diffuses reflectance spectroscopy. The Fe-doped Cu O sample shows higher adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity for xanthate degradation than pure Cu O under visible light irradiation. In addition, the adsorption process is found to fit Langmuir isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The the first order kinetic Langmuir Hinshelwood model was used to study the reaction kinetics of photocatalytic degradation, and the apparent rate constant( k) was calculated. The value of k for Fe-doped Cu O is 1.5 times that of pure Cu O. The higher photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped Cu O is attributed to higher specific surface area together with stronger visible light absorption.

  19. Preparation of Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays and their room-temperature ferromagnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Liu, Chao; Shen, Weidong; Cao, Chunlan; Song, Sihong

    2014-08-01

    Fe-doped titania nanotube arrays (NTs) were fabricated by electrochemical anodization on a Ti foil using Fe(NO3)3 · 2H2O as iron source. Their morphology, structure and optical properties were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The UV-visible reflection spectrum of the Fe-doped TiO2 NTs showed a red shift in wavelength of absorption and greater reflectivity compared with the undoped sample due to the Fe ion incorportion in TiO2 lattices. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Fe-doped TiO2 NTs shows two strong new peaks centered at 388 nm and 694 nm, besides the UV emission peak owing to the electronic transition mediated by the defect levels such as oxygen vacancies in the band gap. The magnetic property of the Fe-doped TiO2 NTs exhibits a room temperature ferromagnetic characteristic with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 0.146 x 10(-2) emu/cm3 and a coercive field of 60 Oe. And the cause of the magnetic properties has been discussed in detail.

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-doped NiO nanofoams assembled by porous nanosheets for fast response and recovery gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu; Tan, Jian-Feng; Hu, Yan-E.; Huang, Xin-Tang

    2017-04-01

    Fe-doped NiO, a type of p-type gas sensor, has received wide attention for its low cost, environmentally friendliness and excellent gas-sensing performance. However, the operating temperature of Fe-doped NiO is too high (300 °C -500 °C). This study attempts to investigate the possibility of Fe-doped NiO working in relatively low temperature regions. A type of NiO nanofoam assembled by porous nanosheets was synthesized through a normal pressure microwave solvent thermal method by a domestic microwave oven, and Fe doping with different doping concentrations was investigated systematically. The gas-sensing performance was tested at a relatively low temperature (200 °C -280 °C). We found that the Fe-doped NiO still had a good gas-sensing performance, even at a relatively low temperature. In detail, the NiO nanofoams with 3 at% Fe-doping concentration were proven to have the best gas sensing characteristics (the response was 12-100 ppm ethanol at 280 °C), and an especially fast response and recovery (the response time and the recovery time was 1 s and 3.6 s, respectively). The study promoted the research regarding the gas sensing characteristics of Fe-doped NiO at a relatively low temperature.

  1. Study of structural and optical properties of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Poonam; Gupta, Ankita; Kaur, Sarabjeet; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Iron doped Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at different concentration (3%, 6%, 9%) at 300-400° C with Copper Acetate and Ferric Chloride as precursors in presence of Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Hydroxide as stabilizing agent. Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties is studied. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectroscopy for examining the size and the band gap respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction plots confirmed the monoclinic structure of Copper oxide suggesting the Cu atoms replaced by Fe atoms and no secondary phase was detected. The indirect band gap of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles is 2.4eV and increases to 3.4eV as the concentration of dopant increases. The majority of particle size is in range 8 nm to 35.55 nm investigated by X-ray diffractometer.

  2. Effect of particle size on the exchange bias of Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S. Y.; Yuan, S. L.; Tian, Z. M.; Liu, L.; Wang, C. H.; Zheng, X. F.; Duan, H. N.; Huo, S. X.

    2010-02-01

    Effect of particle size on exchange bias in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles is investigated, which are sintered at different temperatures from 350 to 650 °C, respectively. The structure and magnetic properties for different particle size samples were probed. It is found that the system shows magnetic properties transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic with increasing grain size, and exhibits the variations in exchange bias field (HEB) and coercivity (HC) at low temperature after field-cooled from 300 K. With the increase in the particles size, HEB decreases monotonously. Furthermore, vertical magnetization shift was also observed for the small particles. Exchange bias is attributed to the exchange coupling interactions between ferromagnetic and spin-glass-like (or antiferromagnetic) phase interface layers.

  3. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped BaSnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balamurugan, K.; Kumar, N. Harish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. Arout [Advanced Magnetics Group, Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Santhosh, P.N. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: santhosh@iitm.ac.in

    2009-03-20

    Polycrystalline bulk samples of BaSn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3}, with x = 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 were prepared by solid-state reaction method. These Fe-doped BaSnO{sub 3} systems exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature with an average magnetic moment of 0.047, 0.038 and 0.025{mu}{sub B}/F{sub e} and Curie temperature of 510, 462 and 446 K, respectively. The observed magnetic properties are not attributed to any of the known impurity phases or clusters. The presence of ferromagnetic interaction at room temperature is supported by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) signals observed in the electron spin resonance spectra. The ferromagnetic order between Fe-ions is expected to be mediated by an electron trapped at the oxygen anion vacancy, called the F-centre exchange (FCE) interaction.

  4. The effect of Ni and Fe doping on YBCO powder prepared by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Saeb

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  We fabricated YBa2Cu3-xMxO7- d (M=Ni, Fe bulk samples, with stochiometric amount 0≤x≤0.045 by sol-gel method. The phase analysis and microstructure of specimens were examined by XRD and SEM. The electrical resistivity was measured using standard four probe technique for 77-300K. Investigation of XRD spectrum by MAUD shows Ni and Fe ions substitute in Cu(2 and Cu(1 site, respectively. Transition temperature decreases in 93-87K for Ni-doped samples and 93-92K for Fe-doped series. It seems that the suppression of superconductivity has no direct correlation with the magnetism of ions itself .

  5. Paramagnetism and clustering in Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Torres, C.E., E-mail: torres@fisica.unlp.edu.a [IFLP, CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 115 y 49, C. C. 67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stewart, S.J. [IFLP, CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 115 y 49, C. C. 67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Adan, C. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, 49706 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Cabrera, A.F. [IFLP, CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 115 y 49, C. C. 67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-04-16

    The magnetic behavior of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} anatase nanoparticles (2.8 and 5.4 at.%) was investigated throughout magnetizations versus applied field measurements between 2 and 300 K temperatures. The experimental results were well-fitted by using the Brillouin function, giving rise to a moment per isolated Fe atom of about 5 {mu}{sub B}. The thermal evolution of the number of magnetic ions shows that a decrease of ions in paramagnetic state occurs below 50 K for the most diluted sample. However for the 5.4 at.% sample the fall even at room temperature is evident. These moments probably order antiferromagnetically via superexchange interactions. Taking into account the low concentration of dopant and the high fraction of interacting ions, a correlated substitution of Fe in cation sites of TiO{sub 2} structure needs to be considered.

  6. First-principle Studies on Ferromagnetism of Fe-doped AlN Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei WU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Fe-doped AlN by first-principles calculations within density functional theory. The calculated results show that AlN crystals doped by double Fe atoms display ferromagnetic properties, and the total magnetic moment is 10.0 µB per 72-atom supercell (3 × 3 × 2. The calculated energy differences between the antiferromagnetic (AFM and ferromagnetic (FM phases are 207 meV, which means FM state is a stable state. It is also found that the 3d-states of Fe dopants and the 2p-states of N atoms bonding to Fe dopants are the main contributors to the density of states at the Fermi level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.10750

  7. Photocatalytic Degradation of Nox Under Visible Light Irradiation Using Fe-Doped Titanium Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to utilize visible light in photocatalytic conversion of NOx, Fe atoms were doped in commercially available photocatalytic TiO2 powders by impregnating method.The crystal phase of TiO2 was not changed after calcination process. Analysis by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that Fe atoms were incorporated in TiO2 as Ti-O-Fe linkages. One significant shift of the absorption edge to a Iower energy and a higher absorption in the visible light region were observed. The Fe-doped TiO2 powder exhibited photocatalytic activity for the degradation of NOx under visible light irradiation. The sample mixed with 0.2 at% Fe3+ and calcined at 600 ℃ showed the best photocatalytic activity.

  8. Room-Temperature Anisotropic Ferromagnetism in Fe-Doped In2O3 Heteroepitaxial Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Peng-Fei; CHEN Yan-Xue; TANG Min-Jian; YAN Shi-Shen; LIU Guo-Lei; MEI Liang-Mo; JIAO Jun

    2009-01-01

    Fe-doped In_2O_3 films are grown epitaxially on YSZ (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, the atomic force microscopy, and the x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a well defined cubic structure epitaxially oriented in the (100) direction. Room temperature ferromagnetism is observed by an alternating gradient magnetometer. Strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a remnant magnetization ratio of 0.83 and a coercivity of 2.S kOe is revealed. Both the structural and the magnetic measurements suggest that this ferromagnetism is an intrinsic property deriving from the spin-orbit coupling between the diluted Fe atoms.

  9. Sonochemical Synthesis of Er3+-Doped ZnO Nanospheres with Enhanced Upconversion Photoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Geng; Guang-Hui Song; Jun-Jie Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Er3+-doped ZnO nanospheres have been synthesized via a sonochemical conversion process. The formation mechanism of these nanocrystals is connected with the sonochemical effect of ultrasound irradiation. The as-prepared Er3+ doped ZnO nanospheres show enhanced photoluminescence and upconversion photoluminescence properties compared with pure ZnO.

  10. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing Lan; Xiong, Rui; Zhai, Bao-gai; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by CeO2 and Fe-doped CeO2 films under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channei, D; Inceesungvorn, B; Wetchakun, N; Ukritnukun, S; Nattestad, A; Chen, J; Phanichphant, S

    2014-08-29

    Undoped CeO2 and 0.50-5.00 mol% Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation combined with homogeneous/impreganation method, and applied as photocatalyst films prepared by a doctor blade technique. The superior photocatalytic performances of the Fe-doped CeO2 films, compared with undoped CeO2 films, was ascribed mainly to a decrease in band gap energy and an increase in specific surface area of the material. The presence of Fe(3+) as found from XPS analysis, may act as electron acceptor and/or hole donor, facilitating longer lived charge carrier separation in Fe-doped CeO2 films as confirmed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The 1.50 mol% Fe-doped CeO2 film was found to be the optimal iron doping concentration for MO degradation in this study.

  12. Control of ferromagnetism in Fe-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} by carbothermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Shiming [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Science, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Ge Shihui, E-mail: gesh@lzu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Qiao Wen; Zuo Yalu; Xu Feng; Xi Li [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Fe-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were prepared using the sol-gel method. Solubility of Fe ions in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} host compound reached up to 50%. Lattice constant decreased linearly as Fe doping concentration increased, indicating that Fe ions were incorporated into the host lattice and occupied the In sites. Ferromagnetism could be obtained from the samples with carbothermal annealing. The dependence of ferromagnetism on the carbon dosage was observed. The greater the carbon dosage, the higher the concentration of oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}) created, and the more robust the ferromagnetism. - Research Highlights: Solubility of Fe ions in the In2O3 host compound reached up to 50%. Ferromagnetism can be induced by carbothermal annealing. Ferromagnetism is related to the content of oxygen vacancies. The dependence of ferromagnetism on the carbon dosage was observed.

  13. Optical and Magnetic Properties of Fe-Doped GaN Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Prepared by MOCVD Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAG Zhi-Kuo; ZHANG Rong; CUI Xu-Gao; XIU Xiang-Qian; ZHANG Guo-Yu; XIE Zi-Li; GU Shu-Lin; SHI Yi; ZHENG You-Dou

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fe-doped GaN thin films are grown on c-sapphires by metal organic chemical vapour deposition method (MOCVD).Crystalline quality and phase purity are characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements.There are no detectable second phases formed during growth and no significant degradation in crystalline quality as Fe ions are doped. Fe-related optical transitions are observed in photoluminescence spectra. Magnetic measurements reveal that the films show room-temperature ferromagnetic behaviour. The ferromagnetism may originate from carrier-mediated Fe-doped CaN diluted magnetic semiconductors or nanoscale iron dusters and Fe-N compounds which we have not detected.

  14. The magnetic characterization of Fe doped TiO2 semiconducting oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, M.; Shahtahmasebi, N.; Kompany, A.; Karimipour, M.; Razavi, F.; Nasralla, N. H. S.; Šiller, L.

    2017-04-01

    In this work Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized at different Fe/Ti molar ratio from 1% to 5% by sol-gel technique. The post annealing of the samples was carried out at T=400, 600, and 800 °C. HRTEM of the samples revealed that the mean size of the nanoparticles increases from about 8 nm to about 100 nm as the annealing temperature increased. SQUID magnetometry of 1% and 5% Fe doped TiO2 has shown mixed ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases within the crystal while ferromagnetic order with Tc about 350 K was only observed in 5% Fe:TiO2 sample annealed at T=800 °C. The oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetic (FM) interaction could be responsible for the observed FM.

  15. The magnetic characterization of Fe doped TiO{sub 2} semiconducting oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeganeh, M., E-mail: mahboubeh.yeganeh@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Kosar University of Bojnord, P.O. Box 94104455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtahmasebi, N.; Kompany, A. [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimipour, M. [Department of Physics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, F. [Department of Physics, Brock University (Canada); Nasralla, N.H.S. [Electron Microscope and Thin Film Department, Physics Division, 33 El Buhouth st., Dokki, 12622 Giza (Egypt); Šiller, L. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    In this work Fe doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized at different Fe/Ti molar ratio from 1% to 5% by sol-gel technique. The post annealing of the samples was carried out at T=400, 600, and 800 °C. HRTEM of the samples revealed that the mean size of the nanoparticles increases from about 8 nm to about 100 nm as the annealing temperature increased. SQUID magnetometry of 1% and 5% Fe doped TiO{sub 2} has shown mixed ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases within the crystal while ferromagnetic order with T{sub c} about 350 K was only observed in 5% Fe:TiO{sub 2} sample annealed at T=800 °C. The oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetic (FM) interaction could be responsible for the observed FM.

  16. Study of Cu-doping effects on magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO by first principle calculations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A El Amiri; H Lassri; M Abid; E K Hlil

    2014-06-01

    Using ab initio calculations on Zn0.975–Fe0.025CuO ( = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05), we study the variations of magnetic moments vs Cu concentration. The electronic structure is calculated by using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (KKR) method combined with coherent potential approximation (CPA). We show that the total magnetic moment and magnetic moment of Fe increase on increasing Cu content. From the density of state (DOS) analysis, we show that Cu-induced impurity bands can assure, by two mechanisms, the enhancement of Fe magnetic moment in Zn0.975–Fe0.025CuO.

  17. Spin wave study and optical properties in Fe-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lmai, F.; Moubah, R.; El Amiri, A.; Abid, Y.; Soumahoro, I.; Hassanain, N.; Colis, S.; Schmerber, G.; Dinia, A.; Lassri, H.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the magnetic and optical properties of Zn1-xFexO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique. The magnetization as a function of temperature [M (T)] shows a prevailing paramagnetic contribution at low temperature. By using spin wave theory, we separate the M (T) curve in two contributions: one showing intrinsic ferromagnetism and one showing a purely paramagnetic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the spin wave theory is consistent with ab-initio calculations only when oxygen vacancies are considered, highlighting the key role played by structural defects in the mechanism driving the observed ferromagnetism. Using UV-visible measurements, the transmittance, reflectance, band gap energy, band tail, dielectric coefficient, refractive index, and optical conductivity were extracted and related to the variation of the Fe content.

  18. Phase conjugation of vector fields by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe-doped LiNbO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-15

    We propose a method to generate the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field by degenerate four-wave mixing in a c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal. We demonstrate experimentally that the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field can be generated. In particular, the phase-conjugate vector field has also the peculiar function of compensating the polarization distortion, as the traditional phase-conjugate scaler field can compensate the phase distortion.

  19. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamilnadu (India); Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamilnadu (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu 603 104, Tamilnadu (India); Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Kuppan, M.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamilnadu (India); Reddy, D. Sreekantha [Department of Physics and Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Omkaram, I. [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders using a solid state reaction. • Characterization of the samples using XRD, UV–vis-NIR, FT-IR, and VSM. • All Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders exhibited the cubic structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • All the Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism. - Abstract: Iron doped indium oxide dilute magnetic semiconductor (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) powders were synthesized by standard solid state reaction method followed by vacuum annealing. The effect of Fe concentration on structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} powders have been systematically studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the polycrystalline cubic structure of all the samples. An optical band gap increases from 3.12 eV to 3.16 eV while Fe concentration varying from 0.03 to 0.07. Magnetic studies reveal that virgin/undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is diamagnetic. However, all the Fe-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples are ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of ferromagnetic (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) samples increases from 11.56 memu/g to 148.64 memu/g with x = 0.03–0.07. The observed ferromagnetism in these samples was attributed to magnetic nature of the dopant (Fe) as well as defects created in the samples during vacuum annealing.

  20. Nanocrystal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisdale, William; Prins, Ferry; Weidman, Mark; Beck, Megan

    2016-11-01

    A method of preparing monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals can include contacting an M-containing precursor with an X donor to form a mixture, where the molar ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor is large. Alternatively, if additional X donor is added during the reaction, a smaller ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor can be used to prepare monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals.

  1. Enhancement of Photo-Oxidation Activities Depending on Structural Distortion of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonwoo; Yang, Sena; Jeon, Eun Hee; Baik, Jaeyoon; Kim, Namdong; Kim, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hangil

    2016-12-01

    To design a high-performance photocatalytic system with TiO2, it is necessary to reduce the bandgap and enhance the absorption efficiency. The reduction of the bandgap to the visible range was investigated with reference to the surface distortion of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles induced by varying Fe doping concentrations. Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Fe@TiO2) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and analyzed by various surface analysis techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, and high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. We observed that Fe doping over 5 wt.% gave rise to a distorted structure, i.e., Fe2Ti3O9, indicating numerous Ti(3+) and oxygen-vacancy sites. The Ti(3+) sites act as electron trap sites to deliver the electron to O2 as well as introduce the dopant level inside the bandgap, resulting in a significant increase in the photocatalytic oxidation reaction of thiol (-SH) of 2-aminothiophenol to sulfonic acid (-SO3H) under ultraviolet and visible light illumination.

  2. Effect of Fe doping on structural and impedance properties of PZTFN ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind, E-mail: arvindmse07311209.in@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science, G. L. Bajaj Institute of Technology and Management, Greater Noida-201306 (India); Pal, Vijayeta [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida – 201307 (India); Mishra, S. K. [Ram-Eesh Group of Institutions, Greater Noida – 201306 (India)

    2016-05-06

    An attempts have been made to synthesis the ceramics Pb{sub 1-3x/2} Fe{sub x}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 1-5y/4} NbyO{sub 3} abbreviated as (PFZTN) for x = 1-6 mol% and y = 5.5 mol% by a semi-wet route. In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of Fe doping on structural and electrical properties of the PFZTN ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that PFZTN ceramics are single phase in nature. However, for x = 0.05 and 0.06, a secondary phase appears as discernible from the XRD profiles. Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction data shows the presence of coexistence of tetragonal (P4mm space group) and rhombohedral phases (R3c space group) occurs near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x ≥ = 0.05. The log-log plots show that the conductivity increases with increase of temperature. The ac conductivity becomes sensitive at high frequency region and shifted towards higher frequency side with increasing temperature. It is observed that the activation energy (Ea) decreases with increasing frequency. This complex perovskite structure can be used as a multilayer ceramic capacitors and electromechanical transducers.

  3. First-principles investigation of Fe-doped MgSiO{sub 3}-ilmenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stashans, Arvids, E-mail: arvids@utpl.edu.ec [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Rivera, Krupskaya [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Escuela de Geologia y Minas, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Pinto, Henry P. [Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 39217-0510 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    First principles density functional theory and generalised gradient approximation (GGA) have been exploited to investigate Fe-doped ilmenite-type MgSiO{sub 3} mineral. Strong electron correlation effects not included in a density-functional formalism are described by a Hubbard-type on-site Coulomb repulsion (the DFT+U approach). Microstructure of equilibrium geometries, electronic band structures as well as magnetic properties are computed and discussed in detail. Hartree-Fock methodology is used as an extra tool to study optical properties of the same system. For equilibrium state of the doped mineral we find zigzag-type atomic rearrangements around the Fe impurity. The inclusion of correlation effects leads to an improved description of the electronic properties. In particular, it is discovered that Fe incorporation produces local energy levels within the band-gap of the material. Using {Delta}SCF method optical absorption energies are found to be equal to 2.2 and 2.6 eV leading to light absorption at longer wavelengths compared to the undoped MgSiO{sub 3}. Our results provide evidence on the occurrence of local magnetic moment in the region surrounding iron dopant. According to the outcomes, the Fe Rightwards-Double-Arrow Mg reaction can be described as substitutionally labile with Fe{sup 2+} complex being found in the high-spin state at low pressure MgSiO{sub 3}-ilmenite conditions.

  4. Structural properties of pure and Fe-doped Yb films prepared by vapor condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Ayala, C., E-mail: chachi@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, P.O.B. 14-149, Lima 14 (Peru); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910, ES (Brazil); Suguihiro, N.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Litterst, F.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Ytterbium and iron-doped ytterbium films were prepared by vapor quenching on Kapton substrates at room temperature. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to study the microstructure of pure and iron-doped films and thereby to understand the effects induced by iron incorporation. A coexistence of face centered cubic and hexagonal close packed-like structures was observed, the cubic-type structure being the dominant contribution. There is an apparent thickness dependence of the cubic/hexagonal relative ratios in the case of pure ytterbium. Iron-clusters induce a crystalline texture effect, but do not influence the cubic/hexagonal volume fraction. A schematic model is proposed for the microstructure of un-doped and iron-doped films including the cubic- and hexagonal-like structures, as well as the iron distribution in the ytterbium matrix. - Highlights: • Pure and Fe-doped Yb films have been prepared by vapor condensation. • Coexistence of fcc- and hcp-type structures was observed. • No oxide phases have been detected. • Fe-clustering does not affect the fcc/hcp ratio, but favors a crystalline texture. • A schematic model is proposed to describe microscopically the microstructure.

  5. Effect of Fe doping on structural and impedance properties of PZTFN ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Pal, Vijayeta; Mishra, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    An attempts have been made to synthesis the ceramics Pb1-3x/2 Fex(Zr0.52Ti0.48)1-5y/4 NbyO3 abbreviated as (PFZTN) for x = 1-6 mol% and y = 5.5 mol% by a semi-wet route. In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of Fe doping on structural and electrical properties of the PFZTN ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that PFZTN ceramics are single phase in nature. However, for x = 0.05 and 0.06, a secondary phase appears as discernible from the XRD profiles. Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction data shows the presence of coexistence of tetragonal (P4mm space group) and rhombohedral phases (R3c space group) occurs near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x ≥ = 0.05. The log-log plots show that the conductivity increases with increase of temperature. The ac conductivity becomes sensitive at high frequency region and shifted towards higher frequency side with increasing temperature. It is observed that the activation energy (Ea) decreases with increasing frequency. This complex perovskite structure can be used as a multilayer ceramic capacitors and electromechanical transducers.

  6. Adsorption of CO2 on Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons: Investigation of transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, W.; Fahed, M.; Hatim, S.; Sherazi, A.; Berdiyorov, G.; Tit, N.

    2017-07-01

    Density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism is used to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on GNR’s surface (aFe-graphene) or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene). Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurity site. Moreover, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. These behaviours are not only consolidated but rather confirmed by calculating the IV characteristics from which both surface resistance and its sensitivity to the gas are estimated. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing efficient graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  7. CO2 adsorption on Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons: First principles electronic transport calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Berdiyorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decoration of graphene with metals and metal-oxides is known to be one of the effective methods to enhance gas sensing and catalytic properties of graphene. We use density functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on graphene’s surface (aFe-graphene or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene. Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurities. The reduction in the transmission is more pronounced in the case of aFe-graphene. In addition, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. Pristine graphene is also found to be less sensitive to the molecular adsorption. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  8. Defect mechanisms of coloration in Fe-doped SrTiO3 from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathon N.; Bowes, Preston C.; Long, Daniel M.; Moballegh, Ali; Harris, Joshua S.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Irving, Douglas L.

    2017-03-01

    To understand the underlying defect mechanisms governing the coloration of Fe-doped SrTiO3 (Fe:STO), density functional theory calculations were used to determine defect formation energies and to interpret optical absorption spectra. A grand canonical defect equilibrium model was developed using the calculated formation energies, which enabled connection to annealing experiments. It was found that FeTi 0 is stable in oxidizing conditions and leads to the optical absorption signatures in oxidized Fe:STO, consistent with experiment. Fe:STO was found to transition from brown to transparent as P O2 was reduced during annealing. The defect equilibrium model reproduces a consistent P O2 of this coloration transition. Most critical to reproducing the P O2 of the coloration transition was inclusion of a Fe Ti - V O first nearest neighbor complex, which was found to be strongly interacting. The coloration transition P O2 was found to be insensitive to the presence of minority background impurities, slightly sensitive to Fe content, and more sensitive to annealing temperature.

  9. Characterization of transparent superconductivity Fe-doped CuCrO2 delafossite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddee, Chutirat; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2016-09-01

    Delafossite CuCr1-xFexO2 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) semiconductors were synthesized using a self-combustion urea nitrate process. The effects of Fe concentration on its microstructural, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results revealed the delafossite structure in all the samples. The lattice spacing of CuCr1-xFexO2 slightly increased with increasing substitution of Fe at the Cr sites. The optical properties measured at room temperature using UV-visible spectroscopy showed a weak absorbability in the visible light and near IR regions. The corresponding direct optical band gap was about 3.61 eV, exhibiting transparency in the visible region. The magnetic hysteresis loop measurements showed that the Fe-doped CuCrO2 samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. This indicated that the substitution of Fe3+ for Cr3+ produced a mixed effect on the magnetic properties of CuCrO2 delafossite oxide. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements clearly revealed the presence of superconductivity in the CuCr1-xFexO2 with a superconducting transition up to 118 K.

  10. Structural, Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Fe-DOPED BaTiO3 Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengang; Yang, Lihong; Qiu, Hongmei; Zhan, Xuedan; Yin, Jinhua; Cao, Lipeng

    The structural, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of bulk perovskite Fe-doped BaTiO3 (BFTO) prepared by standard solid-state reaction have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identifies the tetragonal structure of BFTO samples. Rietveld refinements of XRD data indicates that the doping ions led to ab-plane expansion and out-of-ab-plane shrinkage of the BFTO phases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements for the prepared samples reveals that Fe3+ and Fe4+ ions replaces Ti4+ ions in the crystal lattice to form single-phase BFTO solids. The results of the temperature-dependent dielectric properties and magnetic hysteresis loops for the BFTO solids show simultaneously the ferroelectric order and ferromagnetic order at room temperature. The doping of magnetic element Fe brings about ferromagnetic order for the samples, and the measured magnetic moment for each Fe atom increases from 0.70 μB to 1.55 μB in BFTO samples. The origin of ferromagnetism of the BFTO samples should be attributed to the double exchange interactions of Fe3+-O2-Fe4+ ions.

  11. Catalytic wet air oxidation with Ni- and Fe-doped mixed oxides derived from hydrotalcites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, G; Rodríguez, A; Vallet, A; Gómez, P; García, J

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation of Basic Yellow 11 (BY11), a basic dye, was studied in a batch reactor. Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structure containing nickel or iron cations have been prepared by coprecipitation and subsequently calcined leading to Ni- and Fe-doped mixed oxides, respectively. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of BY11, these catalysts showed high activity for total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity and dye removal at 120 degrees C and 50 bars after 120 min. It has been demonstrated that the activity depended strongly on the presence of catalyst. The results show that catalysts containing nickel provide a higher extent of oxidation of the dye whereas the reaction carried out with the iron catalyst is faster. The Ni and Fe dispersion determined from the TPR results was higher for the catalysts with a lower Ni or Fe content and decreased for higher Ni or Fe contents. On the basis of activity and selectivity, the Ni containing catalyst with the medium (3%) Ni content was found to be the best catalyst. Finally, a relationship between metal content of the catalyst and reaction rate has been established.

  12. Magnetic and dielectric study of Fe-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Sinha, Tripurari Prasad

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and Fe (5% and 10%) doped CdSe have been synthesized by soft chemical route and found to have cubic structure. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurement of the doped samples indicates the presence of anti-ferromagnetic order. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurement under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions has also ruled out the presence of ferromagnetic component in the samples at room temperature as well as low temperature. In order to estimate the anti-ferromagnetic coupling among the doped Fe atoms, an M-T measurement at 500 Oe has been carried out, and the Curie-Weiss temperature θ of the samples has been estimated from the inverse of susceptibility versus temperature plots. The dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the spectra of imaginary part of dielectric constant. The temperature dependent relaxation time is found to obey the Arrhenius law having activation energy 0.4 eV for Fe doped samples. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Dyes Degradation with Fe-Doped Titanium Nanotube Photocatalysts Prepared from Spend Steel Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Ming Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 has been studied most commonly because it has high stability, nontoxicity, high catalytic activity, and high conductivity. Many studies have shown that TiO2 would generate electron-hole pairs illuminated with UV and surround more energy than that before being illuminated. In this study, the titanium nanotube (TNT photocatalysts were prepared to increase the surface area and adsorption capacity. The Fe TNT was also prepared from a slag iron since many slag irons cause waste treatment problems. In this study, a different Fe loading was also assessed since TNT doped with metals can be used to improve the degradation efficiency. Furthermore, five kinds of dye concentration, including 10, 20, 100, 200, and 400 ppm, and five kinds of Fe-doped content, including 0, 0.77, 1.13, 2.24, and 4.50%, were tested. Different kinds of reaction time and dye species were also assessed. In this result, Direct Black 22 was the most difficult to be degraded, although the concentration was decreased or the dose amount was increased. The degradation efficiency of 10 ppm Direct Black 22 was below 40% with 0.04 gL−1 TNT under 365 nm UV irradiation.

  14. CO2 adsorption on Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons: First principles electronic transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Abdullah, H.; Al Ezzi, M.; Rakhmatullaeva, G. V.; Bahlouli, H.; Tit, N.

    2016-12-01

    Decoration of graphene with metals and metal-oxides is known to be one of the effective methods to enhance gas sensing and catalytic properties of graphene. We use density functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on graphene's surface (aFe-graphene) or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene). Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurities. The reduction in the transmission is more pronounced in the case of aFe-graphene. In addition, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. Pristine graphene is also found to be less sensitive to the molecular adsorption. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  15. Hot-injection synthesis of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with tunable magnetic properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Qiu, Yulong; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals containing ferromagnetic Ni and semiconductor ZnO have been prepared via a hot-injection route. The Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals have a flower-like morphology that consists of Ni inner cores and ZnO petal shells. In spite of their large lattice mismatch, ZnO nanocrystals can still grow on faceted Ni nanocrystals to form stable interfaces. The composition of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals is readily controlled, and the average size of Ni core is tunable from 25 to 50 nm. Room temperature ferromagnetic properties are observed in these hybrid nanocrystals, and tunable magnetic properties also can be achieved by varying the size of Ni core. The as-prepared Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance under ultraviolet light illumination as compared to pure ZnO nanocrystals. Furthermore, the superior reusability of hybrid nanocrystals for photocatalytic application is achieved by virtue of their magnetic properties. The facile and efficient seed-mediate strategy is particularly attractive to construct hybrid magnetic-semiconducting heterostructures. The as-obtained Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals offer great potential for various applications due to their combined magnetic and semiconducting properties and low-cost earth-abundant availability.

  16. Photo-physical studies of pyridine capped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, H. S.; Singh, Karamjit; Kavita; Kumar, Sunil; Choubey, R. K.

    2014-07-01

    Pyridine capped ZnO nanocrystals with different sizes were synthesized at room temperature by wet chemical synthesis. Pyridine provides the control over the morphology of final product. X-ray study confirms the crystalline hexagonal structure of the capped and uncapped ZnO nanocrystals. The particle size was found to decrease with increase in capping concentration. Electron microscopy investigation reveals the uniform morphology of the product. Optical absorption studies indicate the blue shift effect for pyridine capped ZnO as compare to uncapped ZnO.

  17. Acceptors in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Corolewski, Caleb; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T.; Walter, Eric D.; Norton, M. G.; Harrison, Kale W.; Ha, Su Y.

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence shows that these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.5, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO2 contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals has been attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a zinc vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g = 2.0033 and g = 2.0075, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0053.

  18. Acceptors in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Matthew D., E-mail: mattmcc@wsu.edu; Corolewski, Caleb D.; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Norton, M. Grant; Harrison, Kale W. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 (United States); Ha, Su [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6515 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence indicates these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.4, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO{sub 2} contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals is attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a Zn vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g{sub ⊥} = 2.0015 and g{sub //} = 2.0056, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0035.

  19. Research of fluorescent spectra of oleic acid-stabilized ZnSe nanocrystals based on UV light modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Licai; Bai, Zhongchen; Huang, Zhaoliang; Liao, Sha; Zhang, Zhengping

    2016-11-01

    The non-aqueous synthesized and post-preparative treatment of oleic acid (OA)-stabilized ZnSe nanocrystals were studied systematically. ZnSe nanocrystals were successfully synthesized via paraffin liquid and oleic acid system by using OA as stabilizer. Synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by means of absorption and fluorescent spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Furthermore, solutions of ZnSe nanocrystals were illuminated with UV light. The experimental results showed that the fluorescent peak was red-shifted from 445 to 510 nm. The results suggested that, when the solution under illumination, OA was removed from the surface of ZnSe nanocrystals and the surface of ZnSe nanocrystals was oxidized to ZnO nanocrystals. ZnSe/ZnO core/shell nanocrystals were formed when the solution of ZnSe nanocrystals illuminated with UV light.

  20. Synthesis of nanostructural ZnO using hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were successful synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method combined with and without hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB).The phases and morphologies of the products were measured using X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),respectively.The results indicated that the ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were of hexagonal wurtzite structure.ZnO nanorods were obtained without using CTAB,and then the morphology of ZnO changed to ZnO nanoflower and the density of nanoflower became denser with the increase of CTAB concentration.ZnO nanoflower and ZnO nanorod as photoanode were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC),respectively.The nanoflower shows a higher dye loading,so DSSC with the use of the ZnO nanoflower possesses a higher conversion efficiency than ZnO nanorod.

  1. Characterization of transparent superconductivity Fe-doped CuCrO{sub 2} delafossite oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddee, Chutirat [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Kamwanna, Teerasak, E-mail: teekam@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effect of Fe substitution on the physical properties in CuCrO{sub 2} is studied. • The substitution of Cr{sup 3+} by Fe{sup 3+} produces a mixed effect on the magnetic properties. • CuCr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} delafossite oxides show transparent superconductivity. - Abstract: Delafossite CuCr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) semiconductors were synthesized using a self-combustion urea nitrate process. The effects of Fe concentration on its microstructural, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results revealed the delafossite structure in all the samples. The lattice spacing of CuCr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} slightly increased with increasing substitution of Fe at the Cr sites. The optical properties measured at room temperature using UV–visible spectroscopy showed a weak absorbability in the visible light and near IR regions. The corresponding direct optical band gap was about 3.61 eV, exhibiting transparency in the visible region. The magnetic hysteresis loop measurements showed that the Fe-doped CuCrO{sub 2} samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. This indicated that the substitution of Fe{sup 3+} for Cr{sup 3+} produced a mixed effect on the magnetic properties of CuCrO{sub 2} delafossite oxide. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements clearly revealed the presence of superconductivity in the CuCr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} with a superconducting transition up to 118 K.

  2. Magnetostructural transition behavior in Fe-doped Heusler Mn–Ni–In ribbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongwei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Fang, Yue; Feng, Shutong [Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhai, Qijie [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Luo, Zhiping [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, NC 28301 (United States); Zheng, Hongxing, E-mail: hxzheng@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, we investigated magnetostructural transition behavior in Mn-rich Heusler Mn{sub 50−x}Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} (x=0, 1, 2, 3 at%) ribbon materials. Microstructural observations showed that substituting Mn with Fe in Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} led to striking grain refinement from ∼50 μm to 5–10 μm, and formation of a secondary phase when Fe content was increased up to 2 at%. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermomagnetic measurements indicated that a paramagnetic→ferromagnetic transition in austenite occurred first, followed with a weak-magnetic martensitic transition upon cooling for the Mn{sub 50−x}Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} (x=0, 1, 2). In case of Mn{sub 47}Fe{sub 3}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9}, the martensitic transformation happened between paramagnetic austenite and weak-magnetic martensite, without the presence of the magnetic transition in austenite. The effective refrigeration capacity of Mn{sub 49}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 41}In{sub 9} reached 137.1 J kg{sup −1} under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe. - Highlights: • The magnetostructural transition behavior of Fe-doped Mn–Ni–In was investigated. • Substituting Mn with Fe would lead to striking grain refinement in melt-spun Mn–Ni–In ribbon materials. • Secondary phase formed when 2 at% Mn was replaced by Fe in annealed Mn–Ni–In ribbon materials.

  3. Photo-Hall-effect study of excitation and recombination in Fe-doped GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, David C.; Leach, Jacob H.; Metzger, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The photo-Hall-effect was applied to the study of electron dynamics in semi-insulating Fe-doped GaN. High-powered light-emitting diodes of wavelengths λ = 940, 536, 449, 402, and 365 nm were used to excite steady-state free-electron volume concentrations Δn = 105-108 cm-3, depending on λ and intensity I0. Electron lifetime τ was determined from the energy E dependence of the excited sheet electron concentration Δns through the relationship Δns = I0τA(E), where the absorbance A(E) is a known function of sample thickness d and absorption coefficient α, and the energy dependence of α is taken from a theory of deep-center photoionization. The major sample impurities were Fe, Si, and C, with [Fe] ≫ [Si] and [C]. Fitted lifetimes τ ranged from 15 to 170 ps, depending on [Fe]. It was found that Δns ∝ I0 for [Si] > [C] and ∝ I01/2 for [Si] [C], some of the neutral Fe3+ is converted to Fe2+ with ground state Fe2+(5E) and excited state Fe2+(5T2); a fit of n vs. temperature T over the range of 290-325 K in the dark establishes E5E with respect to the conduction band: ECB - E5E = 0.564 eV - β5ET, where β5E = 3.6 × 10-4 eV/K. At room temperature, 294 K, ECB - E5E = 0.46 eV and ECB - E5T2 = 0.07 eV.

  4. Properties and annealing stability of Fe doped semi-insulating GaN structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, A.Y.; Smirnov, N.B.; Govorkov, A.V.; Shlensky, A.A. [Institute of Rare Metals, B. Tolmachevsky 5, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation); McGuire, Kris; Harley, E.; McNeil, L.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Khanna, Rohit; Pearton, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zavada, J.M. [US Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The properties of semi-insulating GaN films doped with Fe are reported. The 300 K sheet resistivity of the films is 2 x 10{sup 10} {omega}/square with an activation energy of the dark conductivity of 0.5 eV. The Fermi level is also pinned at E{sub C}-0.5 eV. The concentration of the 0.5 eV traps in the Fe doped portion of the films was 3 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. Also present is a high concentration of deeper electron traps with the level near E{sub C}-0.9 eV and of hole traps with level near E{sub V}+0.9 eV. Intra-center transitions of the Fe{sup 3+} center are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The stability of the films were studied after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at temperatures 750-1050 C and furnace annealing in hydrogen at temperatures up to 850 C. The Fe is distributed nonuniformly, with a minimum near 0.5-1 {mu}m from the surface. RTA at 850 C leads to roughness of the surface and decreases of the sheet resistivity and the cathodoluminescence intensity. The density of deep traps also greatly decreases. The effect becomes much more pronounced for furnace annealing in hydrogen for times on the order of 15 minutes and 850 C is the highest practicable under these conditions without destroying the surface morphology. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Effects of Fe-doping on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 powders prepared by an ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Yu, Jiaguo; Cheng, Bei

    2006-10-11

    Highly photoactive nanocrystalline mesoporous Fe-doped TiO(2) powders were prepared by the ultrasonic-induced hydrolysis reaction of tetrabutyl titanate (Ti(OC(4)H(9))(4)) in a ferric nitrate aqueous solution (pH 5) without using any templates or surfactants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements, UV-visible adsorbance spectra (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone in air. The results showed that all the Fe-doped TiO(2) samples prepared by ultrasonic methods were mesoporous nanocrystalline. A small amount of Fe(3+) ions in TiO(2) powders could obviously enhance their photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped TiO(2) powders prepared by this method and calcined at 400 degrees C exceeded that of Degussa P25 (P25) by a factor of more than two times at an optimal atomic ratio of Fe to Ti of 0.25. The high activities of the Fe-doped TiO(2) powders could be attributed to the results of the synergetic effects of Fe-doping, large BET specific surface area and small crystallite size.

  6. Self-powered flexible Fe-doped RGO/PVDF nanocomposite: an excellent material for a piezoelectric energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Sumanta Kumar; Mandal, Dipankar; Khatua, Bhanu Bhusan

    2015-06-28

    In this work, we report the superior piezoelectric energy harvester ability of a non-electrically poled Fe-doped reduced graphene oxide (Fe-RGO)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanocomposite film prepared through a simple solution casting technique that favors the nucleation and stabilization of ≈99% relative proportion of polar γ-phase. The piezoelectric energy harvester was made with non-electrically poled Fe-RGO/PVDF nanocomposite film that gives an open circuit output voltage and short circuit current up to 5.1 V and 0.254 μA by repetitive human finger imparting. The improvement of the output performance is influenced by the generation of the electroactive polar γ-phase in the PVDF, due to the electrostatic interactions among the -CH2-/-CF2- dipoles of PVDF and the delocalized π-electrons and remaining oxygen functionalities of Fe-doped RGO via ion-dipole and/or hydrogen bonding interactions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the nucleation of the polar γ-phase of PVDF by electrostatic interactions and Raman spectroscopy also supported the molecular interactions between the dipoles of PVDF and the Fe-doped RGO nanosheets. In addition, the nanocomposite shows a higher electrical energy density of ≈0.84 J cm(-3) at an electric field of 537 kV cm(-1), which indicates that it is appropriate for energy storage capabilities. Moreover, the surface of the prepared nanocomposite film is electrically conducting and shows an electrical conductivity of ≈3.30 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 2 wt% loading of Fe-RGO.

  7. Contrasting behavior of the structural and magnetic properties in Mn- and Fe-doped In2O3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have observed room temperature ferromagnetism in In2O3 thin films doped with either 5 at.% Mn or Fe, prepared by pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 °C. The dependence of saturation magnetization on grain size was investigated for both types of In2O3 films. It is revealed that, for the Mn-doped films, the magnetization was largest with small grains, indicating the importance of grain boundaries. In contrast, for Fe-doped films, the largest magnetization was observed with large grains.

  8. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Honghui Teng; Shukun Xu; Dandan Sun; Ying Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region co...

  9. Effect of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticle derived from modified hydrothermal process on the photocatalytic degradation performance on methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie; Shen, Wenzhong; He, Wensen; Zu, Xiaotao

    2008-07-15

    Anatase Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with 10-15 nm particles sizes were directly prepared with amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles and Fe(NO3)3.9H2O by hydrothermal method. The TiO2 crystallite grain sizes decreased with the increase of Fe contents. When Fe contents increased, the diffuse reflectance spectra of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed a red shift in the band gap transition. And the absorbing band edge moved to visible range when the Fe contents were more than 2 mol%. XPS analysis showed that Fe3+ was not on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, but inserting into the matrix interior. As a result, the photoactivity degradation of MB on Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles decreased.

  10. Generation of continuous wave terahertz frequency radiation from metal-organic chemical vapour deposition grown Fe-doped InGaAs and InGaAsP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandas, Reshma A.; Freeman, Joshua R., E-mail: j.r.freeman@leeds.ac.uk; Rosamond, Mark C.; Chowdhury, Siddhant; Cunningham, John E.; Davies, A. Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Dean, Paul [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hatem, Osama [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, PO Box 31521, Tanta (Egypt); Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Fice, Martyn; Seeds, Alwyn J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cannard, Paul J.; Robertson, Michael J.; Moodie, David G. [CIP Technologies, Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath, Ipswich, Suffolk IP5 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    We demonstrate the generation of continuous wave terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from photomixers fabricated on both Fe-doped InGaAs and Fe-doped InGaAsP, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The photomixers were excited using a pair of distributed Bragg reflector lasers with emission around 1550 nm, and THz radiation was emitted over a bandwidth of greater than 2.4 THz. Two InGaAs and four InGaAsP wafers with different Fe doping concentrations were investigated, with the InGaAs material found to outperform the InGaAsP in terms of emitted THz power. The dependencies of the emitted power on the photomixer applied bias, incident laser power, and material doping level were also studied.

  11. Fe-Doping Effect on Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeona Mun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitutional doping approach has been shown to be an effective strategy to improve ZT of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric raw materials. We herein report the Fe-doping effects on electronic and thermal transport properties of polycrystalline bulks of p-type Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3. After a small amount of Fe-doping on Bi/Sb-sites, the power factor could be enhanced due to the optimization of carrier concentration. Additionally, lattice thermal conductivity was reduced by the intensified point-defect phonon scattering originating from the mass difference between the host atoms (Bi/Sb and dopants (Fe. An enhanced ZT of 1.09 at 300 K was obtained in 1.0 at% Fe-doped Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 by these synergetic effects.

  12. Aqueous and Surface Chemistries of Photocatalytic Fe-Doped CeO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangdao Channei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the effects of water on Fe-doped nanoparticulate CeO2, produced by flame spray pyrolysis, which is a critical environmental issue because CeO2 is not stable in typical atmospheric conditions. It is hygroscopic and absorbs ~29 wt % water in the bulk when exposed to water vapor but, more importantly, it forms a hydrated and passivating surface layer when immersed in liquid water. In the latter case, CeO2 initially undergoes direct and/or reductive dissolution, followed by the establishment of a passivating layer calculated to consist of ~69 mol % solid CeO2·2H2O and ~30 mol % gelled Ce(OH4. Under static flow conditions, a saturated boundary layer also forms but, under turbulent flow conditions, this is removed. While the passivating hydrated surface layer, which is coherent probably owing to the continuous Ce(OH4 gel, would be expected to eliminate the photoactivity, this does not occur. This apparent anomaly is explained by the calculation of (a the thermodynamic stability diagrams for Ce and Fe; (b the speciation diagrams for the Ce4+-H2O, Ce3+-H2O, Fe3+-H2O, and Fe2+-H2O systems; and (c the Pourbaix diagrams for the Ce-H2O and Fe-H2O systems. Furthermore, consideration of the probable effects of the localized chemical and redox equilibria owing to the establishment of a very low pH (<0 at the liquid-solid interface also is important to the interpretation of the phenomena. These factors highlight the critical importance of the establishment of the passivating surface layer and its role in photocatalysis. A model for the mechanism of photocatalysis by the CeO2 component of the hydrated phase CeO2·2H2O is proposed, explaining the observation of the retention of photocatalysis following the apparent alteration of the surface of CeO2 upon hydration. The model involves the generation of charge carriers at the outer surface of the hydrated surface layer, followed by the formation of radicals, which decompose organic

  13. Comparative assessment of the efficiency of Fe-doped TiO2 prepared by two doping methods and photocatalytic degradation of phenol in domestic water suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Shamsun Nahar, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Shigehiro Kagaya and Shigeyasu Kuroda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 particles responding to visible light were synthesized by impregnation and calcination method using TiO2 particle and Ti element, respectively. The optical and the chemical properties were characterized by measuring the X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV–visible spectroscopy. The onset of absorption shifted to longer wavelengths on doping TiO2 by the calcination process, which showed a better response as compared to the impregnation method. The photocatalytic reactivity was evaluated by the degradation of phenol with impregnated Fe-doped (0.5% w/w in Fe and calcined Fe-doped (FexTi1−xO2, x=0.005 (Fe/Ti molar ratio TiO2 separately in distilled and tap water. The characterization results have confirmed the advanced possibility of correlation between photoactivity and the special property of sulfur-containing calcined Fe-doped TiO2. In case of the coagulation of the undoped A-I and the Fe-doped B-I, the photoactivity showed a decrease due to the presence of natural electrolytes and due to the high pH of tap water, whereas in the case of the coagulation of calcined Fe-doped TiO2 prepared from sulfides (FexTiS2, the photoactivity showed an increase. In this study, highest catalytic activity was found to be strongly dependent both on catalyst structure and on the type of water used.

  14. Physical properties of Fe doped Mn3O4 thin films synthesized by SILAR method and their antibacterial performance against E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe doped Mn3O4 thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction study revealed that Fe doped Mn3O4 films are nanocrystalline in nature. The morphological investigations were carried out by using field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopy studies. The optical absorption measurements showed that Mn3O4 films exhibit direct band gap energy of the order of 2.78 eV and it increased to 2....

  15. The electronic structures and ferromagnetism of Fe-doped GaSb: The first-principle calculation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue-ling; Niu, Cao-ping; Pan, Feng-chun; Chen, Huan-ming; Wang, Xu-ming

    2017-09-01

    The electronic structures and the magnetic properties of Fe doped GaSb have been investigated by the first-principles calculation based on the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U schemes. The calculated results indicated that Fe atoms tend to form the anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) coupling with the nearest-neighbor positions preferentially. Compared with the anti-ferromagnetic coupling, the ferromagnetic interactions occurred at the second nearest-neighbor and third nearest-neighbor sites have a bigger superiority energetically. The effect of strong electron correlation at Fe-d orbit taking on the magnetic properties predicted by GGA+U approach demonstrated that the ferromagnetic (FM) coupling between the Fe ions is even stronger in consideration of the strong electron correlation effect. The ferromagnetism in Fe doped GaSb system predicted by our investigation implied that the doping of Fe into GaSb can be as a vital routine for manufacturing the FM semiconductors with higher Curie temperature.

  16. Potentiometric Measurements of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Redox Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gerard M; Brozek, Carl K; Hartstein, Kimberly H; Tsui, Emily Y; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-04-06

    A potentiometric method for measuring redox potentials of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is described. Fermi levels of colloidal ZnO NCs are measured in situ during photodoping, allowing correlation of NC redox potentials and reduction levels. Excellent agreement is found between electrochemical and optical redox-indicator methods. Potentiometry is also reported for colloidal CdSe NCs, which show more negative conduction-band-edge potentials than in ZnO. This difference is highlighted by spontaneous electron transfer from reduced CdSe NCs to ZnO NCs in solution, with potentiometry providing a measure of the inter-NC electron-transfer driving force. Future applications of NC potentiometry are briefly discussed.

  17. Preparation, Characterization, and Biotoxicity of Nanosized Doped ZnO Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Liu; XiangRui Wang; Xiuping Yang; Wenhong Fan; Xiaolong Wang; Ning Wang; Xiaomin Li; Feng Xue

    2014-01-01

    Metal-doped nanosized ZnO (nZnO) photocatalyst has been widely used for its typical properties and has thus gained considerable attention. In this study, five types of nZnO (nondoped nZnO, iron- (Fe-) doped nZnO, cobalt- (Co-) doped nZnO, nickel- (Ni-) doped nZnO, and manganese- (Mn-) doped nZnO) materials were prepared through a wet chemical method and then exposed to Daphnia magna (D. magna) at low and high concentrations (50 and 250 μg L−1). Results showed that the different metal-doped nZ...

  18. A Study on the Antibacterial Activity Of Zno Nanoparticles Prepared By Combustion Method against E Coli

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using Oxalyl dihydrazide (ODH) as fuel, at much lower temperature (300oC). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of wurtzite-structured pure ZnO No peaks from any else phases of ZnO and no impurity peaks were observed, indicating the high purity of the obtained hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals. The antibacterial activity of the formed nano ZnO were investigated against...

  19. Exploring a new phenomenon in the bactericidal response of TiO{sub 2} thin films by Fe doping: Exerting the antimicrobial activity even after stoppage of illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghibi, Sanaz, E-mail: naghibi@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahed, Shohreh, E-mail: sh_vahed@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Food Science, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabi, Omid, E-mail: omid_trb@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidi, Amin, E-mail: amin_jam_g@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabgir, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: m.hosseingolabgir@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Highly uniform Fe–TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on glass using sol–gel hot-dipping technique. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible irradiation. • By Fe doping into TiO{sub 2} structure, its microbial performance was prolonged even after stopping the illumination. • Due to Fe doping, the significant improvement in bactericidal coating was evident. - Abstract: Antibacterial properties of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared on glass by the sol–gel hot-dipping technique were studied. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under ultra violet and visible light. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisia and Aspergillus niger. The principle of incubation methods was also discussed. The results indicated that Fe doping of thin films eventuated in high antibacterial properties under visible light and this performance remained even after stoppage of illumination. This article tries to provide some explanation for this fact.

  20. Physical properties of Fe doped Mn3O4 thin films synthesized by SILAR method and their antibacterial performance against E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Belkhedkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Fe doped Mn3O4 thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction study revealed that Fe doped Mn3O4 films are nanocrystalline in nature. The morphological investigations were carried out by using field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopy studies. The optical absorption measurements showed that Mn3O4 films exhibit direct band gap energy of the order of 2.78 eV and it increased to 2.89 eV as the percentage of Fe doping in it increases from 0 to 8 wt.%. The room temperature electrical resistivity of Mn3O4 increases from 1.84 × 103 to 2.64 × 104 Ω cm as Fe doping increases from 0 to 8 wt.%. The SILAR grown Mn3O4 showed antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli bacteria which improved remarkably with doping.

  1. A dopant-mediated recombination mechanism in Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qingping; Yang, Chieh-Chao; Krol, van de Roel

    2014-01-01

    The photon-assisted adsorption and catalytic decomposition of nitric oxide (NO) over undoped and Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed (DRIFT) spectroscopy, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and on-line NOx analysi

  2. Meso-macroporous Fe-doped CuO:Synthesis, characterization, and structurally enhanced adsorption and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑飞; 肖奇

    2015-01-01

    The meso-macroporous Fe-doped CuO was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Brunauer−Emmett−Teller N2 adsorption−desorption analyses and UV-vis diffuses reflectance spectroscopy. The Fe-doped CuO sample shows higher adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity for xanthate degradation than pure CuO under visible light irradiation. In addition, the adsorption process is found to fit Langmuir isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The the first order kinetic Langmuir Hinshelwood model was used to study the reaction kinetics of photocatalytic degradation, and the apparent rate constant (k ) was calculated. The value ofk for Fe-doped CuO is 1.5 times that of pure CuO. The higher photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped CuO is attributed to higher specific surface area together with stronger visible light absorption.

  3. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  4. Evolution of different structural phases of TiO{sub 2} films with oxygen partial pressure and Fe doping and their electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bapna, Komal [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Choudhary, R.J., E-mail: ram@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Phase, D.M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Fe doped and undoped TiO{sub 2} films are grown with varying oxygen partial pressure (OPP). ► Different structural and electrical phases of TiO{sub 2} films evolve with OPP. ► Phases obtained at different OPP are not same for films with different Fe doping. ► XPS confirms Fe is not in metal cluster form. ► Charge ordering is observed in magneli phase of Fe doped and undoped TiO{sub 2} films. -- Abstract: We have studied the influence of oxygen partial pressure (OPP; 250 mTorr–1 × 10{sup −5} Torr) and Fe doping (2 and 4 at.%) on structural and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that Fe is not in metal cluster form. It is found that the evolution of the three phases; anatase, rutile and brookite of TiO{sub 2} as well as the magneli phase (Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n−1}) strongly depends on the OPP and Fe doping concentration. All the films grown at 250 mTorr show insulating behavior, whereas films grown at 1 × 10{sup −2} and 1 × 10{sup −4} Torr reveal high temperature metallic to low temperature semiconducting transition. Interestingly, films deposited at 1 × 10{sup −5} Torr reveal charge ordering, which is contributed to the magneli phase of TiO{sub 2}. The present study suggests that functionality of TiO{sub 2} thin film based devices can be tuned by properly selecting the OPP and dopant concentration.

  5. Flow boiling heat transfer enhancement on copper surface using Fe doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujith Kumar, C.S., E-mail: sujithdeepam@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Suresh, S., E-mail: ssuresh@nitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Aneesh, C.R., E-mail: aneeshcr87@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Santhosh Kumar, M.C., E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Praveen, A.S., E-mail: praveen_as_1215@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Raji, K., E-mail: raji.kochandra@gmail.com [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601, Kerala (India)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite coatings were coated on the copper using spray pyrolysis. • Effect of Fe doping on porosity was determined using AFM. • Effect of Fe doping on hydrophilicity was determined. • Higher enhancement in CHF was obtained for 7.2 at% Fe doped coated sample. - Abstract: In the present work, flow boiling experiments were conducted to study the effect of spray pyrolyzed Fe doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite coatings over the copper heater blocks on critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer studies were conducted in a mini-channel of overall dimension 30 mm × 20 mm × 0.4 mm using de-mineralized water as the working fluid. Each coated sample was tested for two mass fluxes to explore the heat transfer performance. The effect of Fe addition on wettability and porosity of the coated surfaces were measured using the static contact angle metre and the atomic force microscope (AFM), and their effect on flow boiling heat transfer were investigated. A significant enhancement in CHF and boiling heat transfer coefficient were observed on all coated samples compared to sand blasted copper surface. A maximum enhancement of 52.39% and 44.11% in the CHF and heat transfer coefficient were observed for 7.2% Fe doped TiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for a mass flux of 88 kg/m{sup 2} s.

  6. Highly-active oxygen evolution electrocatalyzed by a Fe-doped NiSe nanoflake array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2016-03-25

    Alkaline water electrolysis offers a simple method for mass production of hydrogen but suffers from the sluggish kinetics of the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER), calling for the development of low-cost and durable oxygen evolution electrocatalysts with high activity. In this communication, we report a highly-active robust oxygen evolution electrode, developed by in situ hydrothermal growth of an Fe-doped NiSe nanoflake array directly on a macroporous FeNi foam (Fe-NiSe/FeNi foam). This electrode catalyzes the OER with an onset overpotential as low as 200 mV and needs overpotentials of 245 and 264 mV to achieve 50 and 100 mA cm(-2), respectively, in 1.0 M KOH. Remarkably, it is also highly robust to drive 500 and 1000 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 246 and 263 mV, respectively, in 30 wt% KOH.

  7. The effect of Ni and Fe doping on Hall anomaly in vortex state of doped YBCO samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nazarzadeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated hall effect on YBa2Cu3-xMxO7-δ (M=Ni, Fe bulk samples, with dopant amount 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.045 for Ni and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.03 for Fe, with magnetic field (H=2.52, 4.61, 6.27 kOe perpendicular to sample’s surface with constant current 100 mA. Our study shows that as both dopants increases, TC decreases and it decreases faster by Ni . In these ranges of dopant and magnetic field the Hall sign reversal has been observed in all samples once and also ∆max has occurred in lower temperatures, its magnitude increases by Ni, and in Fe doped samples except in sample with dopant amount x=0.03, which almost decreases, that it can show effect of magnetic doping on hall effect.

  8. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region compared to the pure TNT. The Fe-TNTs were provided with good photocatalytic activities and photostability and under visible light irradiation, and the optimum molar ratio of Ti : Fe was found to be 100 : 1 in our experiments.

  9. Optical and structural properties of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Abhinav, Singh, Gurwinder Pal; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Today nanomaterials plays important role in every field, due to their unique mechanical, chemical and electrical properties which are completely different from the bulk materials. With reduction in the size of material its properties are dynamically changed. Semiconductor materials are widely used in electronic devices but in the field of optoelectronic these materials have some limitations. Tin oxide could be the material which could be used in these applications without limitations. Doped Tin Oxide is an oxygen deficient material which could be beneficial for transparent conducting oxide. Iron doped SnO2 prepared by co-precipitation method. Studies on structural properties of undoped and doped SnO2 were done by X-ray diffraction. The XRD results have shown that the size of the nanoparticles decreases with Fe doping down to 53nm. Optical Properties were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. Band gap was found to decrease with increase in iron content in samples.

  10. Charge-tunable quantum plasmons in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Alina M; Thakkar, Niket; Gunthardt, Carolyn E; Masiello, David J; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2014-01-28

    Nanomaterials exhibiting plasmonic optical responses are impacting sensing, information processing, catalysis, solar, and photonics technologies. Recent advances have expanded the portfolio of plasmonic nanostructures into doped semiconductor nanocrystals, which allow dynamic manipulation of carrier densities. Once interpreted as intraband single-electron transitions, the infrared absorption of doped semiconductor nanocrystals is now commonly attributed to localized surface plasmon resonances and analyzed using the classical Drude model to determine carrier densities. Here, we show that the experimental plasmon resonance energies of photodoped ZnO nanocrystals with controlled sizes and carrier densities diverge from classical Drude model predictions at small sizes, revealing quantum plasmons in these nanocrystals. A Lorentz oscillator model more adequately describes the data and illustrates a closer link between plasmon resonances and single-electron transitions in semiconductors than in metals, highlighting a fundamental contrast between these two classes of plasmonic materials.

  11. Ternary mixed metal Fe-doped NiCo2O4 nanowires as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai-Li; Shang, Xiao; Li, Zhen; Dong, Bin; Li, Xiao; Gao, Wen-Kun; Chi, Jing-Qi; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Designing mixed metal oxides with unique nanostructures as efficient electrocatalysts for water electrolysis has been an attractive approach for the storage of renewable energies. The ternary mixed metal spinel oxides FexNi1-xCo2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, 1) have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach and calcination treatment using nickel foam as substrate. Fe/Ni ratios have been proved to affect the nanostructures of FexNi1-xCo2O, which imply different intrinsic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). SEM images show that Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 has the uniform nanowires morphology with about 30 nm of the diameter and 200-300 nm of the length. The OER measurements show that Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 exhibits the better electrocatalytic performances with lower overpotential of 350 mV at J = 10 mA cm-2. In addition, the smaller Tafel slope of 27 mV dec-1 than other samples with different Fe/Ni ratios for Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 is obtained. The improved OER activity of Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 may be attributed to the synergistic effects from ternary mixed metals especially Fe-doping and the uniform nanowires supported on NF. Therefore, synthesizing Fe-doped multi-metal oxides with novel nanostructures may be a promising strategy for excellent OER electrocatalysts and it also provides a facile way for the fabrication of high-activity ternary mixed metal oxides electrocatalysts.

  12. Hierarchical electrodeposition of methylene blue on ZnO nanocrystals thin films layered on SnO2/F electrode for in vitro sensing of anti-thalassemic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Chaitali; Malhotra, Nitesh; Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Sumit; Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanocrystals-methylene blue nanocomposites were developed by electrodeposition of methylene blue onto the thin films of zinc oxide nanocrystals deposited onto SnO2/F coated glass substrates for in vitro sensing of anti-thalassemic drug i.e. deferiprone. Detailed morphological, electrochemical, structural and optical characterizations of ZnONC-MB/FTO electrode were done using XRD, SEM, EIS, FTIR, LSV, and CV and show quick response time (within 5 s), linearity as 1 × 10(-3) to 10(3) μM and shelf life of about 10 weeks under refrigerated conditions. Attempts have been made to utilize this electrode for estimation of deferiprone in urine samples. The developed sensor exhibited high reproducibility and good storage stability.

  13. Enhanced stability and photocatalytic performance of transition metal-doped ZnO with magnetite nanoparticle and zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M. I.; Afifah, N.; Saleh, R.

    2017-04-01

    The combination of zeolite and transition metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles for improved electron and hole photogeneration and inhibited electron-hole recombination, due to the trapping states, has been studied in our previous work. However, the photocatalyst has not been separated and reused after successfully degrading the organic dye. Therefore, in this study, we incorporated four different variations of magnetite nanoparticles into zeolite-supported Fe-doped ZnO, using the co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized with the aid of various measurements, such as x-ray diffraction, infrared absorption, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Burneur-Emment-Teller (BET). The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposites was examined by photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. The results show that the presence of a certain amount of magnetite nanoparticles in a zeolite-supported Fe-doped ZnO nanocomposite improved its efficiency in degrading methylene blue. The role of charged carriers and the active radical involved in the photocatalytic activity is discussed.

  14. Synthesis of Ni-Au-ZnO ternary magnetic hybrid nanocrystals with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Junbao; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-07-14

    The functional synergy between the metal and the semiconductor in metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with specific structures and morphologies makes them suitable candidates for a wide range of applications. To date, the synthesis and the corresponding properties of ternary metal-semiconductor hetero-nanostructures, especially for hybrid nanocrystals containing magnetic metals, are seldom discussed and thus worthy of extensive research. In this study, we report a nonaqueous approach for the synthesis of Ni-Au-ZnO ternary hybrid nanocrystals with three morphologies, including nanomultipods, matchstick-like nanorods and nanopyramids. In the synthetic strategy, the Ni precursor dissolved in oleylamine was injected into a hot solution containing preformed Au-ZnO nanocrystals with specific morphologies. Then Ni prefers to grow on the unoccupied surfaces of Au, thus forming a hybrid hetero-nanostructure which retains the main morphologies of Au-ZnO nanocrystals. The ultraviolet-visible spectra not only show the band gap absorption of ZnO but also exhibit a broadened and weakened surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au. The Ni-Au-ZnO nanocrystals exhibit much higher photocatalytic efficiency than pure ZnO in the degradation of Rhodamine B. Meanwhile, these hybrid nanocrystals are superparamagnetic at room temperature and can be readily recycled by a magnetic field for reuse. The as-prepared ternary Ni-Au-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals possess plasmonic, magnetic and enhanced photocatalytic properties, and thus are expected to find wide applications in the future.

  15. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  16. Hydrothermal preparation of nanocrystalline ZnO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guipeng Feng; Liyun Yang; Tianxi Wang; Jiamin Zhang; Tianjun Lou

    2012-01-01

    A green hydrothermal method was proposed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO2,using Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 powder and 6 vol% H2O2 aqueous solution as the starting materials.Characterization results from X-ray diffraction,Raman,high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction revealed that the products synthesized at 80-120℃ for 6-18 h were pure cubic phase ZnO2 nanocrystals.Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the as-synthesized ZnO2 nanocrystals displayed a wide and strong emission band in the visible region of about 525-570 nm upon laser excitation at 325 nm,which may have originated from their surface state and other crystal defects.

  17. Novel Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Huimei

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigating the feasibility of engineering nanocrystals and tunnel oxide layer with a novel structure. Several novel devices are demonstrated to improve the performance of the novel nanocrystal memories.A novel TiSi2 nanocrystal memory was demonstrated. TiSi2 nanocrystals were synthesized on SiO2 by annealing Ti covered Si nanocrystals. Compared to the reference Si nanocrystal memory, both experiment and simulation results show that TiSi2 nanocrystal memory exhibits ...

  18. Conjugated polymer/nanocrystal nanocomposites for renewable energy applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wei; Lin, Wei-Hao; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2014-11-01

    Conjugated polymer/nanocrystal composites have attracted much attention for use in renewable energy applications because of their versatile and synergistic optical and electronic properties. Upon absorbing photons, charge separation occurs in the nanocrystals, generating electrons and holes for photocurrent flow or reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions under proper conditions. Incorporating these nanocrystals into conjugated polymers can complement the visible light absorption range of the polymers for photovoltaics applications or allow the polymers to sensitize or immobilize the nanocrystals for photocatalysis. Here, the current developments of conjugated polymer/nanocrystal nanocomposites for bulk heterojunction-type photovoltaics incorporating Cd- and Pb-based nanocrystals or quantum dots are reviewed. The effects of manipulating the organic ligands and the concentration of the nanocrystal precursor, critical factors that affect the shape and aggregation of the nanocrystals, are also discussed. In the conclusion, the mechanisms through which conjugated polymers can sensitize semiconductor nanocrystals (TiO2 , ZnO) to ensure efficient charge separation, as well as how they can support immobilized nanocrystals for use in photocatalysis, are addressed.

  19. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals by thermal decomposition of Zn-oleate in organic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beng; S.ONG; Rafik; O.LOUTFY

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis of uniform-sized hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals by the thermolysis of Zn-oleate complex,which was prepared from the reaction of inexpensive and environmentally friendly reagents such as zinc nitrate and sodium oleate.Two organic compounds with different boiling points,octadecene and octylether,were selected as the medium for thermolysis of Zn-oleate complex.Under optimized reaction conditions,we were able to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles with the size being about 10 nm.X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micrograph(TEM) images confirmed the high crystallinity of the nanocrystals.

  20. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals by thermal decomposition of Zn-oleate in organic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChenSha; LI YuNing; WU YiLiang; Beng S. ONG; Rafik O. LOUTFY

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis of uniform-sized hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals by the thermolysis of Zn-oleate complex, which was prepared from the reaction of inex-pensive and environmentally friendly reagents such as zinc nitrate and sodium oleate. Two organic compounds with different boiling points, octadecene and oc-tylether, were selected as the medium for thermolysis of Zn-oleate complex. Under optimized reaction conditions, we were able to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles with the size being about 10 nm. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) images confirmed the high crystallinity of the nanocrystals.

  1. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu, Tamilnadu -603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Pure and Fe (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were grown onto the glass substrates by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the pure and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been studied. The undoped and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films shown ferromagnetic property at room temperature. A magnetization of 24 emu/cm{sup 3} was observed for pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. The magnetization of 38.23 emu/cm{sup 3} was observed for the Fe (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films.

  2. Interrelatedness of Fe composition on structural and magnetic properties in Fe-doped SrRuO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y.Z.; Chmaissem, O.; Kolesnik, S.; Brown, D.E.; Dabrowski, B.; Kimball, C.W. [Northern Illinois University, Institute for NanoScience, Engineering and Technology (INSET), Physics Department, DeKalb, IL (United States); Kim, T.W. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Applied Optics and Energy Research Group, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.S. [TongMyong University, Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Genis, A.P. [Northern Illinois University, Institute for NanoScience, Engineering and Technology (INSET), Electrical Engineering Department, DeKalb, IL (United States); Song, J.H. [PaiChai University, Department of Information and Electronic Materials Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Fe-doping (up to 11 mole%) into SrRuO{sub 3} (SRO) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates decreased correlation lengths of both surface and interface. It turned out that Fe was doped in the valence state of 3+ without formation of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, which caused orthorhombic distortion. T{sub C} values decreased from 145 K to 97 K with increasing Fe concentration (C{sub Fe}). High magnetic switching fields were observed for all Fe-doped SRO thin films and their strengths showed a linear relationship with C{sub Fe}. Detail structural characterization using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to understand its unique magnetic switching field properties. (orig.)

  3. Exploring a new phenomenon in the bactericidal response of TiO2 thin films by Fe doping: Exerting the antimicrobial activity even after stoppage of illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Sanaz; Vahed, Shohreh; Torabi, Omid; Jamshidi, Amin; Golabgir, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Antibacterial properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films prepared on glass by the sol-gel hot-dipping technique were studied. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under ultra violet and visible light. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisia and Aspergillus niger. The principle of incubation methods was also discussed. The results indicated that Fe doping of thin films eventuated in high antibacterial properties under visible light and this performance remained even after stoppage of illumination. This article tries to provide some explanation for this fact.

  4. Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, O.; Cunningham, J.; Linfield, E. H.; Wood, C. D.; Davies, A. G.; Cannard, P. J.; Robertson, M. J.; Moodie, D. G.

    2011-03-01

    We report the detection of terahertz frequency radiation using photoconductive antennas fabricated from Fe-doped InGaAs, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Coherent photoconductive detection is demonstrated using femtosecond laser pulses centered at either an 800 or a 1550 nm wavelength. The InGaAs resistivity and the sensitivity of photoconductive detection are both found to depend on the Fe-doping level. We investigate a wide range of probe laser powers, finding a peak in detected signal for ˜5 mW probe power, followed by a reduction at larger powers, attributed to screening of the detected THz field by photo-generated carriers in the material. The measured signal from Fe:InGaAs photoconductive detectors excited at 800 nm is four times greater than that from a low-temperature-grown GaAs photodetector with identical antenna design, despite the use of a ten times smaller probe power.

  5. Structural and Transport Properties for Al- and Fe-Doping La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 Perovskite Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yu-Jian; JIA Guang-Qiang; HAN Yan-Bing; LI Jin-Bo; WANG Xin-Yan; GE Hong-Liang; CAO Shi-Xun; ZHANG Jin-Cang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The effects of Al and Fe ion doping in Mn sites was studied for the colossal La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 magnetoresistance material. It was found that when Fe-doping amount x increases, the crystal cell structure has no obvious change,but the crystal cell volume decrease monotonically for Al-doping. Both resistances increase rapidly and the insulator-metal transition temperature moves to lower temperature and decreases linearly with Al-doping. The area for Al-doping is broader than Fe. At small amount of Al-doping, the resistance satisfy metal transport property when T < TIM. The characteristic of the transport behaviour for Al- and Fe-doping can be explained by terminating the double exchange channel of Mn3+-O2--Mn4+.

  6. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiganesh, G., E-mail: jaiganesh@igcar.gov.in; Jaya, S. Mathi, E-mail: jaiganesh@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Using the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory, we have studied the magnetism and electronic structure of Fe-doped Zinc Phosphide (Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2}). Our results show that the half-metallic ground state and ferromagnetic stability for the small Fe concentrations considered in our study. The stability of the doped material has been studied by calculating the heat of formation and analyzing the minimum total energies in nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic phases. A large value of the magnetic moment is obtained from our calculations and our calculation suggests that the Fe-doped Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} may be a useful material in semiconductor spintronics.

  7. Effect of substrate (ZnO) morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Haixia; Huang, Xuelei; Zhang, Jingyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2011-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals with different morphologies were synthesized and used as substrates for enzyme immobilization. The effects of morphology of ZnO nanocrystals on enzyme immobilization and their catalytic activities were investigated. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared through a hydrothermal procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. The control on the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals was achieved by varying the ratio of CH3OH to H2O, which were used as solvents in the hydrothermal reaction system. The surface of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was functionalized with amino groups using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the amino groups on the surface were identified and calculated by FT-IR and the Kaiser assay. Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on as-modified ZnO nanostructures with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results showed that three-dimensional nanomultipod is more appropriate for the immobilization of enzyme used further in catalytic reaction.

  8. Effect of substrate (ZnO morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xuelei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were synthesized and used as substrates for enzyme immobilization. The effects of morphology of ZnO nanocrystals on enzyme immobilization and their catalytic activities were investigated. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared through a hydrothermal procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. The control on the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals was achieved by varying the ratio of CH3OH to H2O, which were used as solvents in the hydrothermal reaction system. The surface of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was functionalized with amino groups using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the amino groups on the surface were identified and calculated by FT-IR and the Kaiser assay. Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on as-modified ZnO nanostructures with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results showed that three-dimensional nanomultipod is more appropriate for the immobilization of enzyme used further in catalytic reaction.

  9. Interlinked multiphase Fe-doped MnO2 nanostructures: a novel design for enhanced pseudocapacitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziya; Wang, Fengping; Li, Yan; Hu, Jianlin; Lu, Yanzhen; Xu, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Structure designing and morphology control can lead to high performance pseudocapacitive materials for supercapacitors. In this work, we have designed interlinked multiphase Fe-doped MnO2 nanostructures (α-MnO2/R-MnO2/ε-MnO2) to enhance the electrochemical properties by a facile method. These hierarchical hollow microspheres assembled by interconnected nanoflakes, and with plenty of porous nanorods radiating from the spherical shells were hydrothermally obtained. The supercapacitor electrode prepared from the unique construction exhibits outstanding specific capacitance of 267.0 F g-1 even under a high mass loading (~5 mg cm-2). Obviously improved performances compared to pure MnO2 are also demonstrated with a good rate capability, high energy density (1.30 mW h cm-3) and excellent cycling stability of 100% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles at 2 A g-1. The synergistic effects of alternative crystal structures, appropriate crystallinity and optimal morphology are identified to be responsible for the observations. This rational multiphase composite strategy provides a promising idea for materials scientists to design and prepare scalable electrode materials for energy storage devices.Structure designing and morphology control can lead to high performance pseudocapacitive materials for supercapacitors. In this work, we have designed interlinked multiphase Fe-doped MnO2 nanostructures (α-MnO2/R-MnO2/ε-MnO2) to enhance the electrochemical properties by a facile method. These hierarchical hollow microspheres assembled by interconnected nanoflakes, and with plenty of porous nanorods radiating from the spherical shells were hydrothermally obtained. The supercapacitor electrode prepared from the unique construction exhibits outstanding specific capacitance of 267.0 F g-1 even under a high mass loading (~5 mg cm-2). Obviously improved performances compared to pure MnO2 are also demonstrated with a good rate capability, high energy density (1.30 mW h cm-3) and

  10. Photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped diopside%铁掺杂透辉石的光催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合; 杨泽健; 韩冲; 李强; 薛向欣

    2012-01-01

    以亚甲基蓝为光催化降解标的物,考察了在紫外可见光下掺杂Fe3+的透辉石的光催化活性.应用XRD、SEM、FT-IR和UV-vis DRS等方法表征了掺杂Fe3+的透辉石的结构、组成、形貌和紫外可见光吸收能力.实验结果表明:Fe3+的掺入在透辉石内产生了一些含Fe3+的新物种,提高了透辉石的紫外可见光吸收能力;透辉石的光催化活性明显依赖于Fe3+掺入量;当Fe3+掺杂量为1.848%时,透辉石具有最高的光催化活性,光反应3h后,亚甲基蓝降解率达到95%;动力学模拟可知亚甲基蓝在透辉石上的反应遵循一级反应动力学.%UV-visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue(MB)over Fe-doped diopside was investigated.The structure,composition,morphology and absorption property of UV-visible light of as-prepared samples were characterized using XRD,SEM,FTIR and UV-vis DRS.The experimental results show that doping Fe3+ induced the formation of some new species in diopside,and promoted light adsorption property of diopside in UV-visible region.Photochemical reactivity of Fe-doped diopside obviously depended on the content of doping Fe3+.The diopside with 1.848% Fe3+ exhibited the superior photocatalytic activity with 95% degradation of MB under UV-visible light for 3 h.The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of MB over all samples showed the first-order reaction nature.

  11. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine-B by Fe doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles under the simulated sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    The present work is planned for a simple, inexpensive and efficient approach for the synthesis of Cu1-xFexS (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles via simplistic chemical co-precipitation route by using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a capping molecules. As synthesized nanoparticles were used as competent catalysts for degradation of rhodamine-B organic dye pollutant. The properties of prepared samples were analyzed with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Raman spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). EDAX spectra corroborated the existence of Fe in prepared nanoparticles within close proximity to stoichiometric ratio. XRD, FTIR and Raman patterns affirmed that configuration of single phase hexagonal crystal structure as that of (P63/mmc) CuS, without impurity crystals. The average particle size estimated by TEM scrutiny is in the assortment of 5-10 nm. UV-visible optical absorption measurements showed that band gap narrowing with increasing the Fe doping concentration. VSM measurements revealed that 3% Fe doped CuS nanoparticles exhibited strong ferromagnetism at room temperature and changeover of magnetic signs from ferromagnetic to the paramagnetic nature with increasing the Fe doping concentration in CuS host lattice. Among all Fe doped CuS nanoparticles, 3% Fe inclusion CuS sample shows better photocatalytic performance in decomposition of RhB compared with the pristine CuS. Thus as synthesized Cu0·97Fe0·03S nanocatalysts are tremendously realistic compounds for photocatalytic fictionalization in the direction of organic dye degradation under visible light.

  12. Various shaped-ZnO nanocrystals via low temperature synthetic methods: Surfactant and pH dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyeon Jin; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hyun Chul; Choi, Myong Yong

    2013-07-01

    ZnO nanocrystals, rod-, carnation-, and flower-like structures, have been synthesized in a high yield through low-temperature synthetic methods. Well-aligned ZnO nanorods having hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the ZnO thin films assembled by a spin-coating method. The morphologies of ZnO seed films are affected by pHs of sol-gel solutions, resulting smaller sizes and homogeneous roughness at higher pHs and higher number of spin-coating times. The carnation-like structures, average size of about 2-3 μm, were assembled by tens of uniform ZnO nanosheet petals of ˜50 nm in thickness when a different volume ratio of the precursory solution was used. ZnO nanocrystals on the facets of the compact ZnO nanorods have grown to linear nanorods having an average diameter of ˜500 nm and length of ˜2 μm. Furthermore, a noticeable difference in the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in the presence of various surfactants, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylsulphonic acid, and polyethyleneimine, has been observed and discussed.

  13. Fabrication of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and investigation of photocatalytic decolorization of reactive red 198 under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Halimeh; Eshaghi, Akbar; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Ghani, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In this research, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with various Fe concentrations (0. 0.1, 1, 5 and 10wt%) were prepared by a sol-gel method. Then, nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), BET surface area, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the nano-particles was evaluated through degradation of reactive red 198 (RR 198) under UV and visible light irradiations. XRD results revealed that all samples contained only anatase phase. DRS showed that the Fe doping in the titania induced a significant red shift of the absorption edge and then the band gap energy decreased from 3 to 2.1eV. Photocatalytic results indicated that TiO2 had a highest photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under UV irradiation whereas photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under visible irradiation increased in the presence of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Among the samples, Fe-1wt% doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photocatalytic decolorization of RR198 under visible light irradiation.

  14. The Photocatalytic Inactivation Effect of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanocomposites on Leukemic HL60 Cells-Based Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-doped TiO2 nanocomposites synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-vis adsorption spectra and then were taken as a new “photosensitizer” for photodynamic therapy (PDT. The photocatalytic inactivation of Fe-doped TiO2 on Leukemic HL60 cells was investigated using PDT reaction chamber based on LED light source, and the viability of HL60 cells was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The experimental results showed that the growth of leukemic HL60 cells was significantly inhibited by adding TiO2 nanoparticles, and the inactivation efficiency could be effectively enhanced by the surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with Fe doping. Furthermore, the optimized conditions were achieved at 5 wt% Fe/TiO2 at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL, in which up to 82.5% PDT efficiency for the HL60 cells can be obtained under the irradiation of 403 nm light (the power density is 5 mW/cm2 within 60 minutes.

  15. Surface chemical modification of nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Brett Anthony; Milliron, Delia Jane; Rosen, Evelyn Louise; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Llordes, Anna

    2017-03-14

    Nanocrystals comprising organic ligands at surfaces of the plurality of nanocrystals are provided. The organic ligands are removed from the surfaces of the nanocrystals using a solution comprising a trialkyloxonium salt in a polar aprotic solvent. The removal of the organic ligands causes the nanocrystals to become naked nanocrystals with cationic surfaces.

  16. Spin-lattice coupling and frustrated magnetism in Fe-doped hexagonal LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Fu, Zhendong; Kumar, C. M. N.; Pomjakushin, V. Y.; Xiao, Yinguo; Chatterji, Tapan; Strydom, André M.

    2015-05-01

    Strong spin-lattice coupling and prominent frustration effects observed in the 50% Fe-doped frustrated hexagonal (h)\\text{LuMnO}3 are reported. A Néel transition at T{N}≈112 \\text{K} and a possible spin re-orientation transition at T{SR}≈55 \\text{K} are observed in the magnetization data. From neutron powder diffraction data, the nuclear structure at and below 300 K was refined in polar P63cm space group. While the magnetic structure of LuMnO3 belongs to the Γ4 (P6'_3c'm) representation, that of LuFe0.5Mn0.5O3 belongs to Γ1 (P6_3cm) which is supported by the strong intensity for the (100) reflection and also judging by the presence of spin-lattice coupling. The refined atomic positions for Lu and Mn/Fe indicate significant atomic displacements at T{N} and T{SR} which confirms strong spin-lattice coupling. Our results complement the discovery of room temperature multiferroicity in thin films of h\\text{LuFeO}3 and would give impetus to study LuFe1-x Mn x O3 systems as potential multiferroics where electric polarization is linked to giant atomic displacements.

  17. Application of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles in organic solar cells with enhanced stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. S.; Lima, F. A. S.; Ribeiro, T. S.; da Silva, M. R.; Almeida, R. Q.; Barros, E. B.; Vasconcelos, I. F.

    2017-02-01

    Solution-processed P3HT:PCBM-based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells were constructed with Fe-doped tin oxide (Fe/SnO2) magnetic nanoparticles (NP) incorporated to the active layer. Performance and stability of devices were evaluated. Devices reinforced with Fe/SnO2 nanoparticles showed improvement in short-circuit current density Jsc up to 10%, when compared with devices without the addition of NPs. Improved Jsc was attributed to the extension of photogenerated exciton lifetime as a result of the magnetic field provided by the NPs. Life time and stability tests revealed extended T80 for samples reinforced with NPs for both indoor and outdoor tests, which can be attributed to slightly improvements of fill factor during aging tests. Moreover, NP-reinforced devices have shown the tendency to overcome the burn-in regime faster. These results are indications that the addition of diluted magnetic semiconductor oxide nanoparticles in the active layer of organic solar cells has the potential to contributed to the extension of lifetime and improvement of stability of these devices.

  18. A DFT analysis of the adsorption of nitrogen oxides on Fe-doped graphene, and the electric field induced desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Arriagada, Diego; Villegas-Escobar, Nery

    2017-10-01

    Density functional theory calculations were carried out to study the adsorption and sensing properties of Fe-doped graphene nanosheets (FeG) toward nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and N2O). The results indicated the adsorption of nitrogen oxides is significantly increased onto FeG compared to pristine graphene, reaching adsorption energies of 1.1-2.2 eV, even with a high stability at room temperature. As a result of the larger charge transfer and strong chemical binding, the bandgap of the adsorbent-adsorbate systems is increased in up to 0.5 eV with respect to the free FeG, indicating that FeG is highly sensitive to nitrogen oxides. It was also evidenced the adsorption and sensing properties remain even in the presence of O2 currents for N2O, where a co-adsorption mechanism was analyzed. Besides, NO2 is capable to induce the largest magnetization of FeG. Finally, positive electric fields of at least 0.04 a.u. decrease the stability of the adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, inducing the desorption process. Therefore, FeG emerges as a promising low-dimensional material with excellent adsorption and sensing properties to be applied in solid state sensors of nitrogen oxides, where electric fields can be used as a strategy for the FeG reactivation in repetitive sensing applications.

  19. Degradation of Typical Indoor Air Pollutants Using Fe-Doped TiO2 Thin Film under Daylight Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaijie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of iron-doped titania thin film was prepared by means of sol-gel method to degrade indoor formaldehyde (HCHO, ammonia (NH3, and benzene (C6H6 under sunlight. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spetra (EDS. The results showed that the iron was doped in the TiO2 photocatalyst successfully. The absorption edge of doped TiO2 had red shifts and the doped TiO2 had a stronger absorption than the pure TiO2 in the visible region. Fe-doped TiO2 thin film prepared with the optimal preparation condition could remove indoor HCHO, NH3 and C6H6 effectively under solar light irradiation. The removal percentage of HCHO, NH3 or C6H6 after 9 h photocatalytic reaction under solar light reached 55%, 53.1%, and 37.5%, respectively, when they existed in the air individually. When the three pollutants were mixed in the air, the removal percentage decreased to 33.3%, 28.3%, and 28%. The degradation reaction of the three pollutants followed the pseudo first-order kinetics, which reflects that the photocatalytic reaction was controlled by the surface chemical reaction and the reaction rate was controlled by concentration of reactants.

  20. ZnO nanoflowers: novel biogenic synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R M; Bhadwal, Akhshay Singh; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Priti; Shrivastav, Archana; Shrivastav, B R

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a novel, unprecedented and eco-friendly mode for the biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers at ambient room temperature using Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 9555 and assessed their photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was analyzed under UV-irradiation. An enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoflowers was obtained compared to the earlier reports on ZnO nanostructures and other photocatalytic materials. The mechanism behind the enhanced photocatalytic activity was illustrated with diagrammatic representation. It is assumed that due to larger content of oxygen vacancy ZnO nanoflowers shows enhanced photocatalytic activity. Photostability of ZnO nanoflowers was analyzed for consecutive 3 cycles. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoflowers have been characterized by SEM, TEM and found to be in the size range of 250 nm to 1 μm with flower like morphology. It was found that ZnO nanoflowers was formed by agglomeration of ZnO nanorods. Further the EDX established the presence of the elemental signal of the Zn and O. XRD spectrum of ZnO nanoflowers confirmed 2θ values analogous to the ZnO nanocrystal. FTIR analysis was carried to determine the probable biomolecules responsible for stabilization of ZnO nanoflowers. The plausible mechanism behind the synthesis of ZnO nanoflowers by Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 9555 was also discussed with diagram representation.

  1. Spray pyrolytically deposited Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films for solar hydrogen generation: Experiments & first-principles analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sumant; Sharma, Dipika [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra 282 110 (India); Satsangi, Vibha R. [Department of Physics & Computer Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra 282 110 (India); Shrivastav, Rohit [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra 282 110 (India); Waghmare, Umesh V. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Dass, Sahab, E-mail: drsahabdas@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra 282 110 (India)

    2015-06-15

    We present here a combined study on photocatalysis by Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based calculations and experiments. The results of DFT calculations show that the top of the valence band and bottom of the conduction band of undoped Cu{sub 2}O lies at the Γ point of Brillouin zone, suggesting that pure Cu{sub 2}O a direct band gap material. However, there is an appearance of a sharp peak at the fermi energy level in the total density of states of Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O that essentially comes from Fe 3d states, keeping it still a direct band gap material. To validate the theoretical results, experiments were carried out by preparing thin films of Cu{sub 2}O doped with 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 & 5.0 atom % Fe via spray pyrolysis method and characterized with X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), UV–Vis Spectroscopy and Photoelectrochemical measurements. The results exhibited that 2 atom % Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O sample produces significant photocurrent of 1.86 mAcm{sup −2} at 0.8 V/SCE as compared to undoped Cu{sub 2}O samples of 0.62 mAcm{sup 2} at 0.8 V/SCE with an experimental band-gap value of 2.21 and 2.50 eV respectively. The observed change in the experimental band gap and that estimated by first-principles calculations compare well, thus suggesting that such calculations have the potential to be used in screening various dopants before performing the experiments thereby saving precious chemicals, time and energy. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O thin films have been successfully prepared using spray pyrolysis method. • DFT calculations show an appearance of sharp peak at fermi level in Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O. • Our theoretical & experimental results complimented each other. • Maximum value of IPCE of 6.0% was obtained for 2 atom % Fe-doped sample at 450 nm.

  2. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  3. MD SIMULATION FOR NANOCRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新玲; 杨卫

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) provided an ab initio simulation for nano-scale mechanical behavior of materials, provided that the inter-atomic potential is accurately prescribed. MD is particularly suitable in simulating the formation, the deformation, and the evolution of nanocrystals under a fast strain rate. To tackle large scale system and nano-seconds time duration, parallel algorithm is desired. The present paper reviews the recent advances in MD simulation for nanocrystals with attention focused on the applications toward nanomechanics. The examined issues are: formation of nanocrystalline metals, nanoindentation on nanocrystals, fast deformation of nanocrystals, orderdisorder transition, and nano-particle impact.

  4. Transition metal implanted ZnO. A correlation between structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays ferromagnetism is often found in potential diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. However, many authors question the origin of this ferromagnetism, i.e. if the observed ferromagnetism stems from ferromagnetic precipitates rather than from carriermediated magnetic coupling of ionic impurities, as required for a diluted magnetic semiconductor. In this thesis, this question will be answered for transition-metal implanted ZnO single crystals. Magnetic secondary phases, namely metallic Fe, Co and Ni nanocrystals, are formed inside ZnO. They are - although difficult to detect by common approaches of structural analysis - responsible for the observed ferromagnetism. Particularly Co and Ni nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented with respect to the ZnO matrix. Their structure phase transformation and corresponding evolution of magnetic properties upon annealing have been established. Finally, an approach, pre-annealing ZnO crystals at high temperature before implantation, has been demonstrated to sufficiently suppress the formation of metallic secondary phases. (orig.)

  5. Influence of the electron-cation interaction on electron mobility in dye-sensitized ZnO and TiO2 nanocrystals: a study using ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, H; Rochford, J; Taratula, O; Galoppini, E; Kuzel, P; Polívka, T; Yartsev, A; Sundström, V

    2010-05-14

    Charge transport and recombination in nanostructured semiconductors are poorly understood key processes in dye-sensitized solar cells. We have employed time-resolved spectroscopies in the terahertz and visible spectral regions supplemented with Monte Carlo simulations to obtain unique information on these processes. Our results show that charge transport in the active solar cell material can be very different from that in nonsensitized semiconductors, due to strong electrostatic interaction between injected electrons and dye cations at the surface of the semiconductor nanoparticle. For ZnO, this leads to formation of an electron-cation complex which causes fast charge recombination and dramatically decreases the electron mobility even after the dissociation of the complex. Sensitized TiO2 does not suffer from this problem due to its high permittivity efficiently screening the charges.

  6. Site-specific growth of Au particles on ZnO nanopyramids under ultraviolet illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals with unique "pyramid" morphology were firstly prepared via solvothermal synthesis. It was determined that the ZnO nanopyramids are grown along the polar c-axis with the vertexes pointing to the [001] direction. When the mixture of ZnO nanopyramids and Au precursor (HAuCl4) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, Au particles were site-specifically formed on the vertexes of ZnO nanopyramids. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposite showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the bare ZnO nanopyramids. First-principles based calculations well explained the formation of ZnO nanopyramids as well as the site-specific growth of Au, and revealed that during the photocatalysis process the Au particles can accommodate photoelectrons and thus facilitate the charge separation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Magnetic properties of pure and Fe doped HoCrO3 thin films fabricated via a solution route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shiqi; Sauyet, Theodore; Guild, Curt; Suib, S. L.; Jain, Menka

    2017-04-01

    Multiferroic properties of orthorhombically distorted perovskite rare-earth chromites, such as HoCrO3, are being investigated extensively in recent years. In the present work, we report on the effect of Fe substitution on the magnetic properties of HoCrO3 thin films. Thin films of HoCrO3 and HoCr0.7Fe0.3O3 were fabricated via a solution route on platinized silicon substrates. Structural properties of the films were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The surface morphology and cross-sections of the films were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gaps of pure and Fe doped HoCrO3 films are found to be 3.45 eV and 3.39 eV, respectively. The magnetization measurements show that the Néel temperatures (where Cr3+ orders) for the HoCrO3 and HoCr0.7Fe0.3O3 films are 134 and 148 K, respectively. In a magnetic field of 2 T, the maximum entropy change and relative cooling power, two parameters to evaluate the magnetocaloric properties of a material, were 0.813 J/kg K at 11 K and 21.1 J/kg for HoCrO3 film, in comparison with 0.748 J/kg K at 15 K and 26.8 J/kg for HoCr0.7Fe0.3O3 film. To our knowledge, this is the first work exploring the band gap and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth chromite thin films. These findings should inspire the development of rare-earth chromite thin films for temperature control of nanoscale electronic devices and sensors in the low temperature region (< 30 K).

  8. Synthesis Of Fe Doped LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials For Li Battery By Solid State Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horata N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 is expected as a cathode material for the rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. LiMn2O4 has been received attention because this has advantages such as low cost and low toxicity compared with other cathode materials of LiCoO2 and LiNiO2. However, LiMn2O4 has some problems such as small capacity and no long life. LiMn2O4 is phase transformation at around human life temperature. One of the methods to overcome this problem is to stabilize the spinel structure by substituting Mn site ion in LiMn2O4 with transition metals (Al, Mg, Ti, Ni, Fe, etc.. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 spinel was synthesized from Li2CO3, Fe2O3 and MnO2 powder. The purpose of this study is to report the optimal condition of Fe doped LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4. Li2CO3, Fe2O3, and MnO2 mixture powder was heated up to 1173 K by TG-DTA. Li2CO3 was thermal decomposed, and CO2 gas evolved, and formed Li2O at about 800 K. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 was synthesized from a consecutive reaction Li2O, Fe2O3 and MnO2 at 723 ~ 1023 K. Active energy is calculated to 178 kJmol−1 at 723 ~ 1023 K. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 heated mixture powder at 1023 K for 32 h in air flow was observed.

  9. Paramagnetism and antiferromagnetic interactions in single-phase Fe-implanted ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Van Bael, M J; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Araújo, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    As the intrinsic origin of the high temperature ferromagnetism often observed in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors becomes increasingly debated, there is a growing need for comprehensive studies on the single-phase region of the phase diagram of these materials. Here we report on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by ion implantation of ZnO single crystals. A detailed structural characterization shows that the Fe impurities substitute for Zn in ZnO in a wurtzite Zn$_{1−x}$Fe$_{x}$O phase which is coherent with the ZnO host. In addition, the density of beam-induced defects is progressively decreased by thermal annealing up to 900$^{\\circ}$C, from highly disordered after implantation to highly crystalline upon subsequent annealing. Based on a detailed analysis of the magnetometry data, we demonstrate that isolated Fe impurities occupying Zn substitutional sites behave as localized paramagnetic moments down to 2$^{\\circ}$K, irrespective of the Fe concentration and the density...

  10. Tuning Fermi level of Cr{sub 2}CoZ (Z=Al and Si) inverse Heusler alloys via Fe-doping for maximum spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mukhtiyar [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India); Saini, Hardev S. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Thakur, Jyoti [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India); Reshak, Ali H. [New Technologies—Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2014-12-15

    We report full potential treatment of electronic and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}CoZ (Z=Al, Si) Heusler alloys where x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0, based on density functional theory (DFT). Both parent alloys (Cr{sub 2}CoAl and Cr{sub 2}CoSi) are not half-metallic frromagnets. The gradual replacement of one Cr sublattice with Fe induces the half-metallicity in these systems, resulting maximum spin polarization. The half-metallicity starts to appear in Cr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}CoAl and Cr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}CoSi with x=0.50 and x=0.25, respectively, and the values of minority-spin gap and half-metallic gap or spin-flip gap increase with further increase of x. These gaps are found to be maximum for x=1.0 for both cases. An excellent agreement between the structural properties of CoFeCrAl with available experimental study is obtained. The Fermi level tuning by Fe-doping makes these alloys highly spin polarized and thus these can be used as promising candidates for spin valves and magnetic tunnelling junction applications. - Highlights: • Tuning of E{sub F} in Cr{sub 2}CoZ (Z=Al, Si) has been demonstrated via Fe doping. • Effect of Fe doping on half-metallicity and magnetism have been discussed. • The new alloys have a potential of being used as spin polarized electrodes.

  11. A simple solvothermal route towards the morphological control of ZnO and tuning of its optical and photocatalytic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles with different morphologies were solvothermally synthesized by controlling the alkali (sodium hydroxide) concentration in an isopropanol solution.The products were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction,UV-visible absorption spectra,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,and selected area electron diffraction.The morphologies of the formed ZnO nanocrystals were dependent on the concentration of the alkali,and with increases of sodium hydroxide concentration,the ZnO nanocrystals evolved from rod to hexagonal bipyramid,and then to a flower-like nanostructure.The flower-like nanostructure resulted from the etching of the hexagonal bipyramid by the excess alkali.The photoluminescence and photocatalytic properties of the prepared ZnO were investigated.The difference of green emission among the ZnO nanocrystals indicated that a higher sodium hydroxide concentration led to a higher level of defects.The size,the surface structure and defects in the ZnO nanocrystals affected its photo-degradation characteristics.

  12. Synthesis of colloidal Mn2+:ZnO quantum dots and high-TC ferromagnetic nanocrystalline thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Nick S; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Amonette, James E; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Schwartz, Dana A; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2004-08-04

    We report the synthesis of colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnO (Mn(2+):ZnO) quantum dots and the preparation of room-temperature ferromagnetic nanocrystalline thin films. Mn(2+):ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrolysis and condensation reaction in DMSO under atmospheric conditions. Synthesis was monitored by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. Zn(OAc)(2) was found to strongly inhibit oxidation of Mn(2+) by O(2), allowing the synthesis of Mn(2+):ZnO to be performed aerobically. Mn(2+) ions were removed from the surfaces of as-prepared nanocrystals using dodecylamine to yield high-quality internally doped Mn(2+):ZnO colloids of nearly spherical shape and uniform diameter (6.1 +/- 0.7 nm). Simulations of the highly resolved X- and Q-band nanocrystal EPR spectra, combined with quantitative analysis of magnetic susceptibilities, confirmed that the manganese is substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystals as Mn(2+) with very homogeneous speciation, differing from bulk Mn(2+):ZnO only in the magnitude of D-strain. Robust ferromagnetism was observed in spin-coated thin films of the nanocrystals, with 300 K saturation moments as large as 1.35 micro(B)/Mn(2+) and T(C) > 350 K. A distinct ferromagnetic resonance signal was observed in the EPR spectra of the ferromagnetic films. The occurrence of ferromagnetism in Mn(2+):ZnO and its dependence on synthetic variables are discussed in the context of these and previous theoretical and experimental results.

  13. Nanocrystal diffusion doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Barrows, Charles J; Erickson, Christian S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2013-09-25

    A diffusion-based synthesis of doped colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals is demonstrated. This approach involves thermodynamically controlled addition of both impurity cations and host anions to preformed seed nanocrystals under equilibrium conditions, rather than kinetically controlled doping during growth. This chemistry allows thermodynamic crystal compositions to be prepared without sacrificing other kinetically trapped properties such as shape, size, or crystallographic phase. This doping chemistry thus shares some similarities with cation-exchange reactions, but proceeds without the loss of host cations and excels at the introduction of relatively unreactive impurity ions that have not been previously accessible using cation exchange. Specifically, we demonstrate the preparation of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se (0 ≤ x ≤ ∼0.2) nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, unprecedentedly high Mn(2+) content, and very large magneto-optical effects by diffusion of Mn(2+) into seed CdSe nanocrystals grown by hot injection. Controlling the solution and lattice chemical potentials of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) allows Mn(2+) diffusion into the internal volumes of the CdSe nanocrystals with negligible Ostwald ripening, while retaining the crystallographic phase (wurtzite or zinc blende), shape anisotropy, and ensemble size uniformity of the seed nanocrystals. Experimental results for diffusion doping of other nanocrystals with other cations are also presented that indicate this method may be generalized, providing access to a variety of new doped semiconductor nanostructures not previously attainable by kinetic routes or cation exchange.

  14. Magnetism mediated by a majority of [Fe³⁺ + VO²⁻] complexes in Fe-doped CeO₂ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidi, V K; Ferreira, N S; Goltz, D; van Lierop, J

    2015-08-26

    We examine the role of Fe(3+) and vacancies (V(O)) on the magnetism of Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles of Ce(100-x)Fe(x)O2 (x  =  0, 0.26, 1.82, 2.64, 5.26, 6.91, and 7.22) were prepared by a co-precipitation method, and their structural, compositional and magnetic properties were investigated. The CeO2 nanoparticles had a mixed valance of Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) ions, and doping introduced Fe(3+) ions. The decrease in Ce(3+) and increase in Fe(3+) concentrations indicated the presence of more [Fe(3+) + V(O)(2-)] complexes with Fe loading in the particles. Charge neutralization, Fe(3+) + V(O)(2-) + 2Ce(4+) ↔ 2Ce(3+) + Fe(3+), identified the impact of V(O) on the magnetism, where our results suggest that the Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticle magnetism is mediated by a majority of [Fe(3+) + V(O)(2-)]-Ce(3+) -[Fe(3+) + V(O)(2-)] complexes.

  15. All-photonic switching based on selective input pump polarization states in Fe-doped PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahma, M. A.; Saadon, H. L.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical pump-probe technique for all-optical switching is proposed based on three-selective input pump polarization states to pump material simultaneously. The new technique makes it possible to obtain efficient all-optical switching of nonlinear optical materials with very low signal background and increased stability of switching signals. Undoped and Fe-doped PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films are prepared by a simple chemical method at different doping concentrations. The x-ray diffraction patterns and optical absorption spectra of the prepared films are examined. The crystallinity and optical band gap of the prepared Fe-PbS/PVA are found to be affected by Fe doping concentration. The all-optical switching effect of Fe-PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films with various Fe concentrations was investigated. The proposed technique that demonstrates all-optical switching with three-input polarization states can lead to the realization of all-photonic switching at a threshold optical pump power of 19 mW with maximum modulation depth (ON/OFF) of 86% and switching contrast (ON/OFF) of 8.6 dB for a minimum switching time of 43 ms.

  16. Comparison study of magnetic ordering for Fe-free and Fe-doped LiMn2O4 spinel oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Ma, Boyu; Wang, Aihua; Chen, Ning; Liu, Lihua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weipeng; Li, Xiaoxiang; Cao, Guohui; Ma, Xingqiao; Lu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The structural and physical properties of LiMn2-xFexO4 (x = 0 to 0.5) were investigated. Contrasting LiMn2O4 with LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4, we observed a remarkable difference in the magnetic frustration. The LiMn2O4 sample has a magnetic ordering transition at 61 K while Fe-doped LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4 has an antiferromagnetic ordering transition with a Neel temperature at TN = 34 K. Our result showed a larger value of the frustration index (f=| w|/TC) for pure LiMn2O4 than for LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4. Fe-doping results in a decrease in the degree of frustration. Fe dopants occupying positions of Mn ion can break the original moment equilibrium so as to suppress the magnetic frustration in LiMn2O4.

  17. Highly effective Fe-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles photocatalysts for visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Swati; Umar, Ahmad; Mehta, Surinder Kumar; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2015-07-15

    This paper reports the synthesis of various molar concentrations of iron (Fe)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their efficient use as potential photocatalysts for photocatalytic degradation of toxic and harmful chemical, paranitrophenol. The nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel and facile ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method and characterized in detail by various analytical techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, thermal, optical, pore size distribution, etc properties. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were examined under visible light illumination using para-nitrophenol as target pollutant. By detailed experimental findings revealed that the Fe dopant content crucially determines the catalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles. The maximum degradation rate of para-nitrophenol observed was 92% in 5 h when the Fe(3+) molar concentration was 0.05 mol%, without addition of any oxidizing reagents. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated excellent photocatalytic response because of their small size, excellent crystalline structure, increase in threshold wavelength response and maximum separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Further, the determination of reaction intermediates has also been carried out and plausible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of para-nitrophenol has been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Progress on Spectroscopy of Lanthanide Ions Incorporated in Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Doping luminescent lanthanide ions into semiconductor nanocrystals is an ideal approach for developing nano-devices for various applications. Quantum confinement effects are expected for lanthanide ions doped in small semiconductor nanocrystals. The most recent progress on the synthesis and spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in various semiconductor nanocrystals such as Ⅱ-Ⅵ, Ⅲ-Ⅴ and Ⅳ-Ⅵ families were systematically reviewed, focusing on our recent findings on the optical spectroscopy of Eu3+ doped in ZnO and TiO2 nanocrystals by wet chemical synthesis. The energy transfer from the band-gap excitation to lanthanides further confirmed that lanthanide ions could be successfully incorporated into the lattice sites in spite of the mismatch in ionic radii.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Ion Dop ed Nano ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rita John; Ra jaram Ra jakumari

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with erbium at different concentrations was synthesized by solid-state reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), UV-absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) study and vibrating sample magnetometer. The XRD studies exhibit the presence of wurtzite crystal structure similar to the parent compound ZnO in 1%Er3+ doped ZnO, suggesting that doped Er3+ ions sit at the regular Zn2+ sites. However, same studies spread over the samples with Er3+ content>1% reveals the occurrence of secondary phase. SEM images of 1% Er3+ doped ZnO show the polycrystalline nature of the synthesized sample. UV-visible absorption spectrum of Er3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals shows a strong absorption peak at 388 nm due to ZnO band to band transition. The PL study exhibits emission in the visible region, due to excitonic as well as defect related transitions. The magnetization-field curve of Er3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals showed ferromagnetic property at room-temperature.

  20. Simultaneous control of nanocrystal size and nanocrystal{nanocrystal separation in CdS nanocrystal assembly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sameer Sapra; D D Sarma

    2005-10-01

    We report an easy, one pot synthesis to prepare ordered CdS nanocrystals with varying inter-particle separation and characterize the particle separation using x-ray diffraction at low and wide angles.

  1. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  2. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-02

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.

  3. Investigation of the electroforming and resistive switching mechanisms in Fe-doped SrTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, Tobias

    2009-11-27

    To overcome the physical limits of todays memory technologies new concepts are needed. The resistive random access memory (RRAM), which bases on a nonvolatile and repeatable change of the resistance by external electrical stimuli, seems to be one promising candidate. Within the scope of this work, the model system Strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) has been investigated to get a deeper understanding of the underlying physical mechanism related to the resistance change. The electrical properties of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) can be modulated from a band insulator to metallic conduction by a self-doping with oxygen vacancies which act as shallow donors. A local accumulation or depletion of oxygen vacancies at the vicinity of the surface will lead to a local redox process which is responsible for the resistance change. To study the influence of the interfaces on the switching properties of SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, epitaxial films of Fe-doped SrTiO{sub 3} were grown on different bottom electrodes (SrRuO{sub 3}, LaNiO{sub 3} und Nb:STO) by a ''Pulsed Laser Deposition'' technique. An atomic force microscope equipped with a conductive tip (LC-AFM) allowed studying the conductivity of the deposited films on the nanometer scale. Resistive switching of lateral structures smaller than {proportional_to}5 nm could be realized which represents the potential of this material for a further downscaling of RRAM devices. The deposition of top electrodes, made of Platinum or Titanium, allowed the electrical characterization of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures. An extensive investigation of pristine MIM-devices by impedance spectroscopy showed the big impact of the metal-insulator interface on the overall device resistance. Furthermore, a chemical polarization was studied by dynamical current sweeps and identified as a volatile resistance variation. Usually a forming procedure is needed to ''enable'' the resistive switching properties in MIM devices

  4. Controlled fabrication of oriented co-doped ZnO clustered nanoassemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, K C; Aslam, M; Dravid, Vinayak P; Bahadur, D

    2010-09-01

    Clustered nanoassemblies of Mn doped ZnO and co-doped ZnO (Mn, Sn co-doped ZnO; Mn, Sb co-doped ZnO; and Mn, Bi co-doped ZnO) were prepared by refluxing their respective precursors in diethylene glycol medium. The co-doping elements, Sn, Sb and Bi exist in multi oxidation states by forming Zn-O-M (M=Sb, Bi and Sn) bonds in hexagonal wurtzite nanostructure. The analyses of detailed structural characterization performed by XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), show that co-doping ions are successfully incorporated into the ZnO nanostructure and do not appear as precipitates or secondary phases. HRTEM analysis also confirmed the oriented attachment of nanocrystals as well as their defect structures. The formation/activation of higher amount of intrinsic host defects, for instance, oxygen vacancies in co-doped ZnO as compared to Mn doped ZnO sample is evident from Raman spectra. The doped and co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic like behavior at room temperature presumably due to the presence of defects. Specifically, it has been observed that the incorporation of dopant and co-dopants into ZnO structure can modulate the local electronic structure due to the formation/activation of defects and hence, cause significant changes in their structural, vibrational, optical and magnetic properties.

  5. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO/glass substrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABDULQADER D FAISAL

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was coated with zinc acetate dihydrate to form seed layer of ZnO nanocrystals. Double zone tube furnace connected to vacuum pump was used for ZnO growth process. Zn metal powder was positioned at the first zone at temperature 900$^{\\circ}$C. The ITO–glass substrate with pre-coated seed layer was then located in the second zone of tube furnace at growth temperature of 550$^{\\circ}$C. The growth of ZnO NWs was controlled under constant concentration of seed layer, while other parameters such as argon and oxygen flow rates, substrate position, time and oxygen flow rate were varied.The VA ZnO NWs were finally characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and high-resolution transmission electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showthat long and VA ZnO NWs were single crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The ultimate length and average diameter of ZnO NWs were 10 $\\mu$m and 50–100 nm, respectively. These were achieved under optimized CVD growth parameters. The mechanism of vertical growth model of ZnO NWs is also discussed.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanocrystals and histologic evaluation of their biocompatibility by means of intraosseous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C J A; Pereira, M C; Almeida, R J; Loyola, A M; Silva, A C A; Dantas, N O

    2014-05-01

    To synthesize and characterize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals and assess their biological properties for applications in dentistry, particularly in endodontics, by means of intraosseous implants. ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized and characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Ten guinea pigs were divided into two groups representing experimental periods of 4 and 12 weeks and received implants on both sides of the mandible in the region of the symphysis. The connective tissue response along the lateral wall outside the cup served as the negative control. The animals were euthanized at the end of each observation period and prepared for routine histological examinations which evaluated inflammatory response and material biocompatibility. ZnO nanocrystals were highly pure, crystalline, and averaged 21 nm in size. After 12 weeks, tissue analysis revealed the presence of a thin layer of connective tissue with some giant cells between the implanted material and underlying bone tissue. While signs of mild inflammation could be seen, bone resorption and remodeling were not apparent. ZnO nanocrystals were biocompatible, well tolerated and allowed new bone formation and bone remodelling. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of size reduction on structural and optical properties of ZnO matrix due to successive doping of Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M. Mehedi [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, Wasi, E-mail: wasiamu@gmail.com [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Azam, Ameer [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Naqvi, A.H. [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2014-01-15

    In this work 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized by the sol–gel method. The compositional, structural and optical studies have been investigated by XRD, FESEM equipped with EDS, TEM with SAED, UV–visible and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD, SEM and TEM results confirmed the formation of nanoparticles with polycrystalline single phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size has been found to vary between 10 and 20 nm with changes in the doping concentration of Fe. The stretching bonds in ZnO have been observed in FTIR spectra. The UV–visible and PL spectra show a red shift with increase of dopant concentration. The band gaps for all samples were calculated by the Tauc relation and narrowing of band gap from 3.33 eV to 3.26 eV with increasing Fe dopant concentration up to 10% was found. The band gap is narrowing because of the s–d and p–d exchange interactions which introduce a negative and a positive correction to the conduction and the valence-band edges respectively. -- Highlights: • We have synthesized Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles by low cost sol–gel method. • Grain size, lattice parameters and bond length of ZnO are found to decrease with increase of Fe concentration. • Particles size is found to decrease from 20 nm to 10 nm. • Crystallite size decreases optical band gap from 3.33 eV to 3.26 eV.

  8. Study of transport behavior for Fe-doping La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 perovskite manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉建; 葛洪良; 韩雁冰; 贾广强; 王新燕; 曹义刚; 张金仓

    2004-01-01

    Systematic studies of the transport properties of La0.67Ca0.33Mn1-xFexO3 (x=0-0.3) systems showed that with increasing Fe-doping content x the resistance increases and the insulator-metal transition temperature moves to lower temperature. For small doping content, the transport property satisfies metal transport behavior below the transition temperature, and above the transition temperature it satisfies the small polaron model. This behavior can be explained by Fe3+ doping, which easily forms Fe3+ -O2- -Mn4+ channel, suppressing the double exchange Mn3+ -O2- -Mn4+ channel and enhancing the spin scattering of Mn ions induced by antiferromagnetic clusters of Fe ions.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of UV-treated Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate-doped TiO2 layers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2016-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been extensively studied because they constitute promising low-cost alternatives to their conventional semiconductor-based counterparts. However, much of the effort aimed at achieving high conversion efficiencies has focused on dye and liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs fabricated by mixing TiO2 with Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (Fe-BLT). These nanosized Fe-BLT powders were prepared by using a high-energy ball-milling process. In addition, we used a UV radiation-ozone (UV-O3) treatment to change the surface wettability of TiO2 from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and thereby prevented the easy separation of the Fe-BLT-mixed TiO2 from the fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) coating glass.

  10. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  11. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-30

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn1-xFexNiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M(2) provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of -25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches -60.7 × 10(-6)/K over T = 231-338 K and 0.6 × 10(-6)/K over T = 175-231 K during cooling.

  12. Photocatalytic characteristics of single phase Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles sensitized with vitamin B{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz, E-mail: gharagozlou@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, R. [Intel Corporation, IMO-SC, SC2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anatase TiO{sub 2}/B{sub 12} hybrid nanostructured catalyst was successfully synthesized by sol–gel technique. • The nanoparticle catalyst was doped with iron at several concentrations. • Nanoparticles were characterized in detail by XRD, Raman, TEM, EDS, and spectroscopy techniques. • The formation mechanism and role of point defects on photocatalytic properties were discussed. • A structure-property-processing correlation was established. - Abstract: We report a processing-structure-property correlation in B{sub 12}-anatase titania hybrid catalysts doped with several concentrations of iron. Our results clearly show that low-level iron doping alters structure, defect content, and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO{sub 2}. XRD and Raman studies revealed formation of a single-phase anatase TiO{sub 2} where no iron based segregation in particular iron oxide, was detected. FT-IR spectra clearly confirmed sensitization of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with vitamin B{sub 12}. TEM micrographs and diffraction patterns confirmed crystallization of anatase nanoparticles with a radius of 15–20 nm. Both XRD and Raman signals showed a peak shift and a peak broadening which are surmised to originate from creation of point defects, namely oxygen vacancy and titanium interstitial. The doped samples revealed a narrower band gap as compared to undoped samples. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was assessed through measuring the decomposition rate of rhodamine B. It was found that sensitization with vitamin B{sub 12} and Fe-doping significantly enhances the photocatalytic efficiency of the anatase nanoparticles. We also showed that there is an optimum Fe-doping level where the maximum photocatalytic activity is achieved. The boost of photocatalytic activity was qualitatively understood to originate from a more effective use of the light photons, formation of point defects, which enhance the charge separation, higher carrier mobility.

  13. Effect of W co-doping on the optical, magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-doped BaSnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balamurugan, K., E-mail: balagan@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036 (India); Harish Kumar, N. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036 (India); Arout Chelvane, J. [Advanced Magnetics Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500058 (India); Santhosh, P.N., E-mail: santhosh@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036 (India)

    2012-07-01

    The effect of W co-doping on the optical, magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-doped BaSnO{sub 3} has been studied. Polycrystalline BaSnO{sub 3}, BaSn{sub 0.96}Fe{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} and BaSn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.04}W{sub 0.01}O{sub 3} samples were prepared using solid state reaction. In the analysis of powder X-ray diffraction patterns, the samples were found to be free of secondary phases. Diffuse reflectance spectra evidenced the substitution of Fe and W for Sn in the host BaSnO{sub 3}. Micro-Raman spectra confirmed the existence of oxygen vacancies in the samples. Upon W-1% co-doping, the ferromagnetic character of Fe-4% doped BaSnO{sub 3} is suppressed drastically and its Curie temperature is reduced to 310 K from 462 K. The existence of F-centers and ferromagnetic interactions at room temperature is evidenced by the electron paramagnetic resonance and ferromagnetic resonance signals observed in the electron spin resonance spectra of the undoped and Fe-4% doped, (Fe-4% and W-1%) co-doped BaSnO{sub 3} samples respectively. Suppression of ferromagnetism upon W co-doping is due to the fact that each W{sup 6+} ion donates two electrons to the host lattice and it reduces the number of oxygen vacancies that are essential for ferromagnetism to exist in the Fe-doped BaSnO{sub 3} samples.

  14. [Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in water by Fe doped-TiO2 nanotube arrays under simulated solar light irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Guo-Liang; Yu, Ze-Bin; Chen, Ying; Xu, Tian-Zuo; Peng, Zhen-Bo; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2015-02-01

    Seeking an efficient treatment method for bisphenol A ( BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting compound, is important for environmental remediation and human health. Herein, the degradation of BPA by means of photoelectrocatalysis was investigated. Fe doped-TiO2 nanotube arrays ( Fe/TNA ) served as the photoanode, and a xenon lamp simulated the solar light source. First, undoped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNA) and a series of Fe/TNA were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Fe/TNA showed a red-shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible-light region compared to TNA. Then, experimental conditions including Fe doping content, current intensity and aeration rate were varied to demonstrate their effects on the elimination of BPA. It was observed that the degradation of BPA could be fitted to the quasi-first-order equation. Under the following conditions: Fe/TNA prepared by 0.9 mol x L(-1) Fe(NO3)3 solution dip-coating as photoanode, titanium foil as cathode, current intensity of 1.15 mA x cm(-2) and initial BPA concentration of 10 mg x L(-1), 72.3% BPA was decomposed during 4 h reaction, with a rate constant of 5.32 x 10(-3) min(-1). Aeration enhanced the removal rate of BPA to 82.7% and 94.1% with an aerating rate of 1.0 L x min(-1) using titanium foil as cathode and an aerating rate of 0.2 L x min(-1) using carbon cloth as cathode, respectively, and the corresponding rate constants were 7.20 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 11.6 x 10(-3) min(-1), respectively.

  15. Safe-by-Design CuO Nanoparticles via Fe-Doping, Cu-O Bond Length Variation, and Biological Assessment in Cells and Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naatz, Hendrik; Lin, Sijie; Li, Ruibin; Jiang, Wen; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E; Mädler, Lutz; Pokhrel, Suman

    2017-01-24

    The safe implementation of nanotechnology requires nanomaterial hazard assessment in accordance with the material physicochemical properties that trigger the injury response at the nano/bio interface. Since CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used industrially and their dissolution properties play a major role in hazard potential, we hypothesized that tighter bonding of Cu to Fe by particle doping could constitute a safer-by-design approach through decreased dissolution. Accordingly, we designed a combinatorial library in which CuO was doped with 1-10% Fe in a flame spray pyrolysis reactor. The morphology and structural properties were determined by XRD, BET, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM, EFTEM, and EELS, which demonstrated a significant reduction in the apical Cu-O bond length while simultaneously increasing the planar bond length (Jahn-Teller distortion). Hazard screening was performed in tissue culture cell lines and zebrafish embryos to discern the change in the hazardous effects of doped vs nondoped particles. This demonstrated that with increased levels of doping there was a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells, as well as an incremental decrease in the rate of hatching interference in zebrafish embryos. The dissolution profiles were determined and the surface reactions taking place in Holtfreter's solution were validated using cyclic voltammetry measurements to demonstrate that the Cu(+)/Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) redox species play a major role in the dissolution process of pure and Fe-doped CuO. Altogether, a safe-by-design strategy was implemented for the toxic CuO particles via Fe doping and has been demonstrated for their safe use in the environment.

  16. Oxygen vacancy induced by La and Fe into ZnO nanoparticles to modify ferromagnetic ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: kuldeep0309@yahoo.co.in [Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-05-15

    interactions. - Highlights: • The La and Fe doping into ZnO nanoparticles induce defects in terms of oxygen vacancy. • The La ions in Fe substituted ZnO formed nanoparticles than nanorods. • Antiferromagnetic interactions are observed at room temperature magnetic measurement. • Rietveld analysis evaluated structural deformation in the Wurtzite ZnO lattice.

  17. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da, E-mail: dchen_80@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Qin, Laishun [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Bai, Liqun [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed.

  18. Improving Photocatalytic Performance in Degradation of Methylene Blue using Magnetite Fe-doped ZnO/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M. I.; Afifah, N.; Saleh, R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized Fe:ZnO/Montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite with various loading of magnetite (Fe3O4) using co-precipitation method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by some measurements such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Burneur-Emment-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD result shows that the diffraction pattern of nanocomposites exhibit characteristic from hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubical spinel structure of Fe3O4. However, the diffraction pattern from MMT could not be detected using XRD measurement. The presence of MMT in the nanocomposite was further confirmed in the FTIR spectra. Furthermore, the photocatalytic performance of the samples was also checked for degrading methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. The result shows that incorporation of Fe3O4 in Fe:ZnO/MMT has better photocatalytic efficiency than Fe:ZnO/MMT alone. Stability of the nanocomposites was also monitored after several cycle processes.

  19. Quantum Size Effect in ZnO Nanoparticles via Mechanical Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Azri Khalisah Aznan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanocrystals were successfully produced by mechanical milling. It is shown that mechanical milling is very effective and simple to produce ZnO nanoparticles with the possibility of obtaining large quantities of materials. Size effects in ZnO nanoparticles were probed by XRD and UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Absorption due to free electron was clearly observed, whereas strong PL lines were recorded in the UV and blue region. The absorbance and photoluminescence were found to increase with reduction in particle size. Blueshift of excitonic and emission peaks was observed as a consequence of the size quantization effect. Formation of pure ZnO phase was confirmed from XRD pattern and the optical spectroscopy.

  20. Identification of defect-related emissions in ZnO hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng, E-mail: xfwang@nju.edu.cn; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Rong [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Song, Fengqi [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhou, Jianfeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Yongbing [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-13

    ZnO hybrid materials with singly precipitated ZnO nanocrystals embedded in the glass surface were fabricated by melt-quenching method followed by the annealing process. A series of samples containing different densities and species of intrinsic defects were obtained under different annealing conditions in a controllable manner, which was an ideal platform to identify the complicated defect origins. By employing photoluminescence (PL), excitation-dependent PL, PL excitation (PLE), and Raman spectroscopy, the radiative transitions of visible emission bands at around 401, 490, and 528 nm were unambiguously involved with zinc interstitial-related defect levels as initial states, and the corresponding terminal states were suggested to be valence band, oxygen vacancies, and zinc vacancies, respectively. This study may deepen the fundamental understanding of defect-related emissions and physics in ZnO and benefit potential applications of ZnO hybrid materials in optoelectronics.

  1. Effect of ligand exchange of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of nanostructured depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Xi; Zhou, Zheng-Ji, E-mail: zzj@henu.edu.cn; Bai, Bing; Liu, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Kou, Dong-Xing; Wu, Si-Xin, E-mail: wusixin@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-12-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanocrystals combining the advantage of feasible solution-phase synthesis and processing are perceived as promising materials for application in efficient, low-cost photovoltaic technology. Herein, we have got surfactant-free CZTS nanocrystals by a novel ligand exchange method, and the obtained CZTS nanocrystals were deposited onto ZnO nanorod arrays to construct depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell. The all-inorganic CZTS nanocrystal solar cells demonstrated a remarkable improvement in J{sub sc} (from 8.14 to 13.97 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power conversion efficiency (from 1.83 to 3.34 %) compared with surfactant-capped CZTS nanocrystals. Using surface photovoltage spectrum, the influence of ligand exchange of CZTS nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of the nanostructured CZTS solar cells was discussed.

  2. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  3. Role of epitaxial strain on the magnetic structure of Fe-doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, J.A., E-mail: moyerja@illinois.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kumah, D.P. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Vaz, C.A.F. [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Arena, D.A. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Henrich, V.E. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic structure of Fe-doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4}) grown on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrates is studied with superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopies. X-ray and electron diffraction show that the choice of substrate has large effects on the strain, crystal structure and surface morphology of Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4} thin films. Samples grown on MgO have small, coherent strains and surfaces that are nearly atomically flat, whereas films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} have large tensile strains and surfaces terminated with islands, which indicate the presence of a large density of misfit dislocations. These differences in structural properties correlate with the large differences seen in the magnetic structure; samples grown on SrTiO{sub 3} have larger magnetic moments and increased anisotropies compared to those grown on MgO. Most strikingly, the large magnetic spin and orbital moments found in the films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} suggest a suppression of anti-phase boundary formation, which we attribute to the large compressive lattice mismatch and the formation of misfit dislocations during the film growth in order to relieve the epitaxial strain. This results in the films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} having magnetic properties that are more similar to bulk Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4} than those grown on MgO, demonstrating that epitaxial strain can result in large changes in the magnetic structure of Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Epitaxial thin films of Fe-doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are grown with molecular beam epitaxy. • The strain is larger for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates than those grown on MgO. • The magnetic properties of the films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} are more “bulk-like”. • Magnetic spectroscopies are used to characterize individual cation properties. • There is a possible suppression of anti-phase boundaries in

  4. Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Non-resonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachynski, Aliaksandr V; Kuzmin, Andrey N; Nyk, Marcin; Roy, Indrajit; Prasad, Paras N

    2008-07-24

    In this paper we show that biocompatible zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) having non-centrosymmetric structure can be used as non-resonant nonlinear optical probes for targeting in bioimaging applications in vitro by use of the second order processes of second harmonic and sum frequency generation, as well as the third order process of four wave mixing. These non-resonant processes provide advantages above and beyond traditional two-photon bioimaging: (i) the probes do not photo-bleach; (ii) the input wavelength can be judiciously selected; and (iii) no heat is dissipated into the cells, ensuring longer cell viability and ultimately longer imaging times. ZnO NCs have been synthesized in organic media by using a non-hydrolytic sol-gel process, and subsequently dispersed in aqueous media using phospholipid micelles, and incorporated with the biotargeting molecule folic acid (FA). Sum Frequency, Second Harmonic and non-resonant four wave mixing non-linear signals from this stable dispersion of ZnO NCs, targeted to the live tumor (KB) cells were used for imaging. Robust intracellular accumulation of the targeted (FA incorporated) ZnO nanocrystals could be observed, without any indication of cytotoxicity.

  5. The Einstein nanocrystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoldi, D S; Miranda, E N

    2016-01-01

    We study the simplest possible model of nanocrystal consisting in a simple cubic lattice with a small number of atoms (NA ~ 10-10^3), where each atom is linked to its nearest neighbor by a quantum harmonic potential. Some properties (entropy, temperature, specific heat) of the nanocrystal are calculated numerically but exactly within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble. We find that the presence of a surface in the nanocrystal modifies the thermostatistic properties to a greater extent than the small number of atoms in the system. The specific heat Cv behaves similarly to the Einstein solid, with an asymptotic value for high temperatures that differs from that of the Dulong-Petit law by a term of the order of NA^(-1/3) and that can be explained easily in terms of the surface. The entropy is non-additive, but this is due to the presence of the surface and we show that the additivity is recovered in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we find that, when calculations follow the canonical ensemble, results...

  6. A novel disposable electrochemical sensor for determination of carbamazepine based on Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, N; Sekar, C; Ficarra, S; Tellone, E; Bonavita, A; Leonardi, S G; Neri, G

    2016-05-01

    An effective strategy to fabricate a novel disposable screen printing carbon electrode modified by iron doped tin dioxide nanoparticles for carbamazepine (CBZ) detection has been developed. Fe-SnO2 (Fe=0 to 5 wt.%) NPs were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method and assessed for their structural and morphological changes due to Fe doping into SnO2 matrix by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of carbamazepine at the Fe-SnO2 modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. Electron transfer coefficient α (0.63) and electron transfer rate constant ks (0.69 s(-1)) values of the 5 wt.% Fe-SnO2 modified SPCE indicate that the diffusion controlled process takes place on the electrode surface. The fabricated sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response towards the detection of CBZ at a lower oxidation potential of 0.8 V in phosphate buffer solution at pH7.0. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to CBZ over a wide linear range of 0.5-100 μM with a low detection limit of 92 nM. Furthermore, the practical application of the modified electrode has been investigated by the determination of CBZ in pharmaceutical products using standard addition method.

  7. Role of Fe doping in tuning the band gap of TiO2 for the photo-oxidation-induced cytotoxicity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Ji, Zhaoxia; Henderson, Bryana L; Xia, Tian; Li, LinJiang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Mädler, Lutz

    2011-07-27

    UV-light-induced electron-hole (e(-)/h(+)) pair generation with free radical production in TiO(2)-based nanoparticles is a major conceptual paradigm for biological injury. However, to date, this hypothesis has been difficult to experimentally verify due to the high energy of UV light that is intrinsically highly toxic to biological systems. Here, a versatile flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthetic process has been exploited to synthesize a library of iron-doped (0-10 wt%) TiO(2) nanoparticles. These particles have been tested for photoactivation-mediated cytotoxicity using near-visible light exposure. The reduction in TiO(2) band gap energy with incremental levels of Fe loading maintained the nanoparticle crystalline structure in spite of homogeneous Fe distribution (demonstrated by XRD, HRTEM, SAED, EFTEM, and EELS). Photochemical studies showed that band gap energy was reciprocally tuned proportional to the Fe content. The photo-oxidation capability of Fe-doped TiO(2) was found to increase during near-visible light exposure. Use of a macrophage cell line to evaluate cytotoxic and ROS production showed increased oxidant injury and cell death in parallel with a decrease in band gap energy. These findings demonstrate the importance of band gap energy in the phototoxic response of the cell to TiO(2) nanoparticles and reflect the potential of this material to generate adverse effects in humans and the environment during high-intensity light exposure.

  8. Effect of Fe doping in the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoCr2O4: insights from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debashish; Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Sanyal, Biplab; Ghosh, Subhradip

    2016-10-01

    CoCr2O4 has attracted significant attention recently due to several interesting properties such as magnetostriction, magnetoelectricity etc. More recent experiments on Fe substituted CoCr2O4 observed a variety of novel phenomena such as the magnetic compensation accompanied by the occurrence of exchange bias, which reverses its sign. Understanding of such phenomena may lead to control the properties of these material in an efficient way to enhance its potential for multifunctional applications. In this paper, we study the fundamental understanding of Fe doping in modifying the structural and magnetic properties of CoCr2O4 with varying composition and substitution of Fe at different sublattices by first-principles density functional calculations. We have analysed in detail the effect of Fe substitution on crystal field and exchange splittings, magnetic moments and interatomic exchange parameters. It is also observed that with increasing concentration of Fe impurity, the system has a tendency towards forming an ‘inverse spinel’ structure as observed in experiments. Such tendencies are crucial to understand this system as it would lead to modifications in the magnetic exchange interactions associated with sites with different symmetry finally affecting the magnetic structure and the multiferrocity in turn.

  9. Tunable magnetocaloric effect around room temperature by Fe doping in Mn0.98Cr (0.02 - x)Fex As compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipus, Jhon J.; Ribeiro, Paula O.; von Ranke, P.; Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Carvalho, Alexandre M. G.; Coelho, Adelino A.; Franco, Victorino; Rocco, Daniel L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present an investigation of the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Mn0.98Cr (0.02 - x)Fex As compounds with x = 0.002, 0.005 and 0.010. Our findings show that as Fe content increases the unit cell volume decreases, which indicates that Fe doping emulates the pressure effect on the crystalline structure. The transition temperature TC decreases as x increases and it can be set at approximate value of room temperature by changing the doping level. In addition, the magnetic entropy change ΔSM was determined using a discontinuous measurement protocol, and realistic values from the magnetocaloric effect presented by MnAs-type compounds under pressure (emulated pressure) could be obtained. The values of Δ SMMAX are very large, around -11 Jkg-1K-1 with ΔH = 15 kOe, which is higher than that observed for most compounds with TC around room temperature. However, ΔSM is confined to a narrow temperature range of 11 K. To overcome this drawback, the composition of a theoretical composite formed by our samples was calculated in order to obtain a table-shaped ΔSM curve. The simulated composite showed a high value of full width at half maximum δTFWHM of 33 K, which is much higher than that of single sample.

  10. Facile preparation of novel dandelion-like Fe-doped NiCo2O4 microspheres@nanomeshes for excellent capacitive property in asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Mu, Yanping; Wang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we successfully synthesized the dandelion-like Fe-doped NiCo2O4 microspheres@nanomeshes (Fe-NCO-M@N-1h) using a facile hydrothermal method, followed by calcinations. In the unique structure, numerous nanoneedles radially grow on the surface of microsphere and some porous nanomeshes orderly develop in the inside of microsphere, therefore dandelion-like Fe-NCO-M@N-1h displays large specific surface area (101.15 m2 g-1) and more active sites. Electrochemical properties of the Fe-NCO-M@N-1h have been tested for symmetric supercapacitors (SCs) and asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Benefiting from the structural advantages, Fe-NCO-M@N-1h electrode exhibits outstanding capacitive behaviors, such as the desirable specific capacitance and eminent rate performance (2237 and 1810 F g-1 at the current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively) and remarkable cycling performance (95.8% retention after 4500 cycles). Besides, a Fe-NCO-M@N-1h//AC-ASCs device has been constructed successfully, presenting the highest energy density of 46.68 Wh kg-1. The results indicate that the Fe-NCO-M@N-1h is a potential material for SCs.

  11. Investigation of Electric Field–Induced Structural Changes at Fe-Doped SrTiO3 Anode Interfaces by Second Harmonic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ascienzo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the detection of electric field–induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG from the anode interfaces of reduced and oxidized Fe-doped SrTiO3 (Fe:STO single crystals. For the reduced crystal, we observe steady enhancements of the susceptibility components as the imposed dc-voltage increases. The enhancements are attributed to a field-stabilized electrostriction, leading to Fe:Ti-O bond stretching and bending in Fe:Ti-O6 octahedra. For the oxidized crystal, no obvious structural changes are observed below 16 kV/cm. Above 16 kV/cm, a sharp enhancement of the susceptibilities occurs due to local electrostrictive deformations in response to oxygen vacancy migrations away from the anode. Differences between the reduced and oxidized crystals are explained by their relative oxygen vacancy and free carrier concentrations which alter internal electric fields present at the Pt/Fe:STO interfaces. Our results show that the optical SHG technique is a powerful tool for detecting structural changes near perovskite-based oxide interfaces due to field-driven oxygen vacancy migration.

  12. Photocatalytic Fe-doped n-TiO2: From synthesis to utilization of in vitro cell models for screening human and environmental nanosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Balbi

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the cytotoxic effects of three different types of recently synthetized Fe-doped n-TiO2 were compared in two cell models widely utilized for screening cellular toxicity of NMs in humans and aquatic organisms, human vascular endothelial cells (HECV and immune cells (hemocytes of the marine invertebrate, the mussel Mytilus spp, respectively. Parallel studies were carried out using N-doped n-TiO2. The results indicate both distinct and common behavior (agglomeration state in different media (human cell culture medium and mussel hemolymph serum and biological effects (cytotoxicity, nitric oxide production of different types of doped- n-TiO2 in different cell models. Although in vitro studies represent a first step in the toxicological assessment of NMs, studies comparing their effects on human and aquatic invertebrate cells that take into account the effects of different exposure media represent an useful tool for evaluating potential cytotoxicity of those NMs, like TiO2-based photocatalytic NMs, widely applied in environmental remediation, and whose potential risks are poorly understood.

  13. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Solis Maldonado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al2O3 phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al2O3 lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.

  14. Growth and characterization of ZnO nanostructured thin films by a two step chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2008-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured seed layer was grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass substrate. The as-prepared nanostructured seed layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for its structure and surface morphology. XRD results showed (0 0 2) oriented ZnO seed layer growth. Surface morphology study revealed the cluster of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal shape. ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been grown over the as-prepared ZnO nanostructured seed layer using a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method by immersing seed layer substrate in a chemical bath. It has been found that the morphology of the nanostructured seed layer is a key influencing factor for the growth of vertical ZnO NRs. In our growth method, we were successful in growing vertical NRs with diameter of about 70-150 nm with perfect hexagonal shape. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies were carried out to analyse the crystal quality of our as-grown ZnO nanorods.

  15. Growth and characterization of ZnO nanostructured thin films by a two step chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)], E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com; Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2008-12-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured seed layer was grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass substrate. The as-prepared nanostructured seed layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for its structure and surface morphology. XRD results showed (0 0 2) oriented ZnO seed layer growth. Surface morphology study revealed the cluster of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal shape. ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been grown over the as-prepared ZnO nanostructured seed layer using a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method by immersing seed layer substrate in a chemical bath. It has been found that the morphology of the nanostructured seed layer is a key influencing factor for the growth of vertical ZnO NRs. In our growth method, we were successful in growing vertical NRs with diameter of about 70-150 nm with perfect hexagonal shape. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies were carried out to analyse the crystal quality of our as-grown ZnO nanorods.

  16. A Study on the Antibacterial Activity Of Zno Nanoparticles Prepared By Combustion Method against E Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using Oxalyl dihydrazide (ODH as fuel, at much lower temperature (300oC. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the formation of wurtzite-structured pure ZnO No peaks from any else phases of ZnO and no impurity peaks were observed, indicating the high purity of the obtained hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals. The antibacterial activity of the formed nano ZnO were investigated against the pathogenic bacteria namely against E-coli. The bacteriological test is performed in Luria-Bertani and Nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and liquid broth system using different concentration of ZnO by standard microbial method. We have used both colony counting method and disk diffusion method. In both the methods ZnO nanoparticles with 100microg/L showed best antibacterial activity, and further studies on destruction of bacterial genomic DNA was done using PCR and gel electrophoresis revealed the DNA fragment bands, this activity might be due to surface charge interactions between the particles and cells. Free radical scavenging properties of the particles might have helped in cell wall disruption, and drastic antimicrobial action.

  17. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    The impact of nanotechnology on our society is getting larger every year. Electronics are becoming smaller and more powerful, the "Internet of Things" is all around us, and data generation is increasing exponentially. None of this would have been possible without the developments in nanotechnology. Crystalline semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystals) are one of the latest developments in the field of nanotechnology. This thesis addresses three important challenges for the transition of silicon nanocrystals from the lab bench to the marketplace: A better understanding of the nanocrystal synthesis was obtained, the electronic properties of the nanocrystals were characterized and tuned, and novel silicon nanocrystal inks were formed and applied using simple coating technologies. Plasma synthesis of nanocrystals has numerous advantages over traditional solution-based synthesis methods. While the formation of nanoparticles in low pressure nonthermal plasmas is well known, the heating mechanism leading to their crystallization is poorly understood. A combination of comprehensive plasma characterization with a nanoparticle heating model presented here reveals the underlying plasma physics leading to crystallization. The model predicts that the nanoparticles reach temperatures as high as 900 K in the plasma as a result of heating reactions on the nanoparticle surface. These temperatures are well above the gas temperature and sufficient for complete nanoparticle crystallization. Moving the field of plasma nanoparticle synthesis to atmospheric pressures is important for lowering its cost and making the process attractive for industrial applications. The heating and charging model for silicon nanoparticles was adapted in Chapter 3 to study plasmas maintained over a wide range of pressures (10 -- 105 Pa). The model considers three collisionality regimes and determines the dominant contribution of each regime under various plasma conditions. Strong nanoparticle cooling at

  18. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  19. Low-temperature solution growth of ZnO nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Woong Chae

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Single crystal ZnO nanotube arrays were synthesized at low temperature in an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine. It was found that the pH value of the reaction solution played an important role in mediating the growth of ZnO nanostructures. A change in the growth temperature might change the pH value of the solution and bring about the structure conversion of ZnO from nanorods to nanotubes. It was proposed that the ZnO nanorods were initially formed while the reaction solution was at a relatively high temperature (~90 °C and therefore enriched with colloidal Zn(OH2, which allowed a fast growth of ZnO nanocrystals along the [001] orientation to form nanorods. A decrease in the reaction temperature yielded a supersaturated solution, resulting in an increase in the concentration of OH− ions as well as the pH value of the solution. Colloidal Zn(OH2 in the supersaturated solution trended to precipitate. However, because of a slow diffusion process in view of the low temperature and low concentration of the colloidal Zn(OH2, the growth of the (001 plane of ZnO nanorods was limited and only occurred at the edge of the nanorods, eventually leading to the formation of a nanotube shape. In addition, it was demonstrated that the pH might impact the surface energy difference between the polar and non-polar faces of the ZnO crystal. Such a surface energy difference became small at high pH and hereby the prioritized growth of ZnO crystal along the [001] orientation was suppressed, facilitating the formation of nanotubes. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for the fabrication of ZnO nanotubes on a large scale and presents a more comprehensive understanding of the growth of tube-shaped ZnO in aqueous solution at low temperature.

  20. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol

    2003-09-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  1. Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques.

  2. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  3. Doping of CdSe Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John

    2003-10-01

    What happens to a nanocrystal when it is doped with electrons? We doped CdSe nanocrystals with potassium metal and sodium biphenyl, potassium and sodium acting as the charge carriers. In order to monitor the properties of the doped nanocrystals we used Electron Spin Resonance and luminescence techniques. In this poster we present findings and problems encountered in doping CdSe nanocrystals.

  4. Whispering Gallery Modes in Hexagonal Zinc Oxide Micro- and Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Thomas; Kaidashev, Evgeni M.; Rahm, Andreas; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius

    The resonator properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) micro- and nanocrystals grown by a novel high pressure pulsed laser deposition process have been investigated at room temperature by cathodoluminescence (CL), spatially resolved CL-imaging and polarization resolved micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) within the visible spectral range. The spectra exhibit a series of comparatively sharp and almost equidistant resonance lines. Using a simple plane wave interference model and taking into account the spectral characteristic n(ω) of the refractive index of ZnO, we can unambiguously attribute those lines to whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of a two dimensional hexagonal resonator. The predicted resonator diameters agree well with the measured crystal sizes. Tapered, high aspect ratio ZnO nanoneedles furthermore allow systematic investigations of the WGMs as a function of cavity diameter D down to zero. Hence, the transition from a multi-mode to a single mode cavity is directly observed. μ-PL experiments demonstrate that the WGMs are mainly TM polarized.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

    2009-12-30

    Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

  6. Silicon nanocrystal inks, films, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Lance Michael; Kortshagen, Uwe Richard

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystal inks and films, and methods of making and using silicon nanocrystal inks and films, are disclosed herein. In certain embodiments the nanocrystal inks and films include halide-terminated (e.g., chloride-terminated) and/or halide and hydrogen-terminated nanocrystals of silicon or alloys thereof. Silicon nanocrystal inks and films can be used, for example, to prepare semiconductor devices.

  7. Aggregation and growth of ZnO quantum dots prepared from sol-gel chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Caetano, B.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Briois, V.B [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Herein we discuss in depth the mechanisms of growth control of ZnO quantum dots (Q-dot) prepared from the zinc oxy-acetate ethanolic solution by the addition of LiOH. Through in situ monitoring of Q-dot radii and of aggregation index calculated from UV-Vis absorption spectra and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) the aggregation and growth of ZnO nanocrystal was well described from two kinetic models: during the first step (t< 50 min) the structural evolution is controlled by the coalescence caused by the oriented attachment between the nanocrystal aggregates while at the advanced time (t> 50 min) the Q-dot coarsening follows the Ostwald ripening (OR) mechanism. From the higher oriented attachment efficiency observed here as compared with early reported synthesis using NaOH and KOH, we propose an universal mechanism to control coalescence and coarsening of ZnO nanocrystal provided from the shield caused by the adsorption of the alkali cation. From X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results we demonstrate that this mechanism is also useful to prepare Q-dot powders with controlled size. (author)

  8. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. A novel disposable electrochemical sensor for determination of carbamazepine based on Fe doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanya, N. [Department of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, TN (India); Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Department of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, TN (India); Ficarra, S.; Tellone, E. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); Bonavita, A.; Leonardi, S.G.; Neri, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    An effective strategy to fabricate a novel disposable screen printing carbon electrode modified by iron doped tin dioxide nanoparticles for carbamazepine (CBZ) detection has been developed. Fe–SnO{sub 2} (Fe = 0 to 5 wt.%) NPs were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method and assessed for their structural and morphological changes due to Fe doping into SnO{sub 2} matrix by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of carbamazepine at the Fe–SnO{sub 2} modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. Electron transfer coefficient α (0.63) and electron transfer rate constant k{sub s} (0.69 s{sup −1}) values of the 5 wt.% Fe–SnO{sub 2} modified SPCE indicate that the diffusion controlled process takes place on the electrode surface. The fabricated sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response towards the detection of CBZ at a lower oxidation potential of 0.8 V in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to CBZ over a wide linear range of 0.5–100 μM with a low detection limit of 92 nM. Furthermore, the practical application of the modified electrode has been investigated by the determination of CBZ in pharmaceutical products using standard addition method. - Highlights: • A novel mediator-free disposable screen printed carbon electrode has been fabricated based on Fe- SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles for determination of carbamazepine • The Fe-SnO{sub 2}/SPCE showed wide linear range (0.5–100 μM), low detection limit (92 nM), high sensitivity, good stability and reproducibility. • The carbamazepine sensor was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical products with satisfactory recoveries.

  10. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  11. Silicon nanocrystals as handy biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Tilley, Richard; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2007-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have brighter and longer fluorescence than organic dyes. Therefore, QDs can be applied to biotechnology, and have capability to be applied to medical technology. Currently, among the several types of QDs, CdSe with a ZnS shell is one of the most popular QDs to be used in biological experiments. However, when the CdSe QDs were applied to clinical technology, potential toxicological problems due to CdSe core should be considered. To eliminate the problem, silicon nanocrystals, which have the potential of biocompatibility, could be a candidate of alternate probes. Silicon nanocrystals have been synthesized using several techniques such as aerosol, electrochemical etching, laser pyrolysis, plasma deposition, and colloids. Recently, the silicon nanocrystals were reported to be synthesized in inverse micelles and also stabilized with 1-heptene or allylamine capping. Blue fluorescence of the nanocrystals was observed when excited with a UV light. The nanocrystals covered with 1-heptene are hydrophobic, whereas the ones covered with allylamine are hydrophilic. To test the stability in cytosol, the water-soluble nanocrystals covered with allylamine were examined with a Hela cell incorporation experiment. Bright blue fluorescence of the nanocrystals was detected in the cytosol when excited with a UV light, implying that the nanocrystals were able to be applied to biological imaging. In order to expand the application range, we synthesized and compared a series of silicon nanocrystals, which have variable surface modification, such as alkyl group, alcohol group, and odorant molecules. This study will provide a wider range of optoelectronic applications and bioimaging technology.

  12. Effect of growth time on ZnO nanorod arrays by a facile sonicated sol-gel immersion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, M. F.; Mamat, M. H.; Musa, M. Z.; Ishak, A.; Saurdi, I.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    A facile sonicated sol-gel immersion technique has been presented for synthesizing ZnO nanorod arrays with controllable diameter and lengths on glass substrates. A sol-gel dip-coating deposition was first used to grow a thin layer of ZAO nanocrystals on substrate serving as seeds for the subsequent growth of the nanorod arrays. The effect of growth time of the ZnO nanorod arrays on the ZAO seed layer were investigated. The optical transmission properties of the ZnO nanorods has been investigated. The thickness of the nanorods can be controlled by the growth time. These highly oriented ZnO nanorod arrays are potential for the creation of functional materials, such as the electrode of the solar cells, optoelectronic devices and etc.

  13. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T., E-mail: thierry.melin@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR8520, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, CNRS-UMR7647, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  14. Photoresponsive Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris S Argyropoulos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this communication a method for the creation of fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles using click chemistry and subsequent photodimerization of the installed side‐ chains is demonstrated. In the first step, the primary hydroxyl groups on the surface of the CNCs were converted to carboxylic acids by using TEMPO‐mediated hypohalite oxidation. The alkyne groups, essential for the click reaction, were introduced into the surface of TEMPO‐ oxidized CNCs via carbodiimide‐mediated formation of an amide linkage between monomers carrying an amine functionality and carboxylic acid groups on the surface of the TEMPO‐oxidized CNCs. Finally, the reaction of surface‐modified TEMPO‐oxidized cellulose nanocrystals and azido‐bearing coumarin and anthracene monomers were carried out by means of a click chemistry, i.e., Copper(I‐catalyzed Azide‐Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC to produce highly photo‐responsive and fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles. Most significantly, the installed coumarin and/or anthracene side‐chains were shown to undergo UV‐induced [2+2] and [4+4] cycloaddition reactions, bringing and locking the cellulose nanocrystals together. This effort paves the way towards creating, cellulosic photo responsive nano‐arrays with the potential of photo reversibility since these reactions are known to be reversible at varying wavelengths.

  15. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontturi, Eero; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Kontturi, Katri S; Ahonen, Päivi; Thüne, Peter C; Laine, Janne

    2007-09-11

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, anionic cellulose nanocrystals formed small aggregates on the anionic silica substrate, whereas a uniform two-dimensional distribution of nanocrystals was achieved on the cationic titania substrate. The uniform distribution of cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers on titania is an important factor when dimensional analysis of the nanocrystals is desired. Furthermore, the amount of nanocrystals deposited on titania was multifold in comparison to the amounts on silica, as revealed by AFM image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Amorphous cellulose, the third substrate, resulted in a somewhat homogeneous distribution of the nanocrystal submonolayers, but the amounts were as low as those on the silica substrate. These differences in the cellulose nanocrystal deposition were attributed to electrostatic effects: anionic cellulose nanocrystals are adsorbed on cationic titania in addition to the normal spin coating deposition. The anionic silica surface, on the other hand, causes aggregation of the weakly anionic cellulose nanocrystals which are forced on the repulsive substrate by spin coating. The electrostatically driven adsorption also influences the film thickness of continuous ultrathin films of cellulose nanocrystals. The thicker films of charged nanocrystals on a substrate of opposite charge means that the film thickness is not independent of the substrate when spin coating cellulose nanocrystals in the ultrathin regime (<100 nm).

  16. Influence of Nanosized Silicon Oxide on the Luminescent Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Shvalagin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical use of nanosized zinc oxide as the phosphor its luminescence quantum yields should be maximized. The aim of this work was to enhance luminescent properties of ZnO nanoparticles and obtain high-luminescent ZnO/SiO2 composites using simpler approaches to colloidal synthesis. The luminescence intensity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was increased about 3 times by addition of silica nanocrystals to the source solutions during the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Then the quantum yield of luminescence of the obtained ZnO/SiO2 composites is more than 30%. Such an impact of silica is suggested to be caused by the distribution of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of silica, which reduces the probability of separation of photogenerated charges between the zinc oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, and as a consequence, there is a significant increase of the luminescence intensity of ZnO nanoparticles. This way of increasing nano-ZnO luminescence intensity facilitates its use in a variety of devices, including optical ultraviolet and visible screens, luminescent markers, antibacterial coatings, luminescent solar concentrators, luminescent inks for security printing, and food packaging with abilities of informing consumers about the quality and safety of the packaged product.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metals Doped ZnO Nanorods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Murugadoss

    2012-01-01

    Different morphologies of undoped and transition metals (Mn, Co and Ni) doped one-dimensional (ID) ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by chemical method in an air atmosphere using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a surfactant. The structure and optical properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The doped ZnO nanorods exhibited a blue-shifted band gap and enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission. In addition defect related emission was observed for the doped ZnO.

  18. Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Beveratos, A; Gacoin, T; Poizat, J P; Grangier, P; Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The quantum properties of the fluorescence light emitted by diamond nanocrystals containing a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colored center is investigated. We have observed photon antibunching with very low background light. This system is therefore a very good candidate for the production of single photon on demand. In addition, we have measured larger NV center lifetime in nanocrystals than in the bulk, in good agreement with a simple quantum electrodynamical model.

  19. Tuning of undoped ZnO thin film via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition and its application for an inverted polymer solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-jin Jin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the tuning of structural and optical properties of ZnO thin film and its correlation to the efficiency of inverted solar cell using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD. The sequential injection of DEZn and O2 plasma was employed for the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin film. As the growth temperature of ZnO film was increased from 100 °C to 300 °C, the crystallinity of ZnO film was improved from amorphous to highly ordered (002 direction ploy-crystal due to self crystallization. Increasing oxygen plasma time in PEALD process also introduces growing of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO nanocrystal. Excess of oxygen plasma time induces enhanced deep level emission band (500 ∼ 700 nm in photoluminescence due to Zn vacancies and other defects. The evolution of structural and optical properties of PEALD ZnO films also involves in change of electrical conductivity by 3 orders of magnitude. The highly tunable PEALD ZnO thin films were employed as the electron conductive layers in inverted polymer solar cells. Our study indicates that both structural and optical properties rather than electrical conductivities of ZnO films play more important role for the effective charge collection in photovoltaic device operation. The ability to tune the materials properties of undoped ZnO films via PEALD should extend their functionality over the wide range of advanced electronic applications.

  20. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  1. The electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe): An LDA-SIC and Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, El Mehdi; Laghrissi, Ayoub; Lamouri, Rachida; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2017-01-01

    Electronic structure, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with single and double impurities Zn1-xCrxO, Zn1-xFexO, and Zn1-2xCrxFexO (x=0.03 and 0.06) are investigated using first-principles calculations. Based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) doped ZnO. To support our results, we apply the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (SIC-LDA) to study the electronic structure, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) showing that the half-metallic ferromagnetic state still persists. The stability of the ferromagnetic state compared with the spin-glass state is investigated by comparing their total energies. The exchange interactions obtained from first principle calculations and used in a classical Ising model by a Monte Carlo approach resulted in ferromagnetic states with high Neel temperature.

  2. Al/Fe isomorphic substitution versus Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} clusters formation in Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes (imogolite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafia, Ehsan [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology and INSTM Unit of Torino-Politecnico (Italy); Esposito, Serena [Università degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering (Italy); Manzoli, Maela; Chiesa, Mario [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica and Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Italy); Tiberto, Paola [Electromagnetism, I.N.Ri.M. (Italy); Barrera, Gabriele [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica and Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Italy); Menard, Gabriel [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Allia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.allia@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology and INSTM Unit of Torino-Politecnico (Italy); Freyria, Francesca S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Garrone, Edoardo; Bonelli, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.bonelli@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology and INSTM Unit of Torino-Politecnico (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Textural, magnetic and spectroscopic properties are reported of Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes (NTs) of the imogolite type, IMO, with nominal composition (OH){sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3}SiOH (x = 0, 0.025, 0.050). Samples were obtained by either direct synthesis (Fe-0.025-IMO, Fe-0.050-IMO) or post-synthesis loading (Fe-L-IMO). The Fe content was either 1.4 wt% (both Fe-0.050-IMO and Fe-L-IMO) or 0.7 wt% (Fe-0.025-IMO). Textural properties were characterized by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms at 77 K. The presence of different iron species was studied by magnetic moment measurements and three spectroscopies: Mössbauer, UV–Vis and electron paramagnetic resonance, respectively. Fe{sup 3+}/Al{sup 3+} isomorphic substitution (IS) at octahedral sites at the external surface of NTs is the main process occurring by direct synthesis at low Fe loadings, giving rise to the formation of isolated high-spin Fe{sup 3+} sites. Higher loadings give rise, besides IS, to the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} clusters. IS occurs up to a limit of Al/Fe atomic ratio of ca. 60 (corresponding to x = 0.032). A fraction of the magnetism related to NCs is pinned by the surface anisotropy; also, clusters are magnetically interacting with each other. Post-synthesis loading leads to a system rather close to that obtained by direct synthesis, involving both IS and cluster formations. Slightly larger clusters than with direct synthesis samples, however, are formed. The occurrence of IS indicates a facile cleavage/sealing of Al–O–Al bonds: this opens the possibility to exchange Al{sup 3+} ions in pre-formed IMO NTs, a much simpler procedure compared with direct synthesis.

  3. Local structure of Fe-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yukai; Wang, Shiqi; Feng, Deqiang; Liu, Jiwen [Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin (China); Tianjin University of Technology, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China); Wu, Zhonghua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    (In{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.07, 0.09, 0.16, 0.22, 0.31) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of Fe doping on the local structure of films was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Fe K-edge and L-edge. For the (In{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} films with x = 0.07, 0.09 and 0.16, Fe ions dissolve into In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and substitute for In{sup 3+} sites with a mixed-valence state (Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+}) of Fe ions. However, a secondary phase of Fe metal clusters is formed in the (In{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} films with x = 0.22 and 0.31. The qualitative analyses of Fe-K edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) reveal that the Fe-O bond length shortens and the corresponding Debye-Waller factor (α{sup 2}) increases with the increase of Fe concentration, indicating the relaxation of oxygen environment of Fe ions upon substitution. The anomalously large structural disorder and very short Fe-O distance are also observed in the films with high Fe concentration. Linear combination fittings at Fe L-edge further confirm the coexistence of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with a ratio of ∝3:2 (Fe{sup 2+}: Fe{sup 3+}) for the (In{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} film with x = 0.16. However, a significant fraction (∝40 at%) of the Fe metal clusters is found in the (In{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} film with x = 0.31. (orig.)

  4. Ionothermal synthesis and electrochemical analysis of Fe doped LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xueliang, E-mail: xueliangli2005@163.com; Liu, Shuai; Jin, Hongchang; Meng, Yu; Liu, Yunfu

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}PO{sub 4} particles prepared by ionothermal synthesis method are effective. • The effect of the properties of [EMIM]OTf and [BMIM]OTf in ionothermal synthesis is studied. • The obtained LiMn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}PO{sub 4}/C exhibit shuttle shape and favorable electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Shuttle shaped and Fe doped LiMnPO{sub 4} particles are successfully synthesized via an ionothermal routine in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [EMIM]OTf and 1-buty-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [BMIM]OTf at 260 °C, respectively. And then, the carbon coated product of cathode materials can be efficiently prepared by a subsequent short calcination process. Scanning electron microscopy and field emission transmission electron microscopy shows that these as-prepared particles with the mean width of about 200 nm and length of 800 nm were coated by uniform carbon layers, which could improve the electronic conductivity of the final product effectively. The D{sub Li} values of samples that prepared in two ionic liquids above were calculated to be 1.36 × 10{sup −13} and 4.61 × 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}, respectively. It can be attributed to the LiMn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}PO{sub 4}/C particles prepared in [BMIM]OTf present more uniform distribution and smaller size. Thus, it deliver high discharge capacities of 159.2, 146.0, 135.1, 125.3, 115.5 and 84.4 mA h g{sup −1} in the voltage range of 2.5–4.5 V at charge–discharge rate of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 C, respectively.

  5. Turn-off of fluorescence of styryl phenanthrimidazole on doping ZnO nanoparticles with Ce(3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabharathi, J; JebaSingh, I; Arunpandiyan, A; Karunakaran, C

    2015-01-25

    ZnO nanoparticles were doped with Ce(3+) by sol-gel synthesis and characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The dynamics of photoinduced electron injection from styryl phenanthrimidazole to Ce(3+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles has been studied by absorption, fluorescence and lifetime spectroscopic methods. Both the absorption and fluorescence quenching results suggest association between Ce(3+)-doped ZnO and the phenanthrimidazole. The free energy change (ΔGet) for electron injection has been calculated. The critical energy transfer distance between the phenanthrimidazole and Ce(3+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles has been deduced. In contrast to our earlier observation of enhancement of fluorescence of the phenanthrimidazole by ZnO nanoparticles, doping ZnO with Ce(3+) turns off its fluorescence. These findings provide a method to test the presence of Ce(3+) in ZnO nanocrystals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  7. Photonic Devices Based on Surface and Composition-Engineered Infrared Colloidal Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    In Fig. 3(b), the short-circuit-photocurrents, QDnmJ 532 and HTP nmJ 3 532 , contributed by the nanocrystal- and polymer-components in the hybrid...linear growth of QDnmJ 532 with the weight percentage of NQDs in the nanocomposite, while HTP nmJ 3 532 decreases with a greater slope over the same...pre-designed dimensions will be grown by the PI’s collaborators at Georgia Tech (ZnO, ZnS) and Penn State (GaN), and will be tested at the PI’s

  8. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  9. Nanocrystals for luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Liam R; Knowles, Kathryn E; McDowall, Stephen; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2015-02-11

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) harvest sunlight over large areas and concentrate this energy onto photovoltaics or for other uses by transporting photons through macroscopic waveguides. Although attractive for lowering solar energy costs, LSCs remain severely limited by luminophore reabsorption losses. Here, we report a quantitative comparison of four types of nanocrystal (NC) phosphors recently proposed to minimize reabsorption in large-scale LSCs: two nanocrystal heterostructures and two doped nanocrystals. Experimental and numerical analyses both show that even the small core absorption of the leading NC heterostructures causes major reabsorption losses at relatively short transport lengths. Doped NCs outperform the heterostructures substantially in this critical property. A new LSC phosphor is introduced, nanocrystalline Cd(1-x)Cu(x)Se, that outperforms all other leading NCs by a significant margin in both small- and large-scale LSCs under full-spectrum conditions.

  10. Effects of Cr-doping on the photoluminescence and ferromagnetism at room temperature in ZnO nanomaterials prepared by soft chemistry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Baiqi [School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China) and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wbqpaper@126.com; Iqbal, Javed [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shan Xudong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Guowei [School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Fu Honggang [The Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Yu Ronghai [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Dapeng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn

    2009-01-15

    The pure and Cr-doped ZnO nanomaterials were prepared by soft chemistry route. The crystallinity and morphology of as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), which show that Cr-doping could influence crystal and improve the oriented growth of ZnO nanomaterials. The amount of contents and valence state of Cr ions were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which demonstrate that the Cr ions are uniformly doped about 2 atm% in each nanowire and are in +3 valence state in doped ZnO nanomaterials. The effect of Cr-doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic properties of as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials were principally investigated at room temperature. The Cr-doping can adjust the energy level of ZnO nanocrystal and increase the amount of defects and oxygen vacancies, which lead to shift in the emission peak position in ultraviolet (UV) region and enhance the PL performance in visible light (VL) region of ZnO nanomaterials. In addition, the presence of Cr dopant in ZnO structures establishes the room-temperature ferromagnetism, which is possibly related to the existence of defects and oxygen vacancies as well as due to exchange interaction between Cr 3d and O 2p spin moments.

  11. Preparation and gas-sensing property of parallel-aligned ZnO nanofibrous films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zikui Bai; Weilin Xu; Changsheng Xie; Mingchao Dong; Shunping Zhang; Jie Xu; Shili Xiao

    2013-08-01

    Parallel-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibrous films fabricated by using electrospinning technique were used in gas sensors for the detection of ethanol and formaldehyde. The morphologies and crystal structures of the films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. FE–SEM results showed that ZnO nanofibres had an approximate diameter of 100–300 nm and consisted of hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanocrystals with a primary particle diameter of 20–50 nm. The results of resistance–temperature characteristics and responses to ethanol and formaldehyde indicated that the parallelaligned ZnO nanofibrous film had a low activation energy (0.246 eV), a low optimum operating temperature and a high response. The response and recovery had a high rate in the initial stage and a low rate in the later stage. The parallel-aligned ZnO nanofibrous film had excellent potential application for formaldehyde sensor.

  12. Injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals with sizes in the nanometer range. Due to the advantages of high drug loading, platform stability, and ease of scaling-up, nanocrystals have been widely used to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals in the blood stream can be recognized and sequestered as exogenous materials by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS cells, leading to passive accumulation in MPS-rich organs, such as liver, spleen and lung. Particle size, morphology and surface modification affect the biodistribution of nanocrystals. Ligand conjugation and stimuli-responsive polymers can also be used to target nanocrystals to specific pathogenic sites. In this review, the progress on injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery is discussed following a brief introduction to nanocrystal preparation methods, i.e., top-down and bottom-up technologies.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological applications of colloidal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, Wolfgang J.; Gerion, Daniele; Pellegrino, Teresa; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine; Williams, Shara C.; Boudreau, Rosanne; LeGros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2003-07-01

    Due to their interesting properties, research on colloidal nanocrystals has moved in the last few years from fundamental research to first applications in materials science and life sciences. In this review some recent biological applications of colloidal nanocrystals are discussed, without going into biological or chemical details. First, the properties of colloidal nanocrystals and how they can be synthesized are described. Second, the conjugation of nanocrystals with biological molecules is discussed. And third, three different biological applications are introduced: (i) the arrangement of nanocrystal-oligonucleotide conjugates using molecular scaffolds such as single-stranded DNA, (ii) the use of nanocrystal-protein conjugates as fluorescent probes for cellular imaging, and (iii) a motility assay based on the uptake of nanocrystals by living cells.

  14. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  15. Eu-doped ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded low-loss glass-ceramic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Bhaktha B N, Shivakiran

    2016-03-11

    We report on the sol-gel fabrication, using a dip-coating technique, of low-loss Eu-doped 70SiO2 -[Formula: see text] HfO2-xZnO (x = 2, 5, 7 and 10 mol%) ternary glass-ceramic planar waveguides. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incident x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the controlled growth of hybrid nanocrystals with an average size of 3 nm-25 nm, composed of ZnO encapsulated by a thin layer of nanocrystalline HfO2, with an increase of ZnO concentration from x = 2 mol% to 10 mol%  in the SiO2-HfO2 composite matrix. The effect of crystallization on the local environment of Eu ions, doped in the ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded glass-ceramic matrix, is studied using photoluminescence spectra, wherein an intense mixed-valence state (divalent as well as trivalent) emission of Eu ions is observed. The existence of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) in the SiO2-HfO2-ZnO ternary matrix is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the Eu[Formula: see text]-doped ternary waveguides exhibit low propagation losses (0.3 ± 0.2 dB cm(-1) at 632.8 nm) and optical transparency in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which makes ZnO-HfO2 nanocrystal-embedded SiO2-HfO2-ZnO waveguides a viable candidate for the development of on-chip, active, integrated optical devices.

  16. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M A; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-09-08

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

  17. Microstructure analysis and formation mechanism of ZnO nanoporous film via the ultrasonic irradiation mediated SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang-Dong; Li, Xiao-Min; Yu, Wei-Dong; Li, Lei; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Can-Yun

    2006-05-01

    Nanoporous ZnO film was prepared by the stepwise solution route: the ultrasonic irradiation mediated successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The growth of ZnO submicron particles in the film was arrested in the immature status by reducing the deposition cycle from 50 to 30. The morphology and microstructure of individual ZnO submicron particle was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and electron diffraction. Results reveal that ZnO submicron particle was constituted by numerous nanocrystallites with size of 3-10 nm, and exhibited ordered nanostructure preferably along (0 0 2) plane. The formation mechanism of specific submicron particle on the nanometer level was discussed, emphasizing the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanocrystals in zinc-ammonia aqueous system. In addition, effects of NH 3-Zn ratio and pH value in the precursor were examined, which has established the suitable chemical environment for the formation of dense ZnO submicron particles on substrate, and especially provided further experimental proof for the function of ultrasonic irradiation on promoting the nucleation on submicron particles.

  18. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  19. Exciton polarizability in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Shan, Jie; Islam, Mohammad A; Herman, Irving P; Bonn, Mischa; Heinz, Tony F

    2006-11-01

    The response of charge to externally applied electric fields is an important basic property of any material system, as well as one critical for many applications. Here, we examine the behaviour and dynamics of charges fully confined on the nanometre length scale. This is accomplished using CdSe nanocrystals of controlled radius (1-2.5 nm) as prototype quantum systems. Individual electron-hole pairs are created at room temperature within these structures by photoexcitation and are probed by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulses. The electronic response is found to be instantaneous even for THz frequencies, in contrast to the behaviour reported in related measurements for larger nanocrystals and nanocrystal assemblies. The measured polarizability of an electron-hole pair (exciton) amounts to approximately 10(4) A(3) and scales approximately as the fourth power of the nanocrystal radius. This size dependence and the instantaneous response reflect the presence of well-separated electronic energy levels induced in the system by strong quantum-confinement effects.

  20. Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Somorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-05-01

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO(2)-Pt and Pt-SiO(2), can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO(2)-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H(2), which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO(2) interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts.

  1. Energy transfer with semiconductor nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogach, A.L.; Klar, T.A.; Lupton, J.M.; Meijerink, A.; Feldmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fo¨ rster (or fluorescence) resonant energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful spectroscopic technique to study interactions, conformational and distance changes, in hybrid nanosystems. Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as colloidal quantum dots, are highly efficient fluorophores with a strong band-

  2. Nanocrystals Research for Energy Efficient and Clean Energy Technologies:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2013-12-17

    Efforts centered on: nanocrystal photovoltaic fabrication, ultrafast dynamics and aberration-corrected STEM characterization of II-VI core, core/shell and alloyed nanocrystals, and fundamental investigation and applications of ultrasmall white light-emitting CdSe nanocrystal.

  3. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen [Materials Science Department, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Damjanovic, Dragan [Ceramics Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Erdem, Emre [Institute of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Keeble, David J. [Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Jo, Wook [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Granzow, Torsten [Centre de Recherche Public—Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  4. Highly transparent and conductive Sn/F and Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhanchang, E-mail: panzhanchang@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Luo, Junming [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Tian, Xinlong, E-mail: tianxinlong2010@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wu, Shoukun; Chen, Chun; Deng, Jianfeng [Huizhou King Brother Electronic Technology Co., Ltd, Huizhou 516083 (China); Xiao, Chumin [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Hu, Guanghui, E-mail: qhxy123@126.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wei, Zhigang [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • F/Sn and Al co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. • The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. • The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Al doped ZnO, Al–Sn co-doped ZnO and Al–F co-doped ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized onto glass substrates by the sol–gel method. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicated that all the films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and exhibited a c-axis preferred orientation. The electrical and optical properties were also investigated by 4-point probe device and Uv–vis spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrum (Raman), respectively. The PL and Raman results suggested that the co-doped films with a very low defect concentration and exhibit a better crystallinity than AZO thin films. The XPS study confirmed the incorporation of Al, Sn and F ions in the ZnO lattice.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of sugar wastewater catalyzed by La/Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays%La/Fe共掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列光催化降解制糖废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟福新; 林莎莎; 朱义年; 郭冬冬

    2011-01-01

    利用阳极氧化法在0.5%(质量分数)HF电解液中20V电压下,对抛光处理过的钛片进行阳极氧化20 min,制得有序的TiO2纳米管阵列.同时,以甲基橙为目标降解物,20 W紫外灯(λ=253.7 nm)为光源,探讨了制备La/Fe掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列的最优工艺条件,并利用SEM、XRD对La/Fe掺杂前后TiO2纳米管阵列的表面形貌和结构进行了表征,研究了La/Fe掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列对制糖废水的光催化降解条件.结果表明,将TiO2纳米管阵列依次在0.006 mol·L-1La(NO3)3、0.018 mol·L-1Fe(NO3)3中超声10 min条件下可获得理想、稳定的La/Fe掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列.La/Fe的掺杂不会影响TiO2纳米管阵列的表面形貌和晶型,但可显著提高TiO2纳米管阵列对甲基橙和制糖废水的紫外光催化降解效率.光照时间和pH是影响La/Fe掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列光催化降解制糖废水的主要因素.在强碱性条件下,La/Fe掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列对制糖废水的光催化降解效率最高,光照20 h时可达97%以上.%Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were firstly fabricated via electrochemical anodic oxidation of polished titanium sheets in 0. 5% HF electrolyte solution at 20 V for 20 min. The preparation process of the La/Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays was monitored using methyl orange as an object pollutant under irradiation of a 20 W ultraviolet lamp (A =253.7 run). The morphology and structure of the un-doped and La/Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The photocatalytic degradation of sugar wastewater was then studied using the La/Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays as catalyst under irradiation of a 20 W ultraviolet lamp (A =253.7 nm). The result shows that best La/Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube array catalyst could be obtained by doping the TiO2 nanotube in succession in 0.006 mol-L-1 La(NO3)3 and 0.018 mol·L-1 Fe(NO3)3 under ultrasonic treatment for 10 min. The La/Fe-doping

  6. Enhancement of CO2 Adsorption and Catalytic Properties by Fe-Doping of [Ga2(OH)2(L)] (H4L = Biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic Acid), MFM-300(Ga2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Cristina P; Newby, Ruth; Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; García, Hermenegildo; Cebula, Izabela; Easun, Timothy L; Savage, Mathew; Eyley, Jennifer E; Gao, Shan; Blake, Alexander J; Lewis, William; Beton, Peter H; Warren, Mark R; Allan, David R; Frogley, Mark D; Tang, Chiu C; Cinque, Gianfelice; Yang, Sihai; Schröder, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are usually synthesized using a single type of metal ion, and MOFs containing mixtures of different metal ions are of great interest and represent a methodology to enhance and tune materials properties. We report the synthesis of [Ga2(OH)2(L)] (H4L = biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid), designated as MFM-300(Ga2), (MFM = Manchester Framework Material replacing NOTT designation), by solvothermal reaction of Ga(NO3)3 and H4L in a mixture of DMF, THF, and water containing HCl for 3 days. MFM-300(Ga2) crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4122, a = b = 15.0174(7) Å and c = 11.9111(11) Å and is isostructural with the Al(III) analogue MFM-300(Al2) with pores decorated with -OH groups bridging Ga(III) centers. The isostructural Fe-doped material [Ga(1.87)Fe(0.13)(OH)2(L)], MFM-300(Ga(1.87)Fe(0.13)), can be prepared under similar conditions to MFM-300(Ga2) via reaction of a homogeneous mixture of Fe(NO3)3 and Ga(NO3)3 with biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid. An Fe(III)-based material [Fe3O(1.5)(OH)(HL)(L)(0.5)(H2O)(3.5)], MFM-310(Fe), was synthesized with Fe(NO3)3 and the same ligand via hydrothermal methods. [MFM-310(Fe)] crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pmn21 with a = 10.560(4) Å, b = 19.451(8) Å, and c = 11.773(5) Å and incorporates μ3-oxo-centered trinuclear iron cluster nodes connected by ligands to give a 3D nonporous framework that has a different structure to the MFM-300 series. Thus, Fe-doping can be used to monitor the effects of the heteroatom center within a parent Ga(III) framework without the requirement of synthesizing the isostructural Fe(III) analogue [Fe2(OH)2(L)], MFM-300(Fe2), which we have thus far been unable to prepare. Fe-doping of MFM-300(Ga2) affords positive effects on gas adsorption capacities, particularly for CO2 adsorption, whereby MFM-300(Ga(1.87)Fe(0.13)) shows a 49% enhancement of CO2 adsorption capacity in comparison to the homometallic parent material. We thus report

  7. Electronic structure of cobalt nanocrystals suspended inliquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongjian; Guo, Jinghua; Yin, Yadong; Augustsson, Andreas; Dong, Chungli; Nordgren, Joseph; Chang, Chinglin; Alivisatos, Paul; Thornton, Geoff; Ogletree, D. Frank; Requejo, Felix G.; de Groot, Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-07-16

    The electronic structure of cobalt nanocrystals suspended in liquid as a function of size has been investigated using in-situ x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. A sharp absorption peak associated with the ligand molecules is found that increases in intensity upon reducing the nanocrystal size. X-ray Raman features due to d-d and to charge-transfer excitations of ligand molecules are identified. The study reveals the local symmetry of the surface of {var_epsilon}-Co phase nanocrystals, which originates from a dynamic interaction between Co nanocrystals and surfactant + solvent molecules.

  8. Anisotropic Gold Nanocrystals:. Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiufiuc, R.; Toderas, F.; Iosin, M.; Stiufiuc, G.

    In this letter we report on successful preparation and characterization of anisotropic gold nanocrystals bio-synthesized by reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions in pelargonium plant extract. The nanocrystals have been characterized by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). Using these investigation techniques, the successful formation of anisotropic single nanocrystals with the preferential growth direction along the gold (111) plane has been confirmed. The high detail phase images could give us an explanation concerning the growth mechanism of the nanocrystals.

  9. Multicolored luminescent CdS nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The observation of efficient blue, green, orange and red luminescence from CdS nanocrystals made by using a reverse micelle method was reported. The blue luminescence about 480 nm is attributed to the radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs.The red luminescence around 650 nm is due to the radiative recombination of the exciton trapped in the nanocrystal surface defect states. The combination of different portion of band-edge emission and surface trap state emission results in green and orange luminescence for the nanocrystals. The CdS nanocrystals with efficient multicolored luminescence may find potential application in full color displays and biolabelings.

  10. Photoconductive ZnO films with embedded quantum dot or ruthenium dye sensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. White

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a new type of solution-processed photoconductive film based on embedding photosensitizers (semiconductor nanocrystals or ruthenium dye molecules within conductive ZnO sol-gel matrices. Mixing photosensitizers directly with sol-gel precursors prior to film deposition yields highly colored ZnO films containing well-dispersed sensitizers. These films show internal photoconductivity quantum efficiencies up to ∼50% and photoresponses over 100 mA/W with visible photoexcitation, competitive with other more complex photodetectors reported recently. This simple motif is attractive for the development of robust sensitized-oxide photodetectors and for fundamental studies of photoinduced charge separation from a variety of molecular or quantum dot sensitizers into conductive oxides.

  11. Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnO for BioimagingCell and Cell Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Ben; Chakki, Samudyatha; Senthilkumar, Os; Senthilkumar, Kasilingam; Fujita, Yasuhisa; Neogi, Arup

    2011-03-01

    As of recent years nanotechnology has been at the forefront of scientific research. It promises to have a broad range of applications from turning unhealthy foods into health foods, making computers faster and curing cancer. We present results on using nonlinear optical processes of ZnO nano-crystals to detect, track and destroy cells. By incorporating ZnO into a hydrophobic nano-hydrogel matrix with trace amounts of H2 O2 , we can attach antibodies or microRNA for specific cell targeting and, using the heat generating properties of the third order nonlinear process, release H2 O2 in the cell causing instant cell death. Theoretically, with the appropriate sequence for microRNA or the appropriate antibodies, we could target cancer cells in the body and destroy them. This presentation gives our results until now.

  12. Highly luminescent ZnO and CdS nanostructures prepared by ionic liquid precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The ionic liquids containing Cd and Zn,which served as the metal-chalcogenides precursors,were synthesized and reacted with Na2S to synthesize the ionic-liquid-capped semiconductors. The products were detected by XRD and TEM. The results demonstrated that the CdS was composed of 5―6 nm monodispersed nanocrystals. At the same time,the ZnO composed of 1 μm hexagonal-disk nanostructure was prepared under the same experimental condition. The difference of the morphology and structures between Zn and Cd systems was discussed by thermodynamics and crystallography. The fluorescence of as-prepared ZnO and CdS showed the excellent photoluminescence.

  13. Structural Features That Stabilize ZnO Clusters: An Electronic Structure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba E. Szakacs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We show that a simple approach to building small computationally inexpensive clusters offers insights on specific structural motifs that stabilize the electronic structure of ZnO. All-electron calculations on ZniOi needle (i = 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 and plate (i = 9 and 18 clusters within the density functional theory (DFT formalism show a higher stability for ZnO needles that increases with length. Puckering of the rings to achieve a more wurtzite-like structure destabilizes the needles, although this destabilization is reduced by going to infinite needles (calculated using periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of density of states (DOS curves and band gaps for finite clusters and infinite needles highlight opportunities for band-gap tuning through kinetic control of nanocrystal growth.

  14. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Rinku; Curry, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    Light detection is the underlying principle of many optoelectronic systems. For decades, semiconductors including silicon carbide, silicon, indium gallium arsenide and germanium have dominated the photodetector industry. They can show excellent photosensitivity but are limited by one or more aspects, such as high production cost, high-temperature processing, flexible substrate incompatibility, limited spectral range or a requirement for cryogenic cooling for efficient operation. Recently lead sulphide (PbS) nanocrystals have emerged as one of the most promising new materials for photodetector fabrication. They offer several advantages including low-cost manufacturing, solution processability, size-tunable spectral sensitivity and flexible substrate compatibility, and they have achieved figures of merit outperforming conventional photodetectors. We review the underlying concepts, breakthroughs and remaining challenges in photodetector technologies based on PbS nanocrystals.

  15. Heterojunction PbS Nanocrystal Solar Cells with Oxide Charge-Transport Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool

    2013-12-23

    Oxides are commonly employed as electron-transport layers in optoelectronic devices based on semiconductor nanocrystals, but are relatively rare as hole-transport layers. We report studies of NiO hole-transport layers in PbS nanocrystal photovoltaic structures. Transient fluorescence experiments are used to verify the relevant energy levels for hole transfer. On the basis of these results, planar heterojunction devices with ZnO as the photoanode and NiO as the photocathode were fabricated and characterized. Solution-processed devices were used to systematically study the dependence on nanocrystal size and achieve conversion efficiency as high as 2.5%. Optical modeling indicates that optimum performance should be obtained with thinner oxide layers than can be produced reliably by solution casting. Roomerature sputtering allows deposition of oxide layers as thin as 10 nm, which enables optimization of device performance with respect to the thickness of the charge-transport layers. The best devices achieve an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V and efficiency of 5.3% while eliminating most organic material from the structure and being compatible with tandem structures. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Flexible Photonic Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Guidetti, G.; Atifi, S; Vignolini, S; Hamad, WY

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films of tunable photonic and mechanical properties using a facile, green approach is demonstrated. The combination of tunable flexibility and iridescence can dramatically expand CNC coating and film barrier capabilities for paints and coating applications, sustainable consumer packaging products, as well as effective templates for photonic and optoelectronic materials and structures. CelluForce Inc., Biotechnology and Biologica...

  17. Defect dynamics in Li substituted nanocrystalline ZnO: A spectroscopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S., E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com [Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Nambissan, P.M.G.; Thapa, S. [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Mandal, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Very recently, vacancy-type defects have been found to play a major role in stabilizing d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in various low dimensional ZnO systems. In this context, the evolution of vacancy-type defects within the ZnO nanocrystals due to the doping of ZnO by alkali metal lithium (Li) is investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Li-doping is found to have significant effects in modifying the vacancy-type defects, especially the Zn vacancy (V{sub Zn}) defects within the ZnO lattice. XPS measurement indicated that initially the Li{sup 1+} ions substitute at Zn{sup 2+} sites, but when Li concentration exceeds 7 at%, excess Li starts to move through the interstitial sites. The increase in positron lifetime components and the lineshape S-parameter obtained from coincident Doppler broadening spectra with Li-doping indicated an enhancement of V{sub Zn} defect concentration within the doped ZnO lattice. The vacancy type defects, initially of the predominant configuration V{sub Zn+O+Zn} got reduced to neutral ZnO divacancies due to the partial recombination by the doped Li{sup 1+} ions but, when the doping concentration exceeded 7 at% and Li{sup 1+} ions started migrating to the interstitials, positron diffusion is partly impeded and this results in reduced probability of annihilation. PL spectra have shown intense green and yellow-orange emission due to the stabilization of a large number of V{sub Zn} defects and Li substitutional (Li{sub Zn}) defects respectively. Hence Li can be a very useful dopant in stabilizing and modifying significant amount of Zn vacancy-defects which can play a useful role in determining the material behavior.

  18. Investigation of confinement effects in ZnO quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranath, D; Sahai, Sonal; Joshi, Amish G; Gupta, Bipin K; Shanker, V, E-mail: haranath@nplindia.or [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India)

    2009-10-21

    We report a simple method for the synthesis of Na{sup +} doped and stable zinc oxide quantum dots, using the quantum confinement atom method. An intense broad green photoluminescence (PL) was observed with a maximum located at {approx}535 nm when excited by UV radiation of 332 nm. The PL peak intensity is found to be highly dependent on the size of the quantum dots (QDs). Electron microscopy observation revealed that the radius of the QD was {approx}1 nm, which clearly indicated that the QDs are in the strong quantum confinement region (exciton Bohr radius, r{sub B}, for bulk ZnO is 1.8 nm). Phase purity of ZnO and the presence of Na{sup +} was confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), respectively. The results are well incremented by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. Intentional ageing of QDs for several days under controlled experimental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity and pH etc, facilitated the formation of various nanostructures with a slight red shift in the PL peak position. Time resolved emission spectroscopy measurements indicated that PL decay time changes from 35 ns for QDs to 1660 {mu}s for nanocrystals. The observed high-intensity and stable green PL emissions have been analyzed and thoroughly discussed.

  19. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  20. Defect induced ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainey, K.; Chess, J.; Eixenberger, J.; Tenne, D. A.; Hanna, C. B.; Punnoose, A., E-mail: apunnoos@boisestate.edu [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Undoped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with size ∼12 nm were produced using forced hydrolysis methods using diethylene glycol (DEG) [called ZnO-I] or denatured ethanol [called ZnO-II] as the reaction solvent; both using Zn acetate dehydrate as precursor. Both samples showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K with saturation magnetization M{sub s} = 0.077 ± 0.002 memu/g and 0.088 ± 0.013 memu/g for ZnO-I and ZnO-II samples, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that ZnO-I nanocrystals had DEG fragments linked to their surface. Photoluminescence (PL) data showed a broad emission near 500 nm for ZnO-II which is absent in the ZnO-I samples, presumably due to the blocking of surface traps by the capping molecules. Intentional oxygen vacancies created in the ZnO-I NPs by annealing at 450 °C in flowing Ar gas gradually increased M{sub s} up to 90 min and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) suggested that oxygen vacancies may have a key role in the observed changes in M{sub s}. Finally, PL spectra of ZnO showed the appearance of a blue/violet emission, attributed to Zn interstitials, whose intensity changes with annealing time, similar to the trend seen for M{sub s}. The observed variation in the magnetization of ZnO NP with increasing Ar annealing time seems to depend on the changes in the number of Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

  1. Aqueous foams stabilized by chitin nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoumaki, M.; Karefyllakis, D.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.; Scholten, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential use of chitin nanocrystals, as colloidal rod-like particles, to stabilize aqueous foams. Chitin nanocrystals (ChN) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of crude chitin and foams were generated mainly by sonicating the respective dispersions. The

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from dope

  4. Biomaterials supported CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, Alina M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' , Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Campelo, Juan M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Luque, Rafael, E-mail: q62alsor@uco.es [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Rajabi, Fatemeh [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, PO Box 878, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Romero, Antonio A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    CdS quantum dot materials were prepared through a simple room temperature deposition of CdS nanocrystals on biomaterials including starch and chitosan. Materials obtained were found to contain differently distributed CdS nanocrystals on the surface of the biopolymers, making them potentially interesting for biomedical applications as contrast agents and/or in photocatalysis.

  5. Emission efficiency limit of Si nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, R.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Weeber, A.W.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the important obstacles on the way to application of Si nanocrystals for development of practical devices is their typically low emissivity. In this study we explore the limits of external quantum yield of photoluminescence of solid-state dispersions of Si nanocrystals in SiO2. By making use

  6. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    George J.; Sabapathi SN

    2015-01-01

    Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers...

  7. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  8. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlam, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-03-25

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  9. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystal coating on biodegradable microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masahiro [Department of Bioengineering, Advanced Medical Engineering Center, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Furuzono, Tsutomu, E-mail: furuzono@ri.ncvc.go.jp [Department of Bioengineering, Advanced Medical Engineering Center, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Nano-sized single crystals of calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) were uniformly coated on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microspheres through the ionic interaction between calcium ions on the HAp nanocrystal and carboxyl groups on the PLLA microsphere. In order to coat the substrate with HAp nanocrystals through ionic interaction, the surfaces of the PLLA microspheres were hydrolyzed in an alkaline aqueous solution at pH 11.0 for 1 h at room temperature. The interaction between the HAp nanocrystals and the carboxyl groups originating from PLLA end groups was estimated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The alkali-treated PLLA microspheres were coated with HAp nanocrystals by immersing the microspheres in an ethanol dispersion of HAp nanocrystals followed by washing in an ultrasonic bath.

  10. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  11. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  12. 过渡金属掺杂ZnO纳米光催化剂对四环素的光催化降解%Effects of transition metal doping on the ZnO photocatalytic degradation of the tetracycline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关卫省; 宋优男; 霍鹏伟; 杨莉

    2012-01-01

    The article is intended to introduce our work on preparing the Fe-doped, Co-doped, and other similar-doped photocatalysts via a hydrothermal synthesis method as well as the effect of transition metal doped on the ZnO Photocatalytic degradation of the tetracy-cline. Considering the above said research needs, we have characterized the products concerned by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , and ultraviolet and visible diffusion reflectance spectra (UV - Vis DRS) . It is also from our research needs that we have evaluated the photocatalytic degradation activities of the antibiotics by using catalysts we have developed under the sunlight and under a xenon lamp (A = 250 - 800 nm) irradiation. We have investigated the effects of the above mentioned transition metals, their concentrations, and the ratio of the two metals in co-doped ZnO samples on the photocatalytic efficiency. The results of our investigation and analysis have shown that the products prepared are all hexagonal wurtzite in structure of ZnO, whose crystallization tends to decrease with the increase of the transition metal ions doping concentration. We have also found that under the single transition metal ion doped, Co doping and Ni doping tend to defect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO. However, the photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped ZnO photocatalysi samples can thus be greatly improved. To be exact, when the doping concentration is kept at 7%, the Fe/ZnO sample would like to exhibit the highest photocatalytic degradation rate. In addition, the UV - Vis results show that the absorbance spectra of ZnO tends to have a red shift with doping ol Fe, whose range tends to extend with the increase of Fe doping concentration. Moreover, the photocatalytie performance of Fe - Co co-doped and Fe - Ni co-doped ZnO samples proves to be better than that of Fe doped ZnO, with the photocatalytie activity of 3% Fe - 1% Ni/ZnO being highest. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation

  13. 三种改性方法对纳米ZnO催化剂粉体的光催化性能的影响%Influence of Three Modified Methods on the Photocatalytic Properties of ZnO Nanopowder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新友; 邓悦欢; 李晓毅; 高春华; 陈志刚

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanopowder doped with various amount Fe, nanometer ZnO/SnO2 powder and ZnO/SnO2 nanopowder doped with Fe were prepared by coprecipitation method with SnCl4 ?5H2O, ZnNO3?6H2O, HC1, NaOH, FeCl3?6H2O as raw materials. Influence of ZnO nanopowder doped with different content of Fe, different proportion of ZnO/SnO2 compound and ZnO/SnO2 nanopowder doped with Fe on the photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanopowder were studied by the degradation of methyl orange solution as a reaction model. ZnO nanopowder doped with different content of Fe was characterized by XRD. Nanometer ZnO powder was characterized by TEM. The results show that the photoactivating activity of ZnO nanopowder first increases and then decreases when Fe doping content increasing or the ratio of ZnO/SnO2 increasing, the photocatalysis activity of ZnO nanopowder increased significantly when modified by three kinds of modified methods, and the photocatalytic activity of Fe doped compounding modification nanometer ZnO/SnO2 is the best, the phase is ZnO and SnO2, the particle size is 15-20 nm, the dispersion of powder is better, specific surface area is 68.7 m2/g.%以SnCl4·5H2O、ZnNO3·6H2O、HCl、NaOH、FeCl3·6H2O为原料,采用共沉淀法制备Fe掺杂纳米ZnO、纳米ZnO/SnO2和Fe掺杂纳米ZnO/SnO2三种复合催化剂粉体,以降解甲基橙溶液反应为模型,研究了不同比例的ZnO/SnO2复合、Fe元素掺杂量以及SnO2复合Fe元素掺杂同时作用对纳米ZnO粉体光催化活性的影响,采用X射线衍射(XRD)测试方法对不同量Fe元素掺杂纳米ZnO粉体进行了表征.采用透射电镜对三种改性方法ZnO粉体进行表征.结果表明:随着ZnO/SnO2的物质的量比增加,ZnO/SnO2复合光催化剂的催化活性先增加,然后降低;随着Fe掺杂量的增加,纳米ZnO粉体的光催化活性先增加,然后降低.三种改性方法都能提高纳米ZnO粉体的光催化活性,其中Fe元素掺杂以及SnO2复合改性纳米ZnO粉体的光催化效果

  14. Cu或Sn与Fe共掺杂对ZnO晶体形貌和磁性的影响%Effects of Cu or Sn and Fe Co-Doping on the Morphology and Magnetism of ZnO Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 刘继文; 贾利云; 张礼刚; 韦志仁

    2012-01-01

    Through adding a certain amount of analytical pure FeSO4·7H2O and CuCl2·2H2O or SnCl2·2H2O in the precursors Zn (OH)2 , the ZnO crystals were synthesized by hydrother-mal method with 3 mol/L KOH as a mineralizer, the degree of filling of 35% , reaction temperature of 430 ℃ and reaction time of 24 h. The measuring results show that the Fe doped ZnO crystals have no magnetic saturation phenomenon and hysteresis loop at room temperature, and thus have no room temperature ferromagnetism. For Cu-Fe co-doped ZnO crystals, the drop of the magnetic moment decreases with the rise of temperature, the measuring results show that the Cu-Fe co-doped ZnO crystals have magnetic saturation phenomenon and hysteresis loop at room temperature. The morphology of Fe-Sn co-doped ZnO crystals is the best. The magnetic moment of Fe-Sn co-doped ZnO crystals is bigger, and does not fall with the rise of temperature. Fe-Sn co-doped ZnO crystals have room temperature ferromagnetism and paramagnetic. By adding Cu or Sn, the magnetism and crystal morphology of Fe doped ZnO crystals are improved.%采用水热法,在前驱物Zn (OH)2中添加一定量的分析纯FeSO4·7H2O和CuCl2·2H2O或SnCl2·2H2O,以3 mol/L KOH溶液作为矿化剂,填充度为35%,反应温度430℃,经24 h反应合成ZnO晶体.掺杂Fe的ZnO晶体室温下测量无磁饱和现象和磁滞回线,不具备室温铁磁性.Cu与Fe共掺杂合成ZnO晶体,随温度的升高其比磁化强度下降的幅度减小,室温下测量具有磁饱和现象和磁滞回线.Sn与Fe共掺杂的晶体形貌最好,且比磁化强度较大,没有随温度升高而下降,存在室温铁磁性和顺磁性.Cu或Sn元素的加入增加了掺杂Fe的ZnO晶体的磁性,改善了晶体形貌.

  15. Colloidal transparent conducting oxide nanocrystals: A new infrared plasmonic material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Tandon; Aswathi Ashok; Angshuman Nag

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) are technologically important for applications as a visible light transparent electrode in a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. In the last few years, researchers started to explore novel size- and shape-dependent properties of TCO, where the crystallite size is ∼10 nm. So far, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of TCO nanocrystals (NCs) have been found to be the most interesting. TCOs like Sn-doped In2O3, Al-doped ZnO and In-doped CdO NCs, exhibit LSPR band in near- to mid-infrared region. LSPR from a TCO NC exhibits many intrinsic differences with that of a metal NC. Carrier density in a TCO NC can easily be tuned by controlling the dopant concentration, which allows the LSPR band to be tuned over a range of ∼2000 nm (∼0.62 eV) in the near- to mid-infrared region. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of plasmonic properties of various TCO NCs and highlights the potential applications of such unique plasmonic properties.

  16. An enzyme free Vitamin C augmented sensing with different ZnO morphologies on SnO2/F transparent glass electrode: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Chaitali; Malhotra, Nitesh; Pundir, C S; Deepshikha; Narang, Jagriti

    2016-12-01

    Three types of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures viz. ZnO nanocrystals (ZnONCs), ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and ZnO nanobelts (ZnONBs) were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and SEM. A comparison of signal amplification by these ZnO nanostructures as judged by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) revealed that ZnONCs are better sensing interface for electrochemical detection. When these ZnO nanostructure were compared electrochemically for sensing Vitamin C, ZnONC's sensor outperformed the ZnONP and ZnONB sensor and previously reported sensors. The ZnONCs/MB/FTO electrode showed a wide linear sensing range (0.001μM to 4000μM), low detection limit (0.0001μM), a small response time (5s) and a storage stability of 6months. To the best of our knowledge, this elevated sensitivity and remarkable stability for electrochemical Vitamin C detection using ZnONC's have not been reported so far.

  17. Synthesis of Highly Concentrated ZnO Nanorod Sol by Sol-gel Method and their Applications for Inverted Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Solee; Kim, Young Chai; Oh, Seong-Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The effects of the zinc oxide (ZnO) preparing process on the performance of inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) were explored. The morphology and size of ZnO nanoparticles were controlled, leading to more efficient charge collection from device and higher electron mobility compared with nanospheres. Nanosized ZnO particles were synthesized by using zinc acetate dihydrate and potassium hydroxide in methanol. Also, water was added into the reaction medium to control the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals from spherical particles to rods, and NH{sub 4}OH was used to prevent the gelation of dispersion. Solution-processed ZnO thin films were deposited onto the ITO/glass substrate by using spin coating process and then ZnO films were used as an electron transport layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells. The analyses were carried out by using TEM, FE-SEM, AFM, DLS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, current density-voltage characteristics and solar simulator.

  18. ZnO UV Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation-hard UV detectors will be developed with ZnO in Phase I efforts by MOXtronics, Inc. (MOX). ZnO is a very suitable material for fabrication of high-speed,...

  19. Quantum theory of electroabsorption in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepliakov, Nikita V; Leonov, Mikhail Yu; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D

    2016-01-25

    We develop a simple quantum-mechanical theory of interband absorption by semiconductor nanocrystals exposed to a dc electric field. The theory is based on the model of noninteracting electrons and holes in an infinitely deep quantum well and describes all the major features of electroabsorption, including the Stark effect, the Franz-Keldysh effect, and the field-induced spectral broadening. It is applicable to nanocrystals of different shapes and dimensions (quantum dots, nanorods, and nanoplatelets), and will prove useful in modeling and design of electrooptical devices based on ensembles of semiconductor nanocrystals.

  20. Size quantization in Cu2Se nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindraju, S.; Kalenga, M. P.; Airo, M.; Moloto, M. J.; Sikhwivhilu, L. M.; Moloto, N.

    2014-12-01

    Herein we report on the synthesis of size quantized copper selenide nanocrystals via the colloidal method. Different colours of the sample were obtained at different time intervals indicative of the sizes of the nanocrystals. The absorption band edges were blue-shifted from bulk indicative of quantum confinement. This was corroborated by the TEM results that showed very small particles ranging from 2 nm to 7 nm. This work therefore shows a phenomenon readily observed in cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals but has never been reported for copper based chalcogenides.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals for spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng

    Spintronics (spin transport electr onics), in which both spin and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is believed to challenge the current microelectronics and to become the next-generation electronics. Nanostructured spintronic materials and their synthetic methodologies are of paramount importance for manufacturing future nanoscale spintronic devices. This thesis aims at studying synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals---a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS)---for potential applications in future nano-spintronics. A simple bottom-up-based synthetic strategy named a solvothermal technique is introduced as the primary synthetic approach and its crystal growth mechanism is scrutinized. N-type cobalt-doped ZnO-based DMS nanocrystals are employed as a model system, and characterized by a broad spectrum of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. It is found that the self-orientation growth mechanism, imperfect oriented attachment, is intimately correlated with the high-temperature ferromagnetism via defects. The influence of processing on the magnetic properties, such as compositional variations, reaction conditions, and post-growth treatment, is also studied. In this way, an in-depth understanding of processing-structure-property interrelationships and origins of magnetism in DMS nanocrystals are obtained in light of the theoretical framework of a spin-split impurity band model. In addition, a nanoscale spinodal decomposition phase model is also briefly discussed. Following the similar synthetic route, copper- and manganese-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized and characterized. They both show high-temperature ferromagnetism in line with the aforementioned theoretical model(s). Moreover, they display interesting exchange biasing phenomena at low temperatures, revealing the complexity of magnetic phases therein. The crystal growth strategy demonstrated in this work

  2. Interface-defect-mediated photocatalysis of mesocrystalline ZnO assembly synthesized in-situ via a template-free hydrothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Qifeng; Ren, Baosheng; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiaopeng; Duan, Ran

    2017-08-01

    Both architecture construction and defects engineering of photocatalysts are highly vital in the photocatalytic activity. We report herein that the interface-defect-mediated photocatalytic activity of pompon-like ZnO (P-ZnO) mesocrystal photocatalyst synthesized via an aqueous approach, in the presence of sodium citrate without any other organic templates. The microstructure and defects of the diverse ZnO photocatalysts were examined with various techniques. The results indicated that the P-ZnO assemblies were composed of mesocrystal nanosheets exposed high energy (002) facet with high crystallinity. More importantly, the defects located at the interfaces among the nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals played an important role in the photocatalytic activity than that of interstitial zinc vacancies in bulk, which was confirmed by photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue (MB) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The results showed that the P-ZnO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of the nanosized ZnO (N-ZnO), which could be attributed to not only the unique mesocrystal structure and high energy (002) facet exposed, but also the defects located at interfaces among nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals. In addition, the formation mechanism of the P-ZnO was investigated via a time-dependent method. It was found that the formation of P-ZnO hierarchical architecture assembled with ZnO mesocrystals involved a nonclassical crystallization growth and Ostwald Ripening process. This study provides a perspective on the improvement in photocatalytic activity via adjusting the bulk and interface defects and construction of hierarchical architectures of semiconductors.

  3. Er3+∶YAlO3/Fe掺杂TiO2复合物的制备及光催化活性研究%Preparation of Er3 +: YAlO3/Fe -doped TiO2 and Its Application in Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes under Solar Light Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春萍

    2012-01-01

    In this work, Er3+: YA10,/Fe -doped TiO, composite, a novel photocatalyst, was synthesized by ultrasonic dispersion and liquid boiling method and characterized by X - ray diffraction ( XRO ) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), the photocatalytic activity of Er3+: YAlO3/Fe - doped TiO2 composite was evaluated through the degradation of acid red B dye under solar light irradiation. The effects of Er3+: YA103 content, solar light irradiation time, dye initial concentration and Er3 +: YA103/Fe - doped TiO, amount as well as organic dyes on the photocatalytic degradation were also investigated. The experimental results indicated that the Er3 +: YA1O3/Fe - doped TiO, composite can effectively utilize solar energy to degrade acid red B dye and its photocatalytic activity was higher than that of Fe - doped TiO2 under the same condition.%对TiO2半导体材料进行改性,分别通过溶胶凝胶、超声波分散和溶液沸腾的方法合成了Er3+:YAlO3/Fe掺杂TiO2复合物光催化剂,并且采用XRD和SEM进行表征,研究了各种因素在太阳光照射下降解酸性红B的催化活性,也考察了Er3+∶YAlO3的包覆量、Er3+∶YAlO3/Fe掺杂TiO2的量、太阳光照射时间、酸性红B的初始浓度和氯化钠浓度等其降解过程用UV - Vis光谱进行检测.实验结果表明,加入上转光剂之后降解率大幅度增加,改性后的光催化剂可以有效地降解染料废水.

  4. Effect of Fe doping on the photocatalytic activity of titania inverse opal under visible light irradiation%铁掺杂钛基反蛋白石材料的性能表征及其可见光催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伊; 付纪文; 郑言贞; 陶霞; 陈建峰

    2011-01-01

    采用溶胶凝胶法制备了不同掺杂比的铁掺杂二氧化钛反向蛋白石结构材料,通过扫描电镜,X射线能谱及紫外可见分光光度仪等对掺杂前后的样品进行比较,并采用罗丹明-B作为降解底物,对掺杂后样品在可见光下的光催化降解活性进行了研究.结果表明,铁掺杂后,样品的吸收带边发生红移,光响应区域扩展至550 nm,且样品中表面羟基氧的含量最高可提高到40%.铁掺杂样品的催化活性明显优于未掺杂的样品,其中掺杂比为10%的样品光催化降解活性最高,经可见光照射4 h后,其降解率可达85%以上.%Fe-doped titania inverse opal (TIO) materials with different doping ratios have been prepared by a solgel method. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. By using Rhodanmine-B as a model pollutant, the effects of Fe doping on the photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation were studied. The results indicated that the presence of Fe induced a red-shift of the absorption edge, as a result of which the photoresponse region was extended to 550 nm. In addition, Fe doping resulted in an increase in the content of surface hydroxyl group on the TiO2 surface of up to 40%. The photodegradation experiments showed that the visible photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped TIO is superior to that of the undoped sample. The 10% Fe-doped TIO exhibited the highest efficiency, giving a degradation extent of 85% under visible light irradiation for 4 hours.

  5. Photoluminescence of Silicon Nanocrystals in Silicon Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferraioli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results on the photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide are reviewed and discussed. The attention is focused on Si nanocrystals produced by high-temperature annealing of silicon rich oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of deposition parameters and layer thickness is analyzed in detail. The nanocrystal size can be roughly controlled by means of Si content and annealing temperature and time. Unfortunately, a technique for independently fine tuning the emission efficiency and the size is still lacking; thus, only middle size nanocrystals have high emission efficiency. Interestingly, the layer thickness affects the nucleation and growth kinetics so changing the luminescence efficiency.

  6. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  7. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirleto, Luigi; Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    ... of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5 μm...

  8. Gas phase grown silicon germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Kaiser, M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the gas phase synthesis of highly crystalline and homogeneously alloyed Si1-xGex nanocrystals in continuous and pulsed plasmas. Agglomerated nanocrystals have been produced with remarkable control over their composition by altering the precursor GeH4 gas flow in a continuous plasma. We specially highlight that in the pulsed plasma mode, we obtain quantum-sized free standing alloy nanocrystals with a mean size of 7.3 nm. The presence of Si1-xGex alloy particles is confirmed with multiple techniques, i.e. Raman spectroscopy, XRD (Xray diffraction) and HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy) studies, with each of these methods consistently yielding the same composition. The nanocrystals synthesized here have potential applications in band-gap engineering for multijunction solar cells.

  9. Heavily Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Mocatta; Guy Cohen; Jonathan Schattner; Oded Millo; Eran Rabani; Uri Banin

    2011-01-01

    ... of fundamental understanding of this heavily doped limit under strong quantum confinement. We developed a method to dope semiconductor nanocrystals with metal impurities, enabling control of the band gap and Fermi energy...

  10. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  11. Charge transport in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, Tamar Shoshana

    In this thesis, we study charge transport in arrays of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots. Nanocrystals are synthesized in solution, and an organic ligand on the surface of the nanocrystal creates a potential barrier that confines charges in the nanocrystal. Optical absorption measurements reveal discrete electronic energy levels in the nanocrystals resulting from quantum confinement. When nanocrystals are deposited on a surface, they self-assemble into a close-packed array forming a nanocrystal solid. We report electrical transport measurements of a PbSe nanocrystal solid that serves as the channel of an inverted field-effect transistor. We measure the conductance as a function of temperature, source-drain bias and. gate voltage. The data indicates that holes are the majority carriers; the Fermi energy lies in impurity states in the bandgap of the nanocrystal; and charges hop between the highest occupied valence state in the nanocrystals (the 1S h states). At low source-drain voltages, the activation energy for hopping is given by the energy required to generate holes in the 1Sh state plus activation over barriers resulting from site disorder. The barriers from site disorder are eliminated with a sufficiently high source-drain bias. From the gate effect, we extract the Thomas-Fermi screening length and a density of states that is consistent with the estimated value. We consider variable-range hopping as an alternative model, and find no self-consistent evidence for it. Next, we employ charge sensing as an alternative to current measurements for studying transport in materials with localized sites. A narrow-channel MOSFET serves as a charge sensor because its conductance is sensitive to potential fluctuations in the nearby environment caused by the motion of charge. In particular, it is sensitive to the fluctuation of single electrons at the silicon-oxide interface within the MOSFET. We pattern a strip of amorphous germanium within 100 nm of the transistor. The

  12. Synthesis of new nanocrystal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yasser Hassan Abd El-Fattah

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have sparked great excitement in the scientific community in last two decades. NCs are useful for both fundamental research and technical applications in various fields owing to their size and shape-dependent properties and their potentially inexpensive and excellent chemical processability. These NCs are versatile fluorescence probes with unique optical properties, including tunable luminescence, high extinction coefficient, broad absorption with narrow photoluminescence, and photobleaching resistance. In the past few years, a lot of attention has been given to nanotechnology based on using these materials as building blocks to design light harvesting assemblies. For instant, the pioneering applications of NCs are light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photovoltaic devices. Synthesis of the colloidal stable semiconductor NCs using the wet method of the pyrolysis of organometallic and chalcogenide precursors, known as hot-injection approach, is the chart-topping preparation method in term of high quality and monodisperse sized NCs. The advancement in the synthesis of these artificial materials is the core step toward their applications in a broad range of technologies. This dissertation focuses on exploring various innovative and novel synthetic methods of different types of colloidal nanocrystals, both inorganic semiconductors NCs, also known as quantum dots (QDs), and organic-inorganic metal halide-perovskite materials, known as perovskites. The work presented in this thesis focuses on pursuing fundamental understanding of the synthesis, material properties, photophysics, and spectroscopy of these nanostructured semiconductor materials. This thesis contains 6 chapters and conclusions. Chapters 1?3 focus on introducing theories and background of the materials being synthesized in the thesis. Chapter 4 demonstrates our synthesis of colloidal linker--free TiO2/CdSe NRs heterostructures with CdSe QDs grown in the presence of Ti

  13. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. Keywords: sources of cellulose, mechanical properties, liquid crystalline nature, surface modification, nanocomposites 

  14. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles Can Be Tailored by Modifying Their Surface Structure: A Green Chemistry Approach for Safer Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnoose, Alex; Dodge, Kelsey; Rasmussen, John W; Chess, Jordan; Wingett, Denise; Anders, Catherine

    2014-07-07

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) are extensively used in numerous nanotechnology applications; however, they also happen to be one of the most toxic nanomaterials. This raises significant environmental and health concerns and calls for the need to develop new synthetic approaches to produce safer ZnO NP, while preserving their attractive optical, electronic, and structural properties. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of ZnO NP can be tailored by modifying their surface-bound chemical groups, while maintaining the core ZnO structure and related properties. Two equally sized (9.26 ± 0.11 nm) ZnO NP samples were synthesized from the same zinc acetate precursor using a forced hydrolysis process, and their surface chemical structures were modified by using different reaction solvents. X-ray diffraction and optical studies showed that the lattice parameters, optical properties, and band gap (3.44 eV) of the two ZnO NP samples were similar. However, FTIR spectroscopy showed significant differences in the surface structures and surface-bound chemical groups. This led to major differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, photocatalytic rate constant, and more importantly, their cytotoxic effects on Hut-78 cancer cells. The ZnO NP sample with the higher zeta potential and catalytic activity displayed a 1.5-fold stronger cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that by modifying the synthesis parameters/conditions and the surface chemical structures of the nanocrystals, their surface charge density, catalytic activity, and cytotoxicity can be tailored. This provides a green chemistry approach to produce safer ZnO NP.

  15. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles Can Be Tailored by Modifying Their Surface Structure: A Green Chemistry Approach for Safer Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) are extensively used in numerous nanotechnology applications; however, they also happen to be one of the most toxic nanomaterials. This raises significant environmental and health concerns and calls for the need to develop new synthetic approaches to produce safer ZnO NP, while preserving their attractive optical, electronic, and structural properties. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of ZnO NP can be tailored by modifying their surface-bound chemical groups, while maintaining the core ZnO structure and related properties. Two equally sized (9.26 ± 0.11 nm) ZnO NP samples were synthesized from the same zinc acetate precursor using a forced hydrolysis process, and their surface chemical structures were modified by using different reaction solvents. X-ray diffraction and optical studies showed that the lattice parameters, optical properties, and band gap (3.44 eV) of the two ZnO NP samples were similar. However, FTIR spectroscopy showed significant differences in the surface structures and surface-bound chemical groups. This led to major differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, photocatalytic rate constant, and more importantly, their cytotoxic effects on Hut-78 cancer cells. The ZnO NP sample with the higher zeta potential and catalytic activity displayed a 1.5-fold stronger cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that by modifying the synthesis parameters/conditions and the surface chemical structures of the nanocrystals, their surface charge density, catalytic activity, and cytotoxicity can be tailored. This provides a green chemistry approach to produce safer ZnO NP. PMID:25068096

  16. Aerosol assisted fabrication of two dimensional ZnO island arrays and honeycomb patterns with identical lattice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Numata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional island arrays and honeycomb patterns consisting of ZnO nanocrystal clusters were fabricated on predefined TiO2 seed patterns prepared by vacuum free, aerosol assisted wet-chemical synthesis. The TiO2 seed patterns were prepared by applying an aerosol of a water soluble titanium complex on hexagonally close-packed polystyrene bead arrays for different lengths of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a dot array grows into a honeycomb shape as increasing amounts of the precursor were deposited. ZnO nucleation on substrates with a dot array and honeycomb patterns resulted in the formation of two discrete patterns with contrasting fill fractions of the materials.

  17. Crystallographic and optical studies on Cr doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bodke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromium doped ZnS nanocrystals with pure and 10% compositions were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation route. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-Visible spectrometer. Lattice parameter 'a' decreases and grain size increases with increasing Cr concentration. XRD study shows that both the samples have cubic structure. Grain size increases due to ionic radius. The functional groups and chemical species of Cr doped ZnO samples were determined using FTIR data. UV-Vis study revealed that red shift is clearly observed in absorption band. Surface morphology of pure and 10% Cr doped samples was investigated by SEM technique and it is confirmed that images exibit cubic form of the samples. Using EDS, percentage of chemical compositions of material recorded.

  18. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  19. A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul

    2010-10-25

    Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material fracture to stem cell fate. However, local stresses in a vast majority of systems cannot be measured due to the limitations of current techniques. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod nanocrystal, a local stress sensor with bright luminescence readout. We calibrate the tetrapod luminescence response to stress, and use the luminescence signal to report the spatial distribution of local stresses in single polyester fibers under uniaxial strain. The bright stress-dependent emission of the tetrapod, its nanoscale size, and its colloidal nature provide a unique tool that may be incorporated into a variety of micromechanical systems including materials and biological samples to quantify local stresses with high spatial resolution.

  20. Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Neng; DING Enyong; CHENG Rongshi

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersibility of cellulose nanocrystal(CNC) particles,three difierent grafted reactions of acetylation,hydroxyethylation and hydroxypropylation were introduced to modify the CNC surface.The main advantages of these methods were the simple and easily controlled reaction conditions,and the dispersibility of the resulting products was distinctly improved.The properties of the modified CNC were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),13 C nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR),transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and thermogravimetric analyses(TGA).The results indicated mat after desiccation,the modification products could be dispersed again in the proper solvents by ultrasonic treatments,and the diameter of their particles had no obvious changes.However,their thermal degradation behaviors were quite different.The initial decomposition temperature of the modified products via hydroxyethylation or hydroxypropylation was lower than that of modified products via acetylation.

  1. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  2. Structural characterization of supported nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, J.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Heredia, E.A., E-mail: eheredia@citedef.gob.ar [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.D.; Canepa, H.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kellermann, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Craievich, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The structures of several thin films subjected to (i) isochronous annealing at 350, 450 and 550 deg. C, and (ii) isothermal annealing at 450 deg. C during different time periods, were characterized. The studied thin films are composed of ZnO nanocrystals as revealed by analysing several GIXD patterns, from which their average sizes were determined. Thin film thickness and roughness were determined from quantitative analyses of AFM images and XR patterns. The analysis of XR patterns also yielded the average density of the studied films. Our GISAXS study indicates that the studied ZnO thin films contain nanopores with an ellipsoidal shape, and flattened along the direction normal to the substrate surface. The thin film annealed at the highest temperature, T = 550 deg. C, exhibits higher density and lower thickness and nanoporosity volume fraction, than those annealed at 350 and 450 deg. C. These results indicate that thermal annealing at the highest temperature (550 deg. C) induces a noticeable compaction effect on the structure of the studied thin films.

  3. High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Tang; Shulin, Gu; Jiandong, Ye; Shunming, Zhu; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding (1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques, (2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and (3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025020, 61274058, 61322403, 61504057, 61574075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK2011437, BK20130013, BK20150585), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoying

    Chapter 1. A general introduction is presented on nanomaterials and nanoscience. Nanoparticles are discussed with respect to their structure and properties. Ferroelectric materials and nanoparticles in particular are highlighted, especially in the case of the barium titanate, and their potential applications are discussed. Different nanocrystal synthetic techniques are discussed. Nanoparticle superlattices, the novel "meta-materials" built from self-assembly at the nanoscale, are introduced. The formation of nanoparticle superlattices and the importance and interest of synthesizing these nanostructures is discussed. Chapter 2. Advanced applications for high k dielectric and ferroelectric materials in the electronics industry continues to demand an understanding of the underlying physics in decreasing dimensions into the nanoscale. The first part of this chapter presents the synthesis, processing, and electrical characterization of nanostructured thin films (thickness ˜100 nm) of barium titanate BaTiO3 built from uniform nanoparticles (properties. We observe the BaTiO3 nanocrystals crystallize with evidence of tetragonality. Electric field dependent polarization measurements show spontaneous polarization and hysteresis, indicating ferroelectric behavior for the BaTiO 3 nanocrystalline films with grain sizes in the range of 10--30 nm. Dielectric measurements of the films show dielectic constants in the range of 85--90 over the 1 kHz--100 kHz, with low loss. We present nanocrystals as initial building blocks for the preparation of thin films which exhibit uniform nanostructured morphologies and grain sizes. In the second part of this chapter, a nonhydrolytic alcoholysis route to study the preparation of well-crystallized size-tunable BaTiO3 nanocrystals is presented. Different surfactants of amines, carboxylic acids, and alcohols were used to study the effect of size and morphological control over the nanocrystals. Techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission

  5. A Comparison of ZnO and ZnO(-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed to support and to help interpret the experimental work reported in the proceeding manuscript. The CCSD(T) approach, in conjunction with a large basis set, is used to compute spectroscopic constants for the X(exp 1)Epsilon(+) and (3)II states of ZnO and the X(exp 2)Epsilon(+) state of ZnO(-). The spectroscopic constants, including the electron affinity, are in good agreement with experiment. The ZnO EA is significantly larger than that of O, thus relative to the atomic ground state asymptotes, ZnO(-) has a larger D(sub o) than the (1)Epsilon(+) state, despite the fact that the extra electron goes into an antibonding orbital. The changes in spectroscopic constants can be understood in terms of the X(exp 1)Epsilon(+) formally dissociating to Zn (1)S + O (1)D while the (3)II and (2)Epsilon(+) states dissociate to Zn (1)S + O (3)P and Zn (1) and O(-) (2)P, respectively.

  6. Preparation of surface-modified ZnO quantum dots through an ultrasound assisted sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam, E, E-mail: e.moghaddam@merc.ac.ir; Youzbashi, AA; Kazemzadeh, A; Eshraghi, MJ

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Surface-modified ZnO QDs could be synthesized through a simple method. • The surface-modified ZnO QDs can be used in organic–inorganic hybrid materials. • The use of ultrasonic bath could result in the pure and more crystalline ZnO QDs. • Effective grafting of the capping agent was created to the surface of ZnO QDs. - Abstract: A synthetic process of zinc oxide quantum dots (QDs) is presented. It is based on a sol–gel process, carried out in an ultrasonic bath. It allows the formation of the stable colloids, containing surface-modified ZnO QDs with the aid of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as a capping agent. For this purpose, alcoholic solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate and potassium hydroxide were used as the reactants. Effect of KOH concentration, ultrasonic irradiation, and also the presence of capping agent on the characteristics of the final product were investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by various analytical techniques such as XRD, TEM, FT-IR, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed the direct formation of hexagonal wurtzite nanocrystals with average size of ∼3 nm confirmed by TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy. The PL spectroscopy indicated the influence of the capping agent on reducing the defects formation during the growth of the QDs. The present synthesis method was found to be a cost-effective and simple solution route for producing pure semiconductor ZnO QDs, exhibiting the quantum confinement effects, suitable for optical and optoelectronic applications.

  7. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  8. Fe doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for the removal of As(III) under visible radiation and its potential application on the treatment of As-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza-Arévalo, J.I.; García-Montes, I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Reyes, M.Hinojosa [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, IPICYT, División de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216, México (Mexico); Guzmán-Mar, J.L. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Rodríguez-González, V. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, IPICYT, División de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216, México (Mexico); and others

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Incorporation of Fe in TiO{sub 2} lattice extended absorption to visible light region. • TiO{sub 2}–Fe 1.0 in anatase crystalline form was synthesized by sol–gel method. • TiO{sub 2}–Fe 1.0 showed the highest photocatalytic activity for As(III) oxidation. • TiO{sub 2}–Fe 1.0 had the highest adsorption capacity for the removal of generated As(V). • TiO{sub 2}–Fe is a promising material on the treatment of As contaminated groundwater. - Abstract: The Fe doped TiO{sub 2} catalyst was evaluated under visible radiation for As(III) removal. The TiO{sub 2}–Fe was synthesized by sol–gel technique at 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt% iron doping concentrations. The semiconductors were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance UV–vis, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen physisorption, SEM–EDS and potentiometric titration for point of zero charge determination. The photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) was assessed in aqueous suspension contained 5 mg L{sup −1} As(III) at pH 7 with 0.25 g L{sup −1} catalyst loading. The incorporation of iron ions in TiO{sub 2} lattice extended the absorption to visible light region and create surface oxygen vacancies which favor photocatalytic oxidation reaction of As(III) using a small doping amount of Fe (1.0 wt%) in TiO{sub 2} powder. Additionally, TiO{sub 2}–Fe 1.0 showed the highest adsorption capacity for As(V) removal compared to sol–gel TiO{sub 2} and P25 indicating that this catalyst is a promising material for As contaminated groundwater treatment.

  9. Research Progress of Synthesis and Photocatalytic Application of Fe-doped TiO2%铁掺杂纳米 TiO2的合成及光催化应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 王杰; 常飞; 徐彬

    2014-01-01

    半导体纳米TiO2作为一种光催化材料已经广泛应用于环保领域。过渡金属掺杂由于能扩大材料可见光响应范围,提高对光量子的利用率,成为近年来的研究热点。本文主要介绍近年来铁掺杂纳米TiO2的研究进展,简要介绍该材料的合成制备方法,并归纳了铁掺杂量、煅烧温度等因素对该材料的光催化降解效果的影响并展望了该材料的光催化应用前景。%Semiconductor TiO 2 was widely applied in the field of environmental protection as a kind of photocatalytic material.Transition metal ions doped TiO 2 became the research focus for the expansion of spectra response and enhance of the utilization rate of light quantum.Hereby, the research progress of synthetic protocols of Fe -TiO2 was briefly introduced.Moreover, the effects that might influence the photocatalytic degradation were summarized , such as the Fe doping amount, calcination temperature, et al.Finally, the potential application prospect of the material was also brought forward.

  10. An efficient Si light-emitting diode based on an n- ZnO/SiO2-Si nanocrystals-SiO2/p-Si heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Edward; Su, Fu-Hsiang; Shih, Ying-Tsang; Tsai, Hung-Ling; Chen, Ching-Huang; Wu, Mong-Kai; Yang, Jer-Ren; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2009-11-04

    Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix and an n-type Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) layer were applied to improve the external quantum efficiency from Si in n- ZnO/SiO2-Si nanocrystals-SiO2/p-Si heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The Si nanocrystals were grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and the ZnO:Al layer was prepared by atomic layer deposition. The n-type ZnO:Al layer acts as an electron injection layer, a transparent conductive window, and an anti-reflection coating to increase the light extraction efficiency. Owing to the spatial confinement of carriers and surface passivation by the surrounding SiO2, the Si nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 matrix lead to a significant enhancement of the light emission efficiency from Si. An external quantum efficiency up to 4.3 x 10(-4) at the wavelength corresponding to the indirect bandgap of Si was achieved at room temperature.

  11. Tuning of copper nanocrystals optical properties with their shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzemann, C; Brioude, A; Pileni, M-P

    2006-04-13

    Copper nanocrystals are obtained by chemical reduction of copper ions in mixed reverse micelles. A large excess of reducing agent favors producing a new generation of shaped copper nanocrystals as nanodisks, elongated nanocrystals, and cubes. By using UV-Visible spectroscopy and numerical optical simulations we demonstrate that the optical properties are tuned by the relative proportions of spheres and nanodisks.

  12. Metal halide solid-state surface treatment for nanocrystal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Joseph M.; Crisp, Ryan; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-04-26

    Methods of treating nanocrystal and/or quantum dot devices are described. The methods include contacting the nanocrystals and/or quantum dots with a solution including metal ions and halogen ions, such that the solution displaces native ligands present on the surface of the nanocrystals and/or quantum dots via ligand exchange.

  13. A simple synthesis and characterization of CuS nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ujjal K Gautam; Bratindranath Mukherjee

    2006-02-01

    Water-soluble CuS nanocrystals and nanorods were prepared by reacting copper acetate with thioacetamide in the presence of different surfactants and capping agents. The size of the nanocrystals varied from 3–20 nm depending on the reaction parameters such as concentration, temperature, solvent and the capping agents. The formation of nanocrystals was studied by using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Induced growth of high quality ZnO thin films by crystallized amorphous ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Jun; Song Li-Jun; Li Shou-Chun; Lu You-Ming; Tian Yun-Xia; Liu Jia-Yi; Wang Lian-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the induced growth of high quality ZnO thin film by crystallized amorphous ZnO. Firstly amorphous ZnO was prepared by solid-state pyrolytic reaction, then by taking crystallized amorphous ZnO as seeds (buffer layer), ZnO thin films have been grown in diethyene glycol solution of zinc acetate at 80℃. X-ray Diffraction curve indicates that the films were preferentially oriented [001] out-of-plane direction of the ZnO. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the surface morphology of the ZnO thin film. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible emission is very weak. The results indicate that high quality ZnO thin film was obtained.

  15. Direct Observation of the Layer-by-Layer Growth of ZnO Nanopillar by In situ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, Shiqing; Wei, Xianlong; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Catalyst-free methods are important for the fabrication of pure nanowires (NWs). However, the growth mechanism remains elusive due to the lack of crucial information on the growth dynamics at atomic level. Here, the noncatalytic growth process of ZnO NWs is studied through in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We observe the layer-by-layer growth of ZnO nanopillars along the polar [0001] direction under electron beam irradiation, while no growth is observed along the radial directions, indicating an anisotropic growth mechanism. The source atoms are mainly from the electron beam induced damage of the sample and the growth is assisted by subsequent absorption and then diffusion of atoms along the side surface to the top (0002) surface. The different binding energy on different ZnO surface is the main origin for the anisotropic growth. Additionally, the coalescence of ZnO nanocrystals related to the nucleation stage is uncovered to realize through the rotational motions and recrystallization. Our in situ results provide atomic-level detailed information about the dynamic growth and coalescence processes in the noncatalytic synthesis of ZnO NW and are helpful for understanding the vapor-solid mechanism of catalyst-free NW growth. PMID:28098261

  16. Investigation of pure and Co{sup 2+}-doped ZnO quantum dot electronic structures using the density functional theory: choosing the right functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaeva, Ekaterina; Feng Yong; Gamelin, Daniel R; Li Xiaosong [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1700 (United States)], E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu

    2008-05-15

    The electronic structures of pure and Co{sup 2+}-doped ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with sizes up to 300 atoms were investigated using three different density functional theory approximations: local spin density approximation (LSDA), gradient-corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and the hybrid PBE1 functionals with LANL2DZ pseudo-potential and associated basis set. Qualitative agreement among the three methods is found for the pure ZnO nanostructures, but only the hybrid functional reproduces the correct bandgap energies quantitatively. For Co{sup 2+}-doped ZnO QDs, both LSDA and PBE incorrectly model interactions between Co{sup 2+} d levels and the valence band of ZnO, which will strongly impair predictions of dopant-carrier magnetic exchange interactions based on such computational results. Experimental observations are reproduced well in calculations at the hybrid PBE1 level of theory, making this the method of choice for exploring the magnetism of transition metal ions in ZnO QDs computationally. The qualitative features of the Co{sup 2+} 3d levels do not change appreciably with changes in cluster size over the range examined, leading to size-dependent dopant-band edge energy differences. The results presented here thus provide an experimentally calibrated framework for future ab initio descriptions of dopant-carrier and dopant-dopant magnetic exchange interactions in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) nanocrystals.

  17. Direct Observation of the Layer-by-Layer Growth of ZnO Nanopillar by In situ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, Shiqing; Wei, Xianlong; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Catalyst-free methods are important for the fabrication of pure nanowires (NWs). However, the growth mechanism remains elusive due to the lack of crucial information on the growth dynamics at atomic level. Here, the noncatalytic growth process of ZnO NWs is studied through in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We observe the layer-by-layer growth of ZnO nanopillars along the polar [0001] direction under electron beam irradiation, while no growth is observed along the radial directions, indicating an anisotropic growth mechanism. The source atoms are mainly from the electron beam induced damage of the sample and the growth is assisted by subsequent absorption and then diffusion of atoms along the side surface to the top (0002) surface. The different binding energy on different ZnO surface is the main origin for the anisotropic growth. Additionally, the coalescence of ZnO nanocrystals related to the nucleation stage is uncovered to realize through the rotational motions and recrystallization. Our in situ results provide atomic-level detailed information about the dynamic growth and coalescence processes in the noncatalytic synthesis of ZnO NW and are helpful for understanding the vapor-solid mechanism of catalyst-free NW growth.

  18. Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale L. Huber

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocrystals have been investigated extensively in the past several years for several potential applications, such as information technology, MRI contrast agents, and for drug conjugation and delivery. A specific property of interest in biomedicine is magnetic hyperthermia—an increase in temperature resulting from the thermal energy released by magnetic nanocrystals in an external alternating magnetic field. Iron oxide nanocrystals of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power using frequencies of 111.1 kHz and 629.2 kHz, and corresponding magnetic field strengths of 9 and 25 mT. Polymorphous nanocrystals as well as spherical nanocrystals and nanowires in paramagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited good heating power. A remarkable 30 °C temperature increase was observed in a nanowire sample at 111 kHz and magnetic field of 25 mT (19.6 kA/m, which is very close to the typical values of 100 kHz and 20 mT used in medical treatments.

  19. Chemically derived defects in zinc oxide nanocrystals and their enhanced photo-electrocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anand; Bahadur, D

    2014-10-21

    This paper reports the influence of surface defects on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized in different organic solvents. A simple chemical approach has been adopted for the promotion of oxygen vacancies in pristine ZnO using solvents namely dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This alters the growth of NCs through the promotion of oxygen vacancies depending on the fact that the solvent with minimum viscosity supports faster nucleation and growth exhibiting maximum surface defects. DMF with minimum viscosity results in largest particle size and superior photocatalytic activity. Further, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the DMF supports the faster growth of NCs as compared to NMP and DMSO. Electron paramagnetic resonance, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and photoluminescence spectroscopies confirm different states of oxygen vacancies in the NCs and their dependence on the nature of solvents. The photocatalytic activities of these NCs were investigated against the degradation of MB as a model dye. The results show that the oxygen defects at the surface of NCs are more responsible for higher photocatalytic activity than the specific surface area of NCs. The electrochemical investigations of MB degradation suggest that these defects upon interaction with MB influence the storage capacity and charge-discharge profiles of NCs. During degradation, MB passivates these defects, which has been explained in terms of increased charge-discharge time and storage capacity.

  20. Ca位置换Fe的氧化物Ca1-xFexMnO3(x=0-0.12)的制备及电输运性能%Preparation and electrical transport properties of Fe doped Ca1-xFexMnO3(x=0-0.12) oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞鹏; 张忻; 路清梅; 刘燕琴; 张久兴

    2011-01-01

    The Fe doped Ca1-xFexMnO3(x=0—0.12) powder and bulk samples are fabricated by citric acid sol-gel and ceramic preparation process,the samples are analzed by X-ray diffraction pattern and electrical constant measurement.The results show that all samples are of single phase,the lattice constants are gradually lowered by Fe doping for Ca site,and the crystalline grain growth is restrained.All the bulk samples have semiconductor transporting characteristics in the whole temperature range of measurement.The transportation mechanism is not changed.The energy for polarons to hop is increased for doped samples and thus the electrical resistivity is increased by increasing Fe doping concentration.%采用柠檬酸溶胶凝胶结合陶瓷烧结工艺制备了Ca位置换Fe的Ca1-xFexMnO3(x=0-0.12)氧化物粉末及块体试样,通过X射线衍射及电参数测试分析了所得试样.实验结果表明:在实验范围内,所有试样呈单一物相,Ca位置换Fe之后随置换量的增加,CaMnO3的晶胞逐渐变小,晶粒长大受到抑制.测试温度范围内所有试样均呈半导体输运特性,电输运机制未发生变化;当x在0—0.12范围内Fe置换使极化子跃迁能提高,试样各温度点的电阻率随着Fe置换量x的增加而提高.

  1. Designer Nanocrystal Materials for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie

    Advances in synthetic methods allow a wide range of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to be tailored in size and shape and to be used as building blocks in the design of NC solids. However, the long, insulating ligands commonly employed in the synthesis of colloidal NCs inhibit strong interparticle coupling and charge transport once NCs are assembled into the solids state as NC arrays. We will describe the range of short, compact ligand chemistries we employ to exchange the long, insulating ligands used in synthesis and to increase interparticle coupling. These ligand exchange processes can have a dramatic influence on NC surface chemistry as well as NC organization in the solids, showing examples of short-range order. Synergistically, we use 1) thermal evaporation and diffusion and 2) wet-chemical methods to introduce extrinsic impurities and non-stoichiometry to passivate surface traps and dope NC solids. NC coupling and doping provide control over the density of states and the carrier type, concentration, mobility, and lifetime, which we characterize by a range of electronic and spectroscopic techniques. We will describe the importance of engineering device interfaces to design NC materials for solar photovoltaics.

  2. Prospects of nanoscience with nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V; Manna, Liberato; Cabot, Andreu; Hens, Zeger; Talapin, Dmitri V; Kagan, Cherie R; Klimov, Victor I; Rogach, Andrey L; Reiss, Peter; Milliron, Delia J; Guyot-Sionnnest, Philippe; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Parak, Wolfgang J; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Korgel, Brian A; Murray, Christopher B; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2015-02-24

    Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs, i.e., crystalline nanoparticles) have become an important class of materials with great potential for applications ranging from medicine to electronic and optoelectronic devices. Today's strong research focus on NCs has been prompted by the tremendous progress in their synthesis. Impressively narrow size distributions of just a few percent, rational shape-engineering, compositional modulation, electronic doping, and tailored surface chemistries are now feasible for a broad range of inorganic compounds. The performance of inorganic NC-based photovoltaic and light-emitting devices has become competitive to other state-of-the-art materials. Semiconductor NCs hold unique promise for near- and mid-infrared technologies, where very few semiconductor materials are available. On a purely fundamental side, new insights into NC growth, chemical transformations, and self-organization can be gained from rapidly progressing in situ characterization and direct imaging techniques. New phenomena are constantly being discovered in the photophysics of NCs and in the electronic properties of NC solids. In this Nano Focus, we review the state of the art in research on colloidal NCs focusing on the most recent works published in the last 2 years.

  3. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P.; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-01

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  4. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  5. The structure and morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadavanich, Andreas V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Organically capped nanocrystals were found to have faceted shapes consistent with Wulff polyhedra after the effects of capping ligands on surface energies were taken into account. The basic shape thus derived for wurtzite (WZ) structure CdSe nanocrystals capped by tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) was a truncated hexagonal prism, elongated alone the <001> axis with (100) and (002) facets. This structure has C{sub 3v} point group symmetry. The main defect in this structure is a stacking fault (a single layer of zinc blende type stacking), which does not significantly affect the shape (does not alter the point group).

  6. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to  nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials.  Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale  materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientati...

  7. Developing New Nanoprobes from Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots havegarnered the spotlight as an important new class of biological labelingtool. Withoptical properties superior to conventional organicfluorophores from many aspects, such as high photostability andmultiplexing capability, quantum dots have been applied in a variety ofadvanced imaging applications. This dissertation research goes along withlarge amount of research efforts in this field, while focusing on thedesign and development of new nanoprobes from semiconductor nanocrystalsthat are aimed for useful imaging or sensing applications not possiblewith quantum dots alone. Specifically speaking, two strategies have beenapplied. In one, we have taken advantage of the increasing capability ofmanipulating the shape of semiconductor nanocrystals by developingsemiconductor quantum rods as fluorescent biological labels. In theother, we have assembled quantum dots and gold nanocrystals into discretenanostructures using DNA. The background information and synthesis,surface manipulation, property characterization and applications of thesenew nanoprobes in a few biological experiments are detailed in thedissertation.

  8. 不同球磨时间铁掺杂TiO2粉的物相组成和磁性%Phase Composition and Magnetic Properties of Fe-Doped TiO2 Powders With Different Milling Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林璠; 蒋冬梅; 马学鸣

    2011-01-01

    The TiO2 powders with different Fe-doped amounts were prepared by high energy ball milling for different times. The phase composition and magnetic properties of the powders were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray diffractometer, Raman scattering spectrometer and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that milling not only triggered the solid solution of Fe in TiO2 lattice, but also induced the phase transformation from anatase phase to S and rutile phase in TiO2. The Fe and Fe oxides were not found in the powders. All of the powders exhibited room-temperature ferromagnetism. The magnetism reached the maximum at the milling time of 3 h> and the saturation magnetization decreased with the increasing of milling time. Fe-doped rutile phase had greater magnetism than the Fe-doped anatase phase, while the Fe-doped S phase had the greatest magnetism.%利用高能球磨法球磨不同时间得到不同铁掺杂量的TiO2粉,并利用电感耦合等离子发射光谱仪、X射线衍射仪、拉曼光谱仪和振动样品磁强计对粉体的物相组成和磁性能进行了分析。结果表明:球磨不仅使铁固溶进入TiO2晶格中,还诱发了TiO2从锐钛矿相向S相和金红石相的转变,粉体中未发现铁及铁的氧化物;所有粉体都表现出室温铁磁性,球磨3 h后磁性最大,随着球磨时间的延长,饱和磁化强度逐渐减小;铁掺杂金红石相的磁性大于掺杂锐钛矿相的,而铁掺杂相S的磁性能又远远大于掺杂进入前两相的。

  9. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  10. Aerosol printing of colloidal nanocrystals by aerodynamic focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lejun

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, have shown promise as the active material in electronic and optoelectronic applications, because of their high quantum yield, narrow spectral emission band, size-tunable bandgap, chemical stability, and easy processibility. Meanwhile, it is still challenging to print patterns of nanocrystal films with desired linewidth and thickness, which is a critical step in fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices. In this thesis, a direct-write method of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals has been developed. Like other direct-write techniques, this aerosol based method simplifies printing process and reduces the manufacturing cost, as it avoids mask screening, lithography, and pre-patterning of the substrate. Moreover, the aerosol printing with aerodynamic lenses needs neither microscale nozzles nor sheath gases, and is able to incorporate into the vacuum systems currently used in microelectronic fabrication. This thesis research presents systematic efforts to develop an aerosol-based method to directly write patterns of semiconductor nanocrystals from colloidal dispersions by aerodynamic focusing. First, the synthesized colloidal nanocrystals in hexane were nebulized into compact and spherical agglomerates suspending in the carrier gas. The details about the impact dynamics of individual aerosolized nanocrystal agglomerates were investigated. As building blocks of printed nanocrystal films, the agglomerate exhibited cohesive and granular behaviors during impact deformation on the substrate. The strength of cohesion between nanocrystals in the agglomerates could be adjusted by tuning the number concentration of colloidal nanocrystal dispersion. Second, ultrathin films of nanocrystals were obtained by printing monodisperse nanocrystal agglomerates. As the result of the granular property of nanocrystal agglomerates, it was found that the thickness of deposited agglomerates strongly depended on the size of agglomerates. A

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Kai-sheng; Shi, Jian-ying; Zhang, Zai-Li; Liang, Yong-Mei; LIU Wei

    2013-01-01

    ZnO and Er-doped ZnO with different molar ratios of Er/Zn were prepared using the homogeneous precipitation method. The photocatalysts prepared were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the Er-doped ZnO displayed characteristic wurtzite-type peaks in the XRD spectra. The Er-doped ZnO absorbed much more light than ZnO in the ultraviolet region...

  12. Hydrogen in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, E.V., E-mail: edward.lavrov@physik.tu-dresden.d [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The results of a combined study of Raman scattering, IR absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity on ZnO are presented. Two shallow donors-hydrogen at the bond-centered lattice site, H{sub BC}, and hydrogen bound in an oxygen vacancy, H{sub O}-were identified. Donor H{sub BC} has an ionization energy of 53 meV. The recombination of an exciton bound to H{sub BC} gives rise to the 3360.1+-0.2meV photoluminescence line. The 1s->2p donor transition at 330cm{sup -1} is detected in the Raman scattering and photoconductivity spectra. The stretch mode of the associated O-H bond is detected in IR absorption at 3611cm{sup -1}. The H{sub O} donor in ZnO has an ionization energy of 47 meV. The excitonic recombination at H{sub O} leads to the previously labeled I{sub 4} line at 3362.8 meV. Photoconductivity and Raman spectra reveal the 1s->2p donor transition at 265cm{sup -1}. It is shown that H{sub BC} migrating through the ZnO lattice forms electrically inactive interstitial H{sub 2}. Vibrational modes of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} were identified at 4145, 3628, and 2985cm{sup -1}, respectively. These results suggest that interstitial H{sub 2} is responsible for the 'hidden' hydrogen in ZnO.

  13. 制备工艺对Fe掺杂PZN-PZT热释电陶瓷性能的影响%The effects of synthesis route on the electricalproperties of Fe-doped PZN-PZT pyroelectric ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦慧; 陈拥军; 郭栋

    2016-01-01

    采用传统氧化物反应法(一步法)和前驱体法(两步法)合成铁掺杂改性的0.075Pb(Zn1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.925Pb(Zr0.95 Ti0.05)O3(PZN-PZT)热释电陶瓷,研究制备方法对PZN-PZT热释电陶瓷的微观形貌、相结构及电学性能的影响。XRD结果表明,采用一步法制备的陶瓷不如两步法,前者存在钙钛矿相和少量焦绿石相,后者能有效抑制焦绿石相的生成,陶瓷为纯菱方钙钛矿相。SEM分析进一步证实了两步法能够制备出晶粒分布均匀、晶型饱满的致密陶瓷。结合介电、铁电及热释电性能分析可知,单一钙钛矿结构和均匀紧凑的晶粒结构对陶瓷材料电学性能的增强起着重要的作用。%Fe-doped 0.075 Pb(Zn1/3 Nb2/3 )O3-0.925Pb(Zr0.95 Ti0.05 )O3 (PZN-PZT)pyroelectric ceramics were pre-pared by a conventional oxide-mixed one-step method and precursor two-step method,respectively.The phase structure and electrical properties of the prepared ceramics were systematically investigated.X-ray diffraction results indicated that the ceramics fabricated by the one-step method possess a mixture of perovskite phase and pyrochlore phase,while the ceramics prepared from the two-step method have a single perovskite phase struc-ture.Scanning electron microscopy observation suggests that the ceramics prepared by the two-step method have a dense microstructure with uniform grains.The dielectric,ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties were measured,which revealed that the ceramics with single phase and dense microstructure have enhanced ferroelec-tric and pyroelectric properties.

  14. 铁掺杂TiO2纳米管阵列的制备及可见光光催化性能%Preparation of Fe-doped titania nanotube arrays and its photocatalytic activity below visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丁; 崔文娟; 顾玉芬; 张新磊

    2011-01-01

    Taking iron nitrate as iron source, Fe-doped titania nanotube arrays with Fe3+ inclusion were synthesized for one-shot by using anodic oxidation treatment. The preliminary characterization of the cata lyst were conducted with test methods such as SEM, EDS, XRD and UV-VIS. The photocatalytic activity of this catalyst was measured by using photo-induced degradation of methyl orange (MO) within the visi ble light region. The result showed that highly fine, neat and orderly nanotubes array grew vertically in ti tanium basal surface, its length being approximately as 2 μm, diameter-50 nm. Inclusion of Fe3+ made the characteristic peak (101) its facer of the sharp over-mining phase shift to 20 small angle inhibiting the sharp over-mining phase shift to rutile phase and the red-shift of the UV-VIS absorption peaks. Its absorb ing intensity abated. The Fe3+ inclusion could effectively enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nano tubes array.%以硝酸铁为铁源,采用阳极氧化法一步合成Fe3+掺杂的TiO2纳米管阵列.用扫描电镜(SEM)、X-射线能谱仪(EDS)、X射线衍射(XRD)和紫外-可见漫反射吸收光谱(UV-VIS)等测试方法对催化剂进行表征,并通过可见光光催化降解甲基橙溶液,测定其光催化活性.结果表明:高度致密,规整有序的纳米管阵列垂直生长在钛基底表面,管长约2 μm,管径50nm左右;Fe3+的掺杂使锐铁矿相特征峰(101)晶面向2θ的小角度发生偏移,抑制锐钛矿相向金红石相的转交,紫外-可见漫反射吸收峰红移,吸收强度减弱; Fe3+的掺杂能有效提高TiO2纳米管阵列的光催化活性.

  15. Epitaxial overgrowth of platinum on palladium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Majiong; Lim, Byungkwon; Tao, Jing; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Ma, Chao; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a systematic study on the epitaxial overgrowth of Pt on well-defined Pd nanocrystals with different shapes (and exposed facets), including regular octahedrons, truncated octahedrons, and cubes. Two different reducing agents, i.e., citric acid and L-ascorbic acid, were evaluated and compared for the reduction of K2PtCl4 in an aqueous solution in the presence of Pd nanocrystal seeds. When citric acid was used as a reducing agent, conformal overgrowth of octahedral Pt shells on regular and truncated octahedrons of Pd led to the formation of Pd-Pt core-shell octahedrons, while non-conformal overgrowth of Pt on cubic Pd seeds resulted in the formation of an incomplete octahedral Pt shell. On the contrary, localized overgrowth of Pt branches was observed when L-ascorbic acid was used as a reducing agent regardless of the facets expressed on the surface of Pd nanocrystal seeds. This work shows that both the binding affinity of a reducing agent to the Pt surface and the reduction kinetics for a Pt precursor play important roles in determining the mode of Pt overgrowth on Pd nanocrystal surface.

  16. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  17. Organization of 'nanocrystal molecules' using DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Johnsson, Kai P.; Peng, Xiaogang; Wilson, Troy E.; Loweth, Colin J.; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Schultz, Peter G.

    1996-08-01

    PATTERNING matter on the nanometre scale is an important objective of current materials chemistry and physics. It is driven by both the need to further miniaturize electronic components and the fact that at the nanometre scale, materials properties are strongly size-dependent and thus can be tuned sensitively1. In nanoscale crystals, quantum size effects and the large number of surface atoms influence the, chemical, electronic, magnetic and optical behaviour2-4. 'Top-down' (for example, lithographic) methods for nanoscale manipulation reach only to the upper end of the nanometre regime5; but whereas 'bottom-up' wet chemical techniques allow for the preparation of mono-disperse, defect-free crystallites just 1-10 nm in size6-10, ways to control the structure of nanocrystal assemblies are scarce. Here we describe a strategy for the synthesis of'nanocrystal molecules', in which discrete numbers of gold nanocrystals are organized into spatially defined structures based on Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions. We attach single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides of defined length and sequence to individual nanocrystals, and these assemble into dimers and trimers on addition of a complementary single-stranded DNA template. We anticipate that this approach should allow the construction of more complex two-and three-dimensional assemblies.

  18. Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya R. Lahiji; Xin Xu; Ronald Reifenberger; Arvind Raman; Alan Rudie; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are gaining interest as a “green” nanomaterial with superior mechanical and chemical properties for high-performance nanocomposite materials; however, there is a lack of accurate material property characterization of individual CNCs. Here, a detailed study of the topography, elastic and adhesive properties of individual wood-derived CNCs...

  19. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  20. Nanoparticle shape anisotropy and photoluminescence properties: Europium containing ZnO as a Model Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerigk, Melanie; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Wagner, Markus R.; Wimmer, Ilona; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Polarz, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The precise control over electronic and optical properties of semiconductor (SC) materials is pivotal for a number of important applications like in optoelectronics, photocatalysis or in medicine. It is well known that the incorporation of heteroelements (doping as a classical case) is a powerful method for adjusting and enhancing the functionality of semiconductors. Independent from that, there already has been a tremendous progress regarding the synthesis of differently sized and shaped SC nanoparticles, and quantum-size effects are well documented experimentally and theoretically. Whereas size and shape control of nanoparticles work fairly well for the pure compounds, the presence of a heteroelement is problematic because the impurities interfere strongly with bottom up approaches applied for the synthesis of such particles, and effects are even stronger, when the heteroelement is aimed to be incorporated into the target lattice for chemical doping. Therefore, realizing coincident shape control of nanoparticle colloids and their doping still pose major difficulties. Due to a special mechanism of the emulsion based synthesis method presented here, involving a gelation of emulsion droplets prior to crystallization of shape-anisotropic ZnO nanoparticles, heteroelements can be effectively entrapped inside the lattice. Different nanocrystal shapes such as nanorods, -prisms, -plates, and -spheres can be obtained, determined by the use of certain emulsification agents. The degree of morphologic alterations depends on the type of incorporated heteroelement Mn+, concentration, and it seems that some shapes are more tolerant against doping than others. Focus was then set on the incorporation of Eu3+ inside the ZnO particles, and it was shown that nanocrystal shape and aspect ratios could be adjusted while maintaining a fixed dopant level. Special PL properties could be observed implying energy transfer from ZnO excited near its band-gap (3.3 eV) to the Eu3+ states

  1. ZnO UV Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-efficiency UV detectors will be developed in the Phase II program with ZnO and its alloy (ZnBeO). ZnO and ZnBeO are a very suitable material for fabrication of...

  2. Novel applications of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pick Chung

    We have investigated ways of modifying a common water soluble CdTe NCs to become non-photobleaching. Such NCs are capable of responding reversibly to an inter-switching of the oxygen and argon environments over multiple hours of photoexcitation. They are found to quench upon exposure to oxygen, but when the system is purged with argon, their photoluminescence (PL) revives to the original intensity. Such discovery could potentially be used as oxygen nanosensors. These PL robust CdTe NCs immobilized on glass substrates also exhibit significant changes in their PL when certain organic/bio molecules are placed in their vicinity (nanoscale). This novel technique also known as NC-organic molecule close proximity imaging (NC-cp imaging) has found to provide contrast ratio greater by a factor of 2-3 compared to conventional fluorescence imaging technique. PL of NCs is recoverable upon removal of these organic molecules, therefore validating these NCs as potential all-optical organic molecular nanosensors and, upon optimization, ultimately serving as point detectors for purposes of super-resolution microscopy (with proper instrumentation). No solvents are required for this sensing mechanism since all solutions were dried under argon flow. Furthermore, core graded shell CdSe/CdSexS1-x/CdS giant nanocrystal (g-NCs) were found to have very robust PL temperature response. At a size of 10.2 nm in diameter, these g-NCs undergo PL drop of only 30% at 355K (normalized to PL intensity at 85K). In comparison, the core step shells CdSe/CdS g-NCs at the same diameter exhibit 80% PL drop at 355K. Spectral shifting and broadening were acquired and found to be 5-10 times and 2-4 times smaller respectively than the standard CdSe core and CdSe/CdS core shell NCs. It is also discovered that these core graded shell g-NCs are largely nonblinking and have insignificant photoluminescence decay even after exciting the samples at very high irradiance (44 kW/cm2) for over an hour. These types of g

  3. Structure and optical properties of Cd substituted ZnO (Zn1-xCdxO) nanostructures synthesized by high pressure solution route

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We report synthesis of Cd substituted ZnO nanostructures (Zn1-xCdxO with x upto \\approx .09) by high pressure solution growth method. The synthesized nanostructures comprise of nanocrystals that are both particles (~ 10-15 nm) and rods which grow along (002) direction as established by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Rietveld analysis of the XRD data shows monotonous increase of the unit cell volume with the increase of Cd concentration. The optica...

  4. Structure and transformation of tactoids in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Xi; Hamad, Wadood Y.; MacLachlan, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals obtained from natural sources are of great interest for many applications. In water, cellulose nanocrystals form a liquid crystalline phase whose hierarchical structure is retained in solid films after drying. Although tactoids, one of the most primitive components of liquid crystals, are thought to have a significant role in the evolution of this phase, they have evaded structural study of their internal organization. Here we report the capture of cellulose nanocrystal tactoids in a polymer matrix. This method allows us to visualize, for the first time, the arrangement of cellulose nanocrystals within individual tactoids by electron microscopy. Furthermore, we can follow the structural evolution of the liquid crystalline phase from tactoids to iridescent-layered films. Our insights into the early nucleation events of cellulose nanocrystals give important information about the growth of cholesteric liquid crystalline phases, especially for cellulose nanocrystals, and are crucial for preparing photonics-quality films.

  5. Performance and Reliability of Multilayer Silicon Nanocrystal Nonvolatile Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liudi; ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Yue; MAO Ping; PAN Liyang

    2009-01-01

    Nonvolatile memories (NVMs) with triple layers of silicon nanocrystals were fabricated with conventional CMOS technology.This paper explores the program/erase performance and reliability of NVMs with three layers of nanocrystals.The results indicate that the nanocrystals in the triple-layer nanocrystal NVM (NCNVM) are difficult to fully charge during the programming process.The programming speed of the triple-layer NCNVMs is quicker than that of single-layer NCNVMs,which means that the second and third layers of nanocrystals in the triple-layer NCNVM affect the charge of the first layer nanocrystals.Reliability tests show that the memory window has little degradation after 1×104 cycles.

  6. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals.

  7. Hydrophobic starch nanocrystals preparations through crosslinking modification using citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiang; Tong, Jin; Su, Xingguang; Ren, Lili

    2016-10-01

    Biodegradable starch nanocrystals prepared by an acid treatment process were modified through crosslinking modification using citric acid as reactant by a dry reaction method. The occurrence of crosslinking modification was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and swelling degree. X-ray diffraction, wettability tests and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the modified starch nanocrystals. It was found that the crosslinked starch nanocrystals displayed a higher affinity for low polar solvents such as dichloromethane. The surface of starch nanocrystals became more roughness after crosslinking modification with citric acid and the size decreased as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results. XRD analysis showed that the crystalline structure of starch nanocrystals was basically not changed after the crosslinking modification with shorter heating time. The resulting hydrophobic starch nanocrystals are versatile precursors to the development of nanocomposites.

  8. Observation of Single Colloidal Platinum Nanocrystal Growth Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Haimei; Smith, Rachel; Jun, Young-wook; Kisielowski, Christian; Dahmen, Ulrich; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-02-09

    It is conventionally assumed that the growth of monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals requires a temporally discrete nucleation followed by monomer attachment onto the existing nuclei. However, recent studies have reported violations of this classical growth model, and have suggested that inter-particle interactions are also involved during the growth. Mechanisms of nanocrystal growth still remain controversial. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we show that platinum nanocrystals can grow either by monomer attachment from solution onto the existing particles or by coalescence between the particles. Surprisingly, an initially broad size distribution of the nanocrystals can spontaneously narrow. We suggest that nanocrystals take different pathways of growth based on their size- and morphology-dependent internal energies. These observations are expected to be highly relevant for other nanocrystal systems.

  9. Synthesis and applications of heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khon, Elena

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been of great interest to researchers for several decades due to their unique optoelectronic properties. These nanoparticles are widely used for a variety of different applications. However, there are many unresolved issues that lower the efficiency and/or stability of devices which incorporate these NCs. Our research is dedicated to addressing these issues by identifying potential problems and resolving them, improving existing systems, generating new synthetic strategies, and/or building new devices. The general strategies for the synthesis of different nanocrystals were established in this work, one of which is the colloidal growth of gold domains onto CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. Control of shape and size was achieved simply by adjusting the temperature and the time of the reaction. Depending on the exact morphology of Au and CdS domains, fabricated nano-composites can undergo evaporation-induced self-assembly onto a substrate, which is very useful for building devices. CdS/Au heterostructures can assemble in two different ways: through end-to-end coupling of Au domains, resulting in the formation of one-dimensional chains; and via side-by-side packing of CdS nanorods, leading to the onset of two-dimensional superlattices. We investigated the nature of exciton-plasmon interactions in Au-tipped CdS nanorods using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The study demonstrated that the key optoelectronic properties of electrically coupled metal and semiconductor domains are significantly different from those observed in systems with weak inter-domain coupling. In particular, strongly-coupled nanocomposites promote mixing of electronic states at semiconductor-metal domain interfaces, which causes a significant suppression of both plasmon and exciton carrier excitations. Colloidal QDs are starting to replace organic molecules in many different applications, such as organic light emmiting diods (OLEDs), due to their

  10. Investigation on Structure and Luminescenc of ZnO∶Tb Nanocrystals%ZnO∶Tb纳米晶的制备、结构与发光性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒曼; 刘峰奇; 郭海清; 张志华; 王占国

    2001-01-01

    Tb3+-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals are successfully prepared by hydrolyzing acetate in ethanol.Incorporation of Tb3+ in ZnO nanocrystals has been proved by XRD,FTIR,PL and PLE measurements.The presence of acetate complexes to zinc atoms on particle surfaces has been testified by FTIR results.Emission from both Tb3+ ions and surface states in ZnO matrix,as well as their correlation are observed.The cooperation luminescence mechanism suggests that there exists energy transfer between ZnO nanoparticle hosts and the doped Tb3+ centers.%采用乙醇溶液中水解醋酸盐的方法合成了一种稀土掺杂的半导体纳米材料——掺铽的ZnO纳米晶,并对其结构与发光性质进行了研究,结果表明掺铽的ZnO纳米晶为六方纤锌矿结构,纳米颗粒表面有醋酸根络合物使颗粒之间互相分散,ZnO纳米基质与发光中心之间存在能量传递,引起稀土铽的特征发光.

  11. Synthesis and Surface Modification of CdTe Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CdTe nanocrystals were prepared in aqueous solution via the reaction between Cd2+ and NaHTe in the presence of mercaptoacetic acid. Interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and phenylalanine were formed via electrostatic/coordinate self-assembly. The photoluminescence intensity of CdTe nanocrystals was improved obviously. The interaction mechanism was discussed and was considered to be surface passivation.

  12. Positron studies of surfaces, structure and electronic properties of nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Eijt, S. W. H.; Barbiellini, B.; Houtepen, A.J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Bansil, A.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent positron studies of metal and semiconductor nanocrystals. The prospects offered by positron annihilation as a sensitive method to access nanocrystal (NC) properties are described and compared with other experimental methods. The tunability of the electronic structure of nanocrystals underlies their great potential for application in many areas. Owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio, the surfaces and interfaces of NCs play a crucial role in determining ...

  13. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2010-01-01

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions of a nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size an...

  14. Pressurized polyol synthesis of Al-doped ZnO nanoclusters with high electrical conductivity and low near-infrared transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho-Nyun; Shin, Chi-Ho [Surface Technology R& BD Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Duck Kun [Department of Corporate Diagnosis, Small and Medium Business Corporation, Seoul 150-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haekyoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyeongseok [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Inha Technical College, Incheon 402-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Jong, E-mail: hjkim23@kitech.re.kr [Surface Technology R& BD Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Low-temperature pressurized polyol method synthesized Al-doped ZnO nanoclusters. • Reaction time affected the doping efficiency, resistivity, and NIR transmittance. • The near-IR blocking efficiency of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoclusters reached 85%. • AZO nanocluster coatings could be used for heat reflectors or artificial glasses. - Abstract: In this study, a novel pressurized polyol method is proposed to synthesize aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoclusters without utilizing additional thermal treatment to avoid the merging of nanoclusters. The size of the AZO nanoclusters range from 100 to 150 nm with a resistivity of 204 Ω cm. The AZO nanoclusters primarily consist of approximately 10-nm nanocrystals that form a spherically clustered morphology. A two-stage growth model has been proposed based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images, nanocluster sizes, and X-ray diffraction patterns. The primary AZO nanocrystals first nucleate under pressurized conditions and then spontaneously aggregate into larger nanoclusters. Optically, the AZO nanoclusters exhibit a significant decrease in the near-infrared (NIR) transmittance compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles. The NIR blocking efficiency of AZO nanoclusters reached 85%. Moreover, the doping efficiency, resistivity, and NIR transmittance of AZO nanoclusters are influenced by the reaction time in the pressurized polyol solution. On the other hand, the reaction time has no effect on the particle size and crystallinity. An optically transparent coating for the AZO nanoclusters, which consisted of iso-propanol solvent and ultraviolet-curable acrylic binder, was also demonstrated.

  15. Magnetic study of 0.20(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})/0.80(ZnO) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typek, J., E-mail: typjan@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland); Wardal, K.; Zolnierkiewicz, G. [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland); Guskos, N. [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland); Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15 784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Sibera, D.; Narkiewicz, U. [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, K. Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    ZnO nanocrystals doped with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been synthesized by the calcination method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and dc magnetization measurements of 0.2(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})/0.8(ZnO) nanocomposite have been carried out in the 4–300 K range. The presence of agglomerated magnetic zinc ferrite ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in 0.2(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})/0.8(ZnO) nanocomposite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm was identified by XRD. Temperature dependence of the resonance field, linewidth and the integrated intensity calculated from FMR spectra has been determined. Magnetization measurements in ZFC and FC modes as well as study of hysteresis loops allowed calculating different magnetic characteristics – blocking/freezing temperature, magnetic moment, anisotropy constant and anisotropy field. The observed magnetic properties of 0.2(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})/0.8(ZnO) nanocomposite were explained based on the core–shell model of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles covered by ZnO layer. - Highlights: • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in ZnO matrix have been synthesized. • Magnetization and FMR studies in 4–300 K range have been carried out. • Magnetic characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were calculated in terms of core–shell model. • Magnetic phases of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been determined.

  16. Electroluminescence of Si Nanocrystal-Doped SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dan; XIE Zhi-Qiang; WU Qian; ZHAO You-Yuan; LU Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ We perform a comparative study on the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) of Si nanocrystaldoped SiO2 (nc-Si:SiO2) and SiO2, and clarify whether the contribution from Si nanocrystals in the EL of nc-Si:SiO2 truly exists. The results unambiguously indicate the presence of EL of Si nanocrystals. The difference of peak positions between the EL and PL spectra are discussed. It is found that the normal method of passivation to enhance the PL of Si nanocrystals is not equally effective for the EL, hence new methods need to be explored to promote the EL of Si nanocrystals.

  17. Growth Mechanisms of CdS Nanocrystals in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Latterini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CdS nanocrystals were prepared in water-in-oil microemulsions. The nanocrystal properties, absorption and luminescence spectra and size distributions, were monitored at different times after mixing the microemulsions of the two precursors to obtain information on their growth mechanism. In particular, CdS nanocrystals were prepared using water-in-heptane or water-in-nonane microemulsions. The results obtained from the investigation of nanocrystals prepared using heptane as the organic phase, confirmed that nanocrystal nucleation is fast while their growth is determined by droplet exchange content rate. Size distribution histograms obtained from the sample at early time points after mixing presented a bimodal population having average sizes of 3.0 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.1 nm, thus indicating that surface process controls the nanocrystal growth. With longer reaction times the occurrence of water droplet coalescence is likely responsible for the formation of nanocrystal agglomerates. Using a water-in-nonane microemulsion, the droplet exchange rate can be modified, thus leading to smaller CdS nanocrystals. However, the development of structural defects cannot be excluded, as evidenced by the luminescence spectra of the suspension. In general, aging of the nanocrystal in the pristine microemulsion resulted in the development of cubic semiconductor nanostructures.

  18. Spectroscopy of intraband optical transitions in anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkov, Vadim K.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a new type of optical spectroscopy of anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals, which is based on the welldeveloped stationary pump-probe technique, where the pump and probe fields are absorbed upon, respectively, interband and intraband transitions of the nanocrystals' electronic subsystem. We develop a general theory of intraband absorption based on the density matrix formalism. This theory can be applied to study degenerate eigenstates of electrons in semiconductor nanocrystals of different shapes and dimentions. We demonstrate that the angular dependence of intraband absorption by nonspherical nanocrystals enables investigating their shape and orientation, as well as the symmetry of quantum states excited by the probe field and selection rules of electronic transitions.

  19. Unified ZnO Q-dot growth mechanism from simultaneous UV-Vis and EXAFS monitoring of sol-gel reactions induced by different alkali base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Bruno L.; Silva, Marlon N.; Santilli, Celso V.; Briois, Valérie; Pulcinelli, Sandra H.

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to give experimental evidences of the universality of main steps involved in ZnO nanoparticles formation and growth from sol-gel process. In this way, we revisit the effect of the alkali base (LiOH, NaOH, KOH) used to induce the hydrolysis-condensation reaction in order to unfold the ZnO Q-dot formation mechanisms by using simultaneous time resolved monitoring of zinc species and Q-dot size by combining EXAFS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Irrespective of the alkali base used, nucleation and growth of ZnO Q-dots occur by consumption of zinc oxy-acetate precursor. Higher amounts of ZnO nanocrystal are produced as the strength of the base increases. After achieving the steady state equilibrium regime the Q-dot growth occurs initially by oriented attachment coalescence mechanism followed by the Ostwald ripening coarsening. The dependence of the formation and growth mechanisms on the base strength allows the fine tuning of the Q-dot size and photoluminescence properties.

  20. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Fe-Doped Hydroxyl-Zr Pillared Titanate†%铁掺杂羟基锆柱撑钛酸盐的制备及光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽雯; 林碧洲; 张国华; 姚倩茹

    2015-01-01

    To fabricate Fe-doped-hydroxyl-Zr pillared titanate ( abbreviated as FZPT ) with delaminated structure, the exfoliated layered titanate in aqueous solution was reassembled in the presence of hydroxyl-Zr oligocations and iron cation under the exfoliation-restacking route to induce a great number of mesopores and eventually a large surface area of photocatalysts. The influence of doping iron cations on the preparation and catalytic activity of the Zr-pillared composites(ZPT) was investigated. The material was characterized by pow-der X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis DRS spectra, scanning electron microscopy ( SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and specific surface area and porosity measurements. When n(Fe) / n(Zr) in FZPT was less than 10% , the diameter of mesopore and specific surface area increased with the amount of iron, and vice versa. The results of degradation of methylene blue(MB) under ultraviolet and visible radiation showed that the FZPT nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than ZPT, which was based on the mesoporous structure and increased specific surface area. The FZPT-0. 20 nanocomposite exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MB under visible-light irradiation, attributed to the elec-tronic coupling between the host and the guest cations contained iron.%采用单分子层剥离-重堆积技术将掺铁的聚合羟基锆离子嵌入到钛酸盐层间,制得了铁掺杂羟基锆柱撑钛酸盐复合材料(FZPT),考察了 Fe 掺杂对 Zr 柱撑钛酸盐复合材料(ZPT)形成及光催化活性的影响.利用 X 射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、紫外-可见漫反射光谱仪(UV-Vis DRS)和吸附分析仪等对材料进行了表征.结果表明,当铁的掺入量小于锆质量的10%时,复合柱撑材料 FZPT 的孔径和比表面积随着 Fe 掺入量的增加而增大,继续增加则结果相反.紫外-可见光催化降解亚

  1. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonicmaterials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially usefuloptical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct opticalscattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures thatcouple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, whichis mediated by surface plasmons, depends on their shape and arrangement.Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silvernanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using theLangmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticlespacing, density, and packing symmetry allows for tunability of theoptical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategyoffers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials forapplication in spectroscopic sensors, sub-wavelength optics, andintegrated devices that utilize field enhancement effects.

  2. Active Optical Fibers Doped with Ceramic Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mrazek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium-doped active optical fiber was successfully prepared by incorporation of ceramic nanocrystals inside a core of optical fiber. Modified chemical vapor deposition was combined with solution-doping approach to preparing preform. Instead of inorganic salts erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium garnet nanocrystals were used in the solution-doping process. Prepared preform was drawn into single-mode optical fiber with a numerical aperture 0.167. Optical and luminescence properties of the fiber were analyzed. Lasing ability of prepared fiber was proofed in a fiber-ring set-up. Optimal laser properties were achieved for a fiber length of 20~m. The slope efficiency of the fiber-laser was about 15%. Presented method can be simply extended to the deposition of other ceramic nanomaterials.

  3. Digital Color in Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Dumanli, Ahu Gümrah; van der Kooij, Hanne M.; Kamita, Gen; Reisner, Erwin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/am501995e. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) form chiral nematic phases in aqueous suspensions that can be preserved upon evaporation of water. The resulting films show an intense directional coloration determined by their microstructure. Here, microreflection experiments correlated with analysis of the helicoidal nanostructure of the films reveal that the iridescent colors and the ordering of the ind...

  4. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  5. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  6. Morphological and photoelectrochemical characterization of core-shell nanoparticle films for dye-sensitized solar cells: Zn-O type shell on SnO2 and TiO2 cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N G; Kang, M G; Kim, K M; Ryu, K S; Chang, S H; Kim, D K; van de Lagemaat, J; Benkstein, K D; Frank, A J

    2004-05-11

    Core-shell type nanoparticles with SnO2 and TiO2 cores and zinc oxide shells were prepared and characterized by surface sensitive techniques. The influence of the structure of the ZnO shell and the morphology ofnanoparticle films on the performance was evaluated. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies show the presence of thin ZnO-like shells around the nanoparticles at low Zn levels. In the case of SnO2 cores, ZnO nanocrystals are formed at high Zn/Sn ratios (ca. 0.5). Scanning electron microscopy studies show that Zn modification of SnO2 nanoparticles changes the film morphology from a compact mesoporous structure to a less dense macroporous structure. In contrast, Zn modification of TiO2 nanoparticles has no apparent influence on film morphology. For SnO2 cores, adding ZnO improves the solar cell efficiency by increasing light scattering and dye uptake and decreasing recombination. In contrast, adding a ZnO shell to the TiO2 core decreases the cell efficiency, largely owing to a loss of photocurrent resulting from slow electron transport associated with the buildup of the ZnO surface layer.

  7. An efficient Si light-emitting diode based on an n- ZnO/SiO{sub 2}-Si nanocrystals-SiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Edward; Su, Fu-Hsiang; Shih, Ying-Tsang; Tsai, Hung-Ling; Chen, Ching-Huang; Wu, Mong-Kai; Yang, Jer-Ren; Chen, Miin-Jang, E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-04

    Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix and an n-type Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) layer were applied to improve the external quantum efficiency from Si in n- ZnO/SiO{sub 2}-Si nanocrystals-SiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The Si nanocrystals were grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and the ZnO:Al layer was prepared by atomic layer deposition. The n-type ZnO:Al layer acts as an electron injection layer, a transparent conductive window, and an anti-reflection coating to increase the light extraction efficiency. Owing to the spatial confinement of carriers and surface passivation by the surrounding SiO{sub 2}, the Si nanocrystals embedded in the SiO{sub 2} matrix lead to a significant enhancement of the light emission efficiency from Si. An external quantum efficiency up to 4.3 x 10{sup -4} at the wavelength corresponding to the indirect bandgap of Si was achieved at room temperature.

  8. ZnO nanostructures and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowei, Sun

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the various functional properties and potential applications of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, from basic principles to our most recent discoveries. It comprises experimental analysis of various properties of ZnO nanostructures, preparation techniques, research methods, and some promising applications. The areas of focus include ZnO-based gas/biochemical sensing devices, field emitters, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, e-papers, and single-nanowire-based transistors.

  9. ZnO: growth, doping & processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Norton

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A review is given here of recent results in developing improved control of growth, doping, and fabrication processes for ZnO devices with possible applications to ultraviolet (UV light emitters, spin functional devices, gas sensors, transparent electronics, and surface acoustic wave devices. ZnO can be grown on cheap substrates such as glass at relatively low temperatures and may have advantages over the GaN system in some of these applications.

  10. Superhydrophobicity of Hierarchical and ZNO Nanowire Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    KOH (3 wt%), distilled water and isopropyl alcohol (10% vol%) at 95 C for 50 min. Subsequently, a 10 nm ZnO seed layer wasThis journal is © The Royal...ZnO have been widely used in sensors, piezo-nanogenerators, and solar cells. The hierarchical structures of ZnO nanowires grown on Si pyramid surfaces...exhibiting superhydrophobicity in this work will have promising applications in the next generation photovoltaic devices and solar cells

  11. Synthesis and Photovoltaic Application of Coper (I) Sulfide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-22

    Cu2S ( JCPDS 026-1116, Fig. 1a red lines). Low-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies (Fig. 1b) show nanocrystals with an average...a, XRD diffraction pattern of Cu2S nanocrystals, which can be indexed to hexagonal Cu2S ( JCPDS 026-1116, red lines). b, TEM image of Cu2S

  12. Characterization of Ge-nanocrystal films with photoelectron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bostedt, C; Willey, T M; Nelson, A J; Franco, N; Möller, T; Terminello, L J

    2003-01-01

    The Ge 3d core-levels of germanium nanocrystal films have been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments indicate bulk-like coordinated atoms in the nanocrystals and suggest structured disorder on the nanoparticle surface. The results underline the importance of the surface on the overall electronic structure of this class of nanostructured materials.

  13. Synthesis and preservation of graphene-supported uranium dioxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hanyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wang, Haitao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, 911 Boston Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 251 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C. [Nuclear Chemistry & Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Na, Chongzheng, E-mail: chongzheng.na@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, 911 Boston Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Graphene-supported uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) nanocrystals are potentially important fuel materials. Here, we investigate the possibility of synthesizing graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals in polar ethylene glycol compounds by the polyol reduction of uranyl acetylacetone under boiling reflux, thereby enabling the use of an inexpensive graphene precursor graphene oxide into a one-pot process. We show that triethylene glycol is the most suitable solvent with an appropriate reduction potential for producing nanometer-sized UO{sub 2} crystals compared to monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol. Graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized with triethylene glycol show evidence of heteroepitaxy, which can be beneficial for facilitating heat transfer in nuclear fuel particles. Furthermore, we show that graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by polyol reduction can be readily stored in alcohols, impeding oxidation from the prevalent oxygen in air. Together, these methods provide a facile approach for preparing and storing graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals for further investigation and development under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • UO{sub 2} nanocrystals are synthesized using polyol reduction method. • Triethylene glycol is the best reducing agent for nano-sized UO{sub 2} crystals. • UO{sub 2} nanocrystals grow on graphene through heteroepitaxy. • Graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be stored in alcohols to prevent oxidation.

  14. M(o)ssbauer study on Fe-doped TiO2 by high-energy ball milling%高能球磨法制备的含铁TiO2的穆斯堡尔谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冬梅; 潘晓燕; 石旺舟; 马学鸣

    2006-01-01

    The structural evolution of Fe-doped TiO2 by high-energy ball milling was investigated by X-ray diffraction and M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy. The results show that the original anatase-TiO2 transforms to srilankite-type and rutile-type during ball milling. Iron atoms are preferable to dissolve in rutile-TiO2 and there are two relative doublets appearing in M(o)ssbauer spectra. A doublet is found in the condition of Fe atoms dissolved in srilankite TiO2 lattice. M(o)ssbauer spectra show that the composition distribution is nonuniform in TiO2 during the mechanical alloying with Fe atoms rich at the interface or surface of TiO2 crystalline.

  15. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  16. Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410 nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite.

  17. Synthesis of tungsten carbide nanocrystals and their electrochemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghua ZENG; Dingsheng YUAN; Yingliang LIU; Jingxing CHEN; Sanxiang TAN

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) nanocrystals have been prepared by a solvothermal method with Mg as the reductant and WO3 and anhydrous ethanol as the precursors. The effects of time and temperature on the synthesis of WC were investigated and a probable formation mechanism was discussed. The obtained WC nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spec-troscopy and electrochemical methods. Hexagonal close-packed WC was successfully synthesized when the temperature was as low as 500°C. The content of carbon was more than that of W, indicating that the composition of the treated sample was C and WC only. The diameters of WC nanocrystals were ranged from 40 nm to 70 nm and the nanocrystals were dispersed on carbon films. The electrochemical measurements reveal that WC nanocrystals obviously promote Pt/C electrocatalytic ability for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  18. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  19. The role of tetragonal-metal-organic framework-5 loadings with extra ZnO molecule on the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjmandi, Mehrzad; Pakizeh, Majid [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pirouzram, Omid [Kurdistan University, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The effect of more ZnO molecule in tetragonal structure of MOF-5 than cubic structure on the gas permeation properties of T-MOF-5/polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes was investigated. T-MOF-5 was first successfully synthesized and carefully characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and N{sub 2} adsorption technique at 77 K. Novel T-MOF-5/PEI MMMs were prepared using solution casting method and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The SEM pictures of the MMMs showed that T-MOF-5 nanocrystals changed the morphology of PEI and exhibited acceptable contacts between the filler particles and the polymer chains. Gas permeation properties of these membranes with different T-MOF-5 contents were studied for pure H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} gases. Permeation measurement showed that the all gases' permeability, diffusivity and solubility were increased with T-MOF-5 loading. H{sub 2} permeability and the ideal selectivity of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} in MMM with 25 wt% loading of T-MOF-5 nanocrystals were increased. This behavior was attributed to more ZnO molecule in T-MOF-5 structure. The experimental gas permeations through T-MOF-5/PEI nanocomposite with different filler loadings were fitted on Higuchi model. Good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted gas permeability was obtained.

  20. Growth and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on ZnO seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yong; Feneberg, Martin; Reiser, Anton; Tischer, Ingo; Wiedenmann, Michael; Frey, Reinhard; Roeder, Uwe; Sauer, Rolf; Thonke, Klaus [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Using a ZnO seed layer, we grow well-aligned ZnO nanopillars on different substrates including a-plane sapphire, c-plane GaN, and (100) silicon. We use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to characterize the morphology of the ZnO seed layers and of the ZnO nanopillars. Layers and nanopillars were also investigated by optical spectroscopy. For all kinds of substrates used, we find well-faceted nanopillars which are uniform along the whole length. The data indicate that they grow via the vapour-solid (VS) mechanism under well-controlled growth conditions. The photoluminescence of the ZnO nanopillars shows sharp near-band-edge luminescence and nearly no green or yellow band luminescence, indicating very low contamination.