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Sample records for fe pt single

  1. Probing Single Pt Atoms in Complex Intermetallic Al13Fe4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Kojima, Takayuki; Abe, Eiji; Kameoka, Satoshi; Murakami, Yumi; Gille, Peter; Tsai, An Pang

    2018-03-21

    The atomic structure of a 0.2 atom % Pt-doped complex metallic alloy, monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 , was investigated using a single crystal prepared by the Czochralski method. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that the Pt atoms were dispersed as single atoms and substituted at Fe sites in Al 13 Fe 4 . Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that the Pt atoms preferentially substitute at Fe(1). Unlike those that have been reported, Pt single atoms in the surface layers showed lower activity and selectivity than those of Al 2 Pt and bulk Pt for propyne hydrogenation, indicating that the active state of a given single-atom Pt site is strongly dominated by the bonding to surrounding Al atoms.

  2. Pt-Fe catalyst nanoparticles supported on single-wall carbon nanotubes: Direct synthesis and electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Luo, Liqiang; Zhu, Limei; Yu, Liming; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Ando, Yoshinori; Zhao, Xinluo

    2013-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) supported Pt-Fe nanoparticles have been prepared by one-step hydrogen arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrode containing both Pt and Fe metal elements. The formation of SWCNTs and Pt-Fe nanoparticles occur simultaneously during the evaporation process. High-temperature hydrogen treatment and hydrochloric acid soaking have been carried out to purify and activate those materials in order to obtain a new type of Pt-Fe/SWCNTs catalyst for methanol oxidation. The Pt-Fe/SWCNTs catalyst performs much higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation, better stability and better durability than a commercial Pt/C catalyst according to the electrochemical measurements, indicating that it has a great potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of FeOx/Fe/FePt and FeOx/FePt Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Lin Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe(6 nm/FePt film with perpendicular magnetization was deposited on the glass substrate. To study the oxygen diffusion effect on the coupling of Fe/FePt bilayer, the plasma oxidation with 0.5~7% oxygen flow ratio was performed during sputtered part of Fe layer and formed the FeOx(3 nm/Fe(3 nm/FePt trilayer. Two-step magnetic hysteresis loops were found in trilayer with oxygen flow ratio above 1%. The magnetization in FeOx and Fe/FePt layers was decoupled. The moments in FeOx layer were first reversed and followed by coupled Fe/FePt bilayer. The trilayer was annealed again at 500°C and 800°C for 3 minutes. When the FeOx(3 nm/Fe(3 nm/FePt trilayer was annealed at 500°C, the layers structure was changed to FeOx(6 nm/FePt bilayer due to oxygen diffusion. The hard-magnetic FeOx(6 nm/FePt film was coupled with single switching field. The FeOx/(disordered FePt layer structure was observed with further annealing at 800°C and presented soft-magnetic loop. In summary, the coupling between soft-magnetic Fe, FeOx layer, and hard-magnetic L10 FePt layer can be controlled by the oxygen diffusion behavior, and the oxidation of Fe layer was tuned by the annealing temperature. The ordered L10 FePt layer was deteriorated by oxygen and became disordered FePt when the annealed temperature was up to 800°C.

  4. Micromagnetic study of single-domain FePt nanocrystals overcoated with silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Changbae; Lee, Doh C; Korgel, Brian A; Lozanne, Alex de

    2007-01-01

    Chemically-synthesized FePt nanocrystals must be annealed at a high temperature (>550 deg. C) to induce the hard ferromagnetic L 1 0 phase. Unfortunately, the organic stabilizer covering these nanocrystals degrades at these temperatures and the nanocrystals sinter, resulting in the loss of control over nanocrystal size and separation in the film. We have developed a silica overcoating strategy to prevent nanocrystal sintering. In this study, 6 nm diameter FePt nanocrystals were coated with 17 nm thick shells of silica using an inverse micelle process. Magnetization measurements of the annealed FePt-SiO 2 nanocrystals indicate ferromagnetism with a high coercivity at room temperature. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) results show that the film composed of nanocrystals behaves as a dipole after magnetization by an 8 T external field. The individual nanocrystals are modelled as single-domain particles with random crystallographic orientations. We propose that the interparticle magnetic dipole interaction is weaker than the magnetocrystalline energy in the remanent state, leading to an unusual material with no magnetic anisotropy and no domains. Films of these nanoparticles are promising candidates for magnetic media with a data storage density of ∼Tb/in 2

  5. Magnetic properties of Co and Fe on Pt(111), Rh(111) and Pd(111): From single atoms to ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Anne; Rusponi, Stefano; Etzkorn, Markus; Moulas, Geraud; Brune, Harald [IPN, EPF-Lausanne (Switzerland); Gambardella, Pietro [CREA, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (Spain); Bencok, Peter [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-01

    Single atoms of Co on Pt(111) are known to have a giant magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of 9.3 meV/atom. This is due to the reduced coordination and the strong spin-orbit coupling of the Pt 5d-states. In order to study the contribution of a highly polarizable substrate to the MAE, we investigated single Co atoms on Pd(111) and Rh(111) using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We find a decreasing MAE moving from a 5d-substrate (Pt) to 4d-substrates (Pd and Rh). Co has a large orbital moment L of about 0.7 independent of the substrate. The easy axis is out-of-plane for Pt(111) and Pd(111) whereas it is in-plane for Co/Rh(111). Fe has on all substrates an out-of-plane easy axis, a very small anisotropy energy, and a L/S ratio of about 0.1. With increasing coverage the coordination number of the adatom increases and generally leads to a reduced MAE and orbital moment compared to the single atom. We measure one monolayer of Co and Fe on Pt(111) and Rh(111) and find MAE values <0.5 meV/atom. For 1 ML Co we find a substantial decrease in the L/S ratio to 0.19. However, the L/S ratio for 1 ML Fe on both substrates does not change much compared with the Fe single atom.

  6. Double switching hysteresis loop in a single layer Fe3Pt alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.; Suzuki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    The Fe 3 Pt alloy thin films were epitaxially grown on MgO(100) substrate by e-beam evaporation. The films were partially ordered at the substrate deposition temperature above 350 deg. C. These partially ordered films exhibit very large biaxial magnetic anisotropy constant in the order of 10 5 J/m 3 and produce double switching in the hysteresis loops. The difference of the switching field of these films can be up to about 3 x 10 5 A/m by tuning the angle of the applied field with respect to the easy axes. This double switching behavior stems from the large biaxial magnetic anisotropy of the films

  7. Growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with metallic chirality through faceted FePt-Au catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Toshiyuki; Iwama, Hiroki; Shima, Toshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Direct synthesis of vertically aligned metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (m-SWCNT forests) is a difficult challenge. We have successfully synthesized m-SWCNT forests using faceted iron platinum-gold catalysts epitaxially grown on a single crystalline magnesium oxide substrate. The metallic content of the forests estimated by Raman spectroscopy reaches 90%. From the standpoint of growth rate of the forests, the growth mechanism is probably based on the catalyst of solid state. It is suggested that preferential growth of m-SWCNTs is achieved when both factors are satisfied, namely, {111} dominant octahedral facet and ideal size (fine particles) of FePt particles.

  8. Single-” and “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles: from controlled synthesis via zwitterionic and silica bio-functionalization to MRI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostevšek, Nina, E-mail: nina.kostevsek@ijs.si; Šturm, Sašo [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Serša, Igor; Sepe, Ana [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Condensed Matter Physics (Slovenia); Bloemen, Maarten; Verbiest, Thierry [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry (Belgium); Kobe, Spomenka; Žužek Rožman, Kristina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia)

    2015-12-15

    The value of the magnetization has a strong influence on the performance of nanoparticles that act as the contrast agent material for MRI. In this article, we describe processing routes for the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles of different sizes, which, as a result, exhibit different magnetization values. “Single-core” FePt nanoparticles of different sizes (3–15 nm) were prepared via one-step or two-step synthesis, with the latter exhibiting twice the magnetization (m{sub (1.5T)} = 14.5 emu/g) of the nanoparticles formed via the one-step synthesis (m{sub (1.5T)} < 8 emu/g). Furthermore, we propose the synthesis of “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles by changing the ratio between the two surfactants (oleylamine and oleic acid). The step from smaller “single-core” FePt nanoparticles towards the larger, “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles (>20 nm) leads to an increase in the magnetization m{sub (1.5T)} from 8 to 19.5 emu/g, without exceeding the superparamagnetic limit. Stable water suspensions were prepared using two different approaches: (a) functionalization with a biocompatible, zwitterionic, catechol ligand, which was used on the FePt nanoparticles for the first time, and (b) coating with SiO{sub 2} shells of various thicknesses. These FePt-based nanostructures, the catechol- and SiO{sub 2}-coated “single-core” and “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles, were investigated in terms of the relaxation rates. The higher r{sub 2} values obtained for the “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles compared to that for the “single-core” ones indicate the superiority of the “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles as T{sub 2} contrast agents. Furthermore, it was shown that the SiO{sub 2} coating reduces the r{sub 1} and r{sub 2} relaxation values for both the “single-core” and “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles. The high r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} ratios obtained in our study put FePt nanoparticles near the top of the list of candidate materials for use in MRI

  9. Orientation and magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt films grown on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrate by electron-beam coevaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Minghui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)], E-mail: myu1@uno.edu; Ohguchi, H.; Zambano, A.; Takeuchi, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Liu, J.P. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Josell, D.; Bendersky, L.A. [Metallurgy Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2007-09-25

    We have studied the orientation and magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt films deposited by electron-beam co-evaporation on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700 deg. C. We observed that long-range chemical ordering of the L1{sub 0} structure occurred over the entire range of substrate temperatures in FePt films and at 600 deg. C and up in CoPt films. Growth of FePt and CoPt yielded epitaxial films with cube-on-cube orientation of the pseudo-cubic L1{sub 0} lattice with respect to the cubic MgO. X-ray diffraction patterns and magnetization loops of the FePt and CoPt films revealed the existence of L1{sub 0} domains with the tetragonal c axis inclined at 45 deg. to the film plane, orientations (0 h h) and (h 0 h), as well as L1{sub 0} domains with the tetragonal c axis in the plane of the film, orientation (h h 0). The FePt and CoPt films for which X-ray diffraction indicated tetragonal phase was present all exhibited hard magnetic properties with easy axis along the [0 0 1] substrate direction as well as large in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  10. Stability investigation of a high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 single-atom catalyst under different gas environments by HAADF-STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Sibin; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Jingyue

    2018-05-01

    Catalysis by supported single metal atoms has demonstrated tremendous potential for practical applications due to their unique catalytic properties. Unless they are strongly anchored to the support surfaces, supported single atoms, however, are thermodynamically unstable, which poses a major obstacle for broad applications of single-atom catalysts (SACs). In order to develop strategies to improve the stability of SACs, we need to understand the intrinsic nature of the sintering processes of supported single metal atoms, especially under various gas environments that are relevant to important catalytic reactions. We report on the synthesis of high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 SACs using a facial strong adsorption method and the study of the mobility of these supported Pt single atoms at 250 °C under various gas environments that are relevant to CO oxidation, water–gas shift, and hydrogenation reactions. Under the oxidative gas environment, Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms are stable even at high temperatures. The presence of either CO or H2 molecules in the gas environment, however, facilitates the movement of the Pt atoms. The strong interaction between CO and Pt weakens the binding between the Pt atoms and the support, facilitating the movement of the Pt single atoms. The dissociation of H2 molecules on the Pt atoms and their subsequent interaction with the oxygen species of the support surfaces dislodge the surface oxygen anchored Pt atoms, resulting in the formation of Pt clusters. The addition of H2O molecules to the CO or H2 significantly accelerates the sintering of the Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms. An anchoring-site determined sintering mechanism is further proposed, which is related to the metal–support interaction.

  11. Influence of an Fe cap layer on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe49Pt51/Fe bi-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao-Yang, Duan; Bin, Ma; Zong-Zhi, Zhang; Qing-Yuan, Jin; Fu-Lin, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The influences of an Fe cap layer on the structural and magnetic properties of FePt/Fe bi-layers are investigated. Compared with single FePt alloy films, a thin Fe layer can affect the crystalline orientation and improve the chemical ordering of L1 0 FePt films. Moreover, the coercivity increases when a thin Fe layer covers the FePt layer. Beyond a critical thickness, however, the Fe cover layer quickens the magnetization reversal of Fe 49 Pt 51 /Fe bi-layers by their exchange coupling

  12. Solid-state phase equilibria in the Fe-Pt-Pr ternary system at 1173 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jing; Gu Zhengfei; Cheng Gang; Zhou Huaiying

    2005-01-01

    The solid-state phase equilibria in the Fe-Pt-Pr ternary system at 1173 K (Pr ≤ 70%) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The 1173 K isothermal section consists of 13 single-phase regions, 22 two-phase regions and 10 three-phase regions. At 1173 K, we have observed that the maximum solid solubility of Pt in α-Fe is below 1.5 at.% and the solid solution region of Pt in γ-Fe is from 2 to 35 at.%; the maximum solid solubility of Fe in Pt is 18 at.%. The maximum solubility of Fe in PrPt 5 , PrPt 3 , PrPt 2 , Pr 3 Pt 4 , PrPt, Pr 3 Pt 2 and Pr 7 Pt 3 is below 1 at.%. The maximum solubility of Pr in α-(Fe, Pt), γ-(Fe, Pt), FePt, FePt 3 and (Pt, Fe) (the solid solution of Fe in Pt) is 6, 2, 4, 4.5 and 1.5 at.%, respectively. In this work, it is found that the phase Pr 3 Pt 4 does not exist in the ternary system. The binary compounds Fe 7 Pr and Fe 2 Pr and any new ternary compounds were not observed

  13. All-optical measurement of interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Pt/FePt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, C.; Ganss, F.; Jaris, M.; Albrecht, M.; Schmidt, H.

    2018-01-01

    Time Resolved Magneto Optic Kerr Effect spectroscopy was used to all-optically study the dynamics in exchange coupled Fe(10 nm)/Pt(x = 0-5 nm)/FePt (10 nm) thin films. As the Pt spacer decreases, the effective magnetization of the layers is seen to evolve towards the strong coupling limit where the two films can be described by a single effective magnetization. The coupling begins at x = 1.5 nm and reaches a maximum exchange coupling constant of 2.89 erg/cm2 at x = 0 nm. The films are ferromagnetically coupled at all Pt thicknesses in the exchange coupled regime (x ≤ 1.5 nm). A procedure for extracting the interlayer exchange constant by measuring the magnetic precession frequencies at multiple applied fields and angles is outlined. The dynamics are well reproduced using micromagnetic simulations.

  14. Magnetic reversal processes and critical thickness in FePt/α-Fe/FePt trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, N.L.; Zhao, G.P.; Zhang, H.W.; Zhou, X.L.; Deng, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic reversal processes of a FePt/α-Fe/FePt trilayer system with in-plane easy axes have been investigated within a micromagnetic approach. It is found that the magnetic reversal process consists of three steps: nucleation of a prototype of domain wall in the soft phase, the evolution as well as the motion of the domain wall from the soft to the hard phase and finally, the magnetic reversal of the hard phase. For small soft layer thickness L s , the three steps are reduced to one single step, where the magnetizations in the two phases reverses simultaneously and the hysteresis loops are square with nucleation as the coercivity mechanism. As L s increases, both nucleation and pinning fields decrease. In the meantime, the single-step reversal expands to a standard three-step one and the coercivity mechanism changes from nucleation to pinning. The critical thickness where the coercivity mechanism alters, could be derived analytically, which is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the crystalline anisotropy of the hard phase. Such a scaling law might provide an easy way to test the present theory. Further increase of L s leads to the change of the coercivity mechanism from pinning to nucleation. - Highlights: → Analytical critical thickness scales with square root of anisotropy of hard phase. → Reversal process determined nucleation, motion and depinning of domain walls. → Coercivity mechanism is nucleation and pinning for thin and thick soft layers. → Microscopic and macroscopic hysteresis loops calculated.

  15. Longitudinal recording on FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning

    1999-11-01

    Near field recording on high coercivity FePt intermetallic compound media using a high Bsat write element was investigated. Untextured FePt media were prepared by magnetron sputtering on ZrO2 disks at a substrate temperature of 450°C, with post annealing at 450°C for 8 hrs. Both multilayer and cosputtered precursors produced the ordered tetragonal L10 phase with high coercivity between 5kOe and 12kOe. To improve readback noise decrease magnetic domain size, FePtB media were subsequently prepared by cosputtering. Over-write, roll-off, signal to noise ratio and non-linear transition shift (NLTS) ere measured by both metal in gap (MIG) and merged MR heads. FePtB media showed similar NLTS to commercial CoCrPtTa longitudinal media, but 5dB lower signal to noise ratio. By operating recording transducers in near contact, reasonable values of (>30dB) could be obtained. VSM Rotational Transverse Magnetization has been used for measuring the anisotropy field of magnetic thin films. Magnetization reversal during rotation of a 2D isotropic an applied field is discussed. The relationship between the transverse magnetization My and the applied field H was numerically solved. An excellent approximation for the transverse magnetization is found to be: My/Ms=A(1- H/Hk) 2.5, where A = 1.1434, and Hk is the anisotropy field. For curve fitting to experimental data, both A and Hk were used as fitting parameters. Comparison between a constructed torque hysteresis method and this VSM RTM method have been made theoretically and experimentally. Both results showed that VSM RTM will give better extrapolation of the anisotropy field. The torque measurement will slightly overestimate the anisotropy field. The anisotropy fields of FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) films were characterized using this VSM RTM technique with comparison to a CoCrTaPt disk. Anisotropy energy was derived. Hc/Hk was used as an indicator for coherent rotation of a single domain. Interactions between magnetic domains were

  16. High Temperature Magnetic Properties of Indirect Exchange Spring FePt/M(Cu,C/Fe Trilayer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabil Gayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of temperature dependent magnetic properties of FePt and FePt(30/M(Cu,C/Fe(5 trilayer thin films prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature and postannealed at different temperatures. L10 ordering, hard magnetic properties, and thermal stability of FePt films are improved with increasing postannealing temperature. In FePt/M/Fe trilayer, the formation of interlayer exchange coupling between magnetic layers depends on interlayer materials and interface morphology. In FePt/C/Fe trilayer, when the C interlayer thickness was about 0.5 nm, a strong interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft layers was achieved, and saturation magnetization was enhanced considerably after using interlayer exchange coupling with Fe. In addition, incoherent magnetization reversal process observed in FePt/Fe films changes into coherent switching process in FePt/C/Fe films giving rise to a single hysteresis loop. High temperature magnetic studies up to 573 K reveal that the effective reduction in the coercivity decreases largely from 34 Oe/K for FePt/Fe film to 13 Oe/K for FePt/C(0.5/Fe film demonstrating that the interlayer exchange coupling seems to be a promising approach to improve the stability of hard magnetic properties at high temperatures, which is suitable for high-performance magnets and thermally assisted magnetic recording media.

  17. Lowering of L10 phase transition temperature of FePt thin films by single shot H+ ion exposure using plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Z.Y.; Lin, J.J.; Zhang, T.; Karamat, S.; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V.; Ramanujan, R.V.; Rawat, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    FePt thin films are exposed to pulsed energetic H + ion beam from plasma focus. In irradiated films, the phase transition from the low K u disordered face-centered-cubic structure to high K u ordered face-centered-tetragonal phase was achieved at 400 deg. C with the order parameter S ranging from 0.73 to 0.83, high coercivity of about 5356 kA/m, high negative nucleation field of about 7700 kA/m and high squareness ratio ranging from 0.73 to 0.79. The advantage of using plasma focus device is that it can lower phase transition temperature and significantly enhance the magnetic properties by a pulsed single shot exposure

  18. Ion-irradiation induced chemical ordering of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala, Naidu V. [Department of Physics, Grambling State University, RWE Jones Drive, Carver Hall 81, Grambling, LA 71245 (United States)]. E-mail: naidusv@gram.edu; Harrell, J.W. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lawson, Jeremy [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Nikles, David E. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Williams, John R. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We have studied the effect of ion-beam irradiation on reducing the ordering temperature of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles. FePt and FePt(Au14%) 4 nm particles dispersed on a Si-substrate were irradiated by 300 keV Al-ions with a dose of 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at 43 {sup o}C using a water-cooled flange in order to minimize the vacancy migration and voids formation within the collision cascades. Partial chemical ordering has been observed in as-irradiated particles with coercivity of 60-130 Oe. Post-irradiation annealing at 220 {sup o}C enhanced chemical ordering in FePt nanoparticles with coercivity of 3500 Oe, magnetic anisotropy of 1.5 x 10{sup 7} erg/cc, and thermal stability factor of 130. A much higher 375 {sup o}C post-irradiation annealing was required in FePtAu, presumably because Au atoms were trapped at Fe/Pt lattice sites at lower temperatures. As the annealing temperature increased, anomalous features in the magnetization reversal curves were observed that disappeared at higher annealing temperatures.

  19. Exchange interaction in MnPt/FeCo sputtered multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Nawate, M.; Norikane, T.

    2000-01-01

    MnPt single-layer films have been prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for studying the composition dependencies of resistivity and crystalline structure. In the as-deposited state, the resistivity increases with Mn content and reaches the maximum at 69 at%. By annealing, the resistivity of the films having the Mn content around 51 at% increases, closely relating to the growth of the ordered CuAu FCT-type MnPt crystals. For the both film structures of the glass/Cu/FeCo/MnPt/Cu and the glass/MnPt/FeCo/Cu, which have been sputter-deposited on glass substrates, the exchange interaction between MnPt and FeCo layers, and the coercivity of the FeCo layer have been examined as functions of the Mn content, the layer thickness and the annealing temperature. In the as-deposited state, the exchange field (H ex ) is nearly zero up to 75 at% of Mn content, above which the value of H ex increases and shows the maximum at 85 at%, in which the blocking temperature is about 100 deg. C. By annealing, the value of H ex increases for the films of Mn content around 40-60 at%, exhibiting the higher blocking temperature than 360 deg. C. The temperature stability has also been examined using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

  20. Anomalous reduction in the long-time flux creep relaxation in superconducting Ca10(Pt4As8)((Fe1‑x Pt x )2As2)5 (x ≈ 0.05) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, N.; Huang, Silu; Jin, R.

    2018-06-01

    We report the vortex dynamics of superconducting a Ca10(Pt4As8)((Fe1‑x Pt x )2As2)5 (x ≈ 0.05) single crystal with T c = 26 K investigated by performing magnetic measurements. The field dependence of the magnetization displays a second peak (SPM), typically related to a crossover between elastic and plastic vortex relaxation in a weak pinning scenario. Long-time flux creep relaxation measurements for fields smaller that of the SPM show that the vortex dynamics can be separated in two different regions. For magnetic fields smaller than the lower end of the SPM, glassy relaxation (with a characteristic glassy exponent μ) is observed. For magnetic fields between the lower end and the SPM, the flux creep rate decreases systematically to values below to the ones predicted by the collective theory. This effect can be understood by considering a stable vortex lattice configuration. As the field position of the SPM can be adjusted by modifying the quenched potential, our results suggest that extremely low flux creep relaxation rate may be tuned in many other superconducting materials.

  1. Rapid thermal annealing of FePt and FePt/Cu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, Christoph

    2011-01-10

    Chemically ordered FePt is one of the most promising materials to reach the ultimate limitations in storage density of future magnetic recording devices due to its high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy and a corrosion resistance superior to rare-earth based magnets. In this study, FePt and FePt/Cu bilayers have been sputter deposited at room temperature onto thermally oxidized silicon wafers, glass substrates and self-assembled arrays of spherical SiO{sub 2} particles with diameters down to 10 nm. Millisecond flash lamp annealing, as well as conventional rapid thermal annealing was employed to induce the phase transformation from the chemically disordered A1 phase into the chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The influence of the annealing temperature, annealing time and the film thickness on the ordering transformation and (001) texture evolution of FePt films with near equiatomic composition was studied. Whereas flash lamp annealed FePt films exhibit a polycrystalline morphology with high chemical L1{sub 0} order, rapid thermal annealing can lead to the formation of chemically ordered FePt films with (001) texture on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. The resultant high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and large coercivities up to 40 kOe are demonstrated. Simultaneously to the ordering transformation, rapid thermal annealing to temperatures exceeding 600 C leads to a break up of the continuous FePt film into separated islands. This dewetting behavior was utilized to create regular arrays of FePt nanostructures on SiO{sub 2} particle templates with periods down to 50 nm. The addition of Cu improves the (001) texture formation and chemical ordering for annealing temperatures T{sub a} {<=}600 C. In addition, the magnetic anisotropy and the coercivity of the ternary FePtCu alloy can be effectively tailored by adjusting the Cu content. The prospects of FePtCu based exchange spring media, as well as the magnetic properties of FePtCu nanostructures fabricated

  2. Doping effect on the physical properties of Ca10Pt3As8(Fe2As2)5 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiayun; Karki, Amar; Plummer, E. W.; Jin, Rongying

    2017-12-01

    Ca10Pt3As8(Fe2As2)5 is a unique parent compound for superconductivity, which consists of both semiconducting Pt3As8 and metallic FeAs layers. We report the observation of superconductivity induced via chemical doping in either Ca site using rare-earth (RE) elements (RE  =  La, Gd) or Fe site using Pt. The interlayer distance and the normal-state physical properties of the doped system change correspondingly. The coupled changes include (1) superconducting transition temperature T c increases with increasing both doping concentration and interlayer distance, (2) our T c value is higher than previously reported maximum value for Pt doping in the Fe site, (3) both the normal-state in-plane resistivity and out-of-plane resistivity change from non-metallic to metallic behavior with increasing doping concentration and T c, and (4) the transverse in-plane magnetoresistance (MRab) changes from linear-field dependence to quadratic behavior upon increasing T c. For La-doped compound with the highest T c (~35 K), upper critical fields (Hc2ab , Hc2c ), coherence lengths (ξ ab, ξ c), and in-plane penetration depth (λ ab) are estimated. We discuss the relationship between chemical doping, interlayer distance, and physical properties in this system.

  3. Effects of Cr underlayer and Pt buffer layer on the interfacial structure and magnetic characteristics of sputtered FePt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, A.-C.; Hsu, J.-H.; Huang, H.L.; Kuo, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work develops a new method for growing L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) thin film on a Pt/Cr bilayer using an amorphous glass substrate. Semi-coherent epitaxial growth was initiated from the Cr(0 0 2) underlayer, continued through the Pt(0 0 1) buffer layer, and extended into the L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) magnetic layer. The squareness of the L1 0 FePt film in the presence of both a Cr underlayer and a Pt buffer layer was close to unity as the magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the film plane. The single L1 0 FePt(1 1 1) orientation was observed in the absence of a Cr underlayer. When a Cr underlayer is inserted, the preferred orientation switched from L1 0 FePt(1 1 1) to L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) and the magnetic film exhibited perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. However, in the absence of an Pt intermediate layer, the Cr atoms diffused directly into the FePt magnetic layer and prevented the formation of the L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) preferred orientation. When a Pt buffer layer was introduced between the FePt and Cr underlayer, the L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) peak appeared. The thickness of the Pt buffer layer also substantially affected the magnetic properties and atomic arrangement at the FePt/Pt and Pt/Cr interfaces

  4. Optical properties of monodispersive FePt nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.; Lo, C.C.H. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Yu, A.C.C. [Sony Corporation, Sendai Technology Center, 3-4-1 Sakuragi, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan); Fan, M. [Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The optical properties of monodispersive FePt nanoparticle films were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The monodispersive FePt nanoparticle film was stabilized on a Si substrate by means of an organosilane coupling film, resulting in the formation of a (Si/SiO{sub 2}/APTS/FePt nanoparticles monolayer) structure. Multilayer optical models were employed to study the contribution of the FePt nanoparticles to the measured optical properties of the monodispersive FePt nanoparticle film, and to estimate the optical properties of the FePt nanoparticle layer. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Exchange coupled CoPt/FePtC media for heat assisted magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanmay; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Ru, Tan Hui; Saifullah, M. S. M.; Bhatia, C. S.; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2018-04-01

    L10 FePtC granular media are being studied as potential future magnetic recording media and are set to be used in conjunction with heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) to enable recording at write fields within the range of current day recording heads. Media structures based on a FePtC storage layer and a capping layer can alleviate the switching field distribution (SFD) requirements of HAMR and reduce the noise originating from the writing process. However, the current designs suffer from SFD issues due to high temperature writing. To overcome this problem, we study a CoPt/FePtC exchange coupled composite structure, where FePtC serves as the storage layer and CoPt (with higher Curie temperature, Tc) as the capping layer. CoPt remains ferromagnetic at near Tc of FePtC. Consequently, the counter exchange energy from CoPt would reduce the noise resulting from the adjacent grain interactions during the writing process. CoPt/FePtC bilayer samples with different thicknesses of CoPt were investigated. Our studies found that CoPt forms a continuous layer at a thickness of 6 nm and leads to considerable reduction in the saturation field and its distribution.

  6. Formation of hard magnetic L1{sub 0}-FePt/FePd monolayers from elemental multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Nam Hoon

    2007-06-18

    In this thesis, ordered L1{sub 0}-FePt and FePd films of different nominal compositions are prepared from Fe/Pt and Fe/Pd multilayers by annealing. In case of the L1{sub 0}-FePt films the composition of the films is modified by changing the individual elemental layer thicknesses in the multilayer precursors. This simple variation of the composition is the great advantage of the multilayer approach compared to sputtering single alloy layer from an alloy target. The formation mechanism of the fct phase from the multilayers and the microstructural properties are investigated. The characteristics of the hysteresis loop (coercivity {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}, remanence J{sub r}) and of the intrinsic magnetic properties (anisotropy constant K{sub l}, spontaneous polarization J{sub s}, exchange constant A) of the ordered L1{sub 0}-FePt and FePd films are studied. The effects of the composition of the L1{sub 0}-FePt films on the microstructural and magnetic properties are investigated. The microstructure of these ordered L1{sub 0}-FePt films are then correlated to the magnetic properties with microstructural parameters by investigating the temperature dependence of the coercivity. (orig.)

  7. On the Relationship of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy and Stoichiometry in Epitaxial L1{sub 0} CoPt(001) and FePt(001) Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmak, K

    2004-08-10

    Two series of epitaxial CoPt and FePt films, with nominal thicknesses of 42 or 50 nm, were prepared by sputtering onto single crystal MgO(001) substrates in order to investigate the chemical ordering and the resultant magnetic properties as a function of alloy composition. In the first series, the film composition was kept constant, while the substrate temperature was increased from 144 to 704 C. In the second series the substrate temperature was kept constant at 704 C for CoPt and 620 C for FePt, while the alloy stoichiometry was varied in the nominalrange of 40-60 at% Co(Fe). Film compositions and thicknesses were measured via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The lattice and long-range order parameter for the L1{sub 0} phase were obtained for both sets of films using x-ray diffraction. The room-temperature magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants were determined for a subset of the films using torque magnetometry. The order parameter was found to increase with increasing temperature, with ordering occurring more readily in FePt when compared with CoPt. A perpendicular anisotropy developed in CoPt for substrate temperatures above 534 C and in FePt above 321 C. The structure and width of the magnetic domains in CoPt and FePt, as seen by magnetic force microscopy, also demonstrated an increase in magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature. For the films deposited at the highest temperatures (704 C for CoPt and 620 C for FePt), the order parameter reached a maximum near the equiatomic composition, whereas the magnetocrystalline anisotropy increased as the concentration of Co or Fe was increased from below to slightly above the equiatomic composition. It is concluded that non-stoichiometric L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt, with a slight excess of Co or Fe, are preferable for applications requiring the highest anisotropies.

  8. The anisotropy field of FePt L10 nanoparticles controlled by very thin Pt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Kitakami, Osamu; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Shimada, Yutaka; Chiang, Te-Hsuan

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared epitaxial FePt L1 0 (001) nanoparticles covered with Pt [d Pt nm]/Ag[(4-d Pt ) nm] overlayers. The particles are oblate spheroids approximately 10 nm in diameter and 2 nm in height. The anisotropy field H k at 0 K, which is evaluated from the temperature dependences of coercivity H c , decreases from 90 to 60 kOe on increasing the Pt thickness from d Pt 0 to 1.5 nm, while the energy barrier at zero field remains unchanged. The significant reduction of H k due to the presence of the adjacent Pt layer can be attributed to an enhanced magnetic moment caused by the ferromagnetic polarization of Pt atoms at the interface. This finding suggests an effective method of controlling the switching field of FePt L1 0 nanoparticles

  9. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of FePt nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.; Lo, C.C.H. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Yu, A.C.C. [Sony Corporation, Sendai Technology Center, 3-4-1 Sakuragi, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan); Fan, M. [School of Materials Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The optical properties of a FePt nanoparticle film were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The FePt nanoparticle film of thickness about 15 nm was prepared by deposition of FePt nanoparticles directly on a Si substrate. The nanoparticle film was annealed at 600 C in vacuum for two hours before the measurements. The optical properties of the FePt nanoparticle film showed distinctively different spectra from those obtained from the bulk and thin film FePt samples, in particular in the low photon energy range (below 3.5 eV) where the nanoparticle film exhibited a relatively flat refractive index and a substantially lower extinction coefficient than the bulk and epitaxial thin film samples. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. FePt magnetic particles prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    High-energy ball milling of Fe and Pt elemental powders has been carried out under dry and wet (in presence of solvent and surfactants) conditions. Dry milling leads to the formation of the disordered FCC-FePt alloy whereas by the wet milling procedure the main process is the decrease of Fe and Pt particle size, although some dissolution of Pt into Fe grains cannot be ruled out, and no hint of the formation of the FCC-FePt phase is observed even to milling times up to 20 h, as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates. The as-milled particles were annealed at 600 °C for 2 h under Ar atmosphere. It is noticed that the disordered fcc-FePt phase observed in particles milled under dry conditions transform to ordered fct phase characterized by a hard magnetic behavior with a coercive field up to 10,000 Oe. However, those particles milled in the surfactant/solvent medium exhibit a soft magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 600 Oe. These results indicate that wet high-energy ball milling is not an adequate technique for obtaining single-phase FePt particles. - Highlights: • FePt particles have been obtained by high-energy ball milling. • In the presence of surfactants and solvents, almost no alloying process takes place. • After annealing, the coercive field of the FePt alloy particles increases from 150 Oe to 10,000 Oe.

  11. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Sahore, Ritu; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Livi, Sebastien; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic

  12. Ordering process of sputtered FePt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.K.; Ohnuma, M.; Hono, K.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the in situ ordering process of sputtered FePt thin films deposited on heated substrates at 300 deg. C with different thicknesses. The films thinner than 50 nm were composed of nanograins (∼5 nm) of disordered FePt phase. Recrystallization occurred when films were grown thicker than 100 nm, and transformation twins were observed in recrystallized grains, in which ordering to the L1 0 structure was confirmed

  13. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  14. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocomposite FePt/MgO and FePt/Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.C.; Kuo, P.C.; Sun, A.C.; Chou, C.Y.; Fang, Y.H.; Wu, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    An in-plane magnetic anisotropy of FePt film is obtained in the MgO 5 nm/FePt t nm/MgO 5 nm films (where t=5, 10 and 20 nm). Both the in-plane coercivity (H c- parallel ) and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of FePt films are increased when introducing an Ag-capped layer instead of MgO-capped layer. An in-plane coercivity is 3154 Oe for the MgO 5 nm/FePt 10 nm/MgO 5 nm film, and it can be increased to 4846 Oe as a 5 nm Ag-capped layer instead of MgO-capped layer. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-energy disperse spectrum (EDS) analysis shows that the Ag mainly distributed at the grain boundary of FePt, that leads the increase of the grain boundary energy, which will enhance coercivity and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of FePt film

  16. Fabrication and surface transformation of FePt nanoparticle monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Ding Baojun; Li Hua; Zhang Xiaoyan; Cai Bingchu; Zhang Yafei

    2007-01-01

    The monolayer of FePt nanoparticles with the mean size of ∼4 nm was fabricated on a glass substrate by the Langmuir--Blodgett (LB) technology. The monolayer of FePt nanoparticles has a smooth surface and a high density structure as shown by the AFM image. The array structure of FePt nanoparticles on the surface of the film is clearly with a cubic symmetry in appropriate condition. Small-angle X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurement of multilayer structure for the FePt nanoparticles has indicated that the superlattices consist of well-defined smooth layers. The transfer of nanoparticle layers onto a solid substrate surface was quite efficient for the first few layers, exhibiting a proportional increase of optical absorption in the UV-vis range. This results potentially opens up a new approach to the long-range ordered array of FePt nanoparticles capped by organic molecules on substrate and provide a promising thin film, which may exhibit the excellent ultra-high density magnetic recording properties

  17. Catalyzed hydrogenation of nitrogen and ethylene on metal (Fe, Pt) single crystal surfaces and effects of coadsorption: A sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Staffan Per Gustav [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure catalytic reactions and associated processes, such as adsorption have been studied on a molecular level on single crystal surfaces. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy together with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were used to investigate the nature of species on catalytic surfaces and to measure the catalytic reaction rates. Special attention has been directed at studying high-pressure reactions and in particular, ammonia synthesis in order to identify reaction intermediates and the influence of adsorbates on the surface during reaction conditions. The adsorption of gases N2, H2, O2 and NH3 that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH2 (~3325 cm-1) and NH (~3235 cm-1) under high pressure of ammonia (200 Torr) on the clean Fe(111) surface. Addition of 0.5 Torr of oxygen to 200 Torr of ammonia does not significantly change the bonding of dissociation intermediates to the surface. However, it leads to a phase change of nearly 180° between the resonant and non-resonant second order non-linear susceptibility of the surface, demonstrated by the reversal of the SFG spectral features. Heating the surface in the presence of 200 Torr ammonia and 0.5 Torr oxygen reduces the oxygen coverage, which can be seen from the SFG spectra as another relative phase change of 180°. The reduction of the oxide is also supported by Auger electron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the phase change of the spectral features could serve as a sensitive indicator of the chemical environment of the adsorbates.

  18. Very high coercivities of top-layer diffusion Au/FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, F.T.; Chen, S.K.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Hsiao, S.N.; Chang, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Au/FePt samples were prepared by depositing a gold cap layer at room temperature onto a fully ordered FePt layer, followed by an annealing at 800 deg. C for the purpose of interlayer diffusion. After the deposition of the gold layer and the high-temperature annealing, the gold atoms do not dissolve into the FePt Ll 0 lattice. Compared with the continuous FePt film, the TEM photos of the bilayer Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) show a granular structure with FePt particles embedded in Au matrix. The coercivity of Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) sample is 23.5 kOe, which is 85% larger than that of the FePt film without Au top layer. The enhancement in coercivity can be attributed to the formation of isolated structure of FePt ordered phase

  19. High-coercivity FePt sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, N.H.; Hiep, V.V.; Hong, D.M.; Chau, N.; Linh, N.D.; Kurisu, M.; Anh, D.T.K.; Nakamoto, G.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 56 Pt 44 thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. The substrate temperature was kept at 350 deg C. The X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited FePt films exhibited a disordered structure. Annealing of the films at 650-685 deg C for 1 h yielded an ordered L1 0 phase with FCT structure. The high value for coercivity H C of 17 kOe was obtained at room temperature for the 68 nm thick film annealed at 685 deg C. The hard magnetic properties as well as grain structure of the films strongly depend on the annealing conditions

  20. Multiple oxide content media for columnar grain growth in L10 FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hoan; Yang, En; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2013-01-01

    An approach to enhance the height-to-diameter ratio of FePt grains in heat-assisted magnetic recording media is proposed. The FePt-SiO x thin films are deposited with a decrease of the SiO x percentage along the film growth direction. When bi-layer and tri-layer media are sputtered at 410 °C, we observe discontinuities in the FePt grains at interfaces between layers, which lead to poor epitaxial growth. Due to increased atomic diffusion, the bi-layer media sputtered at 450 °C is shown to (1) grow into continuous columnar grains with similar size as single-layer media but much higher aspect ratio, (2) have better L1 0 ordering and larger coercivity.

  1. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF CINNAMALDEHYDE WITH Pt AND Pt-Fe CATALYSTS: EFFECTS OF THE SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature reduced TiO2-supported Pt and Pt-Fe catalysts are much more active and selective for the liquid–phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to unsaturated cinnamyl alcohol than the corresponding carbon-supported catalysts. High-temperature reduced catalysts, where the SMSI effect should be present, are almost inactive for this reaction. There is at present no definitive explanation for this effect but an electronic metal-support interaction is most probably involved.

  2. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of FePt: a detailed view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, S.A.; Blaha, P.; Ebert, H.; Minár, J.; Šipr, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 14 (2016), 1-10, č. článku 144436. ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocrystalline anisotropy * FePt * LDA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  3. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis

    2013-10-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Magnetic and structural characterizations on nanoparticles of FePt, FeRh and their composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hnin Yu Yu; Suzuki, Takao; Nam, Nguyen T.; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Cao Jiangwei; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    The various compositions of FePt and FeRh nanoparticles, and their composite particles have been fabricated by the solution-phase chemical method and their magnetic properties characterized. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic observations indicate that mono-dispersed FeRh and FePt/FeRh nanoparticles are fabricated with the average size of 3-5 nm. However, larger size particles are distributed in the annealed state. From X-ray diffraction results, the as-deposited FeRh nanoparticles reveal a chemically disordered fcc structure which can be transformed into CsCl-type structure through thermal annealing. Similarly, the annealed FePt nanoparticles show the L1 0 -phase fct structure although the fcc structure is apparent in the as-deposited state. It is also found that the first time in the exchange bias effect in the composite of ferromagnetic (FePt) and anti-ferromagnetic (FeRh) nanoparticles; result in a shift of the hysteresis loop after field cooling process

  5. Reversible structural modulation of Fe-Pt bimetallic surfaces and its effect on reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Fu, Qiang; Su, Hai-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yang; Cui, Yi; Wang, Zhen; Mu, Ren-Tao; Li, Wei-Xue; Bao, Xin-He

    2009-05-11

    Tunable surface: The surface structure of the Fe-Pt bimetallic catalyst can be reversibly modulated between the iron-oxide-rich Pt surface and the Pt-skin structure with subsurface Fe via alternating reduction and oxidation treatments (see figure). The regenerated active Pt-skin structure is active in reactions involving CO and/or O.

  6. Study the Polyol Process of Preparing the ru Doped FePt Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Jen-Ho; Su, Hui-Chia; Huang, Tzu Wen

    The structure of Ru doped FePt nanoparticles using polyol process was studied. The particle size grown is around 5 nm, and a shell structure might be formed. By selecting the time and temperature of adding the Ru precursors into solution, three different processes to synthesize the FePtRu particles were studied resulting in different growing mechanics. The possible models during the reaction process are also discussed. The phase transition temperature for the as-grown FCC FePt nanoparticle to transform into L10 FePt nanoparticle is about 823 K which is about the same as the one without doping Ru atoms. From the XAS study of each element, the possible scenario is that: although Ru atoms with the size close to the Pt, they do not totally replace the Pt sites in the FePt alloy. Instead, most of Ru formed a shell outside the FePt nanoparticles and Fe atoms are replaced.

  7. L1{sub 0}-FePt films fabricated by wet-chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Wen; Bao, Nina; Li, Weimin; Chichvarina, Olga, E-mail: A0077107@nus.edu.sg; Ding, Jun, E-mail: msedingj@nus.edu.sg

    2015-08-31

    In this work, we have developed a method to fabricate FePt films by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. Pt-doped Fe films were deposited on Pt(100 nm)/Ti(50 nm)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using thermal deposition and the as-deposited films were subsequently annealed from 300 °C to 800 °C under 5% H{sub 2}/95% N{sub 2}. FePt films were achieved through diffusion and rearrangement of Fe and Pt atoms in post-annealing process. From X-ray diffraction results, the face-centered cubic (fcc) FePt phase appeared at 300 °C and the transformation from fcc to L1{sub 0} phase started at 400 °C. The L1{sub 0}-FePt film possessed an out-of-plane anisotropy and a coercivity of 729 kA/m after annealing at 600 °C. A further increase in annealing temperature led to lower value of coercivity, probably because of grain growth. In addition, the thickness of Pt-doped Fe films could be controlled from 150 nm to 700 nm by adjusting the amount of surfactant used. Our superconducting quantum interference device analysis showed that Pt dopant could significantly improve the chemical stability of Fe films in air. - Highlights: • We fabricated FePt film by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. • L1{sub 0} FePt film was formed by Fe/Pt diffusion in annealing of Pt-doped Fe film. • L1{sub 0}-phase FePt with high coercivity and small out-of-plane anisotropy • Relatively small amount of Pt dopant can enhance chemical stability greatly. • We studied structure and magnetic property of as-deposited and annealed FePt film.

  8. Chemical synthesis, phase transformation and magnetic proprieties of FePt and FePd nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at understanding the chemical synthesis of FePt and FePd nanoparticles (NPs), and at exploring how to implement the phase transformation from the chemically disordered to the L10 phase, without coalescence. Using hexadecanenitrile instead of oleylamine, we obtain NPs with a more homogenous internal composition, instead of core-shell NPs. Through a systematic study (designed experiment relying on Taguchi tables), we developed the FePd synthesis, while evidencing the role of each ligand and of the reductor. To induce the crystalline phase transformation while avoiding coalescence, we explored two ways. In the first one, atomic vacancies are introduced in the NPs through light ion irradiation, atomic mobility being ensured by annealing at moderate temperature (300 C). As a result, the blocking temperature is multiplied by 4, due to anisotropy enhancement. However, strong chemical ordering in the L10 phase cannot be achieved. The second approach relies on the dispersion of the NPs in a salt (NaCl) matrix, prior to annealing at 700 C: high chemical ordering is achieved, and the blocking temperature is beyond 400 C. We then developed a single-step process to remove the salt by dissolution in water and to re-disperse NPs in stable aqueous or organics solutions. These high magnetic anisotropy NPs are then readily available for further chemical or manipulation steps, with applied perspectives in areas such as data storage, or biology. (author)

  9. Thermal stability, thermal expansion and grain-growth in exchange-coupled Fe-Pt-Ag-B bulk nanocomposite magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicula, R.; Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I.; Stir, M.; Vasiliu, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of the L10 FePt hard-magnetic phase (>90%) directly in the as-cast state. • Specific alternating hard/soft nanostructure is stable to 600 °C without grain growth. • Anisotropic and non-linear thermal expansion effects. • The FePtAgB alloy behaves like a single magnetic phase (full exchange coupling). - Abstract: Rare-earth free (RE-free) exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets are intensively studied nowadays due to their potential use in applications demanding stable high-temperature operation and corrosion resistance. In this respect, the FePt alloy system is one of the most actively addressed potential permanent magnet solutions. In FePt alloys, promising magnetic features arise from the co-existence of hard magnetic L1 0 FePt and soft magnetic L1 2 Fe 3 Pt phases emerged from the same metastable precursor. The present work deals with an in-situ temperature-resolved synchrotron radiation study of the thermal stability, thermal expansion and microstructure evolution in exchange-coupled FePtAgB alloys. The as-cast microstructural state as well as the optimized magnetic behavior are given as reference and correlated to the observed microstructural evolution with temperature. The melt-spun Fe 48 Pt 28 Ag 6 B 18 alloy ribbons were examined in situ by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction from ambient temperature up to 600 °C. The FePt-Fe 3 Pt exchange-coupled microstructure achieved by rapid solidification is not significantly altered during the high temperature exposure. The thermal expansion of the FePt L1 0 unit cell has been found to be strongly anisotropic, being essentially an in-plane expansion which may be seen as an anisotropic invar effect. For the FePt L1 0 phase, a significant deviation from linear thermal expansion is observed at the Curie temperature T C = 477 °C. This non-linear behavior above T C is tentatively linked to a diffusion/segregation mechanism of Ag. The promising hard magnetic properties as well as the

  10. Role of Pt(0) in bimetallic (Pt,Fe)-FER catalysts in the N2O decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabor, Edyta; Jíša, Kamil; Nováková, Jana; Bastl, Zdeněk; Vondrová, Alena; Závěta, K.; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 165, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 40-47 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1627 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : bimetallic Pt,Fe- FER * Pt- FER * Pt(0) clusters Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.209, year: 2013

  11. Magnetic viscosity study in FePt/C granular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Butler, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G.C.; Weller, D.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic viscosity of FePt/C granular thin films was studied in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K in order to examine the thermal stability of the nanoparticles. The magnetic viscosity coefficient (S max ) was found to decrease with temperature because of decreased thermal activation. At low temperatures, S max showed an almost linear dependence on temperature. However, S max does not extrapolate to zero but seems to have a finite value at cryogenic temperatures

  12. Design and Micromagnetic Simulation of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe Trilayer for Exchange Coupled Composite Bit Patterned Media at Ultrahigh Areal Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Tipcharoen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exchange coupled composite bit patterned media (ECC-BPM are one candidate to solve the trilemma issues, overcome superparamagnetic limitations, and obtain ultrahigh areal density. In this work, the ECC continuous media and ECC-BPM of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe trilayer schemes are proposed and investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The switching field, Hsw, of the hard phase in the proposed continuous ECC trilayer media structure is reduced below the maximum write head field at interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft phases, Aex, higher than 20 pJ/m and its value is lower than that for continuous L10-FePt single layer media and L10-FePt/Fe bilayer. Furthermore, the Hsw of the proposed ECC-BPM is lower than the maximum write head field with exchange coupling coefficient between neighboring dots of 5 pJ/m and Aex over 10 pJ/m. Therefore, the proposed ECC-BPM trilayer has the highest potential and is suitable for ultrahigh areal density magnetic recording technology at ultrahigh areal density. The results of this work may be gainful idea for nanopatterning in magnetic media nanotechnology.

  13. Shape-dependent surface magnetism of Co-Pt and Fe-Pt nanoparticles from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guofeng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we have performed the first-principles density functional theory calculations to predict the magnetic properties of the CoPt and FePt nanoparticles in cuboctahedral, decahedral, and icosahedral shapes. The modeled alloy nanoparticles have a diameter of 1.1 nm and consist of 31 5 d Pt atoms and 24 3 d Co (or Fe) atoms. For both CoPt and FePt, we found that the decahedral nanoparticles had appreciably lower surface magnetic moments than the cuboctahedral and icosahedral nanoparticles. Our analysis indicated that this reduction in the surface magnetism was related to a large contraction of atomic spacing and high local Co (or Fe) concentration in the surface of the decahedral nanoparticles. More interestingly, we predicted that the CoPt and FePt cuboctahedral nanoparticles exhibited dramatically different surface spin structures when noncollinear magnetism was taken into account. Our calculation results revealed that surface anisotropy energy decided the fashion of surface spin canting in the CoPt and FePt nanoparticles, confirming previous predictions from atomistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Preparation of c-axis perpendicularly oriented ultra-thin L10-FePt films on MgO and VN underlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamoto, Masaaki; Shimizu, Tomoki; Ohtake, Mitsuru

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin L10-FePt films of 2 nm average thickness are prepared on (001) oriented MgO and VN underlayers epitaxially grown on base substrate of SrTiO3(001) single crystal. Detailed cross-sectional structures are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Continuous L10-FePt(001) thin films with very flat surface are prepared on VN(001) underlayer whereas the films prepared on MgO(001) underlayer consist of isolated L10-FePt(001) crystal islands. Presence of misfit dislocation and lattice bending in L10-FePt material is reducing the effective lattice mismatch with respect to the underlayer to be less than 0.5 %. Formation of very flat and continuous FePt layer on VN underlayer is due to the large surface energy of VN material where de-wetting of FePt material at high temperature annealing process is suppressed under a force balance between the surface and interface energies of FePt and VN materials. An employment of underlayer or substrate material with the lattice constant and the surface energy larger than those of L10-FePt is important for the preparation of very thin FePt epitaxial thin continuous film with the c-axis controlled to be perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  15. Tunable magnetic properties by interfacial manipulation of L1(0)-FePt perpendicular ultrathin film with island-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Wang, S G; Yang, M Y; Zhang, E; Zhan, Q; Jiang, Y; Li, B H; Yu, G H

    2012-02-01

    Based on interfacial manipulation of the MgO single crystal substrate and non-magnetic AIN compound, a L1(0)-FePt perpendicular ultrathin film with the structure of MgO/FePt-AIN/Ta was designed, prepared, and investigated. The film is comprised of L1(0)-FePt "magnetic islands," which exhibits a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), tunable coercivity (Hc), and interparticle exchange coupling (IEC). The MgO substrate promotes PMA of the film because of interfacial control of the FePt lattice orientation. The AIN compound is doped to increase the difference of surface energy between FePt layer and MgO substrate and to suppress the growth of FePt grains, which takes control of island growth mode of FePt atoms. The AIN compound also acts as isolator of L1(0)-FePt islands to pin the sites of FePt domains, resulting in the tunability of Hc and IEC of the films.

  16. Kerr microscopy study of exchange-coupled FePt/Fe exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zaineb; Kumar, Dileep [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Reddy, V. Raghavendra, E-mail: varimalla@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Noida 201303 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Magnetization reversal and magnetic microstructure of top soft magnetic layer (Fe) in exchange spring coupled L1{sub 0} FePt/Fe is studied using high resolution Kerr microscopy. With remnant state of the hard magnetic layer (L1{sub 0} FePt) as initial condition, magnetization loops along with magnetic domains are recorded for the top soft magnetic layer (Fe) using Kerr microscopy. Considerable shifting of Fe layer hysteresis loop from center which is similar to exchange bias phenomena is observed. It is also observed that one can tune the magnitude of hysteresis shift by reaching the remanent state from different saturating fields (H{sub SAT}) and also by varying the angle between measuring field and H{sub SAT}. The hysteresis loops and magnetic domains of top soft Fe layer demonstrate unambiguously that soft magnetic layer at remanent state in such exchange coupled system is having unidirectional anisotropy. An analogy is drawn and the observations are explained in terms of established model of exchange bias phenomena framed for field-cooled ferromagnetic - antiferromagnetic bilayer systems. - Highlights: • Kerr microscopy of top soft magnetic Fe layer in exchange spring coupled L1{sub 0} FePt (30 nm)/Fe (22 nm) is reported. • Considerable shifting of Fe layer hysteresis loop from center which is similar to exchange bias phenomena is observed. • Tuneable nature of magnitude of hysteresis shift is shown. • It is unambiguously shown that the top soft Fe magnetic layer at remanent state is having unidirectional anisotropy.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles from the gas phase; Strukturelle und magnetische Eigenschaften von FePt-Nanopartikeln aus der Gasphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrieva, O.

    2007-09-21

    In this work, we present the structural and magnetic characterization of FePt nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with mean size of about 6 nm were prepared by sputtering in the gas and subsequent inert gas condensation. The particles are annealed in the furnace during their flight prior to deposition on a substrate. The aim of this work is to prepare magnetically hard FePt nanoparticles in the L1{sub 0}-ordered phase. The structure of the particles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the investigations were supported by contrast simulations. The morphology of the particles varies with the sputter-gas pressure and with the annealing temperature. At a pressure of 0.5 mbar, the FePt-nanoparticles are multiply-twinned with an icosahedral structure and exhibit no formation of the L1{sub 0}-ordered phase. At a higher pressure of 1 mbar and an annealing temperature of 1000 C, the particles are partially single-crystalline. About 36 % of the particles are found to be in the L1{sub 0}-ordered state as was estimated by statistical counting supported by simulations. In order to activate the volume diffusion in the particles and to stabilize the formation of the L1{sub 0}-ordered state, the addition of nitrogen was used during the sputtering phase. In this phase, atomic nitrogen is incorporated interstitially into the structure of the primary particles. After annealing nitrogen effuses out of the particles and, thereby, increases the volume diffusion of the Fe and Pt atoms. The incorporation of nitrogen atoms during nucleation and their effusion at an annealing temperature of 1000 C was verified by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Structural investigations on particles prepared in the presence of nitrogen shows that most of the particles are single-crystalline and about 70 % of them are L1{sub 0}-ordered. Detailed structural analysis of the nanoparticles was done by the exit wave

  18. Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Ho Hoan; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    An experimental approach for obtaining perpendicular FePt-SiOx thin films with a large height to diameter ratio FePt(L1 0 ) columnar grains is presented in this work. The microstructure for FePt-SiOx composite thin films as a function of oxide volume fraction, substrate temperature, and film thickness is studied by plan view and cross section TEM. The relations between processing, microstructure, epitaxial texture, and magnetic properties are discussed. By tuning the thickness of the magnetic layer and the volume fraction of oxide in the film at a sputtering temperature of 410 deg. C, a 16 nm thick perpendicular FePt film with ∼8 nm diameter of FePt grains was obtained. The height to diameter ratio of the FePt grains was as large as 2. Ordering at lower temperature can be achieved by introducing a Ag sacrificial layer.

  19. High Field Linear Magnetoresistance Sensors with Perpendicular Anisotropy L10-FePt Reference Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High field linear magnetoresistance is an important feature for magnetic sensors applied in magnetic levitating train and high field positioning measurements. Here, we investigate linear magnetoresistance in Pt/FePt/ZnO/Fe/Pt multilayer magnetic sensor, where FePt and Fe ferromagnetic layers exhibit out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic anisotropy, respectively. Perpendicular anisotropy L10-FePt reference layer with large coercivity and high squareness ratio was obtained by in situ substrate heating. Linear magnetoresistance is observed in this sensor in a large range between +5 kOe and −5 kOe with the current parallel to the film plane. This L10-FePt based sensor is significant for the expansion of linear range and the simplification of preparation for future high field magnetic sensors.

  20. Electronic structure of ordered and disordered Fe sub 3 Pt

    CERN Document Server

    Major, Z; Jarlborg, T; Bruno, E; Ginatempo, B; Staunton, J B; Poulter, J

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of invar alloys (i.e. materials in which the near absence of thermal expansion is observed) has been the focus of much study, owing both to the technological applications of these materials and interest in the fundamental mechanism that is responsible for the effect. Here, calculations of the magnetic Compton profiles are presented for ordered and disordered Fe sub 3 Pt alloys. Using linear muffin-tin orbital and KKR methods, the latter incorporating the coherent potential approximation to describe the substitutional disorder, the electronic band structure and measurable quantities such as the Fermi surface topology are presented.

  1. Sintering prevention and phase transformation of FePt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Majetich, S.A.; Kim, J.; Barmak, K.; Rollins, H.; Sides, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two approaches attempted to overcome FePt nanoparticle sintering during the transformation to the high coercivity L1 0 phase, which currently limits the use of these nanoparticles in data storage media. High-pressure treatment of dilute nanoparticle solutions failed to prevent sintering due to surfactant decomposition above 360 deg. C. By pre-annealing nanoparticle monolayers to decompose the surfactant, and then coating with an immiscible SiO 2 matrix, sintering was prevented with annealing temperatures up to 700 deg. C

  2. Observation of high coercive fields in chemically synthesized coated Fe-Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N., E-mail: rnp@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys have been synthesized via chemical reduction route using various capping agents; such as: oleic acid/oleylamine (route-1) and oleic acid/CTAB (route-2). We could able to synthesize Fe50Pt and Fe54Pt alloys via route 1 and 2, respectively. As-prepared Fe-Pt alloys crystallize in disordered fcc phase with crystallite sizes of 2.3 nm and 6 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Disordered Fe-Pt alloys were transformed to ordered fct phase after annealing at 600 °C. SEM studies confirm the spherical shape morphologies of annealed Fe-Pt nanoparticles with SEM particle sizes of 24.4 nm and 21.2 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. TEM study confirms the presence of 4.6 nm particles for annealed Fe50Pt alloys with several agglomerating clusters of bigger size and appropriately agrees well with the XRD study. Room temperature magnetization studies of as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys (fcc) show ferromagnetism with negligible coercivities. Average magnetic moments per particle for as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys were estimated to be 753 μ{sub B} and 814 μ{sub B}, for route 1 and 2, respectively. Ordered fct Fe-Pt alloys show high values of coercivities of 10,000 Oe and 10,792 Oe for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Observed magnetic properties of the fct Fe-Pt alloys nps were interpreted with the basis of order parameters, size, surface, and composition effects. - Highlights: • Synthesis of capped nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys via chemical routes. • Ordered fct phase were obtained at 600 °C. • Microstructural studies were carried out using SEM and TEM. • Investigation on evolution of magnetic properties from fcc to fct state. • Maximum values of coercivities up to 10,792 Oe were observed.

  3. Size effect on L10 ordering and magnetic properties of chemically synthesized FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiyong; Kang, Shishou; Shi, Shifan; Nikles, David E.; Harrell, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    There is growing evidence that FePt nanoparticles become increasingly difficult to chemically order as the size approaches a few nanometers. We have studied the chemical ordering of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticle arrays as a function of particle size. Monodisperse Fe49Pt51 and Fe48Pt44Au8 nanoparticles with a size about 6nm were synthesized by the simultaneous decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl and reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and gold (III) acetate in a mixture of phenyl ether and hexadecylamine (HDA), with 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid and HDA as stabilizers. The nanoparticles were dispersed in toluene, films of the particles were cast onto silicon wafers from the dispersion, and the films were annealed in a tube furnace with flowing Ar +5%H2. The magnetic anisotropy and switching volumes were determined from time- and temperature-dependent coercivity measurements. By comparing with 3-nm FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles of comparable composition, the phase transformation is easier for the larger particles. Under the same annealing conditions, the larger particles have higher anisotropy and order parameter. Additive Au is very effective in enhancing the chemical ordering in both small and large particles, with x-ray diffraction superlattice peaks appearing after annealing at 350°C. Dynamic remnant coercivity measurements and magnetic switching volumes suggest particle aggregation at the higher annealing temperatures in both small and large particles.

  4. Magnetic characteristics and nanostructures of FePt granular films with GeO2 segregant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takuya; Moriya, Tomohiro; Hatayama, Masatoshi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2017-01-01

    To realize a granular film composed of L10-FePt grains with high uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy, Ku, and segregants for energy-assisted magnetic recording, a FePt-GeO2/FePt-C stacked film was investigated in the engineering process. The FePt-GeO2/FePt-C stacked film fabricated at a substrate temperature of 450 °C realized uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, Kugrain , of about 2.5 × 107 erg/cm3, which is normalized by the volume fraction of FePt grains, and a granular structure with an averaged grain size of 7.7 nm. As the thickness of the FePt-GeO2 upper layer was increased to 9 nm, the Ku values were almost constant. That result differs absolutely from the thickness dependences of the other oxide segregant materials such as SiO2 and TiO2. Such differences on the oxide segregant are attributed to their chemical bond. The strong covalent bond of GeO2 is expected to result in high Ku of the FePt-GeO2/FePt-C stacked films.

  5. High magnetic coercivity of FePt-Ag/MgO granular nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani, R.; Sebt, S. A.; Khajehnezhad, A.

    2018-06-01

    L10-FePt ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a hight coercivity of Tesla order. Thus, these nanoparticles, with size of 10 to 15 nm and uniform surface distribution, are suitable in magnetic data storage technology with density of more than 1GB. In order to improve structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles, some elements and combinations have been added to compound. In this research, we show that due to the presence of the Ag, the phase transition temperature of FePt from fcc to L10-fct phase decreases. The presence of Ag as an additive in FePt-Ag nanocomposite, increases the magnetic coercivity. This nanocomposite, with 10% Ag, was deposited by magnetron sputtering on the MgO heat layer. VSM results of 10 nm nanoparticles show that coercivity has increased up to 1.4 T. XRD and FESEM results confirm that the size of the L10-FePt nanoparticles are 10 nm and their surface distribution are uniform. Ag gradually form nano scale clusters with separate lattice and FePt-Ag nanocomposite appears. The result of this process is emptiness of Ag position in FePt-fcc lattice. So, the mobility of Fe and Pt atoms in this lattice increases and it can be possible for them to move in lower temperature. This mechanism explain the effect of Ag on decreasing the transition temperature to fct-L10 phase, and hight coercivity of FePt nanoparticles.

  6. Spin dynamics and thermal stability in L10 FePt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Toomey, Wahida

    Increasing the data storage density of hard drives remains one of the continuing goals in magnetic recording technology. A critical challenge for increasing data density is the thermal stability of the written information, which drops rapidly as the bit size gets smaller. To maintain good thermal stability in small bits, one should consider materials with high anisotropy energy such as L10 FePt. High anisotropy energy nevertheless implies high coercivity, making it difficult to write information onto the disk. This issue can be overcome by a new technique called heat-assisted magnetic recording, where a laser is used to locally heat the recording medium to reduce its coercivity while retaining relatively good thermal stability. Many of the microscopic magnetic properties of L10 FePt, however, have not been theoretically well understood. In this poster, I will focus on a single L10 FePt grain, typically of a few nanometers. Specifically, I will discuss its critical temperature, size effect and, in particular, spin dynamics in the writing process, a key to the success of heat-assisted magnetic recording. WCU URF16.

  7. Preparation of Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media with high electric resistivity backlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masaru; Suzuki, Toshio; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    High electric resistivity materials, oxide-added Fe-Si, were investigated as a soft-magnetic backlayer for Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media. It was found that there is a possibility of using (Fe-Si)-MgO as a backlayer. To promote a hetero-epitaxial growth of ordered Fe-Pt FCT(0 0 1), the backlayer needed a BCC(2 0 0) crystal orientation, in a situation where surface topology also played an important role

  8. Bottom-up meets top-down: tailored raspberry-like Fe3O4-Pt nanocrystal superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fen; Vervuurt, René H J; Verheijen, Marcel A; Zaia, Edmond W; Creel, Erin B; Kim, Youngsang; Urban, Jeffrey J; Bol, Ageeth A

    2018-03-29

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition, chemical structure, and interface of the nanoparticle catalyst and oxide support. Here we firstly combine a bottom up colloidal synthesis method with a top down atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to achieve a raspberry-like Pt-decorated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4-Pt) nanoparticle superlattices. This nanocomposite ensures the precision of the catalyst/support interface, improving the catalytic efficiency of the Fe3O4-Pt nanocomposite system. The morphology of the hybrid nanocomposites resulting from different cycles of ALD was monitored by scanning transmission electron microscopy, giving insight into the nucleation and growth mechanism of the ALD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the anticipated electron transfer from Fe3O4 to Pt through the nanocomposite interface. Photocurrent measurement further suggests that Fe3O4 superlattices with controlled decoration of Pt have substantial promise for energy-efficient photoelectrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. This work opens a new avenue for designing supported catalyst architectures via precisely controlled decoration of single component superlattices with noble metals.

  9. Study of microstructure and magnetic properties of L10 FePt/SiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannopoulos G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Achieving magnetic recording densities in excess of 1Tbit/in2 requires not only perpendicular media with anisotropies larger than 7 MJ/m3, making FePt alloys an ideal choice, but also a narrow distribution below 10 nm for a reduced S/N ratio. Such grain size reduction and shape control are crucial parameters for high density magnetic recording, along with high thermal stability. Previous work has shown that the L10 FePt grain size can be controlled by alloying FePt with materials such as C, Ag, and insulators such as AlOx, MgO. Au and Al2O3 also act to segregate and magnetically decouple the FePt grains. Better results were obtained with C with respect to the uniformity of grains and SiO2 with respect to the shape. We present our results on co-sputtering FePt with C or SiO2 (up to 30 vol % on MgO (001 single crystal substrates at 350 and 500 oC. With C or SiO2 addition we achieved grain size reduction, shape control and isolated structure formation, producing continuous films with high uniformity and a narrow grain size distribution. These additions thus allow us to simultaneously control the coercivity and the S/N ratio. We also will report structural and microstructural properties.

  10. Facile synthesis of flower like FePt@ZnO core–shell structure and its bifunctional properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeed, Jerina [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, O.D., E-mail: ddjaya@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mandal, B.P. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Salunke, H.G. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Naik, R. [Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tyagi, A.K., E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Flower shaped FePt and ZnO coated FePt with core–shell nanostructures are synthesized by a facile solvothermal procedure. Shell thickness of ZnO over FePt core was tuned by varying FePt concentration with respect to ZnO. Hybrid structure with lower FePt concentration exhibited bifunctionality such as near room temperature ferromagnetism and photoluminescence. Pristine FePt crystallize in the fct (L1{sub 0}) phase whereas it converts into fcc phase in presence of ZnO. - Highlights: • FePt@ZnO hybrid core–shell particles, with unique flower shape morphology have been prepared by solvothermal method. • Phase transition of fct-FePt to fcc-FePt has been found in presence of ZnO nanoparticles. • Plausible mechanism for growth of flowershaped nanoparticle is in accordance with energy minimization principle. • The core shell structure (FePt@ZnO) exhibits bi-functional properties. - Abstract: Flower shaped FePt and ZnO coated FePt (FePt@ZnO) core–shell nanostructures are synthesized by a facile solvothermal procedure. Two different compositions (molar ratio) of FePt and ZnO (FePt:ZnO = 1:3 and FePt:ZnO = 1:6) core–shells with different thicknesses of ZnO shells were synthesized. Hybrid FePt@ZnO core–shell flower structure with lower FePt concentration (FePt:ZnO = 1:6) exhibited bifunctionality including near room temperature ferromagnetism and photoluminescence at ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction patterns of pristine FePt showed partially ordered face centred tetragonal (fct) L1{sub 0} phase whereas ZnO coated FePt (FePt@ZnO) nanostructures showed hexagonal ZnO and disordered phase of FePt with fcc structure. The phase transition of fct FePt to fcc phase occurring in presence of ZnO is further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and magnetic measurement studies. The formation of the nanoflowers was possibly due to growth along the [0 1 1] or [0 0 1] direction, keeping the core nearly spherical in accordance with the

  11. Investigation of a Pt-Fe/C catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Luna, A. M.; Bonesi, A.; Triaca, W. E.; Blasi, A. Di; Stassi, A.; Baglio, V.; Antonucci, V.; Arico, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Three cathode catalysts (60% Pt/C, 30% Pt/C and 60% Pt-Fe/C), with a particle size of about 2-3 nm, were prepared to investigate the effect of ethanol cross-over on cathode surfaces. All samples were studied in terms of structure and morphology by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. Their electrocatalytic behavior in terms of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated and compared using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). The tolerance of cathode catalysts in the presence of ethanol was evaluated. The Pt-Fe/C catalyst showed both higher ORR activity and tolerance to ethanol cross-over than Pt/C catalysts. Moreover, the more promising catalysts were tested in 5 cm 2 DEFC single cells at 60 and 80 o C. An improvement in single cell performance was observed in the presence of the Pt-Fe catalyst, due to an enhancement in the oxygen reduction kinetics. The maximum power density was 53 mW cm -2 at 2 bar rel. cathode pressure and 80 o C.

  12. Molecular dynamic simulation study of plasma etching L10 FePt media in embedded mask patterning (EMP) process

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxin Zhu; P. Quarterman; Jian-Ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Plasma etching process of single-crystal L10-FePt media [H. Wang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5) (2013)] is studied using molecular dynamic simulation. Embedded-Atom Method [M. S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phy. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984); X. W. Zhou, R. A. Johnson and H. N. G. Wadley, Phy. Rev. B 69, 144113 (2004)] is used to calculate the interatomic potential within atoms in FePt alloy, and ZBL potential [J.F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack and U. Littmark, “The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter,” Vol...

  13. Effect of Ni doping on the structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.-W.; Chung, C.-M.; Ding, Jack Y.

    2007-01-01

    A serial of FePtNi nanoparticles were investigated on their crystal structure and magnetic properties. The FePtNi nanoparticles were synthesized simultaneously by the reduction of iron (III) acetylacetonate, platinum (II) acetylacetonate and nickel (II) acetylacetonate with 1,2-hexadecanediol as the reducing agent. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the addition of 8, 12, 17 at% Ni in FePt nanoparticles suppressed the transformation of the particles from disorder face-centered cubic to order face-centered tetragonal L1 0 -phase under annealing treatment. However, further increasing Ni contents to 21 at%, the nanoparticle transformed to L1 2 phase. Doping of Ni into the FePt compound system may decrease coercivity and crystal anisotropy energy. A maximum coercivity of 7 KOe at room temperature was obtained for (Fe 52 Pt 48 ) 92 Ni 8 nanoparticles after annealing at 600 deg. C for 30 min

  14. Magnetic properties and microstructure of low ordering temperature L10 FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, A.C.; Kuo, P.C.; Chen, S.C.; Chou, C.Y.; Huang, H.L.; Hsu, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline Fe 52 Pt 48 alloy thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on preheated natural-oxidized silicon wafer substrates. The film thickness was varied from 10 to 100 nm. The as-deposited film was encapsulated in a quartz tube and postannealed in vacuum at various temperatures for 1 h, then furnace cooled. It is found that the ordering temperature from as-deposited soft magnetic fcc FePt phase to hard magnetic fct L1 0 FePt phase could be reduced to about 350 deg. C by preheating substrate and furnace cooling treatment. The magnetic properties measurements indicated that the in-plane coercivity of the films was increased rapidly as annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 400 deg. C, but it decreased when the annealing temperature is higher than 400 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis shown that the as-deposited FePt thin film was a disorder fcc FePt phase. The magnetic measurement indicated that the transformation of disorder fcc FePt to fct L1 0 FePt phase was started at about 350 deg. C, which is consistent with the analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns. From scanning electron microscopy observation and selected area energy disperse spectrum analysis, the distributions of Fe and Pt elements in the films became nonuniform when the annealing temperature was higher than 500 deg. C due to the formation of the Fe 3 Pt phase. After annealing at 400 deg. C, the in plane coercivity of Fe 52 Pt 48 thin film with film thickness of 100 nm is 10 kOe, M s is 580 emu/cm3, and grain size is about 12 nm

  15. The nature of the Pt(111)/α -Fe2O3(0001) interfaces revealed by DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Agnes; Deleuze, Pierre-Marie; Dupont, Céline

    2018-05-01

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to give a thorough description of structural, energetic, and electronic properties of Pt(111)/α-Fe2O3(0001) systems by spin-polarized calculations, accounting for the on-site Coulomb interaction. Toward the better understanding of Pt(111)/α-Fe2O3(0001) interfaces, two terminations of α-Fe2O3(0001) surface, namely, the single Fe- and the O3-termination, are considered and coupled with the four possible (top, hcp, fcc, and bridge) sites on Pt(111). The effect of the strain on clean hematite surfaces due to the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the overlayer is included in the analysis. Among the possible adsorption configurations, bridge sites are unstable, while the most favorable configurations are the ones at hollow sites. The stability of the interfaces is not only influenced by the termination of the overlayer but also influenced by the degree of its structural relaxation and the relative position of the first layer of O atoms in hematite with respect to Pt. To elucidate the different nature of the two terminations of the overlayer on Pt, projected density of states and 3D charge density difference plots are also discussed.

  16. Effects of deposition temperature and in-situ annealing time on structure and magnetic properties of (001) orientation FePt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yongsheng; George, T.A.; Li, Haibo; Sun, Daqian; Ren, Zhenan; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    FePt films were prepared on (100) oriented single crystal MgO substrates at high temperature ranging from 620 until 800 °C and in-situ annealed for different times ranging from 0 to 60 min to obtain ordered FePt films. The structural analysis indicates that FePt films grow epitaxially on MgO (100) substrates. Both increasing deposition temperature and in-situ annealing time enhance the (001) texture and ordering of FePt films. The magnetic analysis shows that these L1 0 FePt films have perpendicular anisotropy and the easy magnetization c-axis is perpendicular to the film plane. Magnetization reversal is controlled by a rotational mechanism. The hard magnetic properties of the films are improved with increasing deposition temperature or in-situ annealing time. - Highlights: ► The paper reports the texture and magnetic evolution of FePt films deposited on MgO substrates. ► Increasing deposition temperature or annealing time enhanced the texture and ordering. ► The magnetic analysis shows L1 0 FePt films have perpendicular anisotropy.

  17. Microstructural and magnetic properties of L10 FePt-C (0 0 1) textured nanocomposite films grown on different intermediate layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Lim, B C; Hu, J F; Ding, Y F; Ju, G

    2008-01-01

    The FePt : C films with different volume fractions of carbon and different thicknesses were epitaxially grown on a CrRu(2 0 0) underlayer with Pt and MgO intermediate layers. The magnetic properties and microstructure of these FePt : C films were investigated. The FePt : C films grown on the Pt intermediate layer consisted of a continuous layer of FePt, with overlying granular FePt grains, while the FePt : C films grown on the MgO intermediate layer consisted of granular FePt : C layers with overlying granular grains. The formation of the overlying granular FePt grains was attributed to carbon diffusion to the surface which resulted in the second nucleation of FePt. The different interface energies and surface energies of FePt on Pt and MgO intermediate layers caused the formation of an initial continuous FePt layer on the Pt intermediate layer and initial granular FePt layers on the MgO intermediate layer. The coupling between the continuous FePt layer or the granular FePt layer and the overlying granular FePt grains resulted in simultaneous magnetization reversal and thus strong exchange coupling in FePt : C films.

  18. In situ investigation of ordering phase transformations in FePt magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, James E., E-mail: j.wittig@vanderbilt.edu [Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Vanderbilt University, PMB 351683, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Bentley, James, E-mail: bentleyj48@gmail.com [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6376 (United States); Allard, Lawrence F., E-mail: allardlfjr@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6376 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    In situ high-resolution electron microscopy was used to reveal information at the atomic level for the disordered-to-ordered phase transformation of equiatomic FePt nanoparticles that can exhibit outstanding magnetic properties after transforming from disordered face-centered-cubic into the tetragonal L1{sub 0} ordered structure. High-angle annular dark-field imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope provided sufficient contrast between the Fe and Pt atoms to readily monitor the ordering of the atoms during in situ heating experiments. However, during continuous high-magnification imaging the electron beam influenced the kinetics of the transformation so annealing had to be performed with the electron beam blanked. At 500 °C where the reaction rate was relatively slow, observation of the transformation mechanisms using this sequential imaging protocol revealed that ordering proceeded from (002) surface facets but was incomplete and multiple-domain particles were formed that contained anti-phase domain boundaries and anti-site defects. At 600 and 700 °C, the limitations of sequential imaging were revealed as a consequence of increased transformation kinetics. Annealing for only 5 min at 700 °C produced complete single-domain L1{sub 0} order; such single-domain particles were more spherical in shape with (002) facets. The in situ experiments also provided information concerning nanoparticle sintering, coalescence, and consolidation. Although there was resistance to complete sintering due to the crystallography of L1{sub 0} order, the driving force from the large surface-area-to-volume ratio resulted in considerable nanoparticle coalescence, which would render such FePt nanoparticles unsuitable for use as magnetic recording media. Comparison of the in situ data acquired using the protocol described above with parallel ex situ annealing experiments showed that identical behavior resulted in all cases. - Highlights: • HAADF STEM imaging reveals the

  19. Magnetic properties of nanocrystallized Fe-Pt-B melt-spun ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokujiro; Omori, Akihiro; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    L1 0 FePt nanoparticles have been prepared by etching grain boundaries of heat-treated melt-spun Fe-19Pt-25B (at.%) alloy ribbons. It is revealed that an L1 0 FePt nanocrystalline phase is directly formed from the Fe-Pt-B amorphous ribbons by long-time heat treatment at low temperatures in the vicinity of 723 K. With increasing heat treatment time, dimensions of the nanocrystallized FePt grains increase, accompanied by a change from soft ferromagnetic to hard ferromagnetic. The ribbon crystallized at 723 K for 1.8 ks consists of only an FePt L1 0 phase and its coercivity is as low as 0.381 kA/m. However, it increases to 372 kA/m with increasing grain size of precipitated L1 0 phase to about 30 nm by heat treatment for 86.4 ks, while the saturation magnetic flux density remains constant at about 0.4 T. Etching boundaries in heat-treated ribbons has been performed to obtain ferromagnetic L1 0 FePt nanoparticles and several particles were observed by means of transmission electron microscopy

  20. Structural Investigation of Rapidly Quenched FeCoPtB Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabias, A.; Kopcewicz, M.; Latuch, J.; Oleszak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two sets of Fe 52-x Co x Pt 28 B 20 (x = 0-26 at.%) and Fe 60-x Co x Pt 25 B 15 (x = 0-40 at.%) alloys were prepared in the form of ribbons by the rapid quenching technique. Structure of the samples was characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the as-quenched alloys the amorphous phase coexisted with the fcc-(Fe,Co)Pt disordered solid solution. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements performed in the range 50-720 ± C revealed one or two exothermal peaks. The magnetically hard ordered L1 0 (Fe,Co)Pt and magnetically soft (Fe,Co) 2 B nanocrystalline phases were formed due to thermal treatment of the alloys. The influence of Co content on the structure of the as-quenched and heated alloys was studied. (authors)

  1. Ultra-low Pt decorated PdFe Alloy Nanoparticles for Formic Acid Electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yawei; Du, Chunyu; Han, Guokang; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost-efficient way is used to prepare transition-noble metal alloy nanoparticles. • The Pd 50 Fe 50 /C catalyst shows excellent activity for formic acid oxidation (FAO). • Much activity enhancement of FAO is acquired by ultra-low Pt decorated Pd 50 Fe 50 . • A synergistic mechanism between Pt clusters and PdFe is proposed during the FAO. - Abstract: Palladium (Pd), has demonstrated promising electro-catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation, but suffers from extremely low abundance. Recently alloying with a transition metal has been considered as an effective approach to reducing the loading of Pd and enhancing the activity of Pd-based catalysts simultaneously. Herein, carbon supported PdFe nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized at room temperature by using sodium borohydride as reducing agent and potassium ferrocyanide as Fe precursor. The Pd 50 Fe 50 alloy sample annealed at 900 °C for 1 h shows the best catalytic activity among Pd x Fe 1-x (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.8) towards formic acid oxidation. To further improve both catalytic activity and stability, the ultra-low Pt (0.09 wt %) decorated Pd 50 Fe 50 NPs (PtPd/PdFe) are prepared via the galvanic replacement reaction. Compared with Pd 50 Fe 50 /C, the PtPd/PdFe/C Exhibits 1.52 times higher catalytic activity and lower onset potential (−0.12 V). The significant enhancements of formic acid oxidation can be attributed to the accelerated dehydrogenation reaction of formic acid by Pt atomic clusters. Moreover, the PtPd/PdFe/C also demonstrates better tolerance to poisons during formic acid oxidation.

  2. Temperature dependence of the spin Seebeck effect in [Fe3O4/Pt]n multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report temperature dependent measurements of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE in multilayers formed by repeated growth of a Fe3O4/Pt bilayer junction. The magnitude of the observed enhancement of the SSE, relative to the SSE in the single bilayer, shows a monotonic increase with decreasing the temperature. This result can be understood by an increase of the characteristic length for spin current transport in the system, in qualitative agreement with the recently observed increase in the magnon diffusion length in Fe3O4 at lower temperatures. Our result suggests that the thermoelectric performance of the SSE in multilayer structures can be further improved by careful choice of materials with suitable spin transport properties.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of chemically ordered FePt magnetic nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasa Rao, K. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), IDA phase-III, Cherlapally, Hyderabad 500 051 (India); Balaji, T., E-mail: theerthambalaji@yahoo.co [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), IDA phase-III, Cherlapally, Hyderabad 500 051 (India); Lingappa, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Reddy, M.R.P.; Kumar, Arbind; Prakash, T.L. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), IDA phase-III, Cherlapally, Hyderabad 500 051 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Monodispersed FePt alloy magnetic nano-particles are prepared by reduction of platinum acetyl acetonate and iron acetyl acetonate salts together in the presence of oleic acid and oleyl amine stabilizers by polyol process. The particle size of FePt is in the range of 2-3 nm confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As-synthesized FePt nano-particles are chemically disordered with face centre cubic (fcc) structure where as after vacuum annealing these particles changed to face centre tetragonal (fct) ordered structure confirmed by the X-ray diffraction technique. Magnetic coercivity of 5.247 KOe was observed for fct structure.

  4. Reducing the ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles by Cu additive and alternate reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (FePt85Cu15 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by alternate reduction of metal salts in aqueous medium. Detailed investigations on the correlation between the magnetic and structural properties of these nanoparticles are presented as a function of annealing temperature. Both the X-ray diffraction patterns and the magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show the existence of L10-FePt phase at a relative low annealing temperature. It is proved that the Cu additive and alternate reduction are very effective methods in reducing the ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles.

  5. Direct synthesis of L1 type Fe-Pt nanoparticles using microwave-polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Rumiko; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka; Chikata, Tsukasa; Kato, Shunsaku

    2005-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Fe-Pt nanoparticles with microwave irradiation during polyol-reduction reaction. Chemically ordered Fe-Pt nanoparticles with L1 structure are fabricated at 250 deg. C using a microwave-polyol method without any post-synthesis treatments. Moessbauer analyses reveal the nanoparticles have partially ordered L1 structure. The partially ordered Fe-Pt nanoparticles exhibit coercivity of 3.4 kOe, saturation magnetization of 49 emu/g, and anisotropy field of 83 kOe at room temperature

  6. Mechanism of coercivity enhancement by Ag addition in FePt-C granular films for heat assisted magnetic recording media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K., E-mail: takahashi.yukiko@nims.go.jp; Wang, J.; Hono, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ina, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ueno, W.; Nitta, K.; Uruga, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-06-02

    We investigated the Ag distribution in a FePtAg-C granular film that is under consideration for a heat assisted magnetic recording medium by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure. Ag is rejected from the core of FePt grains during the deposition, forming Ag-enriched shell surrounding L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt grains. Since Ag has no solubility in both Fe and Pt, the rejection of Ag induces atomic diffusions thereby enhancing the kinetics of the L1{sub 0}-order in the FePt grains.

  7. Magnetic properties and structure of FePt/FeMn multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Suzuki, Takao

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of the magnetic properties by ion beam sputter-deposition system, was conducted in conjunction with the structure of FePt/FeMn multilayers fabricated onto MgO(0 0 1) substrates. Both parallel and perpendicular exchange biases were observed in the multilayers and were found to decrease drastically, as the deposition temperature is higher than 350 deg. C, which is evidently due to the interdiffusion at the interface. The thickness dependence study shows that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy observed in the multilayers originates from surface anisotropy, being consistent with the decrease of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the deposition temperature is increased. The difference between parallel and perpendicular blocking temperatures that was clearly observed, is possibly due to the spin canting out of plane at the interface

  8. Effect of carbon additive on microstructure evolution and magnetic properties of epitaxial FePt (001) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.F.; Chen, J.S.; Liu, E.; Lim, B.C.; Hu, J.F.; Liu, B.

    2009-01-01

    FePt:C thin films were deposited on CrRu underlayers by DC magnetron co-sputtering. The effects of C content, FePt:C film thickness and substrate temperature on the microstructural and magnetic properties of the epitaxial FePt (001) films were studied. Experimental results showed that even with 30 vol.% C doping, the FePt films could keep a (001) preferred orientation at 350 deg. C . When a FePt:C film was very thin (< 5 nm), the film had a continuous microstructure instead of a granual structure with C diffused onto the film surface. With further increased film thickness, the film started to nucleate and formed a column microstructure over continuous FePt films. A strong exchange coupling in the FePt:C films was believed to be due to the presence of a thin continuous FePt layer attributed to the carbon diffusion during the initial stage of the FePt:C film growth. Despite the presence of a strong exchange coupling in the FePt:C (20 vol.% C) film, the SNR ratio of the FePt:C media was about 10 dB better than that of the pure FePt media. The epitaxial growth of the FePt:C films on the Pt layers was observed from high resolution TEM cross sectional images even for the films grown at about 200 deg. C . The TEM images did not show an obvious change in the morphology of the FePt:C films deposited at different temperatures (from 200 deg. C to 350 deg. C ), though the ordering degree and coercivity of the films increased with increased substrate temperature

  9. Annealing effect on magnetic property and recording performance of [FePt/MgO]n perpendicular magnetic recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takao; Zhang, Zhengang; Singh, Amarendra K.; Yin, Jinhua; Perumal, A.; Osawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Granular-type FePt perpendicular magnetic recording media with (001)-texture, obtained by annealing FePt/MgO multilayer films, are fabricated onto 2.5-in glass discs. For the sake of spin-stand testing, the coercivity of FePt films is carefully modulated by controlling the annealing conditions. With annealing, exchange coupling between FePt grains is decreased, indicated by the reductions in α value and activation volume. FePt ordering process is dependent on initial FePt/MgO multilayer structures, which governs the optimum annealing condition regarding coercivities and α(=4π(dM/dH)H=Hc). The SNR ratio exhibits a sensitive dependence on initial FePt/MgO multilayer structures as well as annealing conditions

  10. One-pot synthesis of FePt/CNTs nanocomposites for efficient cellular imaging and cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weihong; Zheng, Xiuwen, E-mail: xwzheng1976@163.com [Linyi University, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Tumor Makers (China); Li, Shulian [Linyi Tumor Hospital (China); Zhang, Wei; Wen, Xin [Linyi University, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Tumor Makers (China); Yue, Ludan [Shandong Normal University (China); Wang, Jinlong [Shandong University of Technology (China)

    2015-11-15

    Here, we developed a facile route to synthesize carbon nanotube-based FePt nanocomposites (FePt/CNTs) as a potential theranostic platform in the cancer treatment. FePt/CNTs were firstly synthesized via one-pot polyol route, and then functionalized with 6-arm-polyethylene glycol-amine polymer. The average size of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) is 3–4 nm, which is dispersed on the CNT surface (ca.50–150 nm). The as-prepared FePt NPs display high cytotoxicity by highly reactive oxygen species in cancer cells. Folic acid and fluorescein isothiocyanate are assembled onto the surface of FePt/CNTs for effective targeting of folate receptor-positive cancer cells and simultaneously for the visualization of cellular uptake. Therefore, the FePt/CNTs NPs capability of simultaneously performing diagnosis, therapy, and targeting is, therefore, promising for future potential widespread application in biomedicine.

  11. Atomistic computer simulations of FePt nanoparticles. Thermodynamic and kinetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.

    2007-12-20

    In the present dissertation, a hierarchical multiscale approach for modeling FePt nanoparticles by atomistic computer simulations is developed. By describing the interatomic interactions on different levels of sophistication, various time and length scales can be accessed. Methods range from static quantum-mechanic total-energy calculations of small periodic systems to simulations of whole particles over an extended time by using simple lattice Hamiltonians. By employing these methods, the energetic and thermodynamic stability of non-crystalline multiply twinned FePt nanoparticles is investigated. Subsequently, the thermodynamics of the order-disorder transition in FePt nanoparticles is analyzed, including the influence of particle size, composition and modified surface energies by different chemical surroundings. In order to identify processes that reduce or enhance the rate of transformation from the disordered to the ordered state, the kinetics of the ordering transition in FePt nanoparticles is finally investigated by assessing the contributions of surface and volume diffusion. (orig.)

  12. Toward the direct deposition of L10 FePt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jiaoming; Judy, Jack H.; Weller, Dieter; Wang Jianping

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report a technique that can directly fabricate L1 0 phase FePt nanoparticles. FePt nanoparticles were generated through gas-phase aggregation using a magnetron-sputtering-based nanocluster source. Following the source chamber, an online halogen-lamp heater was used for the L1 0 phase formation during the particles' flight in vacuum. Transmission electron microscopy and vibrating-sample magnetometer data verified the successful fabrication of the L1 0 phase FePt nanoparticles. The coercivity value at 300 K is 1100 Oe for the nanoparticles with online heating. Neon carrier gas was applied to manipulate FePt nanoparticle size and to enhance particle size uniformity. The size dependence of nanoparticle ordering was investigated

  13. Room temperature FePt nanoparticles formation kinetics by laser solution photolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been designed to measure the radiation emission during photolysis, as well as the production of either positive or negative metallic ions in liquid from of FePt nanoparticles....

  14. Interparticle interactions of FePt core and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} shell in FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hossein, E-mail: Akbari.ph@iauardabil.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeynali, Hossein [Department of Physics, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshayeshi, Ali [Department of Physics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-22

    Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using simple wet chemical method. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used as a magnetic shell around each FePt nanoparticles. In FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell system, core thickness is 2 nm and shell thickness varies from zero to 2.5 nm. A theoretical model presented to calculate the shell thickness dependence of Coercivity. Presented model is compared with the results from Stoner–Wohlfarth model to interpret the shell thickness dependence of Coercivity in FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles. There is a difference between the results from Stoner–Wohlfarth model and experimental data when the shell thickness increases. In the presented model, the effects of interparticle exchange and random magneto crystalline anisotropy are added to the previous models of magnetization reversal for core/shell nanostructures in order to achieve a better agreement with experimental data. For magnetic shells in FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell, effective coupling between particles increases with increasing shell thickness which leads to Coercivity destruction for stronger couplings. According to the boundary conditions, in the harder regions with higher exchange stiffness, there is small variation in magnetization and so the magnetization modes become more localized. We discussed both localized and non-localized magnetization modes. For non-zero shell thickness, non-localized modes propagate in the soft phase which effects the quality of particle exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using simple wet chemical method. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used as a magnetic shell around each FePt nanoparticles. • A theoretical model presented to calculate the shell thickness dependence of Coercivity. • Magnetic shells increase effective coupling between particles with increasing shell thickness. • Magnetization modes are more localized in the regions with

  15. Exchange anisotropy and micromagnetic properties of PtMn/NiFe bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhil, Taras; Linville, Eric; Mao, Sining

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic microstructure, exchange induced uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy and structural transformation have been studied in PtMn/NiFe bilayer films and small elements as a function of annealing time. The relationship between the fcc-fct ordering phase transformation in PtMn and the development of exchange induced magnetic properties in PtMn/NiFe bilayers is complicated by the fact that the transformation occurs throughout the entire volume of the PtMn film, while the exchange between the layers is predominantly an interface effect. Consequently, the development of the exchange anisotropy should depend primarily on the character of the structural transformation at the interface between PtMn and NiFe. The purpose of this article is to correlate the volume phase transformation in PtMn to the development of exchange anisotropy and micromagnetic behavior in PtMn/NiFe bilayers. The interface structure can be inferred from the anisotropy and micromagnetic measurements, leading to a model that explains the relationship between the volume and interface transformation structures in PtMn, and magnetic properties of the bilayers. The structure and magnetic properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, and magnetic force microscopy. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Tunable magnetotransport in Fe/hBN/graphene/hBN/Pt(Fe) epitaxial multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Ukpong, Aniekan

    2018-03-01

    Theoretical and computational analysis of the magnetotransport properties and spin-transfer torque field-induced switching of magnetization density in vertically-stacked multilayers is presented. Using epitaxially-capped free layers of Pt and Fe, atom-resolved magnetic moments and spin-transfer torques are computed at finite bias. The calculations are performed within linear response approximation to the spin-density reformulation of the van der Waals density functional theory. Dynamical spin excitations are computed as a function of a spin-transfer torque induced magnetic field along the magnetic easy axis, and the corresponding spin polarization perpendicular to the easy axis is obtained. Bias-dependent giant anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to 3200% is obtained in the nonmagnetic-metal-capped Fe/hBN/graphene/hBN/Pt multilayer architecture. Since this specific heterostructure is not yet fabricated and characterized, the predicted high performance has not been demonstrated experimentally. Nevertheless, similar calculations performed on the Fe/hBN/Co stack show that the tunneling magnetoresistance obtained at the Fermi-level is in excellent agreement with results of recent magnetotransport measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions that contain the monolayer hBN tunnel region. The magnitude of the spin-transfer torque is found to increase as the tunneling spin current increases, and this activates the magnetization switching process due to increased charge accumulation. This mechanism causes substantial spin backflow, which manifests as rapid undulations in the bias-dependent tunneling spin currents. The implication of these findings on the design of nanoscale spintronic devices with spin-transfer torque tunable magnetization density is discussed. Insights derived from this study are expected to enhance the prospects for developing and integrating artificially assembled van der Waals multilayer heterostructures as the preferred material platform for efficient

  17. Multi-photon excited luminescence of magnetic FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K M; Kuhn, B

    2014-07-01

    We present magnetic FePt nanoparticles with a hydrophilic, inert, and biocompatible silico-tungsten oxide shell. The particles can be functionalized, optically detected, and optically manipulated. To show the functionalization the fluorescent dye NOPS was bound to the FePt core-shell nanoparticles with propyl-triethoxy-silane linkers and fluorescence of the labeled particles were observed in ethanol (EtOH). In aqueous dispersion the NOPS fluorescence is quenched making them invisible using 1-photon excitation. However, we observe bright luminescence of labeled and even unlabeled magnetic core-shell nanoparticles with multi-photon excitation. Luminescence can be detected in the near ultraviolet and the full visible spectral range by near infrared multi-photon excitation. For optical manipulation, we were able to drag clusters of particles, and maybe also single particles, by a focused laser beam that acts as optical tweezers by inducing an electric dipole in the insulated metal nanoparticles. In a first application, we show that the luminescence of the core-shell nanoparticles is bright enough for in vivo multi-photon imaging in the mouse neocortex down to cortical layer 5.

  18. Catalysts synthesized by selective deposition of Fe onto Pt for the water-gas shift reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao, Isaias Barbosa; Ro, Insoo; Liu, Yifei; Ball, Madelyn; Huber, George W.; Zanchet, Daniela; Dumesic, James A.

    2018-03-01

    FePt bimetallic catalysts with intimate contact between the two metals were synthesized by controlled surface reactions (CSR) of (cyclohexadiene)iron tricarbonyl with hydrogen-treated supported Pt nanoparticles. Adsorption of the iron precursor on a Pt/SiO2 catalyst was studied, showing that the Fe loading could be increased by performing multiple CSR cycles, and the efficiency of this process was linked to the renewal of adsorption sites by a reducing pretreatment. The catalytic activity of these bimetallic catalysts for the water gas shift reaction was improved due to promotion by iron, likely linked to H2O activation on FeOx species at or near the Pt surface, mostly in the (II) oxidation state.

  19. Effect of Hf underlayer on structure and magnetic properties of rapid thermal annealed FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.Y.; Yuan, F.T.; Chang, H.W.; Lin, M.C.; Su, C.C.; Chang, S.T.; Wang, C.R.; Mei, J.K.; Hsiao, S.N.; Chen, C.C.; Shih, C.W.; Chang, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    FePt(20 nm) and FePt(20 nm)/Hf(10 nm) thin films prepared on the glass substrates by sputtering and post annealing are studied. For both samples, the as deposited films are disordered and L1 0 -ordering is triggered by a 400 °C-annealing. At T a ≥600 °C, Hf–Pt intermetallic compound forms with increasing T a , which consumes Pt in FePt layer and results in the formation of Fe 3 Pt phase. The film becomes soft magnetic at T a =800 °C. The optimized condition of FePt/Hf film is in the T a range of 500 to 600 °C where the interdiffusion between Hf and FePt layer is not extensive. The value of H c is 8.9 kOe and M r is 650–670 emu/cm 3 . Unlike FePt films, the Hf-undelayered samples show significantly reduced out-of-plane remanent and coercivity. The values for both are around 50% smaller than that of the FePt films. Additionally, Hf underlayer markedly reduces the FePt grain size and narrows the distribution, which enhances magnetic intergrain coupling. Good in-plane magnetic properties are preferred for the uses like a hard biasing magnet in a spintronic device. - Highlights: • Effect of Hf underlayer on structure and magnetic properties of FePt films are studied. • Hf underlayer reduces size, narrows the distribution of grains and thus enhances intergrain coupling. • Higher T a ≥600 °C makes Hf–Pt intermetallic compound and thus Fe 3 Pt phase form. • Good in-plane magnetic property is proper for uses in hard biasing magnet in spintronic devices

  20. Comparison of PZN-PT, PMN-PT single crystals and PZT ceramic for vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic analysis of PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals for energy harvesters. • Performance analysis and comparison under various conditions. • Discussion of the effect of the SSHI technique on single crystal energy harvesters. • Efficiency analysis in both on-resonance and off-resonance conditions. - Abstract: Vibration energy harvesting has a great potential to achieve self-powered operations for wireless sensors, wearable devices and medical electronics, and thus has attracted much attention in academia and industry. The majority of research into this subject has focused on the piezoelectric effect of synthetic materials, especially the perovskite PZT ceramics. Recently the new-generation piezoelectric materials PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals have gained significant interest because of their outstanding piezoelectric properties. They can be used to replace the widely-adopted PZT ceramics for improving energy harvesters’ performance substantially. However, there is little research on comparing PMN-PT and PZN-PT energy harvesters against PZT harvesters. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison between vibration energy harvesters using the PMN-PT, PZN-PT single crystals and those using the PZT ceramics. Key properties of the three materials are summarized and compared. The performance of the PMN-PT and PZN-PT energy harvesters is characterized under different conditions (beam length, resistance, frequency, excitation strength, and backward coupling effect), and is quantitatively compared with the PZT counterpart. Furthermore, the effect of the synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) circuit on the three harvesters is discussed. The experimental results indicate that energy harvesters using the PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals can significantly outperform those using the PZT ceramics. This study provides a strong base for future research on high-performance energy harvesters using the new PMN-PT and PZN-PT single

  1. Magnetic properties of the alloy system Fe-Pt. Bulk materials and nanoparticles; Magnetische Eigenschaften des Legierungssystems Fe-Pt. Volumenmaterialien und Nanopartikel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, C.

    2007-12-14

    Besides the determination of magnetic properties of epitaxial grown Fe{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x} films like e.g. the magnetic anisotropy, effective magnetisation, exchange length and damping as reference data, wet-chemically synthesised spherical Fe{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x} nanoparticles with different sizes, compositions and crystal structures were examined systematically after the reduction of Fe oxides by a hydrogen plasma treatment. Organic ligands surrounding the particles after the synthesis, were removed as well during this procedure. These ligands prevent the agglomeration of the nanoparticles when deposited onto a substrate, but do not have any measurable effect on the oxide formation under air exposure and do not change the magnetic properties of oxidised nanoparticles within experimental error bars. Static and dynamic magnetic properties were determined using the ferromagnetic resonance technique and themeasurement of the x-ray absorption, especially the analysis of the X-ray circular dichroism. The analysis of the element-specific magnetic moments shows that the effective magnetic spin moment ({mu}{sup eff}{sub s}) of the Fe{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x} nanoparticles is reduced by 20.30% with respect to the one of the corresponding Fe{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x} film due to the inhomogeneous composition within the nanoparticles which was found by the analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. With decreasing particle size, {mu}{sup eff}{sub s} is further decreasing while the ratio of orbital-to-effective-spin magnetic moment ({mu}{sub l}/{mu}{sup eff}{sub s}) increases. Annealing at 600 C of a sample consisting of Fe{sub 0.50}Pt{sub 0.50} nanoparticles with a mean diameter around 6 nm yields a strong increase of the {mu}{sub l}/{mu}{sup eff}{sub s} ratio at the Fe sites: it reaches a value of about 9% and is as large as the value at the Pt sites. This is accompanied by an enhancement of the coercive field from (36{+-}5) mT to (292{+-}8) mT after annealing that can be

  2. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of magnetron sputtered FePt thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelli, Valentina

    2010-07-01

    The L1{sub 0} FePt phase belongs to the most promising hard ferromagnetic materials for high density recording media. The main challenges for thin FePt films are: (i) to lower the process temperature for the transition from the soft magnetic A1 to the hard magnetic L1{sub 0} phase, (ii) to realize c-axes preferential oriented layers independently from the substrate nature and (iii) to control layer morphology supporting the formation of FePt-L1{sub 0} selforganized isolated nanoislands towards an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, dc magnetron sputtered FePt thin films on amorphous substrates were investigated. The work is focused on the correlation between structural and magnetic properties with respect to the influence of deposition parameters like growth mode (cosputtering vs. layer - by - layer) and the variation of the deposition gas (Ar, Xe) or pressure (0.3-3 Pa). In low-pressure Ar discharges, high energetic particle impacts support vacancies formation during layer growth lowering the phase transition temperature to (320{+-}20) C. By reducing the particle kinetic energy in Xe discharges, highly (001) preferential oriented L1{sub 0}-FePt films were obtained on a-SiO{sub 2} after vacuum annealing. L1{sub 0}-FePt nano-island formation was supported by the introduction of an Ag matrix, or by random ballistic aggregation and atomic self shadowing realized by FePt depositions at very high pressure (3 Pa). The high coercivity (1.5 T) of granular, magnetic isotropic FePt layers, deposited in Ar discharges, was measured with SQUID magnetometer hysteresis loops. For non-granular films with (001) preferential orientation the coercivity decreased (0.6 T) together with an enhancement of the out-of- plane anisotropy. Nanoislands show a coercive field close to the values obtained for granular layers but exhibit an in-plane easy axis due to shape anisotropy effects. An extensive study with different synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques, mainly

  3. Effect of sputter pressure on magnetotransport properties of FePt nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Shu, E-mail: mishu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Rui, E-mail: liurui1987@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Yuanyuan, E-mail: buaaliyuan@163.com; Ye, Jun, E-mail: yejun@iphy.ac.cn; Xie, Yong, E-mail: xiey@buaa.edu.cn; Chen, Ziyu, E-mail: chenzy@buaa.edu.cn

    2016-04-01

    FePt films were prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition using Ar as the sputtering gas under different working pressures (0.3–0.7 Pa). The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the microstructure, magnetic, and magnetoresistance properties has been investigated. The results show that the crystallization of FePt films is strongly dependent on the Ar sputter pressure. With the decrease of Ar working pressures, the fct phase forms and the coercivity (Hc) of FePt films rises under the same annealing temperature. As a result, the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) increases by 20% at the room temperature. At 0.7 Pa, the anisotropy magnetoresistance (AMR) can be observed clearly at a low field. However, as the Ar pressure decreases, the increase of GMR leads to a degradation of AMR effect. We believe that the improvement of GMR effect results from the increase of magnetic anisotropy and spin polarization in the process of transformation from the soft magnetic fcc phase to the hard magnetic fct phase. - Highlights: • FePt films were sputtered under different Ar working pressures. • The low Ar pressure promotes the formation of L1{sub 0} phase. • The Hc of FePt films enlarges with the reduction of Ar pressure. • As the Ar pressure decreases, the MR increases by 20%. • The total MR results from the competition of GMR and AMR.

  4. Effect of sputter pressure on magnetotransport properties of FePt nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Shu; Liu, Rui; Li, Yuanyuan; Ye, Jun; Xie, Yong; Chen, Ziyu

    2016-01-01

    FePt films were prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition using Ar as the sputtering gas under different working pressures (0.3–0.7 Pa). The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the microstructure, magnetic, and magnetoresistance properties has been investigated. The results show that the crystallization of FePt films is strongly dependent on the Ar sputter pressure. With the decrease of Ar working pressures, the fct phase forms and the coercivity (Hc) of FePt films rises under the same annealing temperature. As a result, the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) increases by 20% at the room temperature. At 0.7 Pa, the anisotropy magnetoresistance (AMR) can be observed clearly at a low field. However, as the Ar pressure decreases, the increase of GMR leads to a degradation of AMR effect. We believe that the improvement of GMR effect results from the increase of magnetic anisotropy and spin polarization in the process of transformation from the soft magnetic fcc phase to the hard magnetic fct phase. - Highlights: • FePt films were sputtered under different Ar working pressures. • The low Ar pressure promotes the formation of L1 0 phase. • The Hc of FePt films enlarges with the reduction of Ar pressure. • As the Ar pressure decreases, the MR increases by 20%. • The total MR results from the competition of GMR and AMR.

  5. Formation of FePt nanodots by wetting of nanohole substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdelgawad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large area arrays of FePt nanodots are fabricated on patterned substrates made of SiOx, SiNx and TiNx. The templates have a depth of ∼10 nm and a pitch of ∼20 nm with 18 nm wide holes. FePt is sputtered on the nanohole arrays, then back-etched, leaving a highly ordered array of FePt nanodots behind. To promote phase transformation to the L10 phase, the samples are annealed at temperatures of 550-650° C. During annealing, the FePt strongly dewets SiOx and SiNx substrates, causing sintering and coalescence of the FePt nanodots, but the nanodots remain highly ordered on the TiNx substrate. The nanodot arrays on TiNx are characterized magnetically before and after annealing. The out-of-plane coercivity increases by ∼1 kOe, suggesting partial transformation to the L10 phase. We also show that a capping layer can be sputtered on top of the nanodot arrays prior to annealing to prevent dewetting.

  6. Magnetic properties and microstructure study of high coercivity Au/FePt/Au trilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.K.; Yuan, F.T.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Horng, Lance

    2006-01-01

    High-coercivity Au(60 nm)/FePt(δ nm)/Au(60 nm) trilayer samples were prepared by sputtering at room temperature, followed by post annealing at different temperatures. For the sample with δ=60 nm, L1 ordering transformation occurs at 500 deg. C. Coercivity (H c ) is increased with the annealing temperature in the studied range 400-800 deg. C. The H c value of the trilayer films is also varied with thickness of FePt intermediate layer (δ), from 27 kOe for δ=60 nm to a maximum value of 33.5 kOe for δ=20 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the diffusion of Au atoms into the FePt L1 lattice is negligible even after a high-temperature (800 deg. C) annealing process. Furthermore, ordering parameter is almost unchanged as δ is reduced from 60 to 15 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) photos indicate that small FePt Ll particles are dispersed amid the large-grained Au. We believe that the high coercivity of the trilayer sample is attributed to the small and uniform grain sizes of the highly ordered FePt particles which have perfect phase separation with Au matrix

  7. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Rijnders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FePt nanoparticles (NPs were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(onates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al2O3 substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine (PEI as a reference. FePt NPs assembled on all of these monolayers, but much less on unmodified Al2O3, which shows that ligand exchange at the NPs is the most likely mechanism of attachment. Proper modification of the Al2O3 surface and controlling the immersion time of the modified Al2O3 substrates into the FePt NP solution resulted in FePt NPs assembly with controlled NP density. Alumina substrates were patterned by microcontact printing using aminobutylphosphonic acid as the ink, allowing local NP assembly. Thermal annealing under reducing conditions (96%N2/4%H2 led to a phase change of the FePt NPs from the disordered FCC phase to the ordered FCT phase. This resulted in ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Such a process can potentially be applied in the fabrication of spintronic devices.

  8. Fabrication, morphological, structural and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Fe{sub 3}Pt nanowires and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, U. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Adeela, N. [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Li, Wenjing; Irfan, M.; Javed, K.; Riaz, S. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Han, X.F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highly ordered Fe{sub 3}Pt nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template have been fabricated by dc electrodeposition method. Response of heat treatment on structural and magnetic properties of the samples has been studied with and without the presence of magnetic field (1 T). X-Ray Diffraction analysis shows chemically ordered L1{sub 2} face centered cubic (FCC) as the dominant phase for Fe{sub 3}Pt NWs and heat treatment improves crystallinity with retained its phase. Whereas, Fe{sub 3}Pt NTs show amorphous behavior with and without magnetic field annealing. Furthermore, magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic parameters of Fe{sub 3}Pt including magnetic coercivity, saturation magnetization, squareness and shape of MH-loops have been investigated as a result of simple and MF annealing. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}Pt NWs and NTs embedded into anodic alumina templates have been synthesized by dc electrodeposition method. • Structural analysis (XRD) confirmed the formation of fcc structure. • Magnetic properties have been measured as a function of simple and magnetic field annealing.

  9. Effect of atomic composition on the compressive strain and electrocatalytic activity of PtCoFe/sulfonated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, Elaheh; Javanbakht, Mehran; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • SO_3H-graphene supported PtFeCo alloy nanoparticles were prepared. • Co:Fe atomic ratio plays important role in the electrocatalytic performance. • PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio is optimized for PEMFCs. • Power density of 530 mW cm"−"2 with 0.1 mg cm"−"2 Pt loading was obtained at 75 °C. - Abstract: The aim of this work is improvement of the stability and durability of sulfonated graphene supported PtCoFe electrocatalyst (PtCoFe/SG) for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The durability investigation of PtCoFe/SG is evaluated by a repetitive potential cycling test. The compressive strain in the lattice of PtCoFe/SG towards the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction is studied. The synthesized electrocatalysts are examined physically and electrochemically for their structure, morphology and electrocatalytic performance. It is shown that presence of SO_3− groups on the graphene cause better adsorption of PtCoFe nanoparticles on the support and increase stability of electrocatalysts. Also, it is shown that Co:Fe atomic ratio in the synthesized electrocatalysts plays important role in their electrocatalytic performance. In the optimum Co:Fe atomic ratio, the compressive strain goes through the ideal value of the binding energy; further increase in Co/Fe atomic fraction introduces the excessive compressive strain and the activity of electrocatalyst decreases. The electrocatalyst synthesized in the optimum conditions is utilized as cathode in PEMFC. The power density of the PEMFC in low metal loading (0.1 mg cm"−"2 Pt) reaches to a maximum of 530 mW cm"−"2 at 75 °C. It suggests that PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio promises to improve the power density of PEMFCs.

  10. L1{sub 0} phase transition in FePt thin films via direct interface reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Wang Fengqing; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); Liu Baoting; Guo Jianxin [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China)], E-mail: xyzh66@ysu.edu.cn

    2008-12-07

    Lowering the L1{sub 0} ordering temperature of FePt films is of great significance for their application as an ultrahigh density magnetic recording medium. In this study, the L1{sub 0} ordering process of FePt thin films deposited directly on Si substrates has been significantly accelerated by the interface reaction between the thin film and the Si substrate, and thus the thin films show a low L1{sub 0} ordering temperature of T = 310 deg. C as compared with those deposited on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates. The accelerated L1{sub 0} ordering transition is predominantly dependent on the rapid growth of the ordered domains during the interface reaction. The film thickness has an important effect on the interface reaction and thus can be used to tune the L1{sub 0} ordering process of the FePt films.

  11. L10 phase transition in FePt thin films via direct interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Wang Fengqing; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi; Liu Baoting; Guo Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    Lowering the L1 0 ordering temperature of FePt films is of great significance for their application as an ultrahigh density magnetic recording medium. In this study, the L1 0 ordering process of FePt thin films deposited directly on Si substrates has been significantly accelerated by the interface reaction between the thin film and the Si substrate, and thus the thin films show a low L1 0 ordering temperature of T = 310 deg. C as compared with those deposited on Si/SiO 2 substrates. The accelerated L1 0 ordering transition is predominantly dependent on the rapid growth of the ordered domains during the interface reaction. The film thickness has an important effect on the interface reaction and thus can be used to tune the L1 0 ordering process of the FePt films.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of FePt/Au core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presa, P. de la; Multigner, M.; Morales, M.P.; Rueda, T.; Fernandez-Pinel, E.; Hernando, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of the gold-coated FePt nanoparticles synthesized from high-temperature solution phase are presented. The amount of gold was optimized to obtain most of the FePt particles coated. The particle diameter increases from 4 to 10 nm as observed by TEM. The magnetic properties are largely affected by the coating. At low temperature, the coercive field Hc of the coated nanoparticles decreases about three times respect to the uncoated and the blocking temperature reduces to the half. The changes of the magnetic behavior are discussed in terms of the effect of the gold atoms at the FePt core surface

  13. Field-angle dependence of magnetic resonance in Pt/NiFe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, H.Y.; Harii, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2007-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance in NiFe/ amorphous Pt bilayer thin films was investigated with changing the external field direction. The spectral width of the ferromagnetic resonance depends critically on the external-magnetic-field direction. We found that the sample dependence of the spectral width is enhanced with deviation of external field direction from the direction along the film plain, implying an important role of spin directions in field-induced spin-decoherence mechanism in Pt

  14. Origin of open recoil curves in L1_0-A1 FePt exchange coupled nanocomposite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Rajan; Kapoor, Akanksha; Lamba, S.; Annapoorni, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed phase FePt systems with intergranular coupling may be looked upon as natural exchange spring systems. The coupling strength between the soft and hard phase in these systems can be analyzed using recoil curves. However, the origin of open recoil curves depicting the breakdown of exchange coupling or anisotropy variation in hard phase is still an ambiguity and requires an in-depth analysis. In order to investigate this, an analysis of the recoil curves for L1_0–A1 FePt nanocomposite thin films of varying thickness have been performed. The switching field distribution reveals that the maximum of openness of recoil curve is directly proportional to the amount of uncoupled soft phase present in the system. The coupling between the hard and soft phase is also found to increase with the thickness of the film. Monte Carlo simulations on a model three dimensional array of interacting nanomagnetic grains provide further insight into the effect of inter granular exchange interactions between the soft and hard phases. - Highlights: • L1_0-A1 FePt nanocomposites thin films of different thickness have been fabricated by DC sputtering. • Hysteresis curve measurements exhibit perfect single phase (L1_0) like behavior for thicker films. • SFD reveals that the openness of recoil curves is directly linked with the amount of uncoupled soft (A1) phase. • Monte Carlo simulation predicts that the extent of exchange interaction increases with thickness of the film.

  15. Origin of open recoil curves in L1{sub 0}-A1 FePt exchange coupled nanocomposite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Rajan [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kapoor, Akanksha [M. Tech Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lamba, S. [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi 110068 (India); Annapoorni, S., E-mail: annapoornis@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Mixed phase FePt systems with intergranular coupling may be looked upon as natural exchange spring systems. The coupling strength between the soft and hard phase in these systems can be analyzed using recoil curves. However, the origin of open recoil curves depicting the breakdown of exchange coupling or anisotropy variation in hard phase is still an ambiguity and requires an in-depth analysis. In order to investigate this, an analysis of the recoil curves for L1{sub 0}–A1 FePt nanocomposite thin films of varying thickness have been performed. The switching field distribution reveals that the maximum of openness of recoil curve is directly proportional to the amount of uncoupled soft phase present in the system. The coupling between the hard and soft phase is also found to increase with the thickness of the film. Monte Carlo simulations on a model three dimensional array of interacting nanomagnetic grains provide further insight into the effect of inter granular exchange interactions between the soft and hard phases. - Highlights: • L1{sub 0}-A1 FePt nanocomposites thin films of different thickness have been fabricated by DC sputtering. • Hysteresis curve measurements exhibit perfect single phase (L1{sub 0}) like behavior for thicker films. • SFD reveals that the openness of recoil curves is directly linked with the amount of uncoupled soft (A1) phase. • Monte Carlo simulation predicts that the extent of exchange interaction increases with thickness of the film.

  16. In-Situ Liquid Hydrogenation of m-Chloronitrobenzene over Fe-Modified Pt/Carbon Nanotubes Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In-situ liquid-phase hydrogenation of m-chloronitrobenzene (m-CNB based on aqueous-phase reforming (APR of ethanol and catalytic hydrogenation was carried out over Fe-modified Pt/carbon nanotubes (CNTs catalysts. The effects of Pt loading over CNTs and Fe modification on the catalytic performance of Pt/CNTs catalysts were studied. In-tube loading of Pt particles, compared with out-tube loading, considerably improved the catalytic activity. With in-tube loading, Fe-modified Pt/CNTs catalysts further improved the m-CNB in-situ hydrogenation performance. After Fe modification, Pt–Fe/CNTs catalysts formed, inside CNTs, a Pt–Fe alloy and iron oxides, which both improved catalytic hydrogenation performance and significantly enhanced ethanol APR hydrogen producing performance, thereby increasing the m-CNB in-situ hydrogenation reactivity.

  17. Different doping effect on physical properties of non-magnetic Pt and Ga in CaFe4As3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CaFe 3.64 Pt 0.36 As 3 and CaFe 3.64 Ga 0.36 As 3 were grown using Sn flux method. • The two magnetic transition temperatures of CaFe 4 As 3 remain untouched upon Pt or Ga doping. • The effects of Pt and Ga doping give a different modification of physical properties and electronic structure in CaFe 4 As 3 . • The magnetic structure of CaFe 4 As 3 is insusceptible to non-magnetic dopants. - Abstract: We have successfully doped Pt and Ga into CaFe 4 As 3 and investigated the structure and physical properties of CaFe 3.64 X 0.36 As 3 (X = Pt, Ga). Two magnetic transition temperatures remain unchanged upon Pt or Ga doping, as confirmed by specific heat, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The electrical resistivity of CaFe 4 As 3 is reduced by approximately half with Pt dopant but increases by an order of magnitude with Ga doping, consistent with the changes in their Hall coefficients, which indicates the effects of Pt and Ga doping give us a different modification on physical properties and electronic structure in CaFe 4 As 3

  18. Magnetic phases in Pt/Co/Pt films induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisielewski, J., E-mail: jankis@uwb.edu.pl; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland); Wawro, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-05-21

    Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt trilayers with initial in-plane magnetization were irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. In this way, an irreversible structural modification was introduced, which resulted in the creation of numerous pulse fluence-dependent magnetic phases. This was particularly true with the out-of-plane magnetization state, which exhibited a submicrometer domain structure. This effect was studied in a broad range of pulse fluences up to the point of ablation of the metallic films. In addition to this single-pulse experiment, multiple exposure spots were also investigated, which exhibited an extended area of out-of-plane magnetization phases and a decreased damage threshold. Using a double exposure with partially overlapped spots, a two-dimensional diagram of the magnetic phases as a function of the two energy densities was built, which showed a strong inequality between the first and second incoming pulses.

  19. Magnetic phases in Pt/Co/Pt films induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisielewski, J.; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A.; Wawro, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt trilayers with initial in-plane magnetization were irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. In this way, an irreversible structural modification was introduced, which resulted in the creation of numerous pulse fluence-dependent magnetic phases. This was particularly true with the out-of-plane magnetization state, which exhibited a submicrometer domain structure. This effect was studied in a broad range of pulse fluences up to the point of ablation of the metallic films. In addition to this single-pulse experiment, multiple exposure spots were also investigated, which exhibited an extended area of out-of-plane magnetization phases and a decreased damage threshold. Using a double exposure with partially overlapped spots, a two-dimensional diagram of the magnetic phases as a function of the two energy densities was built, which showed a strong inequality between the first and second incoming pulses.

  20. Lowering of the L10 ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles by He+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedwald, U.; Klimmer, A.; Kern, B.; Han, L.; Boyen, H.-G.; Ziemann, P.; Fauth, K.

    2007-01-01

    Arrays of FePt particles (diameter 7 nm) with mean interparticle distances of 60 nm are prepared by a micellar technique on Si substrates. The phase transition of these magnetic particles towards the chemically ordered L1 0 phase is tracked for 350 kV He + ion irradiated samples and compared to a nonirradiated reference. Due to the large separation of the magnetically decoupled particles the array can be safely annealed without any agglomeration as usually observed for more densely packed colloidal FePt nanoparticles. The He + ion exposure yields a significant reduction of the ordering temperature by more than 100 K

  1. Patterned FePt nanostructures using ultrathin self-organized templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chen Hua; Zhang, Min; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xiao Hong

    2018-02-01

    Patterned magnetic thin films are both scientifically interesting and technologically useful. Ultrathin self-organized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template can be used to fabricate large area nanodot and antidot arrays. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures may be tuned by the morphology of the AAO template, which in turn can be controlled by synthetic parameters. In this work, ultrathin AAO templates were used as etching masks for the fabrication of both FePt nanodot and antidot arrays with high areal density. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10 FePt thin films are preserved in the nanostructures.

  2. Magnetic properties of soft layer/FePt-MgO exchange coupled composite Perpendicular recording media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jin-Hua; Takao Suzuki; Pan Li-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic properties of exchange coupled composite(ECC)media that are composed of perpendicular magnetic recording media FePt-MgO and two kinds of soft layers have been studied by using an x-ray diffractometer,a polar Kerr magneto-optical system(PMOKE)and a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The results show that ECC media can reduce the coercivities of perpendicular magnetic recording media FePt-MgO.The ECC media with granular-type soft layers have weaker exchange couplings between magnetic grains and the magnetization process,for ECC media of this kind mainly follow the Stoner-Wohlfarth model.

  3. Evidence of new high-pressure magnetic phases in Fe-Pt Invar alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, M.; Endo, S.; Miura, K.; Ono, F.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the magnetic properties of disordered Fe 70 Pt 30 Invar alloy under high pressure, measurements of the real part of the AC susceptibility (χ) were made under pressure up to 7.5 GPa in the temperature range 4.2-385 K using a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. The Curie temperature (T C ) decreased with increasing pressure, and then, two new high-pressure magnetic phases appeared. These results show that the ferromagnetism of Fe-Pt Invar alloy becomes weaker, and the antiferromagnetic interaction becomes dominant with increasing pressure

  4. Surface morphology of scale on FeCrAl (Pd, Pt, Y) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.; Takezawa, Y.; Shiino, A.; Shishido, T.

    2008-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al, floating zone refined (FZ) Fe-20Cr-4Al, Fe-20Cr-4Al-0.5Pd, Fe-20Cr-4Al-0.5Pt and Fe-20Cr-4Al-(0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys was studied in oxygen for 0.6-18 ks at 1273-1673 K by mass gain measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The mass gains of FeCrAl, FZ FeCrAl, FeCrAlPd and FeCrAlPt alloys showed almost the same values. Those of FeCrAl-(0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys decreased with increasing yttrium of up to 0.1% followed by an increase with the yttrium content after oxidation for 18 ks at 1473 K. Needle-like oxide particles were partially observed on FeCrAl alloy after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1273 K. These oxide particles decreased in size with increasing oxidation time of more than 7.2 ks at 1473 K, and then disappeared after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1573 K. It is suggested that a new oxide develops at the oxygen/scale interface. The scale surface of FeCrAl alloy showed a wavy morphology after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1273 K which then changed to planar morphology after an oxidation time of more than 7.2 ks at 1573 K. On the other hand, the scale surfaces of other alloys were planar after all oxidation conditions in this study. The scale surfaces of FeCrAl, FZ FeCrAl, FeCrAlPd and FeCrAlPt alloys were rough, however, those of FeCrAl-(0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys were smooth. The oxide scales formed on FeCrAl-(0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys were found to be α-Al 2 O 3 with small amounts of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 , and those of the other alloys were only α-Al 2 O 3

  5. Structure, magnetism, and interface properties of epitactical thin Fe and FePt films on GaAs(001) substrates; Struktur, Magnetismus und Grenzflaecheneigenschaften epitaktischer duenner Fe- und FePt-Filme auf GaAs(001)-Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Ellen Ursula

    2007-12-17

    The research in this thesis is focused on the study of the Fe spin structure and interface magnetism of thin epitaxial Fe layers or epitaxial FePt alloy films with chemical L1{sub 0} order on GaAs(001) surfaces. The main method of investigation was isotope-specific conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) combined with the {sup 57}Fe probe-layer technique in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. The film structure was studied using electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical order parameter S determined by XRD was found to increase with rising growth temperature, T{sub S}, to a maximum value of 0.71, until long range order is destroyed at T{sub S}>350 C by alloying with the substrate. As an important result a linear correlation between short-range order (revealed by the relative spectral area of the L1{sub 0} phase) and long-range order S was observed. The observed perpendicular Fe spin texture, characterized by the mean tilting angle left angle {theta} right angle of the Fe spins (relative to the film normal direction), was found to correlate with the L1{sub 0} phase content and with S. Furthermore, epitaxial Fe(001) films on GaAs(001)-(4 x 6) and on GaAs(001)-LED surfaces were grown successfully. In the initial stage of Fe film growth non-monotonous behavior of the in-plane lattice parameter was observed by RHEED. The magnetic hyperfine field distributions P(B{sub hf}) at the Fe/GaAs interface extracted from CEMS spectra for T{sub S}=-140 C or room temperature (RT) were found to be very similar. The observed large mean hyperfine fields of left angle B{sub hf} right angle {approx}25-27 T at the interface indicate the presence of high average Fe moments of 1.7-1.8 {mu}{sub B}. Nonmagnetic interface layers either can be excluded (Fe/GaAs) or are very thin (0.5 ML,Fe/GaAs-LED). Owing to its island structure an ultrathin (1.9 ML thick) uncoated Fe(001) film on GaAs(001)-(4 x 6) shows superparamagnetism with a blocking temperature of

  6. Phase relations in the metal-rich portions of the phase system Pt-Ir-Fe-S at 1000 degrees C and 1100 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, E.; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2000-01-01

    Phase relations in the S-poor portions of the dry condensed Pt-Ir-Fe-S system were determined at 1000 degrees and 1100 degreesC with a particular emphasis on delineation of the solid solubility fields of the Pt-Ir-Fe alloys. At both temperatures, a broad field of gamma (Ir,Fe,Pt) alloy coexists...... with gamma-(Pt,Fe), Pt3Fe and PtFe which dissolve respectively at least 5.1, 29.3 and 24.0 at.% Ir at 1100 degreesC (2.2, 23.6 and less than or equal to 17.2 at.% Ir at 1000 degreesC). Gaps between the nearly Ir-free Pt-Fe alloys gamma (Pt,Fe), Pt3Fe s.s., PtFe s.s. and gamma (Fe,Pt) were estimated as 20......-23 at.%, 40-42 at.% and 54.2-similar to 57 at.% Fe at 1100 degreesC (18-23, 39.5-42.5 and 59-62 at.% Fe at 1000 degreesC). The first gap agrees with data from natural phases by Cabri et ni. (1996). The Fe-rich sulphide melt dissolves only traces of Pt and Ir; Fe1-xS dissolves up to 5.8 at.% Ir at 1100...

  7. Development and structural characterization of exchange-spring-like nanomagnets in (Fe,Co)-Pt bulk nanocrystalline alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Nicula, R. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Vasiliu, F., E-mail: fvasiliu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-03-01

    FePt-based alloys are currently under scrutiny for their possible use as materials for perpendicular magnetic recording. Another possible application is in the field of permanent magnets without rare-earths, magnets that may operate at higher temperatures than the classic Nd–Fe–B magnets. Within this study, FeCoPt alloys prepared by rapid solidification from the melt are structurally and magnetically characterized. In the as-cast FeCoPt ribbons, a three-phase structure comprising well-ordered CoFePt and CoPt L1{sub 0} phases embedded in a disordered fcc FePt matrix was evidenced by XRD, HREM and SAED. Extended transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrates the incipient formation of ordered L1{sub 0} phases. X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the phase structure and to obtain the structural parameters of interest for L1{sub 0} ordering. In the as-cast state, the co-existence of hard magnetic CoFePt and CoPt L1{sub 0} tetragonal phases with the soft fcc FePt phase is obtained within a refined microstructure made of alternatively disposed grains (grain sizes from 1 to 7 nm). Following a thermal treatment of 1 h at 670 °C, the soft magnetic fcc matrix phase transforms to tetragonal L1{sub 0} phases (disorder–order transition). The resulting CoPt and CoFePt L1{sub 0} phases have grains of around 5–20 nm in size. In the as-cast state, magnetic measurements show a quite large remanence (0.75 T), close to the value of the parent L1{sub 0} FePt phase. Coercive fields of about 200 kA/m at 5 K were obtained, comparable with those reported for some FePt-based bulk alloys. Upon annealing both remanence and coercivity are increased and values of up to 254 kA/m at 300 K are obtained. The polycrystalline structure of the annealed FeCoPt samples, as well as the formation of multiple c-axis domains in different CoPt and CoFePt regions (which leads to a reduction of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy) may account for the observed coercive fields that are

  8. Enhancement of L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate in FePt alloy film by using an epitaxial cap-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ohtake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FePt alloy thin films with cap-layers of MgO or C are prepared on MgO(001 single-crystal substrates by using a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The FePt film thickness is fixed at 10 nm, whereas the cap-layer thickness is varied from 1 to 10 nm. The influences of cap-layer material and cap-layer thickness on the variant structure and the L10 ordering are investigated. Single-crystal FePt(001 films with disordered fcc structure (A1 grow epitaxially on the substrates at 200 °C. Single-crystal MgO(001 cap-layers grow epitaxially on the FePt films, whereas the structure of C cap-layers is amorphous. The phase transformation from A1 to L10 occurs when the films are annealed at 600 °C. The FePt films with MgO cap-layers thicker than 2 nm consist of L10(001 variant with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas those with C cap-layers involve small volumes of L10(100 and (010 variants with the c-axis lying in the film plane. The in-plane and the out-of-plane lattices are respectively more expanded and contracted in the continuous-lattice MgO/FePt/MgO structure due to accommodations of misfits of FePt film with respect to not only the MgO substrate but also the MgO cap-layer. The lattice deformation promotes phase transformation along the perpendicular direction and L10 ordering. The FePt films consisting of only L10(001 variant show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropies and low in-plane coercivities. The present study shows that an introduction of epitaxial cap-layer is effective in controlling the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  9. Tip-Dependent Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Imaging of Ultrathin FeO Films on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay Richard; Grabow, Lars C.; Peng, Guowen

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of moiré-structured FeO films on Pt(111) were obtained in a number of different tip-dependent imaging modes. For the first time, the STM images are distinguished and interpreted unambiguously with the help of distinct oxygen...

  10. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.; Gang, T.; Kinge, S.S.; Reinhoudt, David; Blank, David H.A.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs

  11. Preparation and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Pt nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ângela Leão, E-mail: angelala01@hotmail.com [Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Department of Chemistry, ICEB (Brazil); Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte [Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Center of Natural Sciences (Brazil); Fabris, José Domingos [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry, ICEx (Brazil); Pereira, Márcio César [Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), Institute of Science, Engineering and Technology (Brazil); Ardisson, José Domingos [Center for the Development of the Nuclear Technology (CDTN), Laboratory of Applied Physics (Brazil); Domingues, Rosana Zacarias [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry, ICEx (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Pt and Pt-based nanomaterials are active anticancer drugs for their ability to inhibit the division of living cells. Nanoparticles of magnetite containing variable proportions of platinum were prepared in the laboratory. The magnetite nanoparticles with platinum (Pt-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were obtained by reducing the Fe{sup 3+} of the maghemite (γ Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) mixed with platinum (II) acetylacetonate and sucrose in two inversely coupled ceramic crucibles and heated in a furnace at 400 °C for 20 min. The formed carbon during this preparation acts to chemically reduce the ferric iron in maghemite. Moreover, its residual layer on the particle surface prevents the forming magnetite from oxidizing in air and helps retain the platinum in the solid mixture. The produced Pt-magnetite samples were characterized by {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. Measurements of AC magnetic-field-induced heating properties of the obtained nanocomposites, in aqueous solution, showed that they are suitable as a hyperthermia agent for biological applications.

  12. Ferromagnetic resonance characterization of nano-FePt by electron spin resonance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements at room temperature and X-band microwave frequency were performed on highly crystalline FePt system thin films. Fairly high DC static magnetic field absorption of about 300 mT was observed in these films...

  13. Switching field distribution and magnetization reversal process of FePt dot patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishio, S., E-mail: ishio@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Arakawa, A.; Sasaki, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Yan, Z.; Liu, X. [Venture Business Laboratory, Akita University, Tegata Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Y.; Yamane, H.; Ariake, J. [Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Akita 010-1623 (Japan); Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Mizumaki, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of FePt nanodots with a high structural quality and the control of their switching fields are key issues in realizing high density bit pattern recording. We have prepared FePt dot patterns for dots with 15–300 nm diameters by electron beam lithography and re-annealing, and studied the relation between magnetization reversal process and structure of FePt nanodots. The switching field (H{sub sw}) of dot patterns re-annealed at 710 °C for 240 min showed a bimodal distribution, where a higher peak was found at 5–6 T, and a lower peak was found at ∼2 T. It was revealed by cross-sectional TEM analysis that the structure of dots in the pattern can be classified into two groups. One group has a high degree of order with well-defined [0 0 1] crystalline growth, and the other group includes structurally-disturbed dots like [1 1 1] growth and twin crystals. This structural inhomogeneity causes the magnetic switching field distribution observed. - Highlights: • FePt dot patterns with 15–100 nm dot diameters were prepared by EB lithography. • Maximum coercivity of 30 kOe was found in the dot pattern with 30 nm in diameter. • Magnetization reversal was studied on the base of TEM analysis and LLG simulation.

  14. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in FePt Patterned Media Employing a CrV Seed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A thin FePt film was deposited onto a CrV seed layer at 400°C and showed a high coercivity (~3,400 Oe and high magnetization (900–1,000 emu/cm3 characteristic of L10 phase. However, the magnetic properties of patterned media fabricated from the film stack were degraded due to the Ar-ion bombardment. We employed a deposition-last process, in which FePt film deposited at room temperature underwent lift-off and post-annealing processes, to avoid the exposure of FePt to Ar plasma. A patterned medium with 100-nm nano-columns showed an out-of-plane coercivity fivefold larger than its in-plane counterpart and a remanent magnetization comparable to saturation magnetization in the out-of-plane direction, indicating a high perpendicular anisotropy. These results demonstrate the high perpendicular anisotropy in FePt patterned media using a Cr-based compound seed layer for the first time and suggest that ultra-high-density magnetic recording media can be achieved using this optimized top-down approach.

  15. Systematic measurements of transient fields for W, Os and Pt ions traversing Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Heseltine, T.H.; Anderssen, S.S.; Bolotin, H.H.; Byrne, A.P.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Transient magnetic fields were measured for W, Os and Pt ions traversing iron hosts with average velocities in the range from approximately 1.6 v 0 to 4.8 v 0 (v 0 = c/137, Bohr velocity). Transient fields for W and Os in Fe are consistent with behaviour found for lighter rare-earth ions and are about 20% stronger than those for Pt in Fe over the majority of the velocity range examined. A measurement was made to confirm that possible heavy-ion beam induced attenuations of the transient field are negligible for low-velocity Pt ions excited by Ni beams. Results are discussed in terms of both empirical and model-based parameterizations of the transient field strength. (orig.)

  16. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co{sub 2}FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, F.S., E-mail: wenfsh03@126.com [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Xiang, J.Y.; Hao, C.X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y.F. [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, W.H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu, W.T.; Liu, Z.Y. [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The ultrathin films of Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. - Highlights: • Different Pt orientations lead to different magnetic anisotropy for sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy for CFA layer. • Temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • 0.8 nm CFA film is good candidate as electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions.

  17. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin Co2FeAl full-Heusler alloy film via growth orientation of the Pt buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, F.S.; Xiang, J.Y.; Hao, C.X.; Zhang, F.; Lv, Y.F.; Wang, W.H.; Hu, W.T.; Liu, Z.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ultrathin films of Co 2 FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler alloy were prepared between two Pt layers on MgO single crystals by magnetron sputtering. By controlling the substrate temperature, different growth orientations of the Pt underlayers were realized, and their effects were investigated on the magnetic anisotropy of the ultrathin CFA film. It was revealed that different Pt orientations lead to distinctly different magnetic anisotropy for the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy, while the appearance of partial Pt (001) orientation leads to the quick decrease of perpendicular anisotropy and the complete Pt (001) orientation gives rise to the in-plane anisotropy. With the Pt (111) orientation, the temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in the sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. - Highlights: • Different Pt orientations lead to different magnetic anisotropy for sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • The Pt (111) orientation favors the perpendicular anisotropy for CFA layer. • Temperature and thickness-induced spin reorientation transitions were investigated in sandwiched ultrathin CFA films. • 0.8 nm CFA film is good candidate as electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions

  18. Strength of FePd/MgO and FePt/MgO interfaces from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, M.

    2018-04-01

    Cleavage characteristics such as the cleavage energy and the cleavage stress of FePd/MgO and FePt/MgO interfaces are computed from first principles. Considering several possible cleavage planes, the weakest link in these systems is found as the plane with the lowest cleavage stress. This weakest plane is identified in both systems with the interface plane, where the cohesion is reduced by 30% compared to the MgO bulk. Two distinct models of tensile test are employed to verify the results and convergence of computed values with respect to size of the simulation cell is discussed.

  19. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziętek, Slawomir, E-mail: zietek@agh.edu.pl; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ogrodnik, Piotr, E-mail: piotrogr@if.pw.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Stobiecki, Feliks [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Dijken, Sebastiaan van [NanoSpin, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  20. Optimization of L1{sub 0} FePt/Fe{sub 45}Co{sub 55} thin films for rare earth free permanent magnet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannopoulos, G., E-mail: g.giannopoulos@inn.demokritos.gr; Psycharis, V.; Niarchos, D. [INN, NCSR Demokritos, Athens 15310 (Greece); Reichel, L. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute for Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Markou, A.; Panagiotopoulos, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Damm, C.; Fähler, S. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-14

    The magnetic properties of magnetron sputtered bilayers consisting of Fe{sub 45}Co{sub 55} ultrathin layers on top of L1{sub 0} FePt films epitaxially grown on MgO substrates are studied in view of their possible application as rare earth free permanent magnets. It is found that FePt layers induce a tetragonal distortion to the Fe-Co layers which leads to increased anisotropy. This allows to take advantage of the Fe-Co high magnetic moment with less significant loss of the coercivity compared to a typical hard/soft exchange spring system. A maximum energy product approaching 50 MGOe is obtained for a FePt(7 ML)/FeCo/(5 ML) sample. The results are in accordance with first-principles computational methods, which predict that even higher energy products are possible for micromagnetically optimized microstructures.

  1. Magnetic properties and inhomogeneous phase transition in (Fe sub x Co sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub - sub x)Pt sub 0 sub . sub 5 films

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, P W; Na, J G; Lee, S R

    1999-01-01

    (Fe sub x Co sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub - sub x)Pt sub 0 sub . sub 5 ternary thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a dc sputtering method at room temperature and were subsequently annealed at 700 .deg. C in a high vacuum. A high degree of the (111) preferred orientation could be obtained in all the as-deposited films and was not destroyed, even though post annealing. The CoPt and the FePt binary alloys were completely mixed and had a L1 sub o -type ordered structure, as confirmed by single (222) peaks and by the linear variation of the lattice constant a sub o. The ordered structure of the FePt alloy was thought to have formed from the disordered structure by an inhomogeneous process, which was confirmed by the asymmetric peak shapes. The lattice parameter a sub o varied linearly with the Fe content while the coercivity showed a minimum value at the equiatomic composition of the Fe and the Co atoms.

  2. Elaboration et propriétés de nanofils de CoPt et FePt électrodéposés

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmane , Yasmina

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to prepare CoPt and FePt nanowires by electrodeposition in nanoporous aluminum membranes. The electrochemical bath was composed of only two salts (chlorides), one for the cobalt (CoCl2, 6H2O) and one for platinum (K2PtCl6). We succeeded preparing networks of CoPt nanowires with diameters of about 70-80 nm and a coercivity of 1.1 Tesla at room temperature. These magnetically hard materials present the tetragonal phase L10 obtained after annealing at 700 °C the ...

  3. Influence of cobalt content on the structure and hard magnetic properties of nanocomposite (Fe,Co)-Pt-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabias, A., E-mail: agnieszka.grabias@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopcewicz, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Latuch, J.; Oleszak, D. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Pękała, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Kowalczyk, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite alloys were formed by annealing of the rapidly quenched alloys. • Magnetically hard L1{sub 0} (Fe,Co)Pt and soft (Fe,Co){sub 2}B or (Fe,Co)B were formed. • Mössbauer spectra revealed Co substitution for Fe in L1{sub 0} FePt, FeB and Fe{sub 2}B phases. • Annealed alloys exhibit hard magnetic properties which depend on phase compositions. • Co addition was found to decrease the magnetization and the energy product. - Abstract: The influence of Co content on the structural and hard magnetic properties of two sets of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20} (x = 0–26) and Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15} (y = 0–40) alloys was studied. The alloys were prepared as ribbons by the rapid quenching technique. The nanocomposite structure in the alloys was obtained by annealing at 840–880 K for 30 min. Structural characterization of the samples was performed using the Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Magnetic properties of the samples were studied by the measurements of the hysteresis loops and of the magnetization at increasing temperatures. An amorphous phase prevailed in the as-quenched Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20} alloys while a disordered solid solution of fcc-(Fe,Co)Pt was a dominating phase in the Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15} ribbons. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed one or two exothermic peaks at temperatures up to 993 K, depending on the composition of the alloys. Thermal treatment of the samples led to the formation of the magnetically hard ordered L1{sub 0} tetragonal (Fe,Co)Pt nanocrystallites and magnetically softer phases of (Fe,Co)B (for Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20}) or (Fe,Co){sub 2}B (for Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15}). Detailed Mössbauer spectroscopy studies revealed that cobalt substituted for iron in both the L1{sub 0} phase and in iron borides. The nanocomposite Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt

  4. Work function mediated by deposition of ultrathin polar FeO on Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuangzan; Qin, Zhihui; Guo, Qinmin; Cao, Gengyu, E-mail: gycao@wipm.ac.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Growth of FeO layers on Pt(111) is found to consecutively reduce the work function of the system. • The electrostatic compression effect and the structural relaxation make major contributions to the reductions. • Significant rectifying effect observed in the FeO layer is induced by band alignment shift as work function changing. - Abstract: Significant work function changes from bare Pt(111) surface to 1 monolayer and 2 monolayers of ultrathin iron oxide (FeO) films on it are investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). With FeO layer-by-layer growth, a continuous reduction of the work function along with the surface vacuum level (VL) shifting is observed. We found that the compression of the electron spill-out at the metal-oxide interface and the substantial reconstruction of 2 ML FeO film, respectively, make major contributions to the first and the second reductions of the work function. The rectifying effect in FeO films is also observed, which is attributed to the downward shift of band alignment imposed by the total change in surface dipole. Our work shows that the polar oxide films play an important role to adjust surface electronic structures for enhancing device functionality.

  5. Work function mediated by deposition of ultrathin polar FeO on Pt(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shuangzan; Qin, Zhihui; Guo, Qinmin; Cao, Gengyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Growth of FeO layers on Pt(111) is found to consecutively reduce the work function of the system. • The electrostatic compression effect and the structural relaxation make major contributions to the reductions. • Significant rectifying effect observed in the FeO layer is induced by band alignment shift as work function changing. - Abstract: Significant work function changes from bare Pt(111) surface to 1 monolayer and 2 monolayers of ultrathin iron oxide (FeO) films on it are investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). With FeO layer-by-layer growth, a continuous reduction of the work function along with the surface vacuum level (VL) shifting is observed. We found that the compression of the electron spill-out at the metal-oxide interface and the substantial reconstruction of 2 ML FeO film, respectively, make major contributions to the first and the second reductions of the work function. The rectifying effect in FeO films is also observed, which is attributed to the downward shift of band alignment imposed by the total change in surface dipole. Our work shows that the polar oxide films play an important role to adjust surface electronic structures for enhancing device functionality.

  6. Static magnetism and thermal switching in randomly oriented L10 FePt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisfi, A.; Pokharel, S.; Alqarni, A.; Akioya, O.; Morgan, W.; Wuttig, M.

    2018-05-01

    Static magnetism and thermally activated magnetic relaxation were investigated in granular FePt films (20 nm-200 nm thick) with random magnetic anisotropy through hysteresis loop, torque curve and magnetization time dependence measurements. While the magnetism of thicker film (200 nm thick) is dominated by a single switching of the ordered L10 phase, thinner film (20 nm) displays a double switching, which is indicative of the presence of the disordered cubic phase. The pronounced behavior of double switching in thinner film suggests that the film grain boundary is composed of soft cubic magnetic phase. The magnetic relaxation study reveals that magnetic viscosity S of the films is strongly dependent on the external applied field and exhibits a maximum value (12 kAm) around the switching field and a vanishing behavior at low (1 kOe) and large (12 kOe) fields. The activation volume of the thermal switching was found to be much smaller than the physical volume of the granular structure due to the incoherent rotation mode of the magnetization reversal mechanism, which is established to be domain wall nucleation.

  7. Impact of ultrafast demagnetization process on magnetization reversal in L10 FePt revealed using double laser pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. Y.; Tang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Ma, L.; Sun, L.; Zhou, C.; Hu, X. F.; Zheng, Z.; Shen, L. Q.; Zhou, S. M.; Wu, Y. Z.; Chen, L. Y.; Zhao, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast laser induced magnetization reversal in L10 FePt films with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was investigated using single- and double-pulse excitations. Single-pulse excitation beyond 10 mJ cm-2 caused magnetization (M) reversal at the applied fields much smaller than the static coercivity of the films. For double-pulse excitation, both coercivity reduction and reversal percentage showed a rapid and large decrease with the increasing time interval (Δt) of the two pulses in the range of 0-2 ps. In this Δt range, the maximum demagnetization (ΔMp) was also strongly attenuated, whereas the integrated demagnetization signals over more than 10 ps, corresponding to the average lattice heat effect, showed little change. These results indicate that laser induced M reversal in FePt films critically relies on ΔMp. Because ΔMp is determined by spin temperature, which is higher than lattice temperature, utilizing an ultrafast laser instead of a continuous-wave laser in laser-assisted M reversal may reduce the overall deposited energy and increase the speed of recording. The effective control of M reversal by slightly tuning the time delay of two laser pulses may also be useful for ultrafast spin manipulation.

  8. Effect of atomic composition on the compressive strain and electrocatalytic activity of PtCoFe/sulfonated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, Elaheh [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran, E-mail: mehranjavanbakht@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fuel and Solar Cell Lab, Renewable Energy Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad [Fuel and Solar Cell Lab, Renewable Energy Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Thin Layer and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Technology, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • SO{sub 3}H-graphene supported PtFeCo alloy nanoparticles were prepared. • Co:Fe atomic ratio plays important role in the electrocatalytic performance. • PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio is optimized for PEMFCs. • Power density of 530 mW cm{sup −2} with 0.1 mg cm{sup −2} Pt loading was obtained at 75 °C. - Abstract: The aim of this work is improvement of the stability and durability of sulfonated graphene supported PtCoFe electrocatalyst (PtCoFe/SG) for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The durability investigation of PtCoFe/SG is evaluated by a repetitive potential cycling test. The compressive strain in the lattice of PtCoFe/SG towards the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction is studied. The synthesized electrocatalysts are examined physically and electrochemically for their structure, morphology and electrocatalytic performance. It is shown that presence of SO{sub 3}− groups on the graphene cause better adsorption of PtCoFe nanoparticles on the support and increase stability of electrocatalysts. Also, it is shown that Co:Fe atomic ratio in the synthesized electrocatalysts plays important role in their electrocatalytic performance. In the optimum Co:Fe atomic ratio, the compressive strain goes through the ideal value of the binding energy; further increase in Co/Fe atomic fraction introduces the excessive compressive strain and the activity of electrocatalyst decreases. The electrocatalyst synthesized in the optimum conditions is utilized as cathode in PEMFC. The power density of the PEMFC in low metal loading (0.1 mg cm{sup −2} Pt) reaches to a maximum of 530 mW cm{sup −2} at 75 °C. It suggests that PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio promises to improve the power density of PEMFCs.

  9. Stabilization of Pt nanoparticles by single stranded DNA and the binary assembly of Au and Pt nanoparticles without hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, Jim Yang; Too, Heng-Phon; Chow, Gan-Moog; Gan, Leong M.

    2006-01-01

    The non-specific interaction between single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and 12 nm Pt nanoparticles is investigated in this work. The data show a strong and non-specific interaction between the two which can be exploited for the stabilization of Pt nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. Based on the experimental findings, a non-hybridization based protocol to assemble 17 nm Au and Pt nanoparticles (12 nm cubic and 3.6 nm spherical) by single-stranded DNA was developed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed that Au and Pt nanoparticles could be assembled by the non-specific interaction in an orderly manner. The experimental results also caution against the potential pitfalls in using DNA melting point analysis to infer metal nanoparticle assembly by DNA hybridization

  10. High-coercivity FePt nanoparticle assemblies embedded in silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q; Purkayastha, A; Singh, A P; Li, H; Ramanath, G; Li, A; Ramanujan, R V

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process assemblies using thin film techniques in a scalable fashion would be a key to transmuting the assemblies into manufacturable devices. Here, we embed FePt nanoparticle assemblies into a silica thin film by sol-gel processing. Annealing the thin film composite at 650 deg. C transforms the chemically disordered fcc FePt phase into the fct phase, yielding magnetic coercivity values H c >630 mT. The positional order of the particles is retained due to the protection offered by the silica host. Such films with assemblies of high-coercivity magnetic particles are attractive for realizing new types of ultra-high-density data storage devices and magneto-composites.

  11. Atomistic modeling of L10 FePt: path to HAMR 5Tb/in2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Benakli, Mourad; Rea, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is a promising approach for increasing the storage density of hard disk drives. To increase data density, information must be written in small grains, which requires materials with high anisotropy energy such as L10 FePt. On the other hand, high anisotropy implies high coercivity, making it difficult to write the data with existing recording heads. This issue can be overcome by the technique of HAMR, where a laser is used to heat the recording medium to reduce its coercivity while retaining good thermal stability at room temperature due to the large anisotropy energy. One of the keys to the success of HAMR is the precise control of writing process. In this talk, I will propose a Monte Carlo simulation, based on an atomistic model, that would allow us to study the magnetic properties of L10 FePt and dynamics of spin reversal for the writing process in HAMR.

  12. Velocity dependence of transient hyperfine field at Pt ions rapidly recoiling through magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the transient hyperfine magnetic field acting at nuclei of 196 Pt ions rapidly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe was investigated at a number of recoil velocities. The state of interest (2 1 + ) was populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 80- and 120-MeV 32 S and 150- and 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. The 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distribution precession measurements were carried out in coincidence with backscattered projectiles. From these results, the strength of the transient field acting on Pt ions recoiling through magnetized Fe with average velocities in the extended range 2.14<=v/vsub(o)<=4.82 (vsub(o) = c/137) was found to be consistent with a linear velocity dependence and to be incompatible with the specific vsup(0.45+-0.18) dependence which has been previously reported to account well for all ions in the mass range from oxygen through samarium. This seemingly singular behaviour for Pt and other ions in the Pt mass vicinity is discussed

  13. Environmental transmission electron microscopy investigations of Pt-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for nucleating carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Jin, Hua; Zhang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    electron microscopy, restructuring of the acorn-like Pt-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at reaction conditions is investigated. Upon heating to reaction temperature, ε-Fe2O3 is converted to β-Fe2O3, which can be subsequently reduced to metallic Fe once introducing CO. As Pt promotes the carburization of Fe, part...... of the metallic Fe reacts with active carbon atoms to form Fe2.5C instead of Fe3C, catalyzing the nucleation of carbon nanotubes. Nanobeam electron diffraction characterizations on SWCNTs grown under ambient pressure at 800 °C demonstrate that their chiral angle and diameter distributions are similar to those...

  14. Unipolar resistive switching in planar Pt/BiFeO3/Pt structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Katiyar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report unipolar resistive switching suitable for nonvolatile memory applications in polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films in planar electrode configuration with non-overlapping Set and Reset voltages, On/Off resistance ratio of ∼104 and good data retention (verified for up to 3,000 s. We have also observed photovoltaic response in both high and low resistance states, where the photocurrent density was about three orders of magnitude higher in the low resistance state as compared to the high resistance state at an illumination power density of ∼100 mW/cm2. Resistive switching mechanisms in both resistance states of the planar device can be explained by using the conduction filament (thermo-chemical model.

  15. Calculated dependence of FePt damping on external field magnitude and direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Natekar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Near the Curie temperature (Tc, magnetic parameters including magnetization, anisotropy, and damping depend strongly on both temperature and length scale. This manifestation of renormalization theory is most readily seen in the case of magnetization where the magnitude of the atomic spin is largely unaffected by temperature, but the bulk magnetization vanishes at Tc. It has been previously argued that the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert damping parameter alpha exhibits a similar effect owing to its dependence on both atomic effects and magnon-magnon scattering, the latter having a strong length dependence. Here, we calculate, using an anisotropic exchange description of L10 FePt (Tc = 705 K, the damping (and other magnetic properties dependence on temperature for FePt at length scales around 1.0 nm as appropriate for high temperature micromagnetic simulation. While the damping reduces as the applied field along the easy direction increases, it tends to increase as the field direction is changed to in-plane. The renormalized parameters are also calculated for higher and lower Tc (770K and 630K by invoking the linear relationship between the exchange stiffness parameter and Curie temperature. This corresponds to doped and/or non-stoichiometric FePt and allows better understanding of the effects of varying anisotropy to exchange ratio.

  16. Double-layered perpendicular magnetic recording media of granular-type FePt-MgO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengang; Singh, Amarendra K.; Yin Jinhua; Perumal, A.; Suzuki, Takao

    2005-01-01

    The recording performance of double-layered granular-type FePt-MgO perpendicular magnetic recording media fabricated onto glass discs by sputtering is investigated. The (0 0 1)-textured FePt granular films are obtained by annealing FePt/MgO multilayers. Three different multilayer structures are compared in their magnetic properties and recording SNR performances. To evaluate thermal stability property of these granular-type FePt disks, the time-dependent magnetic force microscope (MFM) signal from the written bits on one of these disks is recorded in the temperature range 25-200 degree sign C. The signal decay at high observation temperature is interpreted based on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy (K u )

  17. Mn doping effect on structure and magnetism of epitaxial (FePt)1-xMnx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.A.; Chang, Y.C.; Yu, C.C.; Yao, Y.D.; Hu, Y.M.; Fu, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We study the structure and perpendicular magnetism of molecular beam epitaxy grown (FePt) 1-x Mn x films with doping concentration x=0, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%. The (FePt) 1-x Mn x films were made by multilayers growth of [Fe/Pt/Mn]xN at 100 deg. C and annealed at 600 deg. C. X-ray diffraction scans indicate that relatively better L1 0 ordered structure for low Mn doping (x 3%. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy effect of the (FePt) 1-x Mn x films tends to decrease with the increase of Mn doping for x>1%. However, the x=1% doped films possess slightly better perpendicular magnetic anisotropy effect than the zero doped film. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant are of about 1.3x10 7 and 1.6x10 7 erg/cm 3 for x=0% and x=1%, respectively

  18. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscio, F; Maret, M; Doisneau-Cottignies, B; Makarov, D; Albrecht, M; Roussel, H

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures grown at different temperatures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001) substrates is presented. A strong influence of the deposition temperature on the epitaxial growth as well as on the size distribution of FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl substrates is observed. In spite of a large lattice mismatch between FePt and NaCl, a 'cube-over-cube' growth of nanostructures with a narrow size distribution was achieved at 520 K. Moreover, the growth of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) is not preceded by the formation of a wetting layer as observed on MgO(001). The higher degree of L1 0 chemical ordering in FePt nanostructures grown on MgO(001) accompanied by the absence of L1 0 variants with an in-plane tetragonal c-axis indicates that the tensile epitaxial stress induced by the MgO substrate is a key factor in the formation of the L1 0 phase with an out-of-plane c-axis. Superparamagnetic behavior is revealed for the FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl(001) due to their small size and relatively poor chemical order.

  19. Single Pt Atoms Confined into a Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xinzuo; Shang, Qichao; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Long; Yao, Tao; Li, Yafei; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Yi; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-02-01

    It is highly desirable yet remains challenging to improve the dispersion and usage of noble metal cocatalysts, beneficial to charge transfer in photocatalysis. Herein, for the first time, single Pt atoms are successfully confined into a metal-organic framework (MOF), in which electrons transfer from the MOF photosensitizer to the Pt acceptor for hydrogen production by water splitting under visible-light irradiation. Remarkably, the single Pt atoms exhibit a superb activity, giving a turnover frequency of 35 h -1 , ≈30 times that of Pt nanoparticles stabilized by the same MOF. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy further unveils that the single Pt atoms confined into the MOF provide highly efficient electron transfer channels and density functional theory calculations indicate that the introduction of single Pt atoms into the MOF improves the hydrogen binding energy, thus greatly boosting the photocatalytic H 2 production activity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, P. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Tsai, C. L. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H. [Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C. [Department of Physics, National Chang Hua University of Education, Chang Hua 50000, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe} = 0–10 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0 nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe} ≥ 3.0 nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10 nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  1. Detection of Single Pt Nanoparticle Collisions by Open-Circuit Potential Changes at Ag Ultramicroelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seon Kyu; Shin, Changhwan; Kwon, Seong Jung

    2016-01-01

    Single platinum (Pt) nanoparticle (NP) collisions were investigated with open-circuit potential (OCP) using a silver (Ag) ultramicroelectrode (UME). The Ag UME showed higher sensitivity to single Pt NP detection by the OCP method than gold (Au) UME. The detection of ⁓2 nm radius Pt NP collisions was carried out successfully using Ag UME. The magnitude of the potential step and collision frequency for the single Pt NP collision on Ag UME was investigated and compared with those of the previous work done on Au UME.

  2. Exchange bias effect in L10-ordered FePt and FeCo-based bilayer structure: effect of increasing applied field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sadhana; Kumar, Dileep; Bhagat, Babli; Choudhary, R. J.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay

    2018-02-01

    The applied magnetic field (H APP) dependence of the exchange bias (EB) is studied in an exchange-coupled thin-film bilayer composed of a hard ferromagnetic FePt layer in the proximity of a soft ferromagnetic FeCo layer. FePt/FeCo structure is deposited in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the FePt layer was first annealed at 823 K for 30 min and subsequently cooled to room temperature in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field, H MAX ~ 1.5 kOe to promote L10-ordered hard magnetic phase with magnetic moments aligned in one of the in-plane directions in the FePt layer. In-situ magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements during different stages of bilayer growth and detailed ex-situ superconducting quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometer measurements jointly revealed that due to the interplay between exchange coupling at the interface and dipolar energies of the saturated hard FePt layer, a hysteresis loop of FeCo layer shifts along the magnetic field axis. A clear dependence of EB field (H EB) on increasing maximum value of the H APP during the hysteresis loop measurement is understood in terms of the magnetic state of soft and hard magnetic layers, where EB increases with increasing H APP until the hard layer moment remains undisturbed in its remanence state. As soon as the field was sufficient to rotate the spins of the FePt layer, the loop became symmetric with respect to the field axis.

  3. FePt and CoPt nanoparticles prepared by micellar method. Effects of A1{yields}L1{sub 0} transition on oxidation resistance and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Luyang

    2011-02-15

    In this thesis FePt and CoPt alloy nanoparticles are prepared with reverse micelles. The metallic nanoparticles with diameters of 2-12 nm and interparticle distances of 20-140 nm are obtained on Si substrates. The magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt nanoparticles as well as oxidation behavior of FePt nanoparticles are investigated. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements on 5.8 nm FePt nanoparticles after hydrogen plasma reduction at 300 C reveals that the magnetic moment per Fe atom and magnetic anisotropy energy match chemically disordered FePt in A1 phase. Annealing at 650 C transform portion of FePt particles to chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The presense of nanoparticles in L1{sub 0} phase is identified by high-resolution transmission electronmicroscopy (HRTEM) investigation, where it is also observed that large fraction of the particles contain defects such as twin boundaries and stacking faults. By increasing the annealing temperature or prolonging annealing time, ratio of transformed particles increases. The average magnetic anisotropy energy of the transformed particles is below 30% of the value of bulk FePt in L1{sub 0} phase. Annealing at above 750 C, however, decreases the average magnetic anisotropy in the sample. Similar A1 {yields} L1{sub 0} transition is observed in FePt nanoparticles with different diameters as well as in CoPt nanoparticles. The spin moment of Fe in FePt nanoparticles decreases with smaller particle diameter, while the orbital moment stays almost constant. Magnetic moments at room temperature are significantly reduced compared to those at low temperature, suggesting the Curie temperatures in FePt and CoPt nanoparticles are significantly lower than in the bulk. The annealing also induces Pt segregation towards the surface in FePt nanoparticles, which is identified by the decreased apparent Fe content measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The segregation of Pt

  4. CoPt and FePt magnetic alloys grown on van der Waals WSe{sub 2}(0001) surfaces and on arrays of SiO{sub 2} spherical particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Denys

    2008-06-06

    Modern magnetic recording is based on usage of hard magnetic alloys as a recording media. In order to increase the areal storage density (number of stored bits per square inch), materials with a high value of magnetic anisotropy are required to stabilize the direction of the magnetization and thus satisfy the criteria of thermal stability. The magnetic alloy currently used for hard disk drive production is a granular CoCrPt:SiO2 alloy with a grain size of approximately 7 nm and an anisotropy constant of about 0.4 MJ/m{sup 3}. However, the predicted limit of the highest achievable areal density of this type of granular media is 500-600 Gbit/in{sup 2}. To satisfy the demand of higher densities, new magnetic alloys have to be introduced. The most promising candidates for future ultra-high density magnetic recording applications are chemically L10 ordered FePt and CoPt alloys with anisotropy constants of about 10 MJ/m{sup 3} and 3 MJ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In order to obtain a high value of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the substrate temperature during molecular beam epitaxy or sputtering deposition has to be higher than 500 C. For practical use in industrial applications the ordering temperature of the FePt and CoPt alloys has to be reduced. One of the promising approaches to reduce the ordering temperature is related to the enhancement of the adatom mobility by growing the alloy on the chemically saturated surface. In this regard an attempt to reduce the ordering temperature of the CoPt alloy with equiatomic composition was performed in the scope of present work by growing the CoPt alloy on van der Waals WSe{sub 2}(0001) substrates. Moreover, an increase in data density can be gained using the concept of patterned media, where an information unit (bit) is stored in a single nanostructure. The most attractive way to produce patterned magnetic media for ultra-high density magnetic recording applications is based on self-assembly of the magnetic nanostructures. In this

  5. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  6. Nonvolatile resistive switching in metal/La-doped BiFeO3/Pt sandwiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhuge, Fei; Zhu, Xiaojian; Yin, Kuibo; Wang, Jinzhi; Liu, Yiwei; He, Congli; Chen, Bin; Li, Run-Wei

    2010-10-22

    The resistive switching (RS) characteristics of a Bi(0.95)La(0.05)FeO(3) (La-BFO) film sandwiched between a Pt bottom electrode and top electrodes (TEs) made of Al, Ag, Cu, and Au have been studied. Devices with TEs made of Ag and Cu showed stable bipolar RS behaviors, whereas those with TEs made of Al and Au exhibited unstable bipolar RS. The Ag/La-BFO/Pt structure showed an on/off ratio of 10(2), a retention time > 10(5) s, and programming voltages TEs under a bias voltage. The maximum current before the reset process (on-to-off switching) was found to increase linearly with the current compliance applied during the set process (off-to-on switching).

  7. Exchange-coupled hard magnetic Fe-Co/CoPt nanocomposite films fabricated by electro-infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a potentially scalable electro-infiltration process to produce exchange-coupled hard magnetic nanocomposite thin films. Fe-Co/CoPt nanocomposite films are fabricated by deposition of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles onto Si substrate, followed by electroplating of CoPt. Samples are subsequently annealed under H2 to reduce the CoFe2O4 to magnetically soft Fe-Co and also induce L10 ordering in the CoPt. Resultant films exhibit 0.97 T saturation magnetization, 0.70 T remanent magnetization, 127 kA/m coercivity and 21.8 kJ/m3 maximum energy density. First order reversal curve (FORC analysis and δM plot are used to prove the exchange coupling between soft and hard magnetic phases.

  8. Atomically flat surface of (0 0 1) textured FePt thin films by residual stress control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chou, C.L.; Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.Y. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate crystallographic structure, (0 0 1) texture, surface roughness, and residual stress in the single-layered FePt thin films annealed at various heating rates (10–110 K/s). • Texture coefficient of (0 0 1)-plane of the samples increases with increasing heating rate from 10 to 40 K/s, which is correlated with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and in-plane tensile stress. • Dewetting phenomenon due to stress relaxation leads to the broadening of [0 0 1] easy axis and degradation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. • A strong dependence of surface roughness on in-plane residual stress was revealed. • When the samples are RTA at 40 K/s, the enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and atomically surface roughness are achieved. - Abstract: Single-layered Fe{sub 52}Pt{sub 48} films with thickness of 10 nm were sputter-deposited on glass substrates. Rapid thermal annealing with different heating rates (10–110 K/s) was applied to transform as-deposited fcc phase into L1{sub 0} phase and meanwhile to align [0 0 1]-axis of L1{sub 0} crystal along plane normal direction. Based on X-ray diffractometry using synchrotron radiation source, the texture coefficient of (0 0 1)-plane increases with increasing heating rate from 10 to 40 K/s, which is correlated with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and in-plane tensile stress analyzed by asymmetric sin{sup 2} ψ method. Furthermore, it was revealed by atomic force microscopy that the dewetting process occurred as heating rate was raised up to 80 K/s and higher. The change in the microstructure due to stress relaxation leads to the degradation of (0 0 1) orientation and magnetic properties. Surface roughness is closely related to the in-plane tensile stress. Enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and atomically flat surface were achieved for the samples annealed at 40 K/s, which may be suitable for further practical applications. This work also suggests a feasible way for surface

  9. Preventing dewetting during rapid-thermal annealing of FePt films with enhanced L1{sub 0} ordering by introducing Ag cap-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, S.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Liu, S.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Tsai, J.L., E-mail: tsaijl@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.Y. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    High-order FePt continuous films with a strong (001) texture were fabricated on a glass substrate by introducing Ag layers and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The dewetting of the (001)-textured FePt was suppressed during RTA with high heating rates (>80 K/s). The Ag cap layers not only increased the in-plane tensile stress, but also improved the (001) anisotropy and L1{sub 0} ordering of the FePt layers. All continuous Ag/FePt bilayer films possessed strong perpendicular anisotropies and high-ordered states irrespective of the Ag layer thickness. - Highlights: • Dewetting of (001) FePt fims were suppressed by introducing Ag cap layers. • Ag layers enhanced in-plane tensile stress, (001) texture and L1{sub 0} ordering. • Irrespective of Ag thickness, the Ag/FePt films exhibited strong (001) texture.

  10. Preventing dewetting during rapid-thermal annealing of FePt films with enhanced L10 ordering by introducing Ag cap-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, S.N.; Wu, S.C.; Liu, S.H.; Tsai, J.L.; Chen, S.K.; Chang, Y.C.; Lee, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    High-order FePt continuous films with a strong (001) texture were fabricated on a glass substrate by introducing Ag layers and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The dewetting of the (001)-textured FePt was suppressed during RTA with high heating rates (>80 K/s). The Ag cap layers not only increased the in-plane tensile stress, but also improved the (001) anisotropy and L1 0 ordering of the FePt layers. All continuous Ag/FePt bilayer films possessed strong perpendicular anisotropies and high-ordered states irrespective of the Ag layer thickness. - Highlights: • Dewetting of (001) FePt fims were suppressed by introducing Ag cap layers. • Ag layers enhanced in-plane tensile stress, (001) texture and L1 0 ordering. • Irrespective of Ag thickness, the Ag/FePt films exhibited strong (001) texture

  11. Single-Crystalline cooperite (PtS): Crystal-Chemical characterization, ESR spectroscopy, and {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhdestvina, V. I., E-mail: veronika@ascnet.ru; Ivanov, A. V.; Zaremba, M. A. [Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology and Nature Management (Russian Federation); Antsutkin, O. N.; Forsling, W. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    Single-crystalline cooperite (PtS) with a nearly stoichiometric composition was characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, electron-probe X-ray microanalysis, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. For the first time it was demonstrated that {sup 195}Pt static and MAS NMR spectroscopy can be used for studying natural platinum minerals. The {sup 195}Pt chemical-shift tensor of cooperite was found to be consistent with the axial symmetry and is characterized by the following principal values: {delta}{sub xx} = -5920 ppm, {delta}{sub yy} = -3734 ppm, {delta}{sub zz} = +4023 ppm, and {delta}{sub iso} = -1850 ppm. According to the ESR data, the samples of cooperite contain copper(II), which is adsorbed on the surface during the layer-by-layer crystal growth and is not involved in the crystal lattice.

  12. Effects of thermal annealing on C/FePt granular multilayers: in situ and ex situ studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babonneau, D; Abadias, G; Toudert, J; Girardeau, T; Fonda, E; Micha, J S; Petroff, F

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive study of C/FePt granular multilayers prepared by ion-beam sputtering at room temperature and subsequent annealing is reported. The as-deposited multilayers consist of carbon-encapsulated FePt nanoparticles (average size ∼3 nm) with a disordered face-centered-cubic structure. The effects of thermal annealing on the structural and magnetic properties are investigated by using dedicated ex situ and in situ techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, magnetometry, and coupled grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray diffraction. Our structural data show that the particle size and interparticle distance increase slightly with annealing at temperatures below 790 K by thermally activated migration of Fe and Pt atoms. We find that thermal annealing at temperatures above 870 K results in the dramatic growth of the FePt nanoparticles by coalescence and their gradual L1 0 ordering. In addition, we observe a preferential graphitization of the carbon matrix, which provides protection against oxidation for the FePt nanoparticles. Magnetization measurements indicate that progressive magnetic hardening occurs after annealing. The dependences of the blocking temperature, saturation magnetization, coercivity, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy on the annealing temperature are discussed on the basis of the structural data

  13. Synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles by high energy ball milling with and without surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, V.; Martinez, A.; Recio, J.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe and Pt powders in the presence of surfactants don’t alloyed by HEBM technique. ► FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit particle sizes of around 10 μm. ► FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit soft magnetic behavior. ► A thermal treatment induces a phase transformation from FCC to FCT. - Abstract: FePt nanoparticles were prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) in two different ways. In the first one, elemental powders were mixed and milled whereas in the second one the milling was performed in the presence of oleyl amine and oleic acid as surfactants and hexane as a solvent. X-ray diffraction shows that when the milling is performed in dry conditions, Fe and Pt are alloyed after 5 h, whereas in the wet milling procedure alloying does not take place. In the first case, the diffraction pattern corresponds to the disordered FCC phase. This behavior is also corroborated by the evolution of the magnetic characteristics. In the case of the alloy obtained in dry conditions, the powder was heat treated in order to induce the transformation to the ordered phase. Coercivities of 2.5 kOe are obtained after 650 °C for 2 h.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles by high energy ball milling with and without surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Martinez, A.; Recio, J. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe and Pt powders in the presence of surfactants don't alloyed by HEBM technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit particle sizes of around 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit soft magnetic behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermal treatment induces a phase transformation from FCC to FCT. - Abstract: FePt nanoparticles were prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) in two different ways. In the first one, elemental powders were mixed and milled whereas in the second one the milling was performed in the presence of oleyl amine and oleic acid as surfactants and hexane as a solvent. X-ray diffraction shows that when the milling is performed in dry conditions, Fe and Pt are alloyed after 5 h, whereas in the wet milling procedure alloying does not take place. In the first case, the diffraction pattern corresponds to the disordered FCC phase. This behavior is also corroborated by the evolution of the magnetic characteristics. In the case of the alloy obtained in dry conditions, the powder was heat treated in order to induce the transformation to the ordered phase. Coercivities of 2.5 kOe are obtained after 650 Degree-Sign C for 2 h.

  15. Enhanced dielectric constant and fatigue-resistance of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 capacitor with magnetic intermetallic FePt top electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. T.; Zhao, J. W.; Li, X. H.; Zhou, Y.; Bian, F.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhao, Q. X.; Wang, Y. L.; Guo, Q. L.; Wang, L. X.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2010-06-01

    Both FePt/PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3(PZT)/Pt and Pt/PZT/Pt ferroelectric capacitors have been fabricated on Si substrates. It is found that up to 109 switching cycles, the FePt/PZT/Pt capacitor, measured at 50 kHz, with polarization decreased by 57%, is superior to the Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor by 82%, indicating that an intermetallic FePt top electrode can also improve the fatigue-resistance of a PZT capacitor. Maximum dielectric constants are 980 and 770 for PZT capacitors with FePt and Pt, respectively. This is attributed to the interface effect between PZT film and the top electrode since the interfacial capacitance of FePt/PZT is 3.5 times as large as that of Pt/PZT interface.

  16. Early-stage ordering in in-situ annealed Fe51Pt49 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, S.N.; Chen, S.K.; Chin, T.S.; Hsu, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; Yuan, F.T.; Lee, H.Y.; Liao, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evidenced an early-stage ordering (ESO) in Fe 51 Pt 49 film before the appearance of superlattice diffraction (long-range-order, LRO) using 40-nm-thick films prepared by magnetron sputtering onto quartz substrate. The appearance of L1 0 phase for samples deposited at substrate temperatures (T s ) 400 deg. C and higher was verified by X-ray diffraction. Surface roughness of Fe 51 Pt 49 films, obtained via X-ray specular reflectivity with computational fitting, increases from 3.8 to 11 A as T s is increased from 25 to 275 deg. C. As further increase of T s to 375 deg. C, the roughness drops to 3.2 A and then increases again to 38 A with T s up to 700 deg. C. Measurement on residual strain demonstrates that it is initially compressive at T s s up to 700 deg. C corresponding to LRO transformation. Local atomic rearrangement is observed for samples deposited at T s >250 deg. C by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. Coercivity of films increases from 10 to 460 Oe as T s increase from 25 to 375 deg. C (ESO) and then from 460 to 10,700 Oe with T s 375-700 deg. C (normal LRO). The worked out quantitative estimation of ESO engages with that of LRO before T s 400 deg. C.

  17. Biological fate of a single administration of 191Pt in rats following different routes of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W. Jr.; Hysell, D.; Crocker, W.; Stara, J.

    1975-01-01

    The retention, tissue distribution, and excretion of 191 Pt in adult rats was determined following oral, intravenous (IV), and intratracheal administration. The highest retention was obtained following IV dosing, and lowest retention (less than 0.5 percent) occurred after oral dosing. Tissues containing the highest concentrations of 191 Pt following IV administration were the kidney, adrenal, spleen, and liver. Following a single oral dose, almost all of the 191 Pt was excreted in the feces due to nonabsorption, whereas after IV dosing, similar quantities were excreted in both the urine and feces. Following IV dosing of pregnant rats, 191 Pt was found in all the fetuses; however, the amount was small

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of L10-FePt thin films on TiN/RuAl underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Ratanaphan, Sutatch; Zhu Jiangang; Laughlin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Highly ordered L1 0 FePt-oxide thin films with small grains were prepared by using a RuAl layer as a grain size defining seed layer along with a TiN barrier layer. Different HAMR (Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording) favorable underlayers were studied to encourage perpendicular texture and preferred microstructure. It was found that the epitaxial and small grain growth from the RuAl/TiN underlayer results in small and uniform grains in the FePt layer with perpendicular texture. By introducing the grain size defining underlayers, the FePt grain size can be reduced from 30 to 6 nm with the same volume fraction (9%) of SiO 2 in the film, excellent perpendicular texture, and very high order parameter at 520 deg. C.

  19. (CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub z}As{sub 8} superconductors and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerzer, Tobias

    2015-04-13

    The main topic of this dissertation is the identification of new compounds, structure determination, and substitution dependent investigation of properties in this new branch of the family of iron arsenide superconductors (Chapter 2). Chapter 2.1 presents the identification of the superconducting compounds and the corresponding structure elucidation identifying two dif-ferent species (CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} and (CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 4}As{sub 8} in this family (abbreviated as 1038 and 1048 according to their stoichiometry). However, a closer look revealed a more challenging structure chemistry which is covered in Chapter 2.2. The following two Chapters 2.3 and 2.4 are devoted to (CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} and more detailed investigations on this parent compound of the new superconductor family. Furthermore, transition metal substitution series (CaFe{sub 1-x}M{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} were synthesized to investigate the resemblance to model systems Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}M{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub x} and LaO(Fe{sub 1-x}M{sub x})As in the scope of structural changes and superconductivity as described in Chapter 2.5. Initially amazing differences in superconducting properties com-paring 1038 and 1048 compounds are analyzed in Chapter 2.6 establishing an universal dop-ing model in the (CaFe{sub 1-x}M{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub z}As{sub 8} family. Additionally substituent dependent properties upon rare earth substitution in electron doped (Ca{sub 1-y}RE{sub y}FeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} are investigated in Chapter 2.7, while a detailed study of superconducting properties and magnetism in (Ca{sub 1-y}La{sub y}FeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} by the local μSR technique is presented in Chapter 2.8. In Chapter 2.9 a comparison of direct and electron doping is discussed based on codoping experiments in (Ca{sub 1-y}La{sub y}Fe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} and (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 4}As{sub 8}. Finally, in Chapter 2

  20. Preparation and characterization of SiO2-coated submicron-sized L10 Fe-Pt particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Hayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of magnets with higher performance is attracting increasing interest. The optimization of their microstructure is essential to enhance their properties, and a microstructure comprising magnetically isolated hard magnetic grains of a single-domain size has been proposed as an ideal structure for enhancing the coercivity of magnets. To obtain magnets with an ideal structure, we consider the fabrication of magnets by an approach based on core/shell nanoparticles with a hard magnetic core and a non-magnetic shell. In this study, to obtain particles for our proposed approach, we attempted to fabricate L10 Fe-Pt/SiO2-core/shell particles with submicron-sized cores less than the critical single-domain size. The fabrication of such core/shell particles was confirmed from morphology observations and XRD analysis of the particles. Although the formation of more desirable core/shell particles with submicron-sized single-crystal cores in the single-domain size range was not achieved, the fabricated core/shell particles showed a high coercivity of 25 kOe.

  1. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy analysis of multi-variant grains in present L10-FePt based heat assisted magnetic recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hoan; Zhu, Jingxi; Kulovits, Andreas; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on atomic ordering within individual grains in granular L1 0 -FePt thin films using transmission electron microscopy techniques. The film, used as a medium for heat assisted magnetic recording, consists of a single layer of FePt grains separated by non-magnetic grain boundaries and is grown on an MgO underlayer. Using convergent-beam techniques, diffraction patterns of individual grains are obtained for a large number of crystallites. The study found that although the majority of grains are ordered in the perpendicular direction, more than 15% of them are multi-variant, or of in-plane c-axis orientation, or disordered fcc. It was also found that these multi-variant and in-plane grains have always grown across MgO grain boundaries separating two or more MgO grains of the underlayer. The in-plane ordered portion within a multi-variant L1 0 -FePt grain always lacks atomic coherence with the MgO directly underneath it, whereas, the perpendicularly ordered portion is always coherent with the underlying MgO grain. Since the existence of multi-variant and in-plane ordered grains are severely detrimental to high density data storage capability, the understanding of their formation mechanism obtained here should make a significant impact on the future development of hard disk drive technology

  2. Magnetic spin configuration in Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, J.; Lott, D.; Schreyer, A. [GKSS Research Centre (Germany); Mankey, G.J. [University of Alabama, MINT Center (United States); Schmidt, W.; Schmalzl, K. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Tartakowskaya, E. [Institute for Magnetism, National Ukrainian Accademy of Science (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    FePt-based alloys are typically the material of choice for magnetic information storage media. The high magnetic moment of Fe gives a large magnetization and the large atomic number of Pt results in a high magnetic anisotropy. This combination enables the written bits to be smaller than ever before. One way to control the magnetic properties in these materials is through the introduction of a third element into the crystal matrix e.g. Rh. When Rh is added to replace Pt in the equiatomic alloy, new magnetic phases emerge. Bulk samples of Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} studied by magnetization measurements refer to three different phase transitions with increasing temperature: (I) An antiferromagnetic (AF)-paramagnetic (PM) transition for 30Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} films with different Rh concentrations. These films were examined by neutron diffraction in dependence of temperature and magnetic field. By the use of polarized and unpolarized neutron diffraction we could develop a detailed model of the magnetic spin structure in these thin films.

  3. Magnetic properties and configuration of Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50*x}Rh{sub x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, Jochen; Lott, Dieter; Schreyer, Andreas [Helmholt-Zentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schmalzl, Karin [IFF Forschungszentrum, Juelich (Germany); JCNS at ILL (France); Mankey, Gary J. [MINT Center, University of Alabama (United States); Klose, Frank [Ansto, Bragg Institute (Australia); Tartakowskaya, Helena [Institute for Magnetism, National Accademy of Scinece (Ukraine)

    2011-07-01

    Ordered FePt alloys with L1{sub 0} structure are known as materials with FM order and a high magnetic moment of Fe providing a large magnetization. The large atomic number of Pt on the other hand results in a high magnetic anisotropy. If grown in thin films, the high anisotropy often results in perpendicular magnetization which is the preferred orientation for current magnetic recording media. One way to control the magnetic properties in these materials is through the introduction of a third element into the crystal matrix e.g. Rh. When Rh is added to replace Pt in the equiatomic alloy, new magnetic phases emerge. Here we present neutron diffraction studies on the magnetic properties of different 200nm thick Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50*x}Rh{sub x} films in dependence of the temperature and external magnetic fields. Additional resonant x-ray measurements on the Fe and Pt absorption edges provide additional information about the magnetic moments on these sites.

  4. Investigation of the magnetic properties in thin Fe50Pt50-xRhx films by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, J.; Lott, D.; Schreyer, A. [GKSS Research Centre (Germany); Mankey, G.J. [University of Alabama, MINT Center (United States); Schmidt, W.; Schmalzl, K. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Tartakowskaya, E. [Institute for Magnetism, National Accademy of Science (United States)

    2009-07-01

    FePt-based alloys are typically the material of choice for magnetic information storage media. The high magnetic moment of Fe gives a large magnetization and the large atomic number of Pt results in a high magnetic anisotropy. This combination enables the written bits to be smaller than ever before, since magnetic grains with a high magnetic anisotropy are more thermally stable. One way to control the magnetic properties in these materials is through the introduction of a third element into the crystal matrix, e.g. Rh. When Rh is added to replace Pt in the equiatomic alloy, new magnetic phases emerge. Bulk samples of Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 40}Rh{sub 10} for example, studied by magnetization measurements refer to an antiferromagnetic (AF)/ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition at about 150 K when heated. Additional magnetostriction measurements indicate that the phase transition could also be induced by applying a magnetic field. Here we present results on several Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} films. These films were examined by neutron diffraction in dependence of temperature and magnetic field. The observed magnetic behaviours differ significant from the behaviour of the bulk system.

  5. Crystal structure of the coordination polymer [FeIII2{PtII(CN4}3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Seredyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, poly[dodeca-μ-cyanido-diiron(IIItriplatinum(II], [FeIII2{PtII(CN4}3], has a three-dimensional polymeric structure. It is built-up from square-planar [PtII(CN4]2− anions (point group symmetry 2/m bridging cationic [FeIIIPtII(CN4]+∞ layers extending in the bc plane. The FeII atoms of the layers are located on inversion centres and exhibit an octahedral coordination sphere defined by six N atoms of cyanide ligands, while the PtII atoms are located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four C atoms of the cyanide ligands in a square-planar coordination. The geometrical preferences of the two cations for octahedral and square-planar coordination, respectively, lead to a corrugated organisation of the layers. The distance between neighbouring [FeIIIPtII(CN4]+∞ layers corresponds to the length a/2 = 8.0070 (3 Å, and the separation between two neighbouring PtII atoms of the bridging [PtII(CN4]2− groups corresponds to the length of the c axis [7.5720 (2 Å]. The structure is porous with accessible voids of 390 Å3 per unit cell.

  6. Magnetoresistance in Hybrid Pt/CoFe2O4 Bilayers Controlled by Competing Spin Accumulation and Interfacial Chemical Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasili, Hari Babu; Gamino, Matheus; Gàzquez, Jaume; Sánchez, Florencio; Valvidares, Manuel; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Pellegrin, Eric; Fontcuberta, Josep

    2018-04-11

    Pure spin currents have potential for use in energy-friendly spintronics. They can be generated by a flow of charge along a nonmagnetic metal with large spin-orbit coupling. This produces a spin accumulation at the surfaces, controllable by the magnetization of an adjacent ferromagnetic layer. Paramagnetic metals typically used are close to ferromagnetic instability and thus magnetic proximity effects can contribute to the observed angular-dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR). As interface phenomena govern the spin conductance across the metal/ferromagnetic-insulator heterostructures, unraveling these distinct contributions is pivotal for a full understanding of spin current conductance. Here, we report X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at Pt M and (Co, Fe) L absorption edges and atomically resolved energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS) data of Pt/CoFe 2 O 4 bilayers, where CoFe 2 O 4 layers have been capped by Pt grown at different temperatures. It was found that the ADMR differs dramatically, dominated either by spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) associated with the spin Hall effect or by anisotropic magnetoresistance. The XMCD and EELS data indicate that the Pt layer grown at room temperature does not display any magnetic moment, whereas when grown at a higher temperature, it becomes magnetic due to interfacial Pt-(Co, Fe) alloying. These results enable differentiation of spin accumulation from interfacial chemical reconstructions and tailoring of the angular-dependent magnetoresistance.

  7. Different doping effect on physical properties of non-magnetic Pt and Ga in CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dapeng

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • CaFe{sub 3.64}Pt{sub 0.36}As{sub 3} and CaFe{sub 3.64}Ga{sub 0.36}As{sub 3} were grown using Sn flux method. • The two magnetic transition temperatures of CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} remain untouched upon Pt or Ga doping. • The effects of Pt and Ga doping give a different modification of physical properties and electronic structure in CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3}. • The magnetic structure of CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} is insusceptible to non-magnetic dopants. - Abstract: We have successfully doped Pt and Ga into CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} and investigated the structure and physical properties of CaFe{sub 3.64}X{sub 0.36}As{sub 3} (X = Pt, Ga). Two magnetic transition temperatures remain unchanged upon Pt or Ga doping, as confirmed by specific heat, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The electrical resistivity of CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} is reduced by approximately half with Pt dopant but increases by an order of magnitude with Ga doping, consistent with the changes in their Hall coefficients, which indicates the effects of Pt and Ga doping give us a different modification on physical properties and electronic structure in CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3}.

  8. Interfaces anisotropy in single crystal V/Fe/V trilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, D. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Lytvynenko, Ia. [Sumy State University, 2, Rymskogo-Korsakova Street, 40007 Sumy (Ukraine); Hauet, T., E-mail: thomas.hauet@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Andrieu, S.; Montaigne, F. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-12-15

    The value and sign of V/Fe interface anisotropy are investigated. Epitaxial V/Fe/V/Au layers with different iron thicknesses were grown on single-crystalline (001) MgO substrate by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetometry was used to measure magnetization and out-of-plane anisotropy field. From these values, we quantify the number of dead layers due to V/Fe or Fe/V interfaces, and compare it with the literature. We deduce that dead layers occur mostly at the bottom V/Fe interface. An average value for V/Fe and Fe/V interface anisotropy around 0±0.1 erg/cm{sup 2} (mJ/m{sup 2}) was thus deduced. - Highlights: • In a V/Fe/V stack, dead layers (i.e. overall magnetization reduction) originate mostly from the bottom V/Fe interface. • The average value for V/Fe and Fe/V interface anisotropy in V/Fe/V stack has been quantified as 0±0.1 erg/cm{sup 2} (mJ/m{sup 2})

  9. Strengthening mechanisms of Fe nanoparticles for single crystal Cu–Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guodong; Chen, Xiaohua; Jiang, Han; Wang, Zidong; Tang, Hao; Fan, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    A single crystal Cu–Fe alloy with finely dispersed precipitate Fe nanoparticles was fabricated in this study. The interface relationship of iron nanoparticle and copper matrix was analyzed with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the effect of Fe nanoparticles on mechanical properties of single crystal Cu–Fe alloy was discussed. Results show that, the finely dispersed Fe nanoparticles can be obtained under the directional solidification condition, with the size of 5–50 nm and the coherent interface between the iron nanoparticle and the copper matrix. Single crystal Cu–Fe alloy possesses improved tensile strength of 194.64 MPa, and total elongation of 44.72%, respectively, at room temperature, in contrast to pure Cu sample. Nanoparticles which have coherent interface with matrix can improve the dislocation motion state. Some dislocations can slip through the nanoparticle along the coherent interface and some dislocations can enter into the nanoparticles. Thus to improve the tensile strength of single crystal Cu–Fe alloy without sacrificing the ductility simultaneously. Based on the above analyses, strengthening mechanisms of Fe nanoparticles for single crystal Cu–Fe alloy was described

  10. Energy scavenging based on a single-crystal PMN-PT nanobelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Cai, Wei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Yao, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Self-powered nanodevices scavenging mechanical energy require piezoelectric nanostructures with high piezoelectric coefficients. Here we report the fabrication of a single-crystal (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanobelt with a superior piezoelectric constant (d33 = ~550 pm/V), which is approximately ~150%, 430%, and 2100% of the largest reported values for previous PMN-PT, PZT and ZnO nanostructures, respectively. The high d33 of the single-crystalline PMN-PT nanobelt results from the precise orientation control during its fabrication. As a demonstration of its application in energy scavenging, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) is built on the single PMN-PT nanobelt, generating a maximum output voltage of ~1.2 V. This value is ~4 times higher than that of a single-CdTe PNG, ~13 times higher than that of a single-ZnSnO3 PNG, and ~26 times higher than that of a single-ZnO PNG. The profoundly increased output voltage of a lateral PNG built on a single PMN-PT nanobelt demonstrates the potential application of PMN-PT nanostructures in energy harvesting, thus enriching the material choices for PNGs.

  11. Study of interlayer coupling between FePt and FeCoB thin films through MgO spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sadhana; Kumar, Dileep; Gupta, Mukul; Reddy, V. Raghvendra

    2017-05-01

    Interlayer exchange coupling between hard-FePt and soft-FeCoB magnetic layers has been studied with increasing thickness of insulator MgO spacer layer in FePt/MgO/FeCoB sandwiched structure. A series of the samples were prepared in identical condition using ion beam sputtering method and characterized for their magnetic and structural properties using magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and X-ray reflectivity measurements. The nature of coupling between FePt and FeCoB was found to be ferromagnetic which decreases exponentially with increasing thickness of MgO layer. At very low thickness of MgO layer, both layers were found strongly coupled thus exhibiting coherent magnetization reversal. At higher thickness, both layers were found decoupled and magnetization reversal occurred at different switching fields. Strong coupling at very low thickness is attributed to pin holes in MgO layer which lead to direct coupling whereas on increasing thickness, coupling may arise due to magneto-static interactions.

  12. Large enhancement of Blocking temperature by control of interfacial structures in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Blocking temperature (TB of Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers was greatly enhanced from far below room temperature (RT to above RT by inserting 1 nm thick Mg layer at IrMn/MgO interface. Furthermore, the exchange bias field (Heb was increased as well by the control of interfacial structures. The evidence for a significant fraction of Mn-O bonding at IrMn/MgO interface without Mg insertion layer was provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bonding between Mn and O can decrease the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, leading to lower value of TB in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers. Ultrathin Mg film inserted at IrMn/MgO interface acting as an oxygen sinking layer can suppress the oxidation reactions between Mn and O and reduce the formation of Mn-O bonding greatly. The oxidation suppression results in the recovery of the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, which can enhance TB and Heb. Furthermore, the high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the Mg insertion layer can efficiently promote a high-quality MgO (200 texture. This study will enhance the understanding of physics in antiferromagnet-based spintronic devices.

  13. Spin Crossover in Fe(II)-M(II) Cyanoheterobimetallic Frameworks (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) with 2-Substituted Pyrazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheriv, Olesia I; Shylin, Sergii I; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Dechert, Sebastian; Haukka, Matti; Fritsky, Igor O; Gural'skiy, Il'ya A

    2016-05-16

    Discovery of spin-crossover (SCO) behavior in the family of Fe(II)-based Hofmann clathrates has led to a "new rush" in the field of bistable molecular materials. To date this class of SCO complexes is represented by several dozens of individual compounds, and areas of their potential application steadily increase. Starting from Fe(2+), square planar tetracyanometalates M(II)(CN)4(2-) (M(II) = Ni, Pd, Pt) and 2-substituted pyrazines Xpz (X = Cl, Me, I) as coligands we obtained a series of nine new Hofmann clathrate-like coordination frameworks. X-ray diffraction reveals that in these complexes Fe(II) ion has a pseudo-octahedral coordination environment supported by four μ4-tetracyanometallates forming its equatorial coordination environment. Depending on the nature of X and M, axial positions are occupied by two 2X-pyrazines (X = Cl and M(II) = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3); X = Me and M(II) = Ni (4), Pd (5)) or one 2X-pyrazine and one water molecule (X = I and M(II) = Ni (7), Pd (8), Pt (9)), or, alternatively, two distinct Fe(II) positions with either two pyrazines or two water molecules (X = Me and M(II) = Pt (6)) are observed. Temperature behavior of magnetic susceptibility indicates that all compounds bearing FeN6 units (1-6) display cooperative spin transition, while Fe(II) ions in N5O or N4O2 surrounding are high spin (HS). Structural changes in the nearest Fe(II) environment upon low-spin (LS) to HS transition, which include ca. 10% Fe-N distance increase, lead to the cell expansion. Mössbauer spectroscopy is used to characterize the spin state of all HS, LS, and intermediate phases of 1-9 (see abstract figure). Effects of a pyrazine substituent and M(II) nature on the hyperfine parameters in both spin states are established.

  14. Improved (0 0 1)-texture of FePt-C for heat-assisted magnetic recording media by insertion of Cr buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyama, T.; Wang, J.; Felicia, A.; Takahashi, Y.K.; Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of (0 0 1)-texture of prototype FePt-C granular films for heat heat assisted magnetic recording media. • Insertion of Cr buffer layer improves the crystallographic textures of the MgO underlayers, thereby reduces in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer. • The growth in the grain size of the MgO underlayer as well as the (0 0 1)-texture of the MgO underlayer are the key factor in reducing the in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer. - Abstract: FePt-C granular films deposited on MgO underlayers are the prototype media for heat-assisted magnetic recording. To reduce the in-plane magnetic component in the FePt-C media, we investigated the effect of Cr buffer layers on the crystallographic textures of the MgO underlayers and the resultant magnetic properties of the FePt-C layers. By growing a MgO underlayer on a Cr buffer layer, the (0 0 1) texture of the MgO underlayer is improved, on which the in-plane component of a FePt-C film is substantially reduced. We conclude that the growth in the grain size of the MgO underlayer is the key factor in reducing the in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer.

  15. Effect of TiN-ZrO{sub 2} intermediate layer on the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt and FePt-SiO{sub 2}-C thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, K.F., E-mail: dongkf1981@163.com; Mo, W.Q.; Jin, F.; Song, J.L.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The TiN-ZrO{sub 2} consisted of solid solution of Ti(Zr)ON segregated by amorphous ZrO{sub 2}. • With doping ZrO{sub 2} into TiN layer, grain size of FePt films significantly decreased. • By introducing TiN-ZrO{sub 2}/TiN combined layer, the magnetic properties were improved. - Abstract: The microstructures and magnetic properties of FePt based thin films grown on TiN-ZrO{sub 2} and TiN-ZrO{sub 2}/TiN intermediate layers were systematically investigated. The TiN-ZrO{sub 2} intermediate layer was granular consisting of grains of solid solution of Ti(Zr)ON segregated by amorphous ZrO{sub 2}. It was found with doping ZrO{sub 2} into TiN intermediate layer, grain size of FePt-SiO{sub 2}-C films significantly decreased. Simultaneously, the isolation was obviously improved and grain size distribution became more uniform. However, the magnetic properties of the FePt-SiO{sub 2}-C films grown on TiN-ZrO{sub 2} intermediate layers were slowly deteriorated, which was due to the disturbance of the epitaxial growth of FePt by amorphous ZrO{sub 2} in TiN-ZrO{sub 2} intermediate layer. In order to improve the TiN-ZrO{sub 2} (0 0 2) texture and the crystallinity of TiN-ZrO{sub 2}, TiN-ZrO{sub 2}/TiN combined intermediate layer was introduced. And the magnetic properties were improved, simultaneously, achieving the benefit of grain size reduction. For the FePt 4 nm-SiO{sub 2} 40 vol%-C 20 vol% film grown on TiN/TiN-ZrO{sub 2} 30 vol% combined intermediate layer, well isolated FePt (0 0 1) granular films with coercivity higher than 17.6 kOe and an average size as small as 6.5 nm were achieved.

  16. Desorption of Furfural from Bimetallic Pt-Fe Oxides/Alumina Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lourdes Dimas-Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the desorption of furfural, which is a competitive intermediate during the production of biofuel and valuable aromatic compounds, was studied using pure alumina, as well as alumina impregnated with iron and platinum oxides both individually and in combination, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The bimetallic sample exhibited the lowest desorption percentage for furfural. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM imaging revealed the intimate connection between the iron and platinum oxide species on the alumina support. The mechanism of furfural desorption from the Pt-Fe/Al2O3 0.5%-0.5% sample was determined using physisorbed furfural instead of chemisorbed furfural; this mechanism involved the oxidation of the C=O group on furfural by the catalyst. The oxide nanoparticles on γ-Al2O3 support helped to stabilize the furfural molecule on the surface.

  17. L1{sub 0} stacked binaries as candidates for hard-magnets. FePt, MnAl and MnGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Yu-ichiro [Max-Planck Institut fuer Microstrukture Physics, Halle (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Madjarova, Galia [Max-Planck Institut fuer Microstrukture Physics, Halle (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Sofia University (Bulgaria); Flores-Livas, Jose A. [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel (Switzerland); Dewhurst, J.K.; Gross, E.K.U. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Microstrukture Physics, Halle (Germany); Felser, C. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Sharma, S. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Microstrukture Physics, Halle (Germany); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarkhand (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present a novel approach for designing new hard magnets by forming stacks of existing binary magnets to enhance the magneto crystalline anisotropy. This is followed by an attempt at reducing the amount of expensive metal in these stacks by replacing it with cheaper metal with similar ionic radius. This strategy is explored using examples of FePt, MnAl and MnGa. In this study a few promising materials are suggested as good candidates for hard magnets: stacked binary FePt{sub 2}MnGa{sub 2} in structure where each magnetic layer is separated by two non-magnetic layers, FePtMnGa and FePtMnAl in hexagonally distorted Heusler structures and FePt{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}MnAl. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Lattice dynamics, elasticity and magnetic abnormality in ordered crystalline alloys Fe3Pt at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tai-min; Yu, Guo-Liang; Su, Yong; Ge, Chong-Yuan; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Lin; Li, Lin

    2018-05-01

    The ordered crystalline Invar alloy Fe3Pt is in a special magnetic critical state, under which the lattice dynamic stability of the system is extremely sensitive to external pressures. We studied the pressure dependence of enthalpy and magnetism of Fe3Pt in different crystalline alloys by using the first-principles projector augmented-wave method based on the density functional theory. Results show that the P4/mbm structure is the ground state structure and is more stable relative to other structures at pressures below 18.54 GPa. The total magnetic moments of L12, I4/mmm and DO22 structures decrease rapidly with pressure and oscillate near the ferromagnetic collapse critical pressure. At the pressure of 43 GPa, the ferrimagnetic property in DO22 structure becomes apparently strengthened and its volume increases rapidly. The lattice dynamics calculation for L12 structures at high pressures shows that the spontaneous magnetization of the system in ferromagnetic states induces the softening of the transverse acoustic phonon TA1 (M), and there exists a strong spontaneous volume magnetostriction at pressures below 26.95 GPa. Especially, the lattice dynamics stability is sensitive to pressure, in the pressure range between the ferromagnetic collapse critical pressure (41.9 GPa) and the magnetism completely disappearing pressure (57.25 GPa), and near the pressure of phase transition from L12 to P4/mbm structure (27.27 GPa). Moreover, the instability of magnetic structure leads to a prominent elastic modulus oscillation, and the spin polarizability of electrons near the Fermi level is very sensitive to pressures in that the pressure range. The pressure induces the stability of the phonon spectra of the system at pressures above 57.25 GPa.

  19. Measurement of magnetic property of FePt granular media at near Curie temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.Z.; Chen, Y.J.; Leong, S.H.; An, C.W.; Ye, K.D.; Hu, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the magnetic switching behavior of heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) media at near Curie temperature (T_c) is important for high density recording. In this study, we measured the magnetic property of FePt granular media (with room temperature coercivity ~25 kOe) at near T_c with a home built HAMR testing instrument. The local area of HAMR media is heated to near T_c by a flat-top optical heating beam. The magnetic property in the heated area was in-situ measured by a magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) testing beam. The switching field distribution (SFD) and coercive field (H_c) of the FePt granular media and their dependence on the optical heating power at near T_c were studied. We measured the DC demagnetization (DCD) signal with pulsed laser heating at different optical powers. We also measured the T_c distribution of the media by measuring the AC magnetic signal as a function of optical heating power. In a summary, we studied the SFD, H_c of the HAMR media at near T_c in a static manner. The present methodology will facilitate the HAMR media testing. - Highlights: • A flat-top optical beam homogeneously heats up HAMR media to near T_c. • When H_c of media drops to 5 kOe with optical heating, SFD is measured to be 0.6. • H_c, SFD, M_s of HAMR media at near T_c are measured with the methodology.

  20. Measurement of magnetic property of FePt granular media at near Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.Z., E-mail: YANG_Hongzhi@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Chen, Y.J.; Leong, S.H.; An, C.W.; Ye, K.D.; Hu, J.F.

    2017-02-01

    The characterization of the magnetic switching behavior of heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) media at near Curie temperature (T{sub c}) is important for high density recording. In this study, we measured the magnetic property of FePt granular media (with room temperature coercivity ~25 kOe) at near T{sub c} with a home built HAMR testing instrument. The local area of HAMR media is heated to near T{sub c} by a flat-top optical heating beam. The magnetic property in the heated area was in-situ measured by a magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) testing beam. The switching field distribution (SFD) and coercive field (H{sub c}) of the FePt granular media and their dependence on the optical heating power at near T{sub c} were studied. We measured the DC demagnetization (DCD) signal with pulsed laser heating at different optical powers. We also measured the T{sub c} distribution of the media by measuring the AC magnetic signal as a function of optical heating power. In a summary, we studied the SFD, H{sub c} of the HAMR media at near T{sub c} in a static manner. The present methodology will facilitate the HAMR media testing. - Highlights: • A flat-top optical beam homogeneously heats up HAMR media to near T{sub c}. • When H{sub c} of media drops to 5 kOe with optical heating, SFD is measured to be 0.6. • H{sub c}, SFD, M{sub s} of HAMR media at near T{sub c} are measured with the methodology.

  1. In Situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Electrocatalytic Effect of PtFe/C Nanocatalyst on Ethanol Electro-Oxidation in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gómez-Monsiváis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction has attracted considerable attention in fuel cells because of new green ethanol synthetic methods based on biomass processes that have emerged. In this study, PtFe/C and Pt/C nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical reduction method and tested in the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic effect of the PtFe bimetallic catalyst was analyzed by in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS coupled to an electrochemical cell. X-ray diffractograms showed typical face-centered cubic structures with crystallite sizes of 3.31 and 3.94 for Pt/C and PtFe/C, respectively. TEM micrographs revealed nanoparticle sizes of 2 ± 0.4 nm and 3 ± 0.6 nm for Pt/C and PtFe/C respectively. PtFe/C exhibited a Pt90Fe10 composition by both X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A better electrocatalytic activity as function of concentration was obtained through the incorporation of a small amount of Fe into the Pt lattice and the presence of Fe2+/Fe3+ (observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to SERS experiments, the presence of these iron species promotes the chemisorption of ethanol, the formation of formic acid as main product and renewal of the catalytic sites, resulting in current densities that were at least three fold higher than the values obtained for the Pt/C nanocatalyst.

  2. Growth and structure of L1 sub 0 ordered FePt films on GaAs(001)

    CERN Document Server

    Nefedov, A; Theis-Broehl, K; Zabel, H; Doi, M; Schuster, E; Keune, W

    2002-01-01

    The structural properties of epitaxial L1 sub 0 ordered FePt(001) films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (alternating deposition of Fe and Pt atomic layers) on buffer-Pt/seed-Fe/GaAs(001) have been studied by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and by ex situ x-ray scattering as a function of the growth conditions. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations measured during FePt layer growth provide evidence for island growth at T sub s = 200 deg. C and quasi layer-by-layer growth at T sub s = 350 deg. C. From small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering it was found that the degree of epitaxy depends critically on morphology of the seed layer and the substrate roughness. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the long-range order parameter increases from near zero for films grown at 200 deg. C to 0.65 for films grown at 350 deg. C. This confirms the fact that the order parameter is mainly determined by the surface mobility of the atoms which is controlled experimentally ...

  3. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, pH, temperature, and contact time were determined for NO3- removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudofirst-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at pH 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at pH 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater NO3- removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m2/g, and high adsorption capacity.

  4. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Khan, Z.; Ashgar, A.; Danish, M. I.; Qazi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, ph, temperature, and contact time were determined for removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudo first-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at ph 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at ph 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m 2 /g), and high adsorption capacity.

  5. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  6. DFT calculations of strain and interface effects on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction of GMR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramchu, Sittichain; Jaroenjittichai, Atchara Punya; Laosiritaworn, Yongyut

    2018-03-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT) was employed to investigate the effect of strain and interface on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction. Two possible interface structures of L10-FePt(001)/Ag(001), that is, interface between Fe and Ag layers (Fe/Ag) and between Pt and Ag layers (Pt/Ag), were inspected. It was found that Pt/Ag interface is more stable than Fe/Ag interface due to its lower formation energy. Further, under the lattice mismatch induced tensile strain, the enhancement of magnetism for both Fe/Ag and Pt/Ag interface structures has been found to have progressed, though the magnetic moments of "interfacial" Fe and Pt atoms have been found to have decreased. To explain this further, the local density of states (LDOS) analysis suggests that interaction between Fe (Pt) and Ag near Fe/Ag (Pt/Ag) interface leads to spin symmetry breaking of the Ag atom and hence induces magnetism magnitude. In contrast, the magnetic moments of interfacial Fe and Pt atoms reduce because of the increase in the electronic states near the Fermi level of the minority-spin electrons. In addition, the significant enhancements of the LDOS near the Fermi levels of the minority-spin electrons signify the boosting of the transport properties of the minority-spin electrons and hence the spin-dependent electron transport at this ferromagnet/metal interface. From this work, it is expected that this clarification of the interfacial magnetism may inspire new innovation on how to improve spin-dependent electron transport for enhancing the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio of potential GMR-based spintronic devices.

  7. DFT calculations of strain and interface effects on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction of GMR applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittichain Pramchu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, density functional theory (DFT was employed to investigate the effect of strain and interface on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction. Two possible interface structures of L10-FePt(001/Ag(001, that is, interface between Fe and Ag layers (Fe/Ag and between Pt and Ag layers (Pt/Ag, were inspected. It was found that Pt/Ag interface is more stable than Fe/Ag interface due to its lower formation energy. Further, under the lattice mismatch induced tensile strain, the enhancement of magnetism for both Fe/Ag and Pt/Ag interface structures has been found to have progressed, though the magnetic moments of “interfacial” Fe and Pt atoms have been found to have decreased. To explain this further, the local density of states (LDOS analysis suggests that interaction between Fe (Pt and Ag near Fe/Ag (Pt/Ag interface leads to spin symmetry breaking of the Ag atom and hence induces magnetism magnitude. In contrast, the magnetic moments of interfacial Fe and Pt atoms reduce because of the increase in the electronic states near the Fermi level of the minority-spin electrons. In addition, the significant enhancements of the LDOS near the Fermi levels of the minority-spin electrons signify the boosting of the transport properties of the minority-spin electrons and hence the spin-dependent electron transport at this ferromagnet/metal interface. From this work, it is expected that this clarification of the interfacial magnetism may inspire new innovation on how to improve spin-dependent electron transport for enhancing the giant magnetoresistance (GMR ratio of potential GMR-based spintronic devices.

  8. Note: A quartz cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we provide and demonstrate a design of a unique cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) measurements. The active metal Pt electrode can be protected from air contamination during the preparation process. The transparency of the cell allows the tip and bead to be aligned by direct observation. Based on this, a new and effective alignment method is introduced. The high-quality bead preparations through this new cell have been confirmed by the ECSTM images of Pt (111).

  9. Magnetically actuated bi-directional microactuators with permalloy and Fe/Pt hard magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, C.T.; Shen, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Bi-directional polyimide (PI) electromagnetic microactuator with different geometries are designed, fabricated and tested. Fabrication of the electromagnetic microactuator consists of 10 μm thick Ni/Fe (80/20) permalloy deposition on the PI diaphragm by electroplating, high aspect ratio electroplating of copper planar coil with 10 μm in thickness, bulk micromachining, and excimer laser selective ablation. They were fabricated by a novel concept avoiding the etching selectivity and residual stress problems during wafer etching. A mathematical model is created by ANSYS software to analyze the microactuator. The external magnetic field intensity (H ext ) generated by the planar coil is simulated by ANSYS software. ANSYS software is used to predict the deflection angle of the microactuator. Besides, to provide bi-directional and large deflection angle of microactuator, hard magnet Fe/Pt is deposited at a low temperature of 300 deg. C by sputtering onto the PI diaphragm to produce a perpendicular magnetic anisotropic field. This magnetic field can enhance the interaction with H ext to induce attractive and repulsive bi-directional force to provide large displacement. The results of magnetic microactuator with and without hard magnets are compared and discussed. The preliminary result reveals that the electromagnetic microactuator with hard magnet shows a greater deflection angle than that without one

  10. Catalyst Architecture for Stable Single Atom Dispersion Enables Site-Specific Spectroscopic and Reactivity Measurements of CO Adsorbed to Pt Atoms, Oxidized Pt Clusters, and Metallic Pt Clusters on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRita, Leo; Dai, Sheng; Lopez-Zepeda, Kimberly; Pham, Nicholas; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-10-11

    Oxide-supported precious metal nanoparticles are widely used industrial catalysts. Due to expense and rarity, developing synthetic protocols that reduce precious metal nanoparticle size and stabilize dispersed species is essential. Supported atomically dispersed, single precious metal atoms represent the most efficient metal utilization geometry, although debate regarding the catalytic activity of supported single precious atom species has arisen from difficulty in synthesizing homogeneous and stable single atom dispersions, and a lack of site-specific characterization approaches. We propose a catalyst architecture and characterization approach to overcome these limitations, by depositing ∼1 precious metal atom per support particle and characterizing structures by correlating scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and CO probe molecule infrared spectroscopy. This is demonstrated for Pt supported on anatase TiO 2 . In these structures, isolated Pt atoms, Pt iso , remain stable through various conditions, and spectroscopic evidence suggests Pt iso species exist in homogeneous local environments. Comparing Pt iso to ∼1 nm preoxidized (Pt ox ) and prereduced (Pt metal ) Pt clusters on TiO 2 , we identify unique spectroscopic signatures of CO bound to each site and find CO adsorption energy is ordered: Pt iso ≪ Pt metal atoms bonded to TiO 2 and that Pt iso exhibits optimal reactivity because every atom is exposed for catalysis and forms an interfacial site with TiO 2 . This approach should be generally useful for studying the behavior of supported precious metal atoms.

  11. Synthesis of Fe3O4/Pt Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Their Use as Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongkun He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a facile approach to prepare Fe3O4/Pt nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with average size of 4∼5 nm were loaded on the surfaces of carboxyl groups functionalized CNTs via a high-temperature solution-phase hydrolysis method from the raw material of FeCl3. The synthesis process of magnetic CNTs is green and readily scalable. The loading amounts of Fe3O4 nanopartilces and the magnetizations of the resulting magnetic CNTs show good tunability. The Pt nanopaticles with average size of 2.5 nm were deposited on the magnetic CNTs through a solution-based method. It is demonstrated that the Fe3O4/Pt nanoparticles decorated CNTs have high catalytic activity in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol and can be readily recycled by a magnet and reused in the next reactions with high efficiencies for at least fifteen successive cycles. The novel CNTs-supported magnetically recyclable catalysts are promising in heterogeneous catalysis applications.

  12. Synthesis of Fe3O4/Pt Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nano tubes and Their Use as Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.; Gao, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report a facile approach to prepare Fe 3 O 4 /Pt nanoparticles decorated carbon nano tubes (CNTs). The superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with average size of 45 nm were loaded on the surfaces of carboxyl groups functionalized CNTs via a high-temperature solution-phase hydrolysis method from the raw material of FeCl 3 . The synthesis process of magnetic CNTs is green and readily scalable. The loading amounts of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and the magnetizations of the resulting magnetic CNTs show good tunability. The Pt nanoparticles with average size of 2.5 nm were deposited on the magnetic CNTs through a solution-based method. It is demonstrated that the Fe 3 O 4 /Pt nanoparticles decorated CNTs have high catalytic activity in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol and can be readily recycled by a magnet and reused in the next reactions with high efficiencies for at least fifteen successive cycles. The novel CNTs-supported magnetically recyclable catalysts are promising in heterogeneous catalysis applications.

  13. Fe Isolated Single Atoms on S, N Codoped Carbon by Copolymer Pyrolysis Strategy for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiheng; Chen, Wenxing; Xiao, Hai; Gong, Yue; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Lirong; Zheng, Xusheng; Yan, Wensheng; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Shen, Rongan; Fu, Ninghua; Gu, Lin; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dingsheng; Peng, Qing; Li, Jun; Li, Yadong

    2018-06-01

    Heteroatom-doped Fe-NC catalyst has emerged as one of the most promising candidates to replace noble metal-based catalysts for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, delicate controls over their structure parameters to optimize the catalytic efficiency and molecular-level understandings of the catalytic mechanism are still challenging. Herein, a novel pyrrole-thiophene copolymer pyrolysis strategy to synthesize Fe-isolated single atoms on sulfur and nitrogen-codoped carbon (Fe-ISA/SNC) with controllable S, N doping is rationally designed. The catalytic efficiency of Fe-ISA/SNC shows a volcano-type curve with the increase of sulfur doping. The optimized Fe-ISA/SNC exhibits a half-wave potential of 0.896 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), which is more positive than those of Fe-isolated single atoms on nitrogen codoped carbon (Fe-ISA/NC, 0.839 V), commercial Pt/C (0.841 V), and most reported nonprecious metal catalysts. Fe-ISA/SNC is methanol tolerable and shows negligible activity decay in alkaline condition during 15 000 voltage cycles. X-ray absorption fine structure analysis and density functional theory calculations reveal that the incorporated sulfur engineers the charges on N atoms surrounding the Fe reactive center. The enriched charge facilitates the rate-limiting reductive release of OH* and therefore improved the overall ORR efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Spin-flip transition of L10-type MnPt alloy single crystal studied by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Hiroaki; Motomura, Ryo; Shinozaki, Tatsuya; Tsunoda, Yorihiko

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic structure, tetragonality, and the spin-flip transition for an L1 0 -type MnPt ordered alloy were studied by neutron scattering using a single-crystal specimen. Tetragonality of the lattice showed strong correlation with the spin-flip transition. Although the spin-flip transition looks like a gradual change of the easy axis in the temperature range between 580 and 770 K, two modes of magnon-gap peaks with different energies were observed in this transition temperature range. Thus, the crystal consists of two regions with different anisotropy energies and the volume fractions of these regions with different spin directions change gradually with temperature. The tetragonality and spin-flip transition are discussed using the hard-sphere model for atomic radii of Pt and Mn. The Invar effect of Mn atoms is proposed using high- and low-spin transitions of Mn moments in analogy with the two-γ model of Fe moments in FeNi Invar alloy

  15. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsumoto, N. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  16. A PMMA coated PMN–PT single crystal resonator for sensing chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Michael; Kassegne, Sam; Moon, Kee S

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN–PT) single crystal resonator coated with a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) useful for detecting chemical agents such as acetone, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol is presented. Swelling of the cured PMMA polymer layer in the presence of acetone, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol vapors is sensed as a mass change transduced to an electrical signal by the PMN–PT thickness shear mode sensor. Frequency change in the PMN–PT sensor is demonstrated to vary according to the concentration of the chemical vapor present within the sensing chamber. For acetone, the results indicate a frequency change more than 6000 times greater than that which would be expected from a quartz crystal microbalance coated with PMMA. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate vapor loading of adsorbed chemical agents onto a polymer coated PMN–PT resonator

  17. Electric-regulated enhanced in-plane uniaxial anisotropy in FeGa/PMN-PT composite using oblique pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Chaojuan; Turghun, Mutellip; Duan, Zhihua; Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou

    2018-04-01

    The FeGa film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was fabricated onto different oriented single-crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate using oblique pulsed laser deposition. An enhanced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field of FeGa film can be adjusted from 18 Oe to 275 Oe by tuning the oblique angle and polarizing voltage. The competitive relationship of shape anisotropy and strain anisotropy has been discussed, which was induced by oblique angle and polarizing voltage, respectively. The (100)-oriented and (110)-oriented PMN-PT show completely different characters on voltage-dependent magnetic properties, which could be attributed to various anisotropy directions depended on different strain directions.

  18. Single-Atom Pt as Co-Catalyst for Enhanced Photocatalytic H2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Bi, Wentuan; Zhang, Lei; Tao, Shi; Chu, Wangsheng; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Yi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-03-23

    Isolated single-atom platinum (Pt) embedded in the sub-nanoporosity of 2D g-C3 N4 as a new form of co-catalyst is reported. The highly stable single-atom co-catalyst maximizes the atom efficiency and alters the surface trap states of g-C3 N4 , leading to significantly enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity, 8.6 times higher than that of Pt nanoparticles and up to 50 times that for bare g-C3 N4 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of manganese doping on PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahul, Raffi

    Single crystals based on relaxor-lead titanate (relaxor-PT) solid solutions have advanced the world of piezoelectric materials for the past two decades with their giant piezoelectric properties achieved by domain engineered configurations. When single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) solid solution in the rhombohedral phase were poled along [001]c direction with "4R" domain configuration, they exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33 >2000 pC/N) and high electromechanical coupling (k33 >0.9) which led to their widespread use in advanced medical imaging systems and underwater acoustic devices. However, PMN-PT crystals suffer from low phase transition temperature (Trt ˜85-95 °C) and lower coercive field (depolarizing electric field, Ec ˜2-3 kV/cm). Lead indium niobate - lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals formed by adding indium as another constituent exhibit higher coercive field (E c ˜5kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (Tc >210 °C) than the binary PMN-PT crystals (Ec ˜2.5 kV/cm and Tc high mechanical Q-factor (Qm >600) compared to the undoped binary crystals (Qm of PMN-PT 2000 pC/N for PMN-PT) occurs in the [001]c poled crystals, which is attributed to the polarization rotation mechanisms. Hence, domain engineering configurations induced by poling these crystals in orientations other than their polarization axis are critical for achieving large piezoelectric effects. Based on the phase diagram of these solid solutions, with the increase in PT content beyond the rhombohedral phase region, orthorhombic/monoclinic and tetragonal phases are formed. In the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, the spontaneous polarization directions are in the [011]c and [001] c directions respectively. Similar to the "4R" domain configuration achieved in [001]c poled rhombohedral crystals, other domain configurations can be achieved by poling the single crystals in different orientations, leading to

  20. Characterization of protein adsorption onto FePt nanoparticles using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Maffre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we have analyzed the adsorption of three human blood serum proteins, namely serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E4, onto polymer-coated, fluorescently labeled FePt nanoparticles (~12 nm diameter carrying negatively charged carboxyl groups on their surface. For all three proteins, a step-wise increase in hydrodynamic radius with protein concentration was observed, strongly suggesting the formation of protein monolayers that enclose the nanoparticles. Consistent with this interpretation, the absolute increase in hydrodynamic radius can be correlated with the molecular shapes of the proteins known from X-ray crystallography and solution experiments, indicating that the proteins bind on the nanoparticles in specific orientations. The equilibrium dissociation coefficients, measuring the affinity of the proteins to the nanoparticles, were observed to differ by almost four orders of magnitude. These variations can be understood in terms of the electrostatic properties of the proteins. From structure-based calculations of the surface potentials, positively charged patches of different extents can be revealed, through which the proteins interact electrostatically with the negatively charged nanoparticle surfaces.

  1. Size effect on order-disorder transition kinetics of FePt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuaidi; Qi, Weihong; Huang, Baiyun

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of order-disorder transition of FePt nanoparticles during high temperature annealing is theoretically investigated. A model is developed to address the influence of large surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles on both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspect of the ordering process; specifically, the nucleation and growth of L1 0 ordered domain within disordered nanoparticles. The size- and shape-dependence of transition kinetics are quantitatively addressed by a revised Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation that included corrections for deviations caused by the domination of surface nucleation in nanoscale systems and the non-negligible size of the ordered nuclei. Calculation results based on the model suggested that smaller nanoparticles are kinetically more active but thermodynamically less transformable. The major obstacle in obtaining completely ordered nanoparticles is the elimination of antiphase boundaries. The results also quantitatively confirmed the existence of a size-limit in ordering, beyond which, inducing order-disorder transitions through annealing is impossible. A good agreement is observed between theory, experiment, and computer simulation results

  2. Exploring the magnetization dynamics of NiFe/Pt multilayers in flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrêa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.; Marcondes, T.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic properties of multilayers grown onto flexible substrates were investigated. • Experimental and theoretical magnetization dynamics results are presented. • The flexible substrates become promising candidate for rf-frequency devices. - Abstract: We investigate the structural and magnetic properties, and the magnetization dynamics in Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Pt multilayer systems grown onto rigid and flexible substrates. The structural characterization shows evidence of a superlattice behavior, while the quasi-static magnetization characterization reveal a weak magnetic anisotropy induced in the multilayers. The magnetization dynamics is investigated through the magnetoimpedance effect. We employ a theoretical approach to describe the experimental magnetoimpedance effect and verify the influence of the effective damping parameter on the magnetization dynamics. Experimental data and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the multilayers present high effective damping parameter. Moreover, our experiments raise an interesting issue on the possibility of achieving considerable MI% values, even for systems with weak magnetic anisotropy and high damping parameter grown onto flexible substrates.

  3. Electric-field tunable spin waves in PMN-PT/NiFe heterostructure: Experiment and micromagnetic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziȩtek, Slawomir, E-mail: zietek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chȩciński, Jakub [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Frankowski, Marek; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of voltage-controlled standing spin waves resonance (SSWR) in PMN-PT/NiFe multiferroic heterostructures patterned into microstrips. A spin-diode technique was used to observe ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) mode and SSWR in NiFe strip mechanically coupled with a piezoelectric substrate. Application of an electric field to a PMN-PT creates a strain in permalloy and thus shifts the FMR and SSWR fields due to the magnetostriction effect. The experimental results are compared with micromagnetic simulations and a good agreement between them is found for dynamics of FMR and SSWR with and without electric field. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations enable us to discuss the amplitude and phase spatial distributions of FMR and SSWR modes, which are not directly observable by means of spin diode detection technique.

  4. Measured static hyperfine magnetic fields following implantation of Pt into Fe interpreted as evidence for pre-equilibrium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderssen, S.S.; Stuchberry, A.E.

    1994-06-01

    The static hyperfine magnetic field present at Pt nuclei implanted in ferromagnetic Fe has been measured using the ion-implantation perturbed angular correlation (IMPAC) technique following Coulomb excitation. The present measured precessions agree with earlier data, but more recent information on the transient field correction leads to an inferred static field strength that is ∼ 25% smaller than obtained previously. Comparisons are made between the static fields measured by various techniques for Pt and neighbouring ions in iron. From these comparisons, it is show that the IMPAC data are consistent with a scenario in which (i) the static field takes about 10 ps to reach its equilibrium value, following recovery from dynamic structural damage caused by the ion-implantation process, and (ii) following equilibration, a large fraction (∼ 90%) of the implanted ions have final positions on lattice sites of the Fe host. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Measured static hyperfine magnetic fields following implantation of Pt into Fe interpreted as evidence for pre-equilibrium effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderssen, S S; Stuchberry, A E

    1994-06-01

    The static hyperfine magnetic field present at Pt nuclei implanted in ferromagnetic Fe has been measured using the ion-implantation perturbed angular correlation (IMPAC) technique following Coulomb excitation. The present measured precessions agree with earlier data, but more recent information on the transient field correction leads to an inferred static field strength that is {approx} 25% smaller than obtained previously. Comparisons are made between the static fields measured by various techniques for Pt and neighbouring ions in iron. From these comparisons, it is show that the IMPAC data are consistent with a scenario in which (i) the static field takes about 10 ps to reach its equilibrium value, following recovery from dynamic structural damage caused by the ion-implantation process, and (ii) following equilibration, a large fraction ({approx} 90%) of the implanted ions have final positions on lattice sites of the Fe host. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. DNA-templated synthesis of Pt nanoparticles on single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lifeng

    2009-11-18

    A series of electron microscopy characterizations demonstrate that single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) can bind to nanotube surfaces and disperse bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into individual tubes. The ssDNA molecules on the nanotube surfaces demonstrate various morphologies, such as aggregated clusters and spiral wrapping around a nanotube with different pitches and spaces, indicating that the morphology of the SWCNT/DNA hybrids is not related solely to the base sequence of the ssDNA or the chirality or the diameter of the nanotubes. In addition to serving as a non-covalent dispersion agent, the ssDNA molecules bonded to the nanotube surface can provide addresses for localizing Pt(II) complexes along the nanotubes. The Pt nanoparticles obtained by a reduction of the Pt2+-DNA adducts are crystals with a size of direct ethanol/methanol fuel cells and nanoscale electronics.

  7. Raman selection rules and tensor elements for PMN-0.3PT single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Wanyin; Zhu, Wenliang; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Selection rules were put forward theoretically and Raman tensor elements experimentally determined for PMN-0.3PT single-crystal. Such a body of information was then employed to evaluate local domain orientation in a relaxor-based PMN-0.3PT material by means of polarized microprobe Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of Raman spectra upon crystal rotation under different polarized probe configurations was experimentally confirmed by collecting the intensity variation of selected Raman modes on Euler's angle rotation in a poled single-crystal. The periodicity of relative Raman intensity of selected Raman bands revealed symmetry properties. Upon exploiting such properties and with the knowledge of the Raman tensor elements from the A g and E g vibrational modes, a viable path becomes available to determine domain texture in relaxor-based PMN-PT materials with high spatial resolution. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. A Highly Stable and Magnetically Recyclable Nanocatalyst System: Mesoporous Silica Spheres Embedded with FeCo/Graphitic Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pt Nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da Jeong; Li, Yan; Kim, Yun Jin; Hur, Nam Hwi; Seo, Won Seok

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a highly stable and magnetically recyclable nanocatalyst system for alkene hydrogenation. The materials are composed of mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) embedded with FeCo/graphitic shell (FeCo/GC) magnetic nanoparticles and Pt nanocatalysts (Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS). The Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS have superparamagnetism at room temperature and show type IV isotherm typical for mesoporous silica, thereby ensuring a large enough inner space (surface area of 235.3 m(2)  g(-1), pore volume of 0.165 cm(3)  g(-1), and pore diameter of 2.8 nm) to undergo catalytic reactions. We have shown that the Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS system readily converts cyclohexene into cyclohexane, which is the only product isolated and Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be seperated very quickly by an external magnetic field after the catalytic reaction is finished. We have demonstrated that the recycled Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be reused further for the same hydrogenation reaction at least four times without loss in the initial catalytic activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development of novel FePt/nanodiamond hybrid nanostructures: L1{sub 0} phase size-growth suppression and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douvalis, A. P., E-mail: adouval@uoi.gr; Bourlinos, A. B. [University of Ioannina, Physics Department (Greece); Tucek, J.; Čépe, K. [Palacký University Olomouc, Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Bakas, T. [University of Ioannina, Physics Department (Greece); Zboril, R. [Palacký University Olomouc, Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-15

    A new type of hybrid nanomaterial composed of magnetic FePt nanoparticles grown on the surface of nanodiamond nanotemplate assemblies is described for the first time. Post annealing in vacuum of the as-made nanomaterial bearing cubic A1 soft magnetic FePt nanoparticles leads to the development of FePt nanoparticles with tetragonal L1{sub 0} hard, magnetic-phase characteristics, leaving untouched the nanodiamond nanotemplate assemblies. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy including chemical mapping (HRTEM/HAADF), magnetization measurements, and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data show that the magnetic FePt nanoparticles, with average sizes of 3 and 8 nm in the as-made and annealed hybrids, respectively, are homogenously distributed within the nanodiamond template in both nanomaterials. As a consequence, their structural, morphological, and magnetic properties differ significantly from the corresponding properties of the nonsupported (free) as-made and annealed FePt nanoparticles with average sizes of 6 and 32 nm, respectively, developed by the same methods. This spatial isolation suppresses the size-growth of the FePt nanoparticles during the post-annealing procedure, triggering superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena, which are exposed as a combination of hard and soft magnetic-phase characteristics.

  10. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  11. Decoration of carbon nanotube with size-controlled L10-FePt nanoparticles for storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Reza; Sebt, Seyed Ali; Arabi, Hadi; Larijani, Majid Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-10-01

    In this work, first multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with outer diameter about 20-30 nm are synthesized by a CVD method; they have been purified and functionalized with a two-step process. The approach consists of thermal oxidation and subsequent chemical oxidation. Then, monosize FePt nanoparticles along carbon nanotubes surface are synthesized by a Polyol process. The synthesized FePt nanoparticles are about 2.5 nm in size and they have superparamagnetic behavior with fcc structure. The CNTs surfaces as a substrate prevent the coalescence of particles during thermal annealing. Annealing at the temperature higher than 600 ∘C for 2 h under a reducing atmosphere (90 % Ar + 10 % H2) leads to phase transition from fcc to fct-L10 structure. So, the magnetic behavior changes from the superparamagnetic to the ferromagnetic. Furthermore, after the phase transition, the FePt nanoparticles have finite size with an average of about 3.5 nm and the coercivity of particles reaches 5.1 kOe.

  12. Elimination of impurity phase formation in FePt magnetic thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Medwal, Rohit; Sehdev, Neeru; Yadian, Boluo; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Talebitaher, A.; Ilyas, Usman; Ramanujan, R.V.; Huang, Yizhong; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of impurity phases in FePt thin films severely degrades its magnetic properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of FePt thin films, synthesized using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), showed peaks corresponding to impurity phases, resulting in softer magnetic properties. A systematic investigation was carried to determine the factors that might have led to impurity phase formation. The factors include (i) PLD target composition, (ii) substrate material, (iii) annealing parameters such as temperature, duration and ambience and (iv) PLD deposition parameters such as chamber ambience, laser energy fluence and target–substrate distance. Depositions on the different substrates revealed impurity phase formation only on Si substrates. It was found that the target composition, PLD chamber ambience, and annealing ambience were not the factors that caused the impurity phase formation. The annealing temperature and duration influenced the impurity phases, but are not the cause of their formation. A decrease in the laser energy fluence and increase of the target–substrate distance resulted in elimination of the impurity phases and enhancement in the magnetic and structural properties of FePt thin films. The energy of the ablated plasma species, controlled by the laser energy fluence and the target–substrate distance, is found to be the main factor responsible for the formation of the impurity phases.

  13. Silicide induced surface defects in FePt nanoparticle fcc-to-fct thermally activated phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shu; Lee, Stephen L.; André, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) are relevant to a wide range of applications including high density information storage and magnetic resonance imaging to name but a few. Among the materials available to prepare MnPs, FePt is attracting growing attention. However, to harvest the strongest magnetic properties of FePt MnPs, a thermal annealing is often required to convert face-centered cubic as synthesized nPs into its tetragonal phase. Rarely addressed are the potential side effects of such treatments on the magnetic properties. In this study, we focus on the impact of silica shells often used in strategies aiming at overcoming MnP coalescence during the thermal annealing. While we show that this shell does prevent sintering, and that fcc-to-fct conversion does occur, we also reveal the formation of silicide, which can prevent the stronger magnetic properties of fct-FePt MnPs from being fully realised. This report therefore sheds lights on poorly investigated and understood interfacial phenomena occurring during the thermal annealing of MnPs and, by doing so, also highlights the benefits of developing new strategies to avoid silicide formation.

  14. Silicide induced surface defects in FePt nanoparticle fcc-to-fct thermally activated phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shu; Lee, Stephen L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); André, Pascal, E-mail: pjpandre@riken.jp [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, CNRS-Ewha International Research Center (CERC), Ewha W. University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) are relevant to a wide range of applications including high density information storage and magnetic resonance imaging to name but a few. Among the materials available to prepare MnPs, FePt is attracting growing attention. However, to harvest the strongest magnetic properties of FePt MnPs, a thermal annealing is often required to convert face-centered cubic as synthesized nPs into its tetragonal phase. Rarely addressed are the potential side effects of such treatments on the magnetic properties. In this study, we focus on the impact of silica shells often used in strategies aiming at overcoming MnP coalescence during the thermal annealing. While we show that this shell does prevent sintering, and that fcc-to-fct conversion does occur, we also reveal the formation of silicide, which can prevent the stronger magnetic properties of fct-FePt MnPs from being fully realised. This report therefore sheds lights on poorly investigated and understood interfacial phenomena occurring during the thermal annealing of MnPs and, by doing so, also highlights the benefits of developing new strategies to avoid silicide formation.

  15. Non-Aqueous Sol-Gel Synthesis of FePt Nanoparticles in the Absence of In Situ Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Preller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of FePt nanocrystals is typically performed in an organic solvent at rather high temperatures, demanding the addition of the in situ stabilizers oleic acid and oleylamine to produce monomodal particles with well-defined morphologies. Replacing frequently-used solvents with organic media bearing functional moieties, the use of the stabilizers can be completely circumvented. In addition, various morphologies and sizes of the nanocrystals can be achieved by the choice of organic solvent. The kinetics of particle growth and the change in the magnetic behavior of the superparamagnetic FePt nanocrystals during the synthesis with a set of different solvents, as well as the resulting morphologies and stoichiometries of the nanoparticles were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID measurements. Furthermore, annealing of the as-prepared FePt nanoparticles led to the ordered L10 phase and, thus, to hard magnetic materials with varying saturation magnetizations and magnetic coercivities.

  16. Thickness dependence of magnetization reversal mechanism in perpendicularly magnetized L1{sub 0} FePt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin, E-mail: xinwang@uestc.edu.cn; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang

    2017-04-15

    We have studied the magnetic switching behavior of L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt films with varying thickness. It was found that coercivity is strongly dependent on the film thickness. The obvious variations of the coercivity in the thin films are confirmed by the measurements of structural and magnetic properties. With increasing thickness, the degree of L1{sub 0} chemical ordering increased, while the magnetization reversal process transforms from a pinned two-steps magnetization reversal to a comparatively smooth domain wall motion behavior. Although considering anisotropy, exchange interaction and applied magnetic field, the switching behavior in films is quite complex, the main features of the magnetization reversal mechanism can be understood by performing detailed investigation on the effect of the deposition temperature and the angle of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Series of FePt films with L1{sub 0} phase have been prepared. • We focused on the magnetization reversal mechanism with varying thicknesses. • The angle-dependence of switching process is revealed in the FePt films. • Different switching mechanisms were found by increasing the film thickness.

  17. Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Pb(Zr1−xTixO3 (PZT polycrystalline ceramics, relaxor-PT single crystals offer significantly improved performance with extremely high electromechanical coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, making them promising materials for piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. The recent advances in crystal growth and characterization of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric single crystals are reviewed in this paper with emphases on the following topics: (1 the large crystal growth of binary and ternary relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric crystals for commercialization; (2 the composition segregation in the crystals grown from such a solid-solution system and possible solutions to reduce it; (3 the crystal growth from new binary and ternary compositions to expand the operating temperature and electric field; (4 the crystallographic orientation dependence and anisotropic behaviors of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals; and (5 the characterization of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric properties of the relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals under small and large electric fields.

  18. Magnetic properties in the vortex state of Pr1-xNdxPt4Ge12 and PrPt3.88Fe0.12Ge12 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, L. S. Sharath; Chattopadhyay, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    We report the temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetization of Pr1-xNdxPt4Ge12 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and PrPt3.88Fe0.12Ge12 below 10 K and up to 2 T magnetic field. When compared to the parent PrPt4Ge12, while the critical current density and flux pinning properties are enhanced in the Pr1-xNdxPt4Ge12 samples, they are considerably diminished in the PrPt3.88Fe0.12Ge12 sample. We argue that the observed changes are related to the way the substituting atoms at different crystallographic sites influence the superconductivity in these Germanide skutterudites.

  19. High PT leptons and single W boson production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korcsak-Gorzo, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    A search for isolated electrons and muons with high transverse momentum in events with large missing transverse momentum has been conducted. The results have been found to be compatible with the Standard Model expectations. The cross section for single W production has been measured and the total cross section in electron-proton collisions at HERA has been found to be σ(ep → eWX) = 0.93 -0.23 +0.26 (stat.)±0.08(syst.) pb. The measurements are based on the complete available ZEUS data sets from the HERA I and II running periods taken between 1994-2007. (orig.)

  20. Influence of the phenomena occurring at the interface between L1{sub 0}-ordered-FePt and Fe on the coercivity behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbucicchio, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.carbucicchio@ino.it [University of Parma, Physics Department (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt/Fe thin bi-layers were grown using a molecular beam epitaxy onto (100)-MgO substrates changing the soft Fe layer thickness. The study of the intermixing phenomena occurring at the hard/soft interfaces was carried out using surface Mössbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of the samples were analyzed with a magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer. The surface morphology and the magnetic domains were analyzed with an UHV atomic and magnetic force microscopy in tapping and lift mode respectively.The present work clearly demonstrates that the degree of interface intermixing and reactions is the responsible for the coercivity behavior in exchange-spring magnets.

  1. Ab initio studies on electronic and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}PtGa (X=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Tufan, E-mail: aparnachakrabarti@gmail.com [Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Chakrabarti, Aparna [Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we probe the electronic and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}PtGa (X being Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) Heusler alloys. Our calculations predict that all these systems possess inverse Heusler alloy structure in the respective ground states. Application of tetragonal distortion leads to lowering of energy with respect to their cubic phase. The equilibrium volumes of both the phases are nearly the same. These indicate that the materials studied here are prone to undergo martensite transition, as has been recently shown theoretically for Mn{sub 2}PtGa in the literature. Ground state with a tetragonal symmetry is corroborated by the observation of soft tetragonal shear constants in the cubic phase. By comparing the energies of various types of magnetic configurations we predict that Cr{sub 2}PtGa and Mn{sub 2}PtGa possess ferrimagnetic configuration whereas Fe{sub 2}PtGa and Co{sub 2}PtGa possess ferromagnetic configuration in their respective ground states. - Highlights: • We predict stable martensitic phase of X{sub 2}PtGa (X=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co). • Co{sub 2}PtGa possesses least inherent brittleness among all the materials. • Martensite transitions are possible for the investigated materials. • A tetragonal ground state with high spin polarization is predicted for Co{sub 2}PtGa.

  2. Ab initio studies on electronic and magnetic properties of X2PtGa (X=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Tufan; Chakrabarti, Aparna

    2017-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we probe the electronic and magnetic properties of X 2 PtGa (X being Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) Heusler alloys. Our calculations predict that all these systems possess inverse Heusler alloy structure in the respective ground states. Application of tetragonal distortion leads to lowering of energy with respect to their cubic phase. The equilibrium volumes of both the phases are nearly the same. These indicate that the materials studied here are prone to undergo martensite transition, as has been recently shown theoretically for Mn 2 PtGa in the literature. Ground state with a tetragonal symmetry is corroborated by the observation of soft tetragonal shear constants in the cubic phase. By comparing the energies of various types of magnetic configurations we predict that Cr 2 PtGa and Mn 2 PtGa possess ferrimagnetic configuration whereas Fe 2 PtGa and Co 2 PtGa possess ferromagnetic configuration in their respective ground states. - Highlights: • We predict stable martensitic phase of X 2 PtGa (X=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co). • Co 2 PtGa possesses least inherent brittleness among all the materials. • Martensite transitions are possible for the investigated materials. • A tetragonal ground state with high spin polarization is predicted for Co 2 PtGa.

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of NADH at Pt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/reduced-graphene oxide nanohybrids modified glassy carbon electrode and its determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, 69315516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseini, S. Jafar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 7591874831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadpour, Mitra [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, 69315516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidari, Vahid; Bahrami, Mehrangiz; Maddahfar, Mahnaz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 7591874831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Pt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/reduced-graphene oxide nanohybrids modified glassy carbon (Pt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/RGO/GC) electrode as a novel system for the preparation of electrochemical sensing platform. Characterization of as-made composite was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) where the Pt, Fe, Si, O and C elements were observed. The Pt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/RGO/GC electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Due to the synergistic effect between Pt, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and RGO, the nanohybrid exhibited excellent performance toward dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.0, with a low detection limit of 5 nM. - Highlights: • Preparation of a novel electrochemical sensing platform system • Excellent performance of Pt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/reduced-graphene oxide nanohybrids • Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation with a low detection limit of 5 nM.

  4. Ferromagnetic alloy material CoFeC with high thermal tolerance in MgO/CoFeC/Pt structure and comparable intrinsic damping factor with CoFeB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohai; Zhou, Jing; Lin, Weinan; Yu, Jihang; Guo, Rui; Poh, Francis; Shum, Danny; Chen, Jingsheng

    2018-02-01

    The thermal tolerance and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of ferromagnetic alloy Co40Fe40C20 in the structure MgO/CoFeC/Pt (or Ta) were investigated and compared with the commonly used CoFeB alloy. It is found that the PMA of CoFeC with {{K}i,CoFeC}=2.21 erg c{{m}-2} , which is 59% higher than that of CoFeB, can be obtained after proper post-annealing treatment. Furthermore, CoFeC alloy provides better thermal tolerance to temperature of 400 °C than CoFeB. The studies on ferromagnetic resonance show that the intrinsic damping constant α in of Co40Fe40C20 alloy is 0.0047, which is similar to the reported value of 0.004 for Co40Fe40B20 alloy. The comprehensive comparisons indicate that CoFeC alloy is a promising candidate for the application of the integration of spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processes.

  5. Superconducting and charge density wave transition in single crystalline LaPt2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritu; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Rajeev, K. P.; Hossain, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of our comprehensive studies on single crystalline LaPt2Si2. Pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity and heat capacity confirms the bulk nature of superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave (CDW) transition in the single crystals. While the charge density wave transition temperature is lower, the superconducting transition temperature is higher in single crystal compared to the polycrystalline sample. This result confirms the competing nature of CDW and SC. Another important finding is the anomalous temperature dependence of upper critical field H C2(T). We also report the anisotropy in the transport and magnetic measurements of the single crystal.

  6. The nonenzyme ethanol sensor based on pt nps and fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ mnps modified au electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.; Ma, X.; Yin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The none enzyme ethanol sensor was prepared using Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified Au electrode. Pt NPs were deposited on the gold plated electrode through the method of potentiostatic deposition. Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ magnetic nanoparticles were added to the surface of Pt NPs modified Au electrode to obtain the Au/Pt/ Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs electrode. The as-prepared Au/Pt/Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs electrode was used for the detection of liquid ethanol without using enzyme. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to study the behavior of ethanol electro-catalytic oxidation on Pt/Au/Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ electrode. It was found that Pt NPs played strong catalytic oxidation role of ethanol with the presence of Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs. The linear range of Au/Pt/Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs electrode for the detection of ethanol was of 2 x 10 /sup -5/ 1.1 x 10/sup -4/ mol L/sup -1/ and the detection limit was of 3.2 x 10/sup -6/ mol L/sup -5/ when signal to noise ratio was 3sigma. The sensibility of the sensor is 420.4 microA mmol/sup -1/ /sup -2cm/. The simple method provided an effective means for fabricating the novel sensors. (author)

  7. Synergistically Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Ni3S4-PtX (X = Fe, Ni) Heteronanorods as Heterogeneous Catalysts in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoushuang; Ma, Dui; Hu, ZhangJun; He, Qingquan; Zai, Jiantao; Chen, Dayong; Sun, Huai; Chen, Zhiwen; Qiao, Qiquan; Wu, Minghong; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-08-23

    Platinum (Pt)-based alloys are considerably promising electrocatalysts for the reduction of I - /I 3 - and Co 2+ /Co 3+ redox couples in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, it is still challenging to minimize the dosage of Pt to achieve comparable or even higher catalytic efficiency. Here, by taking full advantages of the Mott-Schottky (M-S) effect at the metal-semiconductor interface, we successfully strategize a low-Pt-based M-S catalyst with enhanced electrocatalytic performance and stability for the large-scale application of DSSCs. The optimized M-S electrocatalyst of Ni 3 S 4 -Pt 2 X 1 (X = Fe, Ni) heteronanorods is constructed by rationally controlling the ratio of Pt to transition metal in the hybrids. It was found that the electrons transferred from Ni 3 S 4 to Pt 2 X 1 at their interface under the Mott-Schottky effect result in the concentration of electrons onto Pt 2 X 1 domains, which subsequently accelerates the regeneration of both I - /I 3 - and Co 2+ /Co 3+ redox shuttles in DSSCs. As a result, the DSSC with Ni 3 S 4 -Pt 2 Fe 1 manifests an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.79% and 5.56% for iodine and cobalt-based electrolyte under AM1.5G illumination, respectively. These PCEs are obviously superior over those with Ni 3 S 4 -Pt, PtFe, Ni 3 S 4 , and pristine Pt electrodes. The strategy reported here is able to be further expanded to fabricate other low-Pt-alloyed M-S catalysts for wider applications in the fields of photocatalysis, water splitting, and heterojunction solar cells.

  8. Single crystal study of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CePt2In7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobash, Paul H; Ronning, F; Thompson, J D; Scott, B L; Bauer, E D; Moll, P J W; Batlogg, B

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis, structure, and physical properties of single crystals of CePt 2 In 7 . Single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis confirms the tetragonal I4/mmm structure of CePt 2 In 7 with unit cell parameters a = 4.5886(6) Å, c = 21.530(6) Å and V = 453.32(14) Å 3 . The magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, Hall effect and electrical resistivity measurements are all consistent with CePt 2 In 7 undergoing an antiferromagnetic order transition at T N = 5.5 K, which is field independent up to 9 T. Above T N , the Sommerfeld coefficient of specific heat is γ ≈ 300 mJ mol -1 K -2 , which is characteristic of an enhanced effective mass of itinerant charge carriers. The electrical resistivity is typical of heavy-fermion behavior and gives a residual resistivity ρ 0 ∼ 0.2 µΩ cm, indicating good crystal quality. CePt 2 In 7 also shows moderate anisotropy of the physical properties that is comparable to structurally related CeMIn 5 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) heavy-fermion superconductors. (paper)

  9. Nano-structure formation of Fe-Pt perpendicular magnetic recording media co-deposited with MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, G.; Suzuki, T.; Ouchi, K.; Barna, P.B.; Radnoczi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetic recording media samples were prepared by sputter deposition on sapphire with a layer sequence of MgO seed-layer/Cr under-layer/FeSi soft magnetic under-layer/MgO intermediate layer/FePt-oxide recording layer. The effects of MgO, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 additives on the morphology and orientation of the FePt layer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The samples exhibited (001) orientation of the L1 FePt phase with the mutual orientations of sapphire substrate//MgO(100)[001]//Cr(100)[11-bar0]//FeSi(100)[11-bar0]//MgO(100) [001]//FePt(001)[100]. The morphology of the FePt films varied due to the co-deposited oxides: The FePt layers were continuous and segmented by stacking faults aligned at 54 o to the surface. Films with SiO 2 addition, beside the oriented columnar FePt grains, exhibited a fraction of misoriented crystallites due to random repeated nucleation. Al 2 O 3 addition resulted in a layered structure, i.e. an initial continuous epitaxial FePt layer covered by a secondary layer of FePt-Al 2 O 3 composite. Both components (FePt and MgO) of the MgO-added samples were grown epitaxially on the MgO intermediate layer, so that a nano-composite of intercalated (001) FePt and (001) MgO was formed. The revealed microstructures and formation mechanisms may facilitate the improvement of the structural and magnetic properties of the FePt-oxide composite perpendicular magnetic recording media

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 7−n}Pt{sub n} with n = 0, 1, 2, . . . 7, bimetallic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce-Tadeo, A. P.; Morán-López, J. L., E-mail: joseluis.moran@ipicyt.edu.mx [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tenológica, División de Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Ricardo-Chavez, J. L. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo (Mexico)

    2016-11-15

    An exhaustive study of the structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 7−n}Pt{sub n} with n = 0, 1, 2, …7, bimetallic clusters is presented. Based on ab initio density functional theory that includes spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and graph theory, the ground state geometry, the local chemical order, and the orbital and spin magnetic moments are calculated. We show how the systems evolves from the 3-d Fe to the quasi-planar Pt clusters. These calculations show that SOC are necessary to describe correctly the composition dependence of the binding energy of these nanoalloys. We observe that the ground state geometries on the Fe rich side resemble the fcc structure adopted by bulk samples. Furthermore, we observe how the spin and orbital magnetic moments depend on the chemical concentration and chemical order. Based on these results, we estimated the magnetic anisotropy energy and found that the largest values correspond to some of the most symmetric structures, Fe{sub 5}Pt{sub 2} and FePt{sub 6}. To determine the degree of non-collinearity, we define an index that shows that in FePt{sub 6} the total magnetic moments, on each atom, are the less collinear.

  11. Spin-orbit driven phenomena in the isoelectronic L 10 -Fe(Pd,Pt) alloys from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnovský, J.; Drchal, V.; Turek, I.

    2017-12-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the Gilbert damping (GD) are studied theoretically for the partially ordered L 10 -Fe(Pd,Pt) alloys. The varying alloy order and the spin-orbit coupling, which are due to the change in the Pd/Pt composition, allow for a chemical tuning of both phenomena which play an important role in the spintronic applications. The impact of the antisite disorder on the residual resistivity, AHE, and GD is studied from first principles using recently developed methods employing the Kubo-Bastin approach and the nonlocal torque operator method. The most interesting result is a different behavior of samples with low and high chemical orders. Good agreement between calculated and measured concentration trends is obtained for all quantities studied, while the absolute GD values are underestimated.

  12. Stretching dependence of the vibration modes of a single-molecule Pt-H-2-Pt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukic, D.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Untiedt, C.

    2005-01-01

    isotope substitution is obtained. The stretching dependence for each of the modes allows uniquely classifying them as longitudinal or transversal modes. The interpretation of the experiment in terms of a Pt-H-2-Pt bridge is verified by density-functional theory calculations for the stability, vibrational...

  13. Compositionally graded Fe{sub (1−x)}-Pt{sub (x)} nanowires produced by alternating current electrodeposition into alumina templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardi-Ilkhchy, Ali [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasirpouri, Farzad, E-mail: Nasirpouri@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bran, Cristina; Vázquez, Manuel [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Fe{sub (1−x)}-Pt{sub (x)} (0Fe-Pt alloy nanowires was studied. Based on experimental data, AC sine wave deposition at an intermediate voltage of 12 V{sub rms} and a frequency of 50 Hz, produces nanowires with nearly stoichiometric composition (Fe{sub 42}Pt{sub 58}) and a reasonably good uniformity of pore filling. However, there is a gradual change of composition in Fe-Pt alloy nanowires along the length under certain AC parameters. The observed dependency of alloy composition on the deposition voltage and frequency of AC electrodeposition is explained by an interplay between reduction potentials and diffusion coefficients of Fe and Pt ions which makes FePt system able to access compositionally graded nanowires. Magnetic measurements of nanowires of as-deposited nanowires confirm that maximum coercivity of 1.55 kOe is observed for nearly stoichiometric composition which increases up to 1.81 kOe after thermal annealing at 550 °C. - Graphical abstract: Evaluation of synthesizing extrinsic parameters (such as deposition voltages and frequency) and intrinsic parameters (diffusion coefficient and reduction potential of ion species) in compositionally graded Fe{sub (1−x)}-Pt{sub (x)} nanowires prepared by alternating current electrodeposition into alumina templates.

  14. Correlating Structure and Oxygen Reduction Activity on Y/Pt(111) and Gd/Pt(111) Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Elisabeth Therese; Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Johansson, Tobias Peter

    2015-01-01

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) hold promise as a zero-emission source of power, particularly suitable for automotive vehicles. However, the high loading of Pt required to catalyse the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) at the PEMFC cathode prevents the commercialisation of this tech......Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) hold promise as a zero-emission source of power, particularly suitable for automotive vehicles. However, the high loading of Pt required to catalyse the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) at the PEMFC cathode prevents the commercialisation...... of this technology. Improving the activity of Pt by alloying it with other metals could decrease the loading of Pt at the cathode to a level comparable to Pt-group metal loading in internal combustion engines. PtxY and PtxGd exhibit exceptionally high activity for oxygen reduction, both in the polycrystalline form...

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt:Ag nanocomposite films on SiO2/Si(1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Yang, F.J.; Wang, H.B.; Cao, X.; Xue, S.X.; Wang, J.A.; Gao, Y.; Huang, Z.B.; Yang, C.P.; Chiah, M.F.; Cheung, W.Y.; Wong, S.P.; Li, Q.; Li, Z.Y.

    2006-01-01

    FePt:Ag nanocomposite films were prepared by pulsed filtered vacuum arc deposition system and subsequent rapid thermal annealing on SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0) substrates. The microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. A strong dependence of coercivity and ordering of the face-central tetragonal structure on both Ag concentration and annealing temperature was observed. With Ag concentration of 22% in atomic ratio, the coercivity got to 6.0 kOe with a grain size of 6.7 nm when annealing temperature was 400 deg. C

  16. FORC-study of magnetization reversal of L10-FePt based exchange coupled composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongyuan Situ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perpendicular exchange coupled composite structures were prepared, utilizing L10-FePt as hard layer and [Co/Ni]N multilayer as soft layer. Magnetic characteristics revealed the gradually change of the magnetization reversal mechanism from incoherent rotational mode to dominant wall motion as the thickness of soft layer increases. Furthermore, FORC analysis were employed to characterize the interactions of our ECC magnetic system, the result indicates that the exchange coupling interaction were enhanced with the increasing thickness of soft layer.

  17. Tuning anomalous Hall conductivity in L1[sub 0] FePt films by long range chemical ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, M.; Shi, Z.; Xu, W. J.; Zhang, Xixiang; Du, J.; Zhou, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    For L10 FePt films, the anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy=-a σxx-b, where a=a0f(T), b=b 0f(T), and f (T) is the temperature dependence factor of the spontaneous magnetization. With increasing chemical long range ordering S, a0 changes its sign accompanied by a reduction of its magnitude and b0 increases monotonically. The spin-orbit coupling strength is suggested to increase with increasing S. As an approach, the long range chemical ordering can be used to control the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic alloy films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Stray field signatures of Néel textured skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, A.; Almoalem, A.; Soumyanarayanan, Anjan; Tan, Anthony K. C.; Raju, M.; Panagopoulos, C.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscale spin configurations with topological properties that hold great promise for spintronic devices. Here, we establish their Néel texture, helicity, and size in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films by constructing a multipole expansion to model their stray field signatures and applying it to magnetic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the demonstrated sensitivity to inhomogeneity in skyrmion properties, coupled with a unique capability to estimate the pinning force governing dynamics, portend broad applicability in the burgeoning field of topological spin textures.

  19. Interfacial effects on the electrical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3/Pt/Si thin film heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, S.; Zekonyte, J.; Solterbeck, C.-H.; Es-Souni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO 3 thin films of various thickness were fabricated on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates via chemical solution deposition. The electrical properties were investigated using impedance and leakage current measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with Ar ion milling (depth profiling) was used to investigate elemental distribution near the electrode-film interface. It is shown that the dielectric constant depends on film thickness due to the presence of an interfacial film-electrode layer evidenced by XPS investigation. Direct current conductivity is found to be governed by Schottky and/or Poole-Frenkel mechanisms

  20. Tuning anomalous Hall conductivity in L1[sub 0] FePt films by long range chemical ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, M.

    2011-02-24

    For L10 FePt films, the anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy=-a σxx-b, where a=a0f(T), b=b 0f(T), and f (T) is the temperature dependence factor of the spontaneous magnetization. With increasing chemical long range ordering S, a0 changes its sign accompanied by a reduction of its magnitude and b0 increases monotonically. The spin-orbit coupling strength is suggested to increase with increasing S. As an approach, the long range chemical ordering can be used to control the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic alloy films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Ionic Liquid Gating Control of RKKY Interaction in FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB and (Pt/Co)2/Ru/(Co/Pt)2 Multilayers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qu; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Ziyao; Wang, Liqian; Zhang, Yijun; Zhao, Shishun; Dong, Guohua; Cheng, Yuxin; Min, Tai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Wei; Xia, Ke; Liu, Ming

    2018-03-07

    To overcome the fundamental challenge of the weak natural response of antiferromagnetic materials under a magnetic field, voltage manipulation of antiferromagnetic interaction is developed to realize ultrafast, high-density, and power efficient antiferromagnetic spintronics. Here, we report a low voltage modulation of Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) interaction via ionic liquid gating in synthetic antiferromagnetic multilayers of FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB and (Pt/Co)2/Ru/(Co/Pt)2. At room temperature, the distinct voltage control of transition between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ordering is realized and up to 80% of perpendicular magnetic moments manage to switch with a small-applied voltage bias of 2.5 V. We related this ionic liquid gating-induced RKKY interaction modification to the disturbance of itinerant electrons inside synthetic antiferromagnetic heterostructure and the corresponding change of its Fermi level. Voltage tuning of RKKY interaction may enable the next generation of switchable spintronics between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic modes with both fundamental and practical perspectives.

  2. Ensemble averaged structure–function relationship for nanocrystals: effective superparamagnetic Fe clusters with catalytically active Pt skin [Ensemble averaged structure-function relationship for composite nanocrystals: magnetic bcc Fe clusters with catalytically active fcc Pt skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Valeri [Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI (United States); Prasai, Binay [Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI (United States); Shastri, Sarvjit [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-ray Science Division; Park, Hyun-Uk [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea). Department of Chemistry; Kwon, Young-Uk [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea). Department of Chemistry; Skumryev, Vassil [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain). Department of Physics

    2017-09-12

    Practical applications require the production and usage of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) in large ensembles. Besides, due to their cluster-bulk solid duality, metallic NCs exhibit a large degree of structural diversity. This poses the question as to what atomic-scale basis is to be used when the structure–function relationship for metallic NCs is to be quantified precisely. In this paper, we address the question by studying bi-functional Fe core-Pt skin type NCs optimized for practical applications. In particular, the cluster-like Fe core and skin-like Pt surface of the NCs exhibit superparamagnetic properties and a superb catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction, respectively. We determine the atomic-scale structure of the NCs by non-traditional resonant high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function analysis. Using the experimental structure data we explain the observed magnetic and catalytic behavior of the NCs in a quantitative manner. Lastly, we demonstrate that NC ensemble-averaged 3D positions of atoms obtained by advanced X-ray scattering techniques are a very proper basis for not only establishing but also quantifying the structure–function relationship for the increasingly complex metallic NCs explored for practical applications.

  3. On the advantages of spring magnets compared to pure FePt: Strategy for rare-earth free permanent magnets following a bottom-up approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousthomis, M.; Garnero, C. [Université de Toulouse, UMR 5215 INSA, CNRS, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets, 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Marcelot, C.G. [Université de Toulouse, UMR 5215 INSA, CNRS, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets, 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales, CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, B.P. 94347, 31055 Toulouse (France); Blon, T.; Cayez, S. [Université de Toulouse, UMR 5215 INSA, CNRS, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets, 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Cassignol, C.; Du, V.A.; Krispin, M. [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Munich (Germany); Arenal, R. [Transpyrenean Advanced Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), INSA - INA, CNRS - Universidad de Zaragoza, 30155 Toulouse (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), U. Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Soulantica, K.; Viau, G. [Université de Toulouse, UMR 5215 INSA, CNRS, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets, 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lacroix, L.-M., E-mail: lmlacroi@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UMR 5215 INSA, CNRS, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets, 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Transpyrenean Advanced Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), INSA - INA, CNRS - Universidad de Zaragoza, 30155 Toulouse (France)

    2017-02-15

    Nanostructured magnets benefiting from efficient exchange-coupling between hard and soft grains represent an appealing approach for integrated miniaturized magnetic power sources. Using a bottom-up approach, nanostructured materials were prepared from binary assemblies of bcc FeCo and fcc FePt nanoparticles and compared with pure L1{sub 0}-FePt materials. The use of a bifunctional mercapto benzoic acid yields homogeneous assemblies of the two types of particles while reducing the organic matter amount. The 650 °C thermal annealing, mandatory to allow the L1{sub 0}-FePt phase transition, led to an important interdiffusion and thus decreased drastically the amount of soft phase present in the final composites. The analysis of recoil curves however evidenced the presence of an efficient interphase exchange coupling, which allows obtaining better magnetic performances than pure L1{sub 0} FePt materials, energy product above 100 kJ m{sup −3} being estimated for a Pt content of only 33%. These results clearly evidenced the interest of chemically grown nanoparticles for the preparation of performant spring-magnets, opening promising perspective for integrated subcentimetric magnets with optimized properties.

  4. Reduction in L10 phase transition temperature of PLD grown FePt thin by pre-annealing pulse laser exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Rawat, R.S.; Bisht, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pre-annealing atmospheric pulsed laser exposure was applied to decrease the phase transition (from chemically disordered A1 phase to chemically ordered L1 0 phase) temperature of FePt nano-particles on a Si (100) substrate. Different pre-annealing laser energy densities of 0.024 and 0.079 J/cm2 were utilized to expose the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) FePt thin film samples under atmospheric conditions. Subsequently, FePt thin film samples were annealed at different temperatures of 300 and 400 ºC to observe the influence of laser exposure on the phase transition temperature. The phase transition temperature was decreased from conventional 600 ºC to 400 ºC by one shot pre-annealing atmospheric pulsed laser exposure. (author)

  5. Hydrogen spillover in Pt-single-walled carbon nanotube composites: formation of stable C-H bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Rajasekaran, Srivats; Friebel, Daniel; Beasley, Cara; Jiao, Liying; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Dai, Hongjie; Clemens, Bruce; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-04-13

    Using in situ electrical conductivity and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, we have examined how the hydrogen uptake of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is influenced by the addition of Pt nanoparticles. The conductivity of platinum-sputtered single-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt-SWNTs) during molecular hydrogen exposure decreased more rapidly than that of the corresponding pure SWNTs, which supports a hydrogenation mechanism facilitated by "spillover" of dissociated hydrogen from the Pt nanoparticles. C 1s XPS spectra indicate that the Pt-SWNTs store hydrogen by means of chemisorption, that is, covalent C-H bond formation: molecular hydrogen charging at elevated pressure (8.27 bar) and room temperature yielded Pt-SWNTs with up to 16 ± 1.5 at. % sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, which corresponds to a hydrogen-storage capacity of 1.2 wt % (excluding the weight of Pt nanoparticles). Pt-SWNTs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique exhibited the highest Pt/SWNT ratio and also the best hydrogen uptake. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. An in-situ X-ray diffraction study on the electrochemical formation of PtZn alloys on Pt(1 1 1) single crystal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drnec, J., E-mail: drnec@esrf.fr [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Bizzotto, D. [Department of Chemistry, AMPEL, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Carlà, F. [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Fiala, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Sode, A. [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Balmes, O.; Detlefs, B.; Dufrane, T. [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Felici, R., E-mail: felici@esrf.fr [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • PtZn electrochemical alloying is observed on single crystal Pt electrodes. • In-situ X-ray characterization during alloy formation and dissolution is provided. • Structural model of the surface during alloying and dissolution is discussed. • X-ray based techniques can be used in in-operando studies of bimetallic fuel cell catalysts. - Abstract: The electrochemical formation and dissolution of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) PtZn catalyst on Pt(1 1 1) surface is followed by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. When the crystalline Pt surface is polarized to sufficiently negative potential values, with respect to an Ag/AgCl|KCl reference electrode, the electrodeposited zinc atoms diffuse into the bulk and characteristic features are observed in the X-ray patterns. The surface structure and composition during deposition and dissolution is determined from analysis of XRR curves and measurements of crystal truncation rods. Thin Zn-rich surface layer is present during the alloy formation while a Zn-depleted layer forms during dissolution.

  7. Surface structure of MgO underlayer with Ti diffusion for (002 oriented L10 FePt-based heat assisted magnetic recording media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintaro Hinata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface morphology of the MgO layer and magnetic properties of FePt-C layer deposited on the MgO were investigated for the FePt-based heat assisted magnetic recording media. Stacking structure of the underlayer for the FePt-C layer was MgO (0-5 nm/Cr80Mn20 (0-30 nm/Cr50Ti50 (0-50 nm/glass sub.. Surface observation result for the MgO film by using an atomic force microscope revealed the existence of nodules with a height of about 2 nm and a network-like convex structure with a height difference of about sub nm (boundary wall, BW on the MgO crystal grain boundary. Density of the nodules largely depends on the surface roughness of the CrTi layer, RaCrTi and it is suppressed from 10 to 2/0.5 μm2 by reducing RaCrTi from 420 to 260 pm. Height of the BW depends on thickness of the MgO layer, tMgO and it can be suppressed by reducing tMgO to less than 4 nm. From the cross-sectional energy dispersive x-ray mapping, it is clarified that the BW is formed by atomic diffusion of Ti atoms from CrTi layer due to the substrate heating process, and a compound consists of Mg, Ti and O atoms. This BW can be used as a template to magnetically isolate the FePt column in the FePt-based granular film, such as FePt-SiO2, if the size of the BW is reduced to less than 10 nm. M-H loop of the FePt-C granular film deposited on the underlayer showed that the nodule and BW induce oxidation of the FePt grains, and reduction of intergranular exchange coupling.

  8. Surface structure of MgO underlayer with Ti diffusion for (002) oriented L10 FePt-based heat assisted magnetic recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinata, Sintaro; Jo, Shin; Saito, Shin

    2018-05-01

    Surface morphology of the MgO layer and magnetic properties of FePt-C layer deposited on the MgO were investigated for the FePt-based heat assisted magnetic recording media. Stacking structure of the underlayer for the FePt-C layer was MgO (0-5 nm)/Cr80Mn20 (0-30 nm)/Cr50Ti50 (0-50 nm)/glass sub.. Surface observation result for the MgO film by using an atomic force microscope revealed the existence of nodules with a height of about 2 nm and a network-like convex structure with a height difference of about sub nm (boundary wall, BW) on the MgO crystal grain boundary. Density of the nodules largely depends on the surface roughness of the CrTi layer, RaCrTi and it is suppressed from 10 to 2/0.5 μm2 by reducing RaCrTi from 420 to 260 pm. Height of the BW depends on thickness of the MgO layer, tMgO and it can be suppressed by reducing tMgO to less than 4 nm. From the cross-sectional energy dispersive x-ray mapping, it is clarified that the BW is formed by atomic diffusion of Ti atoms from CrTi layer due to the substrate heating process, and a compound consists of Mg, Ti and O atoms. This BW can be used as a template to magnetically isolate the FePt column in the FePt-based granular film, such as FePt-SiO2, if the size of the BW is reduced to less than 10 nm. M-H loop of the FePt-C granular film deposited on the underlayer showed that the nodule and BW induce oxidation of the FePt grains, and reduction of intergranular exchange coupling.

  9. Dielectric behavior and phase transition in [111]-oriented PIN–PMN–PT single crystals under dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and electric field dependences of the dielectric behavior and phase transition for [111]-oriented 0.23PIN–0.52PMN–0.25PT (PIN-PMN–0.25PT and 0.24PIN–0.43PMN–0.33PT (PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystals were investigated over a temperature range from -100°C to 250°C using field-heating (FH dielectric measurements. The transition phenomenon from ferroelectric microdomain to macrodomain was found in rhombohedra (R phase region in the single crystals under dc bias. This transition temperature Tf of micro-to-macrodomain is sensitive to dc bias and move quickly to lower temperature with increasing dc bias. The phase transition temperatures in the two single crystals shift toward high temperature and the dielectric permittivities at the phase transition temperature decrease with increasing dc bias. Especially, the phase transition peaks are gradually broad in PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystal with the increasing dc bias. Effects of dc bias on the dielectric behavior and phase transition in PIN–PMN–PT single crystals are discussed.

  10. Room temperature magnetism of few-nanometers-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) films on Pt(111) and Ru(0001) studied in ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, M., E-mail: lewandowski@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Miłosz, Z.; Michalak, N.; Ranecki, R. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Sveklo, I.; Kurant, Z.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Białystok (Poland); Mielcarek, S. [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Luciński, T. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Jurga, S. [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-09-30

    Few-nanometers-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) films were epitaxially grown on Pt(111) and Ru(0001) single crystal supports by sequential iron deposition and oxidation in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The growth of well-ordered magnetite films was confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. The films were covered with a protective Au layer and subjected to magnetic and structural studies in ambient conditions. Magnetic hysteresis loops, recorded using magneto-optical Kerr effect apparatus, confirmed magnetic ordering in both films at room temperature. The Kerr measurements indicated in-plane orientation of magnetization, which was supported by the lack of magnetic contrast in magnetic force microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy revealed significant differences in morphology of the films, tentatively attributed to different lattice mismatch with Pt(111) and Ru(0001) single crystal supports. - Highlights: • Few-nanometers-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) films were grown on Pt(111) and Ru(0001). • Magnetic properties were studied using MOKE and AFM/MFM in ambient conditions. • The films exhibited in-plane magnetic ordering at room temperature. • Differences in magnetic properties were tentatively assigned to structural differences.

  11. A DFT comparative study of single and double SO2 adsorption on Pt-doped and Au-doped single-walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi; Zahedi, Mansour; Mola, Adeleh; Naserian, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of the adsorption of SO 2 on Au/SWCNT and Pt/SWCNT. • SO 2 adsorbed on Au/SWCNT and Pt/SWCNT system demonstrate a strong chemisorption. • NBO analysis was done to reach more understanding about intermolecular interactions. - Abstract: Adsorption of single and double SO 2 gas molecule(s) on the surface of Pt-doped and Au-doped (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/CNT-V and Au/CNT-V) were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. The results showed the following: firstly, adsorption on Au/CNT-V is independent of special orientation, secondly, SO 2 adsorption on Pt/CNT-V in single case is stronger than Au/CNT-V, and finally, adsorption of the first molecule influences adsorption of the second one. Upon adsorption of SO 2 molecule(s), the energy gap of Pt/CNT-V were considerably reduced, resulting in enhanced electrical conductivity but in Au/CNT-V, despite of adsorption energy similar to Pt/CNT-V, E g slightly increased. In order to consider the effect of adsorption on electronic properties, DOS and PDOS calculations were performed. Moreover, NBO analysis was done to reach more understanding about intermolecular interactions. In conclusion, chemical reactivity was investigated in terms of chemical hardness, softness and work function (ϕ)

  12. Formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in dilute Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, H.; Hood, G.M.; Roy, J.A.; Schultz, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    The formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in two α-Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys with nominal compositions (I, 50 ppma Fe, and II, 650 ppma Fe) have been investigated (the maximum solid solubility of Fe in α-Zr is 180 ppma - 800 C). Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to examine the characteristics of Fe-rich precipitates. SEM and TEM micrographs show that in as-grown alloy II, Zr 2 Fe precipitates are located at 'stringers'. Precipitates were not observed in as-grown alloy I. During annealing, below the solvus, Fe diffuses to the surfaces to form Zr 3 Fe precipitates in both alloys. The precipitates on the surfaces of alloy I tend to be star-like (0001) or pyramidal (1010), and their distribution is heterogeneous. Dissolution of Zr 3 Fe surface precipitates of alloy I (annealing above the solvus) leaves precipitate-like features on the surfaces. Zr 2 Fe precipitates in as-grown alloy II can be dissolved only by β-phase annealing. (Author) 8 figs., 18 refs

  13. Thermoelectric performance of spin Seebeck effect in Fe3O4/Pt-based thin film heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a systematic study on the thermoelectric performance of spin Seebeck devices based on Fe3O4/Pt junction systems. We explore two types of device geometries: a spin Hall thermopile and spin Seebeck multilayer structures. The spin Hall thermopile increases the sensitivity of the spin Seebeck effect, while the increase in the sample internal resistance has a detrimental effect on the output power. We found that the spin Seebeck multilayers can overcome this limitation since the multilayers exhibit the enhancement of the thermoelectric voltage and the reduction of the internal resistance simultaneously, therefore resulting in significant power enhancement. This result demonstrates that the multilayer structures are useful for improving the thermoelectric performance of the spin Seebeck effect.

  14. Probing the A1 to L10 transformation in FeCuPt using the first order reversal curve method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A. Gilbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The A1-L10 phase transformation has been investigated in (001 FeCuPt thin films prepared by atomic-scale multilayer sputtering and rapid thermal annealing (RTA. Traditional x-ray diffraction is not always applicable in generating a true order parameter, due to non-ideal crystallinity of the A1 phase. Using the first-order reversal curve (FORC method, the A1 and L10 phases are deconvoluted into two distinct features in the FORC distribution, whose relative intensities change with the RTA temperature. The L10 ordering takes place via a nucleation-and-growth mode. A magnetization-based phase fraction is extracted, providing a quantitative measure of the L10 phase homogeneity.

  15. Non-volatile nano-floating gate memory with Pt-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite nanoparticles and indium gallium zinc oxide channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Quanli [Myongji University, Department of Nano Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Chang; Baek, Yoon-Jae [Myongji University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Ho [Myongji University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chi Jung [Myongji University, Department of Nano Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum [Seoul National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-Sik, E-mail: tsyoon@mju.ac.kr [Myongji University, Department of Nano Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Non-volatile nano-floating gate memory characteristics with colloidal Pt-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite nanoparticles with a mostly core-shell structure and indium gallium zinc oxide channel layer were investigated. The Pt-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were chemically synthesized through the preferential oxidation of Fe and subsequent pileup of Pt into the core in the colloidal solution. The uniformly assembled nanoparticles' layer could be formed with a density of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} by a solution-based dip-coating process. The Pt core ({approx}3 nm in diameter) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-shell ({approx}6 nm in thickness) played the roles of the charge storage node and tunneling barrier, respectively. The device exhibited the hysteresis in current-voltage measurement with a threshold voltage shift of {approx}4.76 V by gate voltage sweeping to +30 V. It also showed the threshold shift of {approx}0.66 V after pulse programming at +20 V for 1 s with retention > {approx}65 % after 10{sup 4} s. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using colloidal nanoparticles with core-shell structure as gate stacks of the charge storage node and tunneling dielectric for low-temperature and solution-based processed non-volatile memory devices.

  16. In situ x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction study of L 1{sub 0} ordering in {sup 57}Fe/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra Reddy, V; Gupta, Ajay; Gome, Anil [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 017 (India); Leitenberger, Wolfram [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam (Germany); Pietsch, U [Physics Department, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)], E-mail: vrreddy@csr.ernet.in, E-mail: varimalla@yahoo.com

    2009-05-06

    In situ high temperature x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements in the energy dispersive mode are used to study the ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) L 1{sub 0} phase formation in [Fe(19 A)/Pt(25 A)]{sub x 10} multilayers prepared by ion beam sputtering. With the in situ x-ray measurements it is observed that (i) the multilayer structure first transforms to a disordered FePt and subsequently to an ordered fct L 1{sub 0} phase, (ii) the ordered fct L 1{sub 0} FePt peaks start to appear at 320 deg. C annealing, (iii) the activation energy of the interdiffusion is 0.8 eV and (iv) ordered fct FePt grains have preferential out-of-plane texture. The magneto-optical Kerr effect and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopies are used to study the magnetic properties of the as-deposited and 400 deg. C annealed multilayers. The magnetic data for the 400 {sup 0}C annealed sample indicate that the magnetization is at an angle of {approx}50 deg. from the plane of the film.

  17. Measurements on very small single crystals of NdFeB using a vibrating reed magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.J.; Hempel, K.A.; Verhoef, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nd 2 Fe 14 B single crystals with magnetic moments ranging from 1.6 x 10 -8 Acm 2 to 9.5 x 10 -7 Acm 2 are measured using the ultra high sensitivity vibrating reed magnetometer. The hysteresis loops are compared to those of BaFe 12 O 19 single crystals. It turns out that the magnetization reversal of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B samples is similar to that of BaFe 12 O 19 single crystals if the ferrite samples are considerably bigger in size. This does not hold for bigger Nd 2 Fe 14 B particles where stronger domain wall pinning is observed. For very small grains of Nd 2 Fe 14 B there is still evidence of domain wall processes while for BaFe 12 O 19 grains of the same size true single domain behaviour can be observed

  18. Size-dependent effects in supported highly dispersed Fe2O3 catalysts, doped with Pt and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Shopska, Maya; Mitov, Ivan; Kadinov, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    Series of Fe and Fe–Me (Me = Pt or Pd) catalyst supported on γ-Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 (anatase) or diatomite were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The metal loading was 8 wt.% Fe and 0.7 wt.% noble metal. The preparation and pretreatment conditions of all studied samples were kept to be the same. X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction are used for characterization of the supports and the samples at different steps during their treatment and catalytic tests. The catalytic activity of the samples was tested in the reaction of total benzene oxidation. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of the obtained materials are compared with respect of the different chemical composition, dispersion of used carriers and of the supported phases. Samples with the same composition prepared by mechanical mixing are studied as catalysts for comparison and for clearing up the presence of size-dependent effect, also.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscope observation and magnetic anisotropy of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Fe/Pt superlattices with (111) and (001) orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Kato, T.; Iwata, S.; Tsunashima, S.; Uchiyama, S.

    2004-01-01

    The surface morphology and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for (001) and (111) oriented [Pt(nML)/Fe(nML)] 10 superlattices were investigated. From in situ scanning tunneling microscope observation, the small grain whose diameter was about 5-10 nm and height was 0.2-0.4 nm, was observed in the Fe(2 ML) surface grown at room temperature on the Pt(111) seed layer, while the surface of the Fe deposited at 150 deg. C was covered with flat terraces and steps. It is found that the (111) oriented films were all in-plane magnetized. On the other hand, the (001) films were in-plane magnetized at room temperature, perpendicular magnetized at 100 deg. C and 150 deg. C

  20. Thermally stable single atom Pt/m-Al2O3 for selective hydrogenation and CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zailei

    2017-07-27

    Single-atom metal catalysts offer a promising way to utilize precious noble metal elements more effectively, provided that they are catalytically active and sufficiently stable. Herein, we report a synthetic strategy for Pt single-atom catalysts with outstanding stability in several reactions under demanding conditions. The Pt atoms are firmly anchored in the internal surface of mesoporous Al2O3, likely stabilized by coordinatively unsaturated pentahedral Al3+ centres. The catalyst keeps its structural integrity and excellent performance for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene after exposure to a reductive atmosphere at 200 °C for 24 h. Compared to commercial Pt nanoparticle catalyst on Al2O3 and control samples, this system exhibits significantly enhanced stability and performance for n-hexane hydro-reforming at 550 °C for 48 h, although agglomeration of Pt single-atoms into clusters is observed after reaction. In CO oxidation, the Pt single-atom identity was fully maintained after 60 cycles between 100 and 400 °C over a one-month period.

  1. Role of Ta-spacer layer on tuning the tilt angle magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-CoPt/Ta/NiFe exchange springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, P., E-mail: psdrdo@gmail.com [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Talapatra, A.; Mohanty, J. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Hyderabad 502285 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kamat, S.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Role of Ta-spacer layer in L1{sub 1}-CoPt(10 nm)/Ta//NiFe(4 nm) trilayers was investigated. • Domain size increased at the expense of magnetic phase contrast with increasing t{sub Ta}. • Tilt angle magnetization increased from 43° to 77° upon increasing t{sub Ta} (0–2.5 nm). • Micromagnetic studies confirmed the existence of tilted magnetic anisotropy. • Ta-spacer is effective in preserving competing anisotropies of CoPt and NiFe-layers. - Abstract: L1{sub 1}-CoPt/Ta/NiFe trilayers are chosen as model films for probing the role of spacer layer on tuning the tilt angle magnetization (θ{sub M}) in such exchange springs. For this purpose, a non-magnetic layer (Ta) with varying thickness (t{sub Ta}) from 0 to 2.5 nm was inserted between 10-nm thick CoPt film exhibiting strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and 4-nm thick NiFe film having in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA). With the insertion of Ta-spacer, the magnetic hysteresis loops become more and more tilted as t{sub Ta} increases. Upon increasing the t{sub Ta} from 0 to 2.5 nm, the estimated SQR{sub ⊥} (=M{sub r⊥}/M{sub s⊥}) from the M–H loops is found to decrease moderately; while the θ{sub M} increases significantly from 43° to 77°. MFM images revealed maze-like domain patterns and the domain size tends to increase at the expense of magnetic phase contrast with increasing t{sub Ta}. Micro-magnetic simulation of tilt in the anisotropy axis with respect to the bare CoPt-layer showed a trend similar to that of those observed with the M–H loops obtained by VSM measurements. The results of present study suggest that the insertion of Ta-spacer is not only beneficial in terms of preserving the competing anisotropies such as PMA and IMA of CoPt and NiFe-layers respectively through weakened exchange coupling; but also, act as an appropriate means for realizing tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in the L1{sub 1}-CoPt/NiFe exchange springs.

  2. DFT calculations of the charged states of N@C60 and Fe4 single molecule magnets investigated in tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossa, Javier; Islam, Fhokrul; Canali, Carlo; Pederson, Mark

    2012-02-01

    For device applications of single molecule magnets (SMMs) in high-density information storage and quantum-state control it is essential that the magnetic properties of the molecules remain stable under the influence of metallic contacts or surface environment. Recent tunneling experiments [1, 2] on N@C60 and Fe4 SMM have shown that these molecules preserve their magnetic characteristics when they are used as the central island of single-electron transistors. Although quantum spin models have been used extensively to study theoretically tunneling spectroscopy of SMMs, it has been shown recently that the orbital degrees of freedom, which is absent in spin models, can significantly affect the tunneling conductance [3]. In this work we present first-principles calculations of the neutral and charged states of N@C60 and Fe4 SMMs, and discuss a strategy to include their properties into a theory of quantum transport. We also present results of the magnetic anisotropy for the different charge states of Fe4 and discuss their relevance for experiments [2] in the sequential tunneling and cotunnelling regimes. [4pt] [1]. N. Roch et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 081407 (2011). [0pt] [2]. A.S. Zyazin et al., Nano Lett. 10, 3307 (2010). [0pt] [3]. L. Michalak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 017202 (2010).

  3. Longitudinal double spin asymmetries in single hadron quasi-real photoproduction at high pT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured the longitudinal double spin asymmetries ALL for single hadron muoproduction off protons and deuterons at photon virtuality Q2<1(GeV/c2 for transverse hadron momenta pT in the range 1 GeV/c to 4 GeV/c. They were determined using COMPASS data taken with a polarised muon beam of 160 GeV/c or 200 GeV/c impinging on polarised 6LiD or NH3 targets. The experimental asymmetries are compared to next-to-leading order pQCD calculations, and are sensitive to the gluon polarisation ΔG inside the nucleon in the range of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons 0.05

  4. Longitudinal double spin asymmetries in single hadron quasi-real photoproduction at high $p_T$

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Chang, W-C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr , M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; von Harrach, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jörg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matoušek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Montuenga, P; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nový, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pešek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rychter, A; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Selyunin, A; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    We measured the longitudinal double spin asymmetries $A_{LL}$ for single hadron muo-production off protons and deuterons at photon virtuality $Q^2$ < 1(GeV/$\\it c$)$^2$ for transverse hadron momenta $p_T$ in the range 0.7 GeV/$\\it c$ to 4 GeV/$\\it c$ . They were determined using COMPASS data taken with a polarised muon beam of 160 GeV/$\\it c$ or 200 GeV/$\\it c$ impinging on polarised $\\mathrm{{}^6LiD}$ or $\\mathrm{NH_3}$ targets. The experimental asymmetries are compared to next-to-leading order pQCD calculations, and are sensitive to the gluon polarisation $\\Delta G$ inside the nucleon in the range of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons $0.05 < x_g < 0.2$.

  5. Superconducting properties and pseudogap from preformed Cooper pairs in the triclinic (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmach, M.A.; Brueckner, F.; Kamusella, S.; Sarkar, R.; Portnichenko, P.Y.; Klauss, H.H.; Inosov, D.S. [TU Dresden (Germany); Park, J.T. [MLZ, Garching (Germany); Ghambashidze, G. [MPI, Stuttgart (Germany); Luetkens, H.; Biswas, P. [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Choi, W.J.; Seo, Y.I.; Kwon, Y.S. [DGIST, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Using μSR, INS and NMR, we investigated the novel Fe-based superconductor with a triclinic crystal structure (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} (T{sub c}=13 K). The T-dependence of the superfluid density from the μSR measurements indicates the presence of two superconducting gaps. Our INS data revealed commensurate spin fluctuations at the (π, 0) wave vector. Their intensity remains unchanged across T{sub c}, indicating the absence of a spin resonance typical for many Fe-pnictides. Instead, we observed a peak around ℎω{sub 0} = 7 meV at the same wave vector, which persists above T{sub c} and is characterized by the ratio ℎω{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}∼6.2, i.e. significantly higher than typical values for the magnetic resonant modes in iron pnictides (∝ 4.3). The T-dependence of magnetic intensity at 7 meV revealed an anomaly around T*=45 K related to the disappearance of this new mode. A suppression of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1=/T{sub 1}T, observed by NMR immediately below T* without any notable subsequent anomaly at T{sub c}, indicates that T{sup *} could mark the onset of a pseudogap in (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8}, likely associated with the emergence of preformed Cooper pairs.

  6. Synthesizing single-phase β-FeSi2 via ion beam irradiations of Fe/Si bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, M.; Dhar, S.; Schaaf, P.; Bibic, N.; Lieb, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results on the direct synthesis of the β-FeSi 2 phase by ion beam mixing of Fe/Si bilayers with Xe ions. The influence of the substrate temperature, ion fluence and energy on the growth of this phase was investigated using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). Complete growth of single-phase β-FeSi 2 was achieved by 205 keV Xe ion irradiation to a fluence of 2x10 16 ions/cm 2 at 600 deg. C. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism involving thermal and ion beam energy deposition

  7. Single peak parameters technique for simultaneous measurements: Spectrophotometric sequential injection determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, J; Paluch, J; Węgrzecka, A; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kochana, J; Kościelniak, P

    2016-02-01

    Spectrophotometric sequential injection system (SI) is proposed to automate the method of simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the basis of parameters of a single peak. In the developed SI system, sample and mixture of reagents (1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid) are introduced into a vessel, where in an acid environment (pH≅3) appropriate compounds of Fe(II) and Fe(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid are formed, respectively. Then, in turn, air, sample, EDTA and sample again, are introduced into a holding coil. After the flow reversal, a segment of air is removed from the system by an additional valve and as EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid forming a more stable colorless compound with Fe(III), a complex signal is registered. Measurements are performed at wavelength 530 nm. The absorbance measured at minimum of the negative peak and the area or the absorbance measured at maximum of the signal can be used as measures corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations, respectively. The time of the peak registration is about 2 min. Two-component calibration has been applied to analysis. Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be determined within the concentration ranges of 0.04-4.00 and 0.1-5.00 mg L(-1), with precision less than 2.8% and 1.7% (RSD), respectively and accuracy better than 7% (RE). The detection limit is 0.04 and 0.09 mg L(-1) for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively. The method was applied to analysis of artesian water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single Transition-to-single Transition Polarization Transfer (ST2-PT) in [15N,1H]-TROSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, Konstantin V.; Wider, Gerhard; Wuethrich, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of single transition-to-single transition polarization transfer (ST2-PT) in transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY), where it affords a √2 sensitivity enhancement for kinetically stable amide 15N-1H groups in proteins. Additional, conventional improvements of [15N,1H]-TROSY include that signal loss for kinetically labile 15N-1H groups due to saturation transfer from the solvent water is suppressed with the 'water flip back' technique and that the number of phase steps is reduced to two, which is attractive for the use of [15N,1H]-TROSY as an element in more complex NMR schemes. Finally, we show that the impact of the inclusion of the 15N steady-state magnetization (Pervushin et al., 1998) on the signal-to-noise ratio achieved with [15N,1H]-TROSY exceeds by up to two-fold the gain expected from the gyromagnetic ratios of 1H and 15N

  9. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of BaFe12O19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe12O19 are buried in BaFe12O19+1 wt% BaCO3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe12O19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe12O19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth.

  10. Pt atoms stabilized on hexagonal boron nitride as efficient single-atom catalysts for CO oxidation: A first-principles investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Taking CO oxidation as a probe, we investigated the electronic structure and reactivity of Pt atoms stabilized by vacancy defects on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) by first-principles-based calculations. As a joint effect of the high reactivity of both a single Pt atom and a boron vacancy defect (PtBV), the Pt-N interaction is -4.40 eV and is already strong enough to prohibit the diffusion and aggregation of the stabilized Pt atom. Facilitated by the upshifted Pt-d states originated from the Pt-N interaction, the barriers for CO oxidation through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for formation and dissociation of peroxide-like intermediate and the regeneration are as low as 0.38, 0.10 and 0.04 eV, respectively, suggesting the superiority of PtBV as a catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation.

  11. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are buried in BaFe 12 O 19 +1 wt% BaCO 3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe 12 O 19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth. - Highlights: • Single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are grown by solid state crystal growth. • A single crystal up to ∼130 μm thick (c-axis direction) grows on the seed crystal. • The single crystal and surrounding ceramic matrix have similar composition. • Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal has the BaFe 12 O 19 structure.

  12. Pt/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3/Pt capacitor with excellent fatigue properties prepared by sol-gel process applied to FeRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ze; Ren Tianling; Zhang Zhigang; Liu Tianzhi; Wen Xinyi; Hu Hong; Shao Tianqi; Xie Dan; Liu Litian

    2006-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film is prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by proposed processes based on the sol-gel method and rapid thermal anneal (RTA). The ratio of Zr/Ti in the PZT film is 40/60. The PZT film has a mixture of perovskite orientations in which the (110) orientation is dominant. The Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor has remanent polarization of approximately 28.8 μC cm -2 and coercive voltage of approximately 0.76 V at 3 V voltage amplitude. The Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor has excellent fatigue properties. Switch polarizations decrease to 93.1% after 6 x 10 12 switch cycles. The excellent fatigue properties result from the ameliorations of PZT/Pt interface conditions, restraining Pb volatilization and the directions of crystal domains in the RTA process. Some electric properties of the PZT capacitor proposed are contrasted with those of PZT capacitors with a different anneal process in the preparation

  13. First principles studies of the electronic properties and catalytic activity of single-walled carbon nanotube doped with Pt clusters and chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Kayla E.; Lee, Hee-Seung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electronic and magnetic properties of (5, 5)-SWNT doped with Pt clusters and chains. ► Pt-doping can change metallic (5, 5)-SWNT to semiconducting CNT. ► Oxygen adsorption on Pt-doped (5, 5)-SWNT is barrierless process. ► Pt-doping reduces the activation barrier of oxygen dissociation reaction. ► Adsorbed oxygen has 2 O 2 - – character. - Abstract: We report the results of density functional theory calculations on the electronic structures, geometrical parameters, and magnetic properties of a wide variety of Pt clusters/chains adsorbed on metallic (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). It was found that the electronic band structures of Pt/CNT systems are very sensitive to the small changes in the geometries of Pt clusters and chains. In some cases, metallic (5, 5)-SWNT becomes a small-gap semiconducting nanotube with adsorbed Pt clusters and chains. We also investigated the dissociation of molecular oxygen on the (5, 5)-SWNT doped with a single Pt atom via the nudged elastic band (NEB) method. The NEB results showed that the activation barrier is lowered even with a single Pt atom compared to that of pristine SWNT. It was found that the electronic structure of molecular oxygen adsorbed on Pt-doped CNT resembles that of 2 O 2 - , which should facilitate the dissociation process.

  14. Magnetic-field-induced decrease of the spin Peltier effect in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 system at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Ryuichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Daimon, Shunsuke; Oyanagi, Koichi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    We report the observation of magnetic-field-induced decrease of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in a junction of a paramagnetic metal Pt and a ferrimagnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) at room temperature. For driving the SPE, spin currents are generated via the spin Hall effect from applied charge currents in the Pt layer, and injected into the adjacent thick YIG film. The resultant temperature modulation is detected by a commonly used thermocouple attached to the Pt/YIG junction. The output of the thermocouple shows sign reversal when the magnetization is reversed and linearly increases with the applied current, demonstrating the detection of the SPE signal. We found that the SPE signal decreases with the magnetic field. The observed decreasing rate was found to be comparable to that of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), suggesting the dominant and similar contribution of the low-energy magnons in the SPE as in the SSE.

  15. Investigation of the correlation between stoichiometry and thermoelectric properties in a PtSb2 single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Christensen, Mogens; Bjerg, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    utilizing X-Ray Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The correlation between Pt/Sb ratio and physical property parameters - Seebeck coefficient, mobility, resistivity and charge carrier concentration - was studied. Elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X......The thermoelectric properties of a PtSb2 single crystal containing a stoichiometric gradient were investigated. The gradient was produced by employing a Stockbarger synthesis technique. The gradient was observed through the use of spatial resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements and verified...

  16. Probing adsorption phenomena on a single crystal Pt-alloy surface under oxygen reduction reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, Alexander S.; Stephens, Ifan E.L.; Bech, Lone; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impedance spectroscopy of Cu/Pt(1 1 1) near-surface alloy and Pt(1 1 1). ► Presence of oxygen changes little the adsorption dynamics. ► Adsorption dynamics similar on alloy and Pt(1 1 1). ► Electrosorption phenomena on alloy shifted in potential, relative to Pt(1 1 1). - Abstract: The adsorption dynamics of *OH and *O species at Pt(1 1 1) and Cu/Pt(1 1 1) near-surface alloy (NSA) surfaces in oxygen-free and O 2 -saturated 0.1 M HClO 4 was investigated. Subsurface Cu modifies the electronic structure at the Pt(1 1 1) surface resulting in weaker bonding to adsorbates like *OH, *H or *O. This provides a basis for the high oxygen reduction activity of the NSA, as predicted by density functional theory calculations. The shift in *OH adsorption of around 0.16 V towards more positive potentials can be clearly monitored in absence of O 2 and under the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) conditions for the Cu/Pt(1 1 1) NSA. In both cases, for Pt(1 1 1) and NSA, the *OH(*O) adsorption dynamics is very similar in the absence of oxygen and under ORR conditions. Therefore, theoretical assumptions about the coverage of adsorbates in the absence of oxygen can be reasonably extrapolated to the situation when oxygen reduction takes place at the surface. A ∼5-fold improvement in the ORR activity over the Pt(1 1 1) at 0.9 V (RHE) was measured for the Cu/Pt(1 1 1) near-surface alloy.

  17. Thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template for self-assembled L1(0) FePt nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Fu; Liao, Jung-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Wang, Ding-Shuo; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Ho, Rong-Ming; Chen, Lih-Juann; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2016-02-21

    A design for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles is presented by thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template. For the template, we fabricate a nanostructured polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) film on a Si|SiO2 substrate, followed by a thermal annealing and reactive ion etching (RIE) process. This gives a template composed of an ordered hexagonal array of SiOC hemispheres emerging in the polystyrene matrix. After the deposition of a FePt film on this template, we utilize the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process, which provides in-plane stress, to achieve thermal dewetting and structural ordering of FePt simultaneously. Since the template is composed of different composition surfaces with periodically varied morphologies, it offers more tuning knobs to manipulate the nanostructures. We show that both the decrease in the area of the PS matrix and the increase in the strain energy relaxation transfer the dewetted pattern from the randomly distributed nanoparticles into a hexagonal periodic array of L10 FePt nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy with the in situ heating stage reveals the evolution of the dewetting process, and confirms that the positions of nanoparticles are aligned with those of the SiOC hemispheres. The nanoparticles formed by this template-dewetting show an average diameter and center-to-center distance of 19.30 ± 2.09 nm and 39.85 ± 4.80 nm, respectively. The hexagonal array of FePt nanoparticles reveals a large coercivity of 1.5 T, much larger than the nanoparticles fabricated by top-down approaches. This approach offers an efficient pathway toward self-assembled nanostructures in a wide range of material systems.

  18. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer studies of structural changes and L10 ordering kinetics during annealing of polycrystalline Fe51Pt49 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spada, F.E.; Parker, F.T.; Platt, C.L.; Howard, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Room-temperature x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer effect techniques have been used to characterize the structural features and local atomic environments of sputtered Fe 51 Pt 49 thin films following various isothermal treatments. Both techniques show that no significant changes occur in the chemically ordered L1 0 tetragonal phase after it has formed. In contrast, changes in the disordered face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase are observed prior to the transformation into the ordered tetragonal phase. Moessbauer measurements indicate the development of increasing short-range order in the disordered fcc phase with increasing annealing temperature. Asymmetries in the fcc x-ray diffraction profiles also suggest the presence of lattice distortions caused by atomic size differences commonly found in the quenched disordered fcc phase of materials that form ordered structures. Quasi-real-time kinetic measurements of the disorder→order transformation in sputtered Fe 51 Pt 49 thin films within the temperature range 300 deg. C≤T≤400 deg. C have also been conducted using high-temperature x-ray diffraction techniques. Significant differences are observed between the kinetic parameters determined in this study and those of previous reports. It is proposed that these differences arise from the lower temperature range investigated in the present work, where the gradual changes occurring in the fcc phase can influence the rate of the ordering transformation. Furthermore, because the initial state of disorder in Fe ∼50 Pt ∼50 films can be influenced by the deposition conditions, variability in the low-temperature ordering kinetics should be expected among Fe ∼50 Pt ∼50 films prepared under different conditions

  19. Spin-orbit driven phenomena in the isoelectronic L1.sub.0./sub.-Fe(Pd,Pt) alloys from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, Ilja

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 21 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 214437. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Gilbert damping * partial order * first-principles * Fe(Pd,Pt) alloys Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  20. Irreversible magnetic-field dependence of ferromagnetic resonance and inverse spin Hall effect voltage in CoFeB/Pt bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Spin Engineering Physics Team, Division of Scientific Instrumentation, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Min-Su [Spin Engineering Physics Team, Division of Scientific Instrumentation, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yeon Suk, E-mail: ychoi@kbsi.re.kr [Spin Engineering Physics Team, Division of Scientific Instrumentation, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung-Young, E-mail: parksy@kbsi.re.kr [Spin Engineering Physics Team, Division of Scientific Instrumentation, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field (H) sweeping direction dependences of the mixed voltage V{sub mix} induced by the inverse-spin Hall effect(ISHE) and spin-rectified effect (SRE) in a CoFeB (5 nm)/Pt (10 nm) bilayer structure are investigated using the ferromagnetic resonance in the TE mode cavities and coplanar waveguide methods. Conventionally, the magnitude of ISHE voltage V{sub ISH} (symmetric) excluding the SRE (antisymmetric component) was unavoidably separated from the fitting curve of V{sub mix} (a sum of a symmetric and an antisymmetric part) for one direction of H-source. By studying the ratio of the two voltage parts with the bi-directional H sweeping, the optimized V{sub ISH} (no SRE condition) value which also include a well-defined spin Hall angle can be obtained via the linear response relation of ISHE and SRE components. - Highlights: • Hysteretic behavior of ferromagnetic resonance spectra in the CoFeB/Pt sample. • Hysteretic behavior of inverse-spin Hall effect voltage in the CoFeB/Pt sample. • Proportion of inverse spin-Hall effect voltage can be determined by the cavity mode. • The hysteretic behavior arise from the unsaturated magnetization limit. • The well-defined spin Hall angle which consider a hysteresis can be obtained.

  1. Evolution of microstructure and residual stress on L1{sub 0} ordering in FePt thin films with different initial stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Yuan, F.T. [iSentek Ltd., Advanced Sensor Laboratory, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Sun, A.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Su, S.H.; Chiu, K.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    We have characterized the dependence of microstructure, and internal strain/stress on L1{sub 0} ordering in 40 nm thick FePt films with different initial stresses. The microstructural and crystallographic results indicate that defect annihilation and grain growth induced an increase in tensile stress of ~1 GPa before extensive L1{sub 0} ordering. The induced tensile stress can efficiently facilitate the nucleation of L1{sub 0} phase owing to that the volume expansion of L1{sub 0} ordering and atomic rearrangement neutralizes the tensile stress. If the as-deposited FePt film has a highly compressive state, the induced tensile stress will be canceled out and ordering is retarded, which results in a higher ordering temperature. - Highlights: • Microstructure-stress connection in FePt films was studied. • Initial stress alters microstructure and stress evolution during annealing. • Densification induces tensile stress of ~1 GPa before extensive L1{sub 0} ordering. • Induced tensile stress can efficiently facilitate the nucleation of L1{sub 0} phase. • Compressively initial stress results in a higher ordering temperature .

  2. Magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in single-layer PtSe{sub 2}: Interplay between strain and vacancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangw@nfpc.edu.cn; Tao, Qiu Chen; Song, Xiao Jiao; Li, Hao [Physicochemical Group of Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Hai Tao; Jiang, Jing [Physicochemical Group of Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); National Judicial Authentication Center of Public Security Bureau of State Forestry Bureau, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Jie [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-07-07

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the newly synthesized single-layer (1 L) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) PtSe{sub 2} are studied by first-principles calculations. We find the strain or selenium vacancy (V{sub Se}) alone cannot induce the magnetism. However, an interplay between strain and V{sub Se} leads to the magnetism due to the breaking of Pt-Pt metallic bonds. Different from the case of 1 L-MoS{sub 2} with V{sub S}, the defective 1 L-PtSe{sub 2} has the spatially extended spin density, which is responsible for the obtained long range ferromagnetic coupling. Moreover, the 1 L-PtSe{sub 2} with V{sub Se} undergoes a spin reorientation transition from out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization, accompanying a maximum magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of ∼9–10.6 meV/V{sub Se}. These results indicate the strain not only can effectively tune the magnetism but also can manipulate the magnetization direction of 1 L-TMDs.

  3. Pt/Cu single-atom alloys as coke-resistant catalysts for efficient C-H activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Darby, Matthew T.; Liu, Jilei; Wimble, Joshua M.; Lucci, Felicia R.; Lee, Sungsik; Michaelides, Angelos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Stamatakis, Michail; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2018-03-01

    The recent availability of shale gas has led to a renewed interest in C-H bond activation as the first step towards the synthesis of fuels and fine chemicals. Heterogeneous catalysts based on Ni and Pt can perform this chemistry, but deactivate easily due to coke formation. Cu-based catalysts are not practical due to high C-H activation barriers, but their weaker binding to adsorbates offers resilience to coking. Using Pt/Cu single-atom alloys (SAAs), we examine C-H activation in a number of systems including methyl groups, methane and butane using a combination of simulations, surface science and catalysis studies. We find that Pt/Cu SAAs activate C-H bonds more efficiently than Cu, are stable for days under realistic operating conditions, and avoid the problem of coking typically encountered with Pt. Pt/Cu SAAs therefore offer a new approach to coke-resistant C-H activation chemistry, with the added economic benefit that the precious metal is diluted at the atomic limit.

  4. Pt/Cu single-atom alloys as coke-resistant catalysts for efficient C–H activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Darby, Matthew T.; Liu, Jilei; Wimble, Joshua M.; Lucci, Felicia R.; Lee, Sungsik; Michaelides, Angelos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Stamatakis, Michail; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2018-01-08

    The recent availability of shale gas has led to a renewed interest in C-H bond activation as the first step towards synthesis of fuels and fine chemicals. Heterogeneous catalysts based on Ni and Pt can perform this chemistry, but deactivate easily due to coke formation. Cu- based catalysts are not practical for this chemistry due to high C-H activation barriers, but their weaker binding to adsorbates offers resilience to coking. Utilizing Pt/Cu single atom alloys (SAAs) we examine C-H activation in a number of systems including methyl groups, methane, and butane using a combination of simulations, surface science, and catalysis studies. We find that Pt/Cu SAAs activate C-H bonds more efficiently than Cu, are stable for days under realistic operating conditions, and avoid the problem of coking typically encountered with Pt. Pt/Cu SAAs therefore offer a new approach to coke resistant C-H activation chemistry with the added economic benefit that the precious metal is diluted at the atomic limit.

  5. Spin and lattice structures of single-crystalline SrFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ratcliff, W., II; Lynn, J. W.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Hu, Jiangping; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-10-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the spin and lattice structure of single-crystal SrFe2As2 , the parent compound of the FeAs-based superconductor (Sr,K)Fe2As2 . We find that SrFe2As2 exhibits an abrupt structural phase transition at 220 K, where the structure changes from tetragonal with lattice parameters c>a=b to orthorhombic with c>a>b . At almost the same temperature, Fe spins develop a collinear antiferromagnetic structure along the orthorhombic a axis with spin direction parallel to this a axis. These results are consistent with earlier work on the RFeAsO ( R=rare earth) families of materials and on BaFe2As2 , and therefore suggest that static antiferromagnetic order is ubiquitous for the parent compounds of these FeAs-based high-transition temperature superconductors.

  6. Double longitudinal spin asymmetries in single hadron photoproduction at high p_T at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Levillain, Maxime

    This thesis presents a new study aiming at constraining the gluon contribution {\\Delta G} to the 1/2 nucleon spin. The collinear pQCD theoretical framework, on which it is based, deals with asymmetries calculated from cross-sections for single inclusive hadron in the regime of quasi-real photoproduction {Q^2 1 GeV/c). These calculations are done up to Next-to-Leading order with a foreseen inclusion of Next-to-Leading logarithm threshold gluon resummation, only performed for the unpolarised cross-sections yet. This makes the asymmetries sensitive to the gluon polarisation not only through Photon Gluon Fusion {\\gamma* g} but also through resolved {\\gamma*}g processes such as qg or gg. The measurement of the asymmetries is performed for all the COMPASS data available from 2002 to 2011 with a polarised muon beam at 160-200 GeV scattered off a longitudinally polarised target of deuteron ( {_6LiD} for 2002-2006) or proton ({NH_3} for 2007 and 2011). The asymmetries are presented in bins of pT and of pseudorapidity...

  7. Quaternary Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}M{sub 1}/C (M=Ni, Mo, or W) catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Ki Rak; Kang, Kweon Ho; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyung Joon [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); McGinn, Paul J. [University of Notre Dame, Indiana (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Quaternary Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}M{sub 1}/C (M=Ni, Mo, or W) catalysts were investigated for the methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR). Electrocatalytic activities of the quaternary catalysts for CO electro-oxidation were studied via CO stripping experiments, and the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 1}/C and Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalysts exhibited lowered on-set potential compared to that of a commercial PtRu/C catalyst. MOR activities of the quaternary catalysts were determined by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) experiments, and the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalyst outperformed the commercial PtRu/C catalyst by 170 and 150% for the mass and specific activities, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze surface oxidation states of constituent atoms, and it was identified that the structure of the synthesized catalysts are close to a nano-composite of Pt and constituent metal hydroxides and oxides. In addition, the XPS results suggested that the bi-functional mechanism accounts for the improved performance of the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 1}/C and Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1} Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalysts.

  8. Examining the rudimentary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction on single-atomic Pt using Ti-based non-oxide supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tak, Young Joo; Yang, Sungeun; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2018-01-01

    C(100)-supported single Pt atoms. The O2 and OOH* dissociation processes on Pt/TiN(100) are determined to be non-activated (i.e. "barrier-less" dissociation) while an activation energy barrier of 0.19 and 0.51eV is found for these dissociation processes on Pt/TiC(100), respectively. Moreover, the series...

  9. Large Stroke High Fidelity PZN-PT Single-Crystal "Stake" Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Xia, Yuexue; Lin, Dian Hua; Yao, Kui; Lim, Leong Chew

    2017-10-01

    A new piezoelectric actuator design, called "Stake" actuator, is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. As an example, the stake actuator is made of four d 32 -mode PZN-5.5%PT single crystals (SCs), each of 25 mm ( L ) ×8 mm ( W ) ×0.4 mm (T) in dimensions, bonded with the aid of polycarbonate edge guide-cum-stiffeners into a square-pipe configuration for improved bending and twisting strengths and capped with top and bottom pedestals made of 1.5-mm-thick anodized aluminum. The resultant stake actuator measured 9 mm ×9 mm ×28 mm. The hollow structure is a key design feature, which optimizes SC usage efficiency and lowers the overall cost of the actuator. The displacement-voltage responses, blocking forces, resonance characteristics of the fabricated stake actuator, as well as the load and temperature effects, are measured and discussed. Since d 32 is negative for [011]-poled SC, the "Stake" actuator contracts in the axial direction when a positive-polarity field is applied to the crystals. Biased drive is thus recommended when extensional displacement is desired. The SC stake actuator has negligible (0.13% when driven up to +300 V (i.e., 0.75 kV/mm), which is close to the rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic transformation field ( E RO ) of 0.85 kV/mm of the SC used. The stake actuator displays a stroke of [Formula: see text] (at +300 V) despite its small overall dimensions, and has a blocking force of 114 N. The SC d 32 stake actuator fabricated displays more than 30% larger axial strain than the state-of-the-art PZT stack actuators of comparable length as well as moderate blocking forces. Said actuators are thus ideal for applications when large displacements with simple open-loop control are preferred.

  10. Growth and characterizations of Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lei Sun, Abduweli Ablimit, Jin-Ke Bao, Hao Jiang, Jie Zhou and Guang-Han Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of a new iron-based superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O have been grown successfully via a Ba2As3-flux method in a sealed evacuated quartz tube. Bulk superconductivity with Tc ~ 21.5 K was demonstrated in resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements after the as-grown crystals were annealed at 500 °C in vacuum for a week. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the annealed and the as-grown crystals possess the identical crystallographic structure of Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectra indicate that partial Ti/Fe substitution exists in the [Fe2As2] layers and the annealing process redistributes the Ti within the Fe-plane. The ordered Fe-plane stabilized by annealing exhibits superconductivity with magnetic vortex pinned by Ti.

  11. Solution-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Fe3O4 magnetic nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lili; Chu Ying; Liu Yang; Wang Dan

    2009-01-01

    Single-crystalline Fe 3 O 4 nanobelt was first synthesized on a large scale by a facile and efficient hydrothermal process. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The SAED pattern obtained from a typical individual nanobelt has a highly symmetrical dotted lattice, which reveals the single-crystalline nature of belt-like Fe 3 O 4 . The saturation magnetization of the Fe 3 O 4 nanobelt is higher than the wire, hollow sphere and octahedral structure. Such methods are easy and mild, and could synthesize other metal oxide in such experiment situation

  12. Applications of an energy-dispersive pnCCD for X-ray reflectivity: Investigation of interdiffusion in Fe-Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Ali; Send, Sebastian; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, FB Physik, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); Hartmann, Robert [PNSensor GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Strueder, Lothar [Universitaet Siegen, FB Physik, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Muenchen (Germany); MPI Halbleiterlabor, Muenchen (Germany); Savan, Alan; Ludwig, Alfred [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Zotov, Nikolay [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    A frame store pn-junction CCD (pnCCD) detector was applied to study thermally induced interdiffusion in Fe/Pt thin film multilayers (MLs) in a temperature range between 300 and 585 K. Based on the energy resolution of the detector the reflectivity was measured simultaneously in a spectral range between 8 keV < E < 20 keV including the Pt L-edge energies close to 11.5 keV. Above T = 533 K we find a strong drop of intensities at 1st and 2nd order ML Bragg peak interpreted by mutual interdiffusion. Considering a simulated model of interdiffusion it has been found that the concentration of iron that diffuses into the platinum sub layers is higher than that of platinum into iron. The time dependence of inter diffusion was also calculated in the range of 533-568 K and was described by the Arrhenius equation D(T) = D{sub 0} exp(-H{sub a}/k{sub B}T). The activation energy for the MLs used [Fe 1.7 nm/Pt 2 nm]{sub 50} was found to be 0.94 {+-} 0.22 eV. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Pt nanoparticle modified single walled carbon nanotube network electrodes for electrocatalysis: control of the specific surface area over three orders of magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, T.S.; Sansuk, S.; Lai, Stanley; Macpherson, J.V.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on two-dimensional single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network electrodes is investigated as a means of tailoring electrode surfaces with a well-defined amount of electrocatalytic material. Both Pt NP deposition and electrocatalytic studies are

  14. (110)-Textured Ca-doped BiFeO_3 film on refined Pt(111) electrode layer on glass substrate at reduced temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.W.; Shen, C.Y.; Yuan, F.T.; Tien, S.H.; Lin, S.Y.; Chen, W.A.; Wang, C.R.; Tu, C.S.; Jen, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Multiferroic and photovoltaic properties of polycrystalline Bi_0_._8_5Ca_0_._1_5FeO_3 (BCFO) film on refined Pt(111) electrode buffered glass substrate have been studied. Optimized Pt(111) electrode layer having large grain size and smooth morphology enables the development of highly (110)-textured BCFO film at a temperature as low as 450 °C. The prepared BCFO film has dense microstructure, fine grain size, and smooth surface morphology. Good ferroelectric properties with the remanent polarization (2P_r) of 108 μC/cm"2 and electrical coercive field of 405 kV/cm are achieved. Improved ferromagnetic properties with magnetization of 9.2 emu/cm"3 and coercivity of 1250 Oe are also attained. Significant PV properties with open-circuit photovoltage of 0.49 V and the short-circuit photocurrent of 67.4 μA/cm"2 at illumination intensity of 228 mW/cm"2 are observed, which are comparable to BCFO ceramics or BFO epitaxial films. - Highlights: • BCFO polycrystalline film with (110) texture is formed on Pt(111) electrode. • Pt(111) underlayer induces BCFO(110) film with fine grain and flat surface. • Good multiferroic and photovoltaic properties are achieved simultaneously. • Improved multiferroic and photovoltaic properties makes BCFO film a multifunctional material for advanced applications.

  15. Dynamic properties of Ca{sub 10}(Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8})(Fe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10} in the superconducting state explored by NMR in high fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, Felix; Sarkar, Rajib; Surmach, Maksym; Inosov, Dmytro; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The triclinic iron-based superconductor Ca{sub 10}(Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8})(Fe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10} with a T{sub c} of 13 K exhibits a unique pseudogap phase below T* = 45 K, recently probed with inelastic neutron scattering. This phase has been attributed to a possible preformation of Cooper pairs. We present detailed NMR results, including {sup 75}As and {sup 195}Pt spectra as well as T{sub 1} measurements. These experiments reveal a drop of spin fluctuations just below T* with a hysteresis in temperature, associated with the emergence of the pseudogap phase. Interestingly, no anomaly at T{sub c} is found. At 3 K, a peak in the T{sub 1} relaxation rate appears, until 1/T{sub 1} eventually vanishes at lower temperatures. This behavior is persistent in large magnetic fields up to 17 T. To interpret these results, scenarios including magnetic order below T* are quite unprobable, since Korringa law is well complied at higher temperatures and no magnetic order is found in μSR. However, the origin of the unique behavior remains unclear for now.

  16. Probing adsorption phenomena on a single crystal Pt-alloy surface under oxygen reduction reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondarenko, Alexander S.; Stephens, Ifan E.L.; Bech, Lone

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption dynamics of *OH and *O species at Pt(111) and Cu/Pt(111) near-surface alloy (NSA) surfaces in oxygen-free and O2-saturated 0.1M HClO4 was investigated. Subsurface Cu modifies the electronic structure at the Pt(111) surface resulting in weaker bonding to adsorbates like *OH, *H or *O....... This provides a basis for the high oxygen reduction activity of the NSA, as predicted by density functional theory calculations. The shift in *OH adsorption of around 0.16V towards more positive potentials can be clearly monitored in absence of O2 and under the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) conditions...... for the Cu/Pt(111) NSA. In both cases, for Pt(111) and NSA, the *OH(*O) adsorption dynamics is very similar in the absence of oxygen and under ORR conditions. Therefore, theoretical assumptions about the coverage of adsorbates in the absence of oxygen can be reasonably extrapolated to the situation when...

  17. The A1 to L10 transformation in FePt films with ternary alloying additions of Mg, V, Mn, and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Barmak, K.; Klemmer, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of ternary additions of Mg, V, Mn, and B on the A1 [face centered cubic (fcc)] to L1 0 phase transformation has been studied. The films were cosputter deposited from elemental targets at room temperature and annealed after deposition. The films had Mg additions in the range ∼0-2.6 at.%, V additions in the range 0.7-12.2 at.%, Mn additions in the range 2.2-16.3 at.%, and B additions in the range 1.2-12.9 at.%. For all four ternary alloy systems, annealing resulted in the formation of no other phases than the L1 0 phase. Ternary additions of C than the binary FePt films with the same Pt content.

  18. Correlação entre a estrutura atômica superficial e o processo de adsorção-dessorção reversível de hidrogênio em eletrodos monocristalinos Pt(111, Pt(100 e Pt(110 The correlation between the atomic surface structure and the reversible adsorption-desorption of hydrogen on single crystal Pt (111, Pt (100 and Pt (110 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Pacheco dos Santos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Platinum is widely used as electrode in electrocatalytic processes, however the use of polycrystalline electrodes introduces a series of variables in the electrochemical system due to the aleatory contribution of all the crystallographic orientations with different surface packing of atoms. Single crystal platinum electrodes of low Miller index present surface structure of high regularity and serve as model to establish a correlation among the macroscopic and microscopic properties of the electrochemical interface. Therefore, the main aim of this work is the study of the voltammetric profiles of the reversible adsorption-desorption of hydrogen on Pt(100, Pt(110 and Pt(111, in order to correlate the electrochemical properties of each different orientation with the surface atomic structure.

  19. Core-state manipulation of single Fe impurities in GaAs with a scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocquel, J.; Kortan, V.R.; Sahin, C.; Campion, R.P.; Gallagher, B.L.; Flatte, M.E.; Koenraad, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a scanning tunneling microscope tip can be used to manipulate the tightly bound core (d-electron) state of single Fe ions embedded in GaAs. Increasing tip-sample voltage removes one d electron from the core of a single Fe, changing the dopant from the (Fe2+)(-) ionized acceptor

  20. Formic acid decomposition on Pt1/Cu (111) single platinum atom catalyst: Insights from DFT calculations and energetic span model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Fan; Li, Kun; Wang, Gui-Chang

    2018-04-01

    Inspired by the recent surface experimental results that the monatomic Pt catalysts has more excellent hydrogen production that Cu(111) surface, the mechanism of decomposition of formic acid on Cu(111) and single atom Pt1/Cu(111) surface was studied by periodic density functional theory calculations in the present work. The results show that the formic acid tends to undergo dehydrogenation on both surfaces to obtain the hydrogen product of the target product, and the selectivity and catalytic activity of Pt1/Cu (111) surface for formic acid dehydrogenation are better. The reason is that the single atom Pt1/Cu(111) catalyst reduces the reaction energy barrier (i.e., HCOO → CO2 + H) of the critical step of the dehydrogenation reaction due to the fact that the single atom Pt1/Cu(111) catalyst binds formate weakly compared to that of Cu (111) one. Moreover, it was found that the Pt1/Cu (111) binds CO more strongly than that of Cu (111) one and thus leading to the difficult for the formation of CO. These two factors would make the single Pt atom catalyst had the high selectivity for the H2 production. It is hoped that the present work may help people to design the efficient H2 production from HCOOH decomposition by reduce the surface binding strength of HCOO species, for example, using the low coordination number active site like single atom or other related catalytic system.

  1. Freezing field dependence of the exchange bias in uniaxial FeF sub 2 -CoPt heterosystems with perpendicular anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kagerer, B; Kleemann, W

    2000-01-01

    The exchange bias effect is measured for the first time in FeF sub 2 -CoPt heterosystems with perpendicular anisotropy. The exchange field exhibits a strong dependence on the axial freezing field. This behavior is explained in terms of the microscopic spin structure at the interface, which is established on cooling to below T sub N. We calculate the dependence of the spin structure on the freezing field within the framework of an Ising model. It takes into account the Zeeman energy as well as an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the adjacent layers at the interface.

  2. Radiation- and phonon-bottleneck--induced tunneling in the Fe8 single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.; Chen, W.; Tuominen, M. T.; Beedle, C. C.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.

    2008-04-01

    We measure magnetization changes in a single crystal of the single-molecule magnet Fe8 when exposed to intense, short (spin dynamics, allowing observation of thermally assisted resonant tunneling between spin states at the 100 ns time scale. Detailed numerical simulations quantitatively reproduce the data and yield a spin-phonon relaxation time T1~40 ns.

  3. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp2 carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations. PMID:25331874

  4. Infrared-active optical phonons in LiFePO4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Middlemiss, D. S.; Syzdek, J. S.; Janssen, Y.; Basistyy, R.; Sirenko, A. A.; Khalifah, P. G.; Grey, C. P.; Kostecki, R.

    2017-07-01

    Infrared-active optical phonons were studied in olivine LiFePO4 oriented single crystals by means of both rotating analyzer and rotating compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range between 50 and 1400 cm-1. The eigenfrequencies, oscillator strengths, and broadenings of the phonon modes were determined from fits of the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model to the data. Optical phonons in a heterosite FePO4 crystal were measured from the delithiated ab-surface of the LiFePO4 crystal and compared with the phonon modes of the latter. Good agreement was found between experimental data and the results of solid-state hybrid density functional theory calculations for the phonon modes in both LiFePO4 and FePO4.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped semiconductor ZrS2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zahir; Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Chuanqiang; Habib, Muhammad; Rehman, Zia ur; Khan, Rashid; Chen, Shuangming; Wu, Xiaojun; Song, Li

    2018-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) layered magnetic materials have obtained much attention due to their intriguing properties with a potential application in the field of spintronics. Herein, room-temperature ferromagnetism with 0.2 emu g‑1 magnetic moment is realized in Fe-doped ZrS2 single crystals of millimeter size, in comparison with diamagnetic behaviour in ZrS2. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that 5.2wt% Fe-doping ZrS2 crystal exhibit high spin value of g-factor about 3.57 at room temperature also confirmed this evidence, due to the unpaired electrons created by doped Fe atoms. First principle static electronic and magnetic calculations further confirm the increased stability of long range ferromagnetic ordering and enhanced magnetic moment in Fe-doped ZrS2, originating from the Fe spin polarized electron near the Fermi level.

  6. Formation of SmFe5(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmFe 5 (0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 . The Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  7. Formation of SmFe{sub 5}(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: yabuhara@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    SmFe{sub 5}(0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe{sub 5} structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5}. The Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5} film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  8. Activation of surface lattice oxygen in single-atom Pt/CeO 2 for low-temperature CO oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Lei; Mei, Donghai; Xiong, Haifeng; Peng, Bo; Ren, Zhibo; Pereira Hernandez, Xavier I.; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Meng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2017-12-14

    While single-atom catalysts can provide high catalytic activity and selectivity, application in industrial catalysts demands long term performance and the ability to regenerate the catalysts. We have investigated the factors that lead to improved catalytic activity of a Pt/CeO2 catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation. Single-atom Pt/CeO2 becomes active for CO oxidation under lean condition only at elevated temperatures, because CO is strongly bound to ionic Pt sites. Reducing the catalyst, even under mild conditions, leads to onset of CO oxidation activity even at room temperature. This high activity state involves the transformation of mononuclear Pt species to sub-nanometer sized Pt particles. Under oxidizing conditions, the Pt can be restored to its stable, single-atom state. The key to facile regeneration is the ability to create mobile Pt species and suitable trapping sites on the support, making this a prototypical catalyst system for industrial application of single-atom catalysis.

  9. Determination of the electrostatic potential distribution in Pt/Fe:SrTiO₃/Nb:SrTiO₃ thin-film structures by electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Astrid; Cooper, David; Lenser, Christian; Menzel, Stephan; Du, Hongchu; Dittmann, Regina; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Waser, Rainer

    2014-11-10

    We determined the electrostatic potential distribution in pristine Pt/Fe:SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 structures by electron holography experiments, revealing the existence of a depletion layer extending into the Nb-doped bottom electrode. Simulations of potential profiles in metal-insulator-metal structures were conducted assuming different types and distributions of dopants. It is found that the presence of acceptor-type dopant concentrations at the Fe:SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 interface with a donor-doped insulating layer provides a good match to the measured profile. Such acceptor-type interface concentrations may be associated with Sr vacancies on the Nb:SrTiO3 side of the bottom interface.

  10. Determination of the electrostatic potential distribution in Pt/Fe:SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 thin-film structures by electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Astrid; Cooper, David; Lenser, Christian; Menzel, Stephan; Du, Hongchu; Dittmann, Regina; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Waser, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    We determined the electrostatic potential distribution in pristine Pt/Fe:SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 structures by electron holography experiments, revealing the existence of a depletion layer extending into the Nb-doped bottom electrode. Simulations of potential profiles in metal-insulator-metal structures were conducted assuming different types and distributions of dopants. It is found that the presence of acceptor-type dopant concentrations at the Fe:SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 interface with a donor-doped insulating layer provides a good match to the measured profile. Such acceptor-type interface concentrations may be associated with Sr vacancies on the Nb:SrTiO3 side of the bottom interface.

  11. Single ferromagnetic behaviour of nanopowders with Fe3C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Bohumil; Zbořil, R.; Mashlan, M.; Grygar, Tomáš; Dumitrache, F.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 304, č. 2 (2006), e787-e789 ISSN 0304-8853. [International Symposium on Soft Magnetic Materials /17./. Bratislava, 07.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0221; GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : synthesis * nanopowder * Fe3C Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TJJ-4JJ27YM-5&_user=625109&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2006&_alid=501264124&_rdoc=2&_fmt=summary&_orig=search&_cdi=5312&_sort=d&_st=4&_docanchor=&_acct=C000031719&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=625109&md5=30fafcdb895bbb548857aa25426ae131

  12. Bulk Superconductivity and Disorder in Single Crystals of LaFePO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, James G.; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Erickson, Ann S.; Kucharczyk, Chris; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Serafin, Alessandro; Carrington, Antony; /Bristol U.; Cox, Catherine; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Hope, Hakon; /UC, Davis. Dept. Chem.

    2010-02-15

    We have studied the intrinsic normal and superconducting properties of the oxypnictide LaFePO. These samples exhibit bulk superconductivity and the evidence suggests that stoichiometric LaFePO is indeed superconducting, in contrast to other reports. We find that superconductivity is independent of the interplane residual resistivity {rho}{sub 0} and discuss the implications of this on the nature of the superconducting order parameter. Finally we find that, unlike T{sub c}, other properties in single-crystal LaFePO including the resistivity and magnetoresistance, can be very sensitive to disorder.

  13. Critical current densities and vortex dynamics in FeTexSe1-x single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Nakajima, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The critical current density and the normalized relaxation rate are reported in FeTe 0.59 Se 0.41 single crystal. Critical current density is of order of 10 5 A/cm 2 , which is comparable to that in Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 . In low temperature and low field region, the vortex dynamics of this system is well defined by the collective creep theory, which is quite similar to Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 reported before. We also discuss the origin of the anomaly in the field dependence of the relaxation rate.

  14. Nucleation and growth of a BCC Fe phase deposited on a single crystal (001) Cu film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a thin film overlayer grows on a substrate with a different structure, the overlayer initially adopts the substrate structure and subsequently transforms to an equilibrium bulk structure. such a growth characteristic has been extensively studied in Fe/Cu bicrystals. An Fe overlayer grown on a Cu substrate is known to have the fcc structure up to a thickness of 2 nm, whereas a thicker Fe overlayer consists of submicrometer grains of the bcc-Cu has been reported in a relatively thick Fe film and was found to consist of the Nishiyama (N), Kurdjumov-Sacks (KS), or Pitsch (P), depending on the orientation of the substrate surface. However, previous studies have not explained how the bcc structure nucleates or how the observed submicrometer polycrystalline grains form. The paper provides an understanding of these two points. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study Fe/Cu bicrystals as the Fe thickness was varied systematically. Analysis of moire fringes, which are caused by superposition of different structures, enabled us to determine the orientation relationship between the very thin Fe layer and the Cu substrate. We show that a single variant of the P orientation relationship, which accompanies atomic rearrangement parallel to the interface, predominates at the nucleation stage of the bcc structure. Nucleation of other variants of P, N, and KS occurs with increasing Fe thickness and causes the formation of the submicrometer bcc grains

  15. Understanding the Oxygen Reduction Reaction on a Y/Pt(111) Single Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Elisabeth Therese; Johansson, Tobias Peter; Malacrida, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) hold promise as a zero-emission source of power, particularly suitable for automotive vehicles. However, the high loading of Pt required to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the PEMFC cathode, prevents the commercialisation of this tec......Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) hold promise as a zero-emission source of power, particularly suitable for automotive vehicles. However, the high loading of Pt required to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the PEMFC cathode, prevents the commercialisation...... using electrochemical measurements, low energy electron diffraction, ion scattering spectroscopy, angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption of CO, and synchrotron based X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface sensitive X-ray diffraction. These measurements were...

  16. Molecular [(Fe3)–(Fe3)] and [(Fe4)–(Fe4)] coordination cluster pairs as single or composite arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, E Carolina; Uber, Jorge Salinas; Pons Balagué, Alba; Roubeau, Olivier; Aromí, Guillem

    2012-08-06

    The synthesis of molecular cluster pairs is a challenge for coordination chemists due to the potential applications of these species in molecular spintronics or quantum computing. The ligand H(4)L, 1,3-bis-(3-oxo-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-propionyl)-2-methoxybenzene, has been successfully used to obtain a series of such complexes using the basic Fe(III) trinuclear carboxylates as starting materials. Synthetic control has allowed the isolation of the two molecular cluster pairs that form the composite [Fe(4)O(2)(PhCO(2))(6)(H(2)L)(pz)](2)[Fe(3)O(PhCO(2))(5)(py)(H(2)L)](2) (1). The dimers of trinuclear units, [Fe(3)O(PhCO(2))(5)(H(2)O)(H(2)L)](2) (2) and [Fe(3)O(o-MePhCO(2))(5)(H(2)L)(py)](2) (3), and the dimers of tetranuclear units, [Fe(4)O(2)(PhCO(2))(6)(H(2)L)(pz)](2) (4) and [Fe(4)O(2)(o-MePhCO(2))(6)(H(2)L)(pz)](2) (5), are presented here. The magnetic properties of the reported aggregates show that they are pairs of semi-independent clusters weakly interacting magnetically as required for two-qubit quantum gates.

  17. Investigation of the magnetic phase transition in thin Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} films by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, Jochen; Lott, Dieter; Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Mankey, Gary J. [MINT Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schmalzl, Karin [JCNS, Juelich (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the last years perpendicular recording plays a major role in the development of novel magnetic data storage. Here, materials with high anisotropy are used which delivers good thermal stability. However in order to write the bits a high magnetic field is necessary. By the use of soft underlayers the write field can be significant reduced. Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} is a promising candidate for such an underlayer. Magnetization measurements of the bulk samples for x=10 refer to a antiferromagnetic (AF)/ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition at about 150 K when heated. Additional magnetostriction measurements indicate that the phase transition could also be induced by applying a magnetic field. The FM state lowers the high anisotropy and therefore the high write field. The AF state helps to stabilize the recording media via exchange interaction. For technical applications the use of thin films are essential to save space and costs for the next generation of magnetic storage devices. Here we present results on several thin Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50-x}Rh{sub x} films with different concentration of Rh. The films were examined by polarized and unpolarized neutron diffraction in dependence of temperature and magnetic field.

  18. Influence of piezoelectric strain on the Raman spectra of BiFeO{sub 3} films deposited on PMN-PT substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himcinschi, Cameliu, E-mail: himcinsc@physik.tu-freiberg.de; Talkenberger, Andreas; Kortus, Jens [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Theoretical Physics, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Guo, Er-Jia [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany); Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Dörr, Kathrin [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany); Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    BiFeO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films were deposited on piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.28PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) substrates with a conductive buffer layer (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} or SrRuO{sub 3}) using pulsed laser deposition. The calibration of the strain values induced by the electric field applied on the piezoelectric PMN-PT substrates was realised using X-Ray diffraction measurements. The method of piezoelectrically induced strain allows one to directly obtain a quantitative correlation between the strain and the shift of the Raman-active phonons. This is a prerequisite for making Raman scattering a strong tool to probe the strain coupling in multiferroic nanostructures. Using the Poisson's number for BiFeO{sub 3}, one can determine the volume change induced by strain, and therefore the Grüneisen parameters for specific phonon modes.

  19. Performance of direct-driven flapping-wing actuator with piezoelectric single-crystal PIN-PMN-PT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Kanae

    2018-02-01

    We present a prototype flapping-wing actuator with a direct-driven mechanism to generate lift in micro- and nano-aerial vehicles. This mechanism has an advantage of simplicity because it has no transmission system between the actuator and wing. We fabricated the piezoelectric unimorph actuator from single-crystal PIN-PMN-PT, which achieved a lift force up to 1.45 mN, a value about 1.9 times larger than the mass of the actuator itself. This is the first reported demonstration of an insect-scale actuator with a direct-driven mechanism that can generate a lift force greater than its own weight.

  20. PENJADWALAN JOBS PADA SINGLE MACHINE DENGAN MEMINIMUMKAN VARIANS WAKTU PENYELESAIAN JOBS Studi Kasus di P.T. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sutapa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a jobs scheduling on a single machine to minimize variance of job completion time. The objective is especially important in situations where it is desirable to provide customers or jobs with approximately the same treatment. In this case, data are collected from P.T. 'XYZ'. The focus of discussion is LB/KB Departement (Leather Board/Carton Board with carton board's production line, which produces carton board. Carton board's size is 150 x 110 cm and its thickness from 0,6 mm to 2,5 mm. In this paper a comparison analysis, the deviation of the objective value given by a heuristic (Vh method from the objective value given by P.T. 'XYZ' (Vp, is made. The percentage of deviation Vh from Vp is 50,36 %, which shows that the performance of heuristic is better, that is variance of job completion time by heuristic method smaller than by P.T. 'XYZ'. Besides the above discussion, the weakness dan superiority of heuristic are analyzed too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini membahas penjadwalan jobs pada single machine dengan tujuan meminimumkan varians waktu penyelesaian job, yaitu untuk memberikan konsumen atau jobs kurang lebih perlakuan yang sama. Data yang diambil dalam pembahasan ini berasal dari perusahaan P.T. 'XYZ', di mana departemen yang menjadi fokus pembahasan adalah Departemen LB/KB (Leather Board/Karton Board dengan lintasan produksi karton board yang menghasilkan produk carton board ukuran 150 x 110 cm, dengan ketebalan 0,6 mm sampai dengan 2,5 mm. Dalam makalah ini dilakukan analisis perbandingan jadwal jobs pada proses produksi di perusahaan yang telah ada dengan jadwal jobs menggunakan metode heuristic, yaitu menggunakan persentase penyimpangan Vh (varians waktu penyelesaian jobs metode heuristic dari Vp (varians waktu penyelesaian jobs perusahaan. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa persentase penyimpangan Vh dari Vp sebesar 50,36%, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa performance metode heuristic lebih baik, yaitu

  1. QUEUING ANALYSIS OF CAR SERVICING CUSTOMERS USED SINGLE CHANNEL MODEL AND KENDALL'S NOTATION IN PT. ARMADA MOBIL PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugiyono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the customer’s problem queue, specify the model queue, the arrival and customer service frequency distributions at PT. Armada Mobil Purwokerto. Methods of the research conducted by observing and measuring directly the research object, the data from the study was calculated according to the theory of queues. The result appropriate to single channel queuing model Poisson distribution of the arrivals, exponential distribution of the time service. The characteristized of Kendall’s notation is M/M/3/3/571.

  2. Room temperature exchange bias in SmFeO_3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiong; Cheng, Xiangyi; Gao, Shang; Song, Junda; Ruan, Keqing; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Exchange bias phenomenon is generally ascribed to the unidirectional magnetic shift along the field axes at interface of two magnetic materials. Room temperature exchange bias is found in SmFeO_3 single crystal. The behavior after different cooling procedure is regular, and the training behavior is attributed to the athermal training and its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature exchange bias was found in oxide single crystal. Highlights: • Room temperature exchange bias has been discovered in single-crystalline SmFeO_3. • Its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. • Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application.

  3. A GREENER SYNTHESIS OF CORE (FE, CU)-SHELL (AU, PT, PD AND AG) NANOCRYSTALS USING AQUEOUS VITAMIN C

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener method to fabricate the novel core (Fe and Cu)-shell (noble metals) metal nanocrystals using aqueous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is described. Transition metal salts such as Cu and Fe were reduced using ascorbic acid, a benign naturally available antioxidant, and then add...

  4. Magnetic measurements of superconducting LiFeAs single crystals under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kiyotaka; Otsuka, Keisuke; Ogawa, Saki; Takeuchi, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of DC magnetization for single crystal specimens of LiFeAs have been performed under pressure using liquid argon and NaCl as pressure transmitting media (PTM) to generate hydrostatic and nearly uniaxial pressure along c-axis, respectively. It has been found that Tc linearly decreases under pressure with pressure coefficient dTc / dP ∼ - 1.6 - 1.7 K/GPa, and then shows a pressure independent behavior with Tc ∼ 8 K above 5 GPa. These behaviors are observed independently of whether we select liquid argon or NaCl as PTM. This suggests that c-axis lattice constant is not an important factor to determine Tc in LiFeAs, in contrast to KxFe2-ySe2 and (NH3)yAxFe2Se2 (A=alkali metal).

  5. Synthesis of single-phase L10-FeNi magnet powder by nitrogen insertion and topotactic extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Sho; Kura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Hayashi, Yasushi; Yanagihara, Hideto; Shimada, Yusuke; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Takanashi, Koki; Kita, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Tetrataenite (L10-FeNi) is a promising candidate for use as a permanent magnet free of rare-earth elements because of its favorable properties. In this study, single-phase L10-FeNi powder with a high degree of order was synthesized through a new method, nitrogen insertion and topotactic extraction (NITE). In the method, FeNiN, which has the same ordered arrangement as L10-FeNi, is formed by nitriding A1-FeNi powder with ammonia gas. Subsequently, FeNiN is denitrided by topotactic reaction to ...

  6. Experimental Elucidation of the Oxygen Reduction Volcano in Base on a Pt Alloy Single Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Degn; Tymoczko, Jakub; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2016-01-01

    and base.[1,2] In our earlier studies, we mapped out the experimental Sabatier volcano for the oxygen reduction reaction in 0.1 M HClO4 using the Cu/Pt(111) near-surface alloy system, see Figure 1 for near-surface alloy schematic.[3,4] In this study, as those of [3,4], we found that by changing...... the subsurface coverage of Cu we could tune the surface binding of the key reaction intermediate, OH; we thus monitored the OH binding energy shift through the observable shifts in the base voltammograms in both acidic and alkaline media. Further, we elucidate the experimental oxygen reduction volcano in 0.1 M...... to Pt(111). However, all surfaces show a ~4 fold improvement in activity in 0.1 M KOH, relative to the same surface in 0.1 M HClO4. At the peak of the volcano the surface exhibits an exceptionally high specific activity of 90 mA/cm2 at 0.9 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode. Thus, our...

  7. Passive Fe2+ : ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3-mu m lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, AA; Kozlovskii, [No Value; Korostelin, YV; Podmar'kov, YP; Polushkin, VG; Frolov, MP

    Passive Q-switching of 3-mu m lasers with the help of a Fe2+ : ZnSe single crystal is demonstrated. The 6-mJ, 50-ns giant pulses are obtained from a 2.9364-mu m Er : YAG laser by using this passive Q switch.

  8. Synthesis, electronic transport and optical properties of Si:α-Fe2O3 single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettie, A.J.E.; Chemelewski, W.D.; Wygant, B.R.; Lindemuth, J.; Lin, J.F.; Eisenberg, D.; Brauer, C.S.; Johnson, T.J.; Beiswenger, T.N.; Ash, R.D.; Li, X.; Zhou, J.; Mullins, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of silicon-doped hematite (Si:alpha-Fe2O3) single crystals via chemical vapor transport, with Si incorporation on the order of 1019 cm(-3). The conductivity, Seebeck and Hall effect were measured in the basal plane between 200 and 400 K. Distinct differences in electron

  9. Local Weak Ferromagnetism in Single-Crystalline Ferroelectric BiFeO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramazanoglu, M.; Laver, Mark; Ratcliff, W.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized small-angle neutron scattering studies of single-crystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 reveal a long-wavelength spin density wave generated by ∼1° spin canting of the spins out of the rotation plane of the antiferromagnetic cycloidal order. This signifies weak ferromagnetism within mesoscopic...

  10. Size-dependent effects in supported highly dispersed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, doped with Pt and Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Shopska, Maya, E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Mitov, Ivan; Kadinov, Georgi [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2010-06-15

    Series of Fe and Fe-Me (Me = Pt or Pd) catalyst supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} (anatase) or diatomite were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The metal loading was 8 wt.% Fe and 0.7 wt.% noble metal. The preparation and pretreatment conditions of all studied samples were kept to be the same. X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction are used for characterization of the supports and the samples at different steps during their treatment and catalytic tests. The catalytic activity of the samples was tested in the reaction of total benzene oxidation. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of the obtained materials are compared with respect of the different chemical composition, dispersion of used carriers and of the supported phases. Samples with the same composition prepared by mechanical mixing are studied as catalysts for comparison and for clearing up the presence of size-dependent effect, also.

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy of minerals. Pt. 3. Octahedral-site Fe2+ quadrupole splitting distributions in the phlogopite-annite series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    We develop the methodology of quadrupole splitting distribution (QSD) analysis by evaluating the influences of absorber thickness, absorber texture, and the asumed Lorentzian width on the extracted QSD. We then present the first study to describe the Moessbauer spectra of members of a mineral family in terms of QSDs. The Fe 2+ QSD and its characteristics (average QS, peak QS, skewness, and standard deviation) show gradual trends with changing Fe/(Fe+Mg) in a synthetic Al-deficient phlogopite-annite series. Al-deficient natural samples of phlogopite and annite show similar behaviour. The Fe 2+ QSDs can be interpreted as population distribuitions of local distortion environments (LDEs) and, as such, contain much information that will become more accessible as theoretical calculations linking particular LDEs to corresponding QS values are developed. (orig.)

  12. Simple preparations of Pd6Cl12, Pt6Cl12, and Qn[Pt2Cl8+n], n=1, 2 (Q=TBA+, PPN+) and structural characterization of [TBA][Pt2Cl9] and [PPN]2[Pt2Cl10].C7H8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Amico, Daniela Belli; Calderazzo, Fausto; Marchetti, Fabio; Ramello, Stefano; Samaritani, Simona

    2008-02-04

    The hexanuclear Pd6Cl12, i.e., the crystal phase classified as beta-PdCl2, was obtained by reacting [TBA]2[Pd2Cl6] with AlCl3 (or FeCl3) in CH2Cl2. The action of AlCl3 on PtCl42-, followed by digestion of the resulting solid in 1,2-C2H4Cl2 (DCE), CHCl3, or benzene, produced Pt6Cl12.DCE, Pt6Cl12.CHCl3, or Pt6Cl12.C6H6, respectively. Treating [TBA]2[PtCl6] with a slight excess of AlCl3 afforded [TBA][Pt2Cl9], whose anion was established crystallographically to be constituted by two "PtCl6" octahedra sharing a face. Dehydration of H2PtCl6.nH2O with SOCl2 gave an amorphous compound closely analyzing as PtCl4, reactive with [Q]Cl in SOCl2 to yield [Q][Pt2Cl9] or [Q]2[Pt2Cl10], depending on the [Q]Cl/Pt molar ratio (Q=TBA+, PPN+). A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study has shown [PPN]2[Pt2Cl10].C7H8 to contain dinuclear anions formed by two edge-sharing PtCl6 octahedra.

  13. Paramagnetism and antiferromagnetic interactions in single-phase Fe-implanted ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Van Bael, M J; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Araújo, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    As the intrinsic origin of the high temperature ferromagnetism often observed in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors becomes increasingly debated, there is a growing need for comprehensive studies on the single-phase region of the phase diagram of these materials. Here we report on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by ion implantation of ZnO single crystals. A detailed structural characterization shows that the Fe impurities substitute for Zn in ZnO in a wurtzite Zn$_{1−x}$Fe$_{x}$O phase which is coherent with the ZnO host. In addition, the density of beam-induced defects is progressively decreased by thermal annealing up to 900$^{\\circ}$C, from highly disordered after implantation to highly crystalline upon subsequent annealing. Based on a detailed analysis of the magnetometry data, we demonstrate that isolated Fe impurities occupying Zn substitutional sites behave as localized paramagnetic moments down to 2$^{\\circ}$K, irrespective of the Fe concentration and the density...

  14. Detailed single crystal EPR lineshape measurements for the single molecule magnets Fe8Br and Mn12-ac

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, S.; Maccagnano, S.; Park, K.; Achey, R. M.; North, J. M.; Dalal, N. S.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that our multi-high-frequency (40-200 GHz) resonant cavity technique yields distortion-free high field EPR spectra for single crystal samples of the uniaxial and biaxial spin S = 10 single molecule magnets (SMMs) [Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4].2CH3COOH.4H2O and [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O. The observed lineshapes exhibit a pronounced dependence on temperature, magnetic field, and the spin quantum numbers (Ms values) associated with the levels involved in the transitions. Measurements ...

  15. Reactive Stresses in Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 Shape-Memory-Alloy Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkin, A. I.; Krymov, V. M.; Guzilova, L. I.; Timashov, R. B.; Soldatov, A. V.; Nikolaev, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The reactive stresses induced in Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6-alloy single crystals during martensitic transformations with a limited possibility of shape-memory-strain recovery have been experimentally studied. The data on these crystals are compared with the results obtained previously for Cu-Al-Ni, Ni-Ti, and Ni‒Fe-Ga crystals. The potential of application of the Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 single crystals in designing drives and power motors is demonstrated.

  16. Spin pumping damping and magnetic proximity effect in Pd and Pt spin-sink layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminale, M.; Ghosh, A.; Auffret, S.; Ebels, U.; Ollefs, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Bailey, W. E.

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the spin pumping damping contributed by paramagnetic layers (Pd, Pt) in both direct and indirect contact with ferromagnetic Ni81Fe19 films. We find a nearly linear dependence of the interface-related Gilbert damping enhancement Δ α on the heavy-metal spin-sink layer thicknesses tN in direct-contact Ni81Fe19 /(Pd, Pt) junctions, whereas an exponential dependence is observed when Ni81Fe19 and (Pd, Pt) are separated by 3 nm Cu. We attribute the quasilinear thickness dependence to the presence of induced moments in Pt, Pd near the interface with Ni81Fe19 , quantified using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. Our results show that the scattering of pure spin current is configuration-dependent in these systems and cannot be described by a single characteristic length.

  17. Spin-waves in antiferromagnetic single crystal LiFePO$_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiying; Garlea, Vasile O.; Zarestky, Jerel L.; Vaknin, David

    2005-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersions in the antiferromagnetic state of single crystal LiFePO$_4$ were determined by inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The dispersion curves measured from the (010) reflection along both {\\it a}$^\\ast$ and {\\it b}$^\\ast$ reciprocal-space directions reflect the anisotropic coupling of the layered Fe$^{2+}$ (S = 2) spin-system. The spin-wave dispersion curves were theoretically modeled using linear spin-wave theory by including in the spin-Hamiltonian in-plane nearest- ...

  18. Surface acoustic load sensing using a face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2012-11-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) resonators for surface acoustic load sensing are presented in this paper. Different acoustic loads are applied to thickness mode, thickness-shear mode, and face-shear mode resonators, and the electrical impedances at resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are recorded. More than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity (ratio of electrical impedance change to surface acoustic impedance change) at the resonance is achieved for the face-shear-mode resonator compared with other resonators with the same dimensions. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model is used to verify the surface acoustic loading effect on the electrical impedance spectrum of face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonators. The demonstrated high sensitivity of face-shear mode resonators to surface loads is promising for a broad range of applications, including artificial skin, biological and chemical sensors, touch screens, and other touch-based sensors.

  19. Probing the Nanodomain Origin and Phase Transition Mechanisms in (Un)Poled PMN-PT Single Crystals and Textured Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodczyk, Aneta; Colomban, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Outstanding electrical properties of solids are often due to the composition heterogeneity and/or the competition between two or more sublattices. This is true for superionic and superprotonic conductors and supraconductors, as well as for many ferroelectric materials. As in PLZT ferroelectric materials, the exceptional ferro- and piezoelectric properties of the PMN-PT ((1−x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3−xPbTiO3) solid solutions arise from the coexistence of different symmetries with long and short scales in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region. This complex physical behavior requires the use of experimental techniques able to probe the local structure at the nanoregion scale. Since both Raman signature and thermal expansion behavior depend on the chemical bond anharmonicity, these techniques are very efficient to detect and then to analyze the subtitle structural modifications with an efficiency comparable to neutron scattering. Using the example of poled (field cooling or room temperature) and unpoled PMN-PT single crystal and textured ceramic, we show how the competition between the different sublattices with competing degrees of freedom, namely the Pb-Pb dominated by the Coulombian interactions and those built of covalent bonded entities (NbO6 and TiO6), determine the short range arrangement and the outstanding ferro- and piezoelectric properties. PMID:28883367

  20. Characteristic length scale of the magnon accumulation in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Pt bilayer structures by incoherent thermal excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadón, A., E-mail: anadonb@unizar.es; Lucas, I.; Morellón, L. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ramos, R. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Algarabel, P. A. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ibarra, M. R.; Aguirre, M. H. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopías avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-07-04

    The dependence of Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) with the thickness of the magnetic materials is studied by means of incoherent thermal excitation. The SSE voltage signal in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Pt bilayer structure increases with the magnetic material thickness up to 100 nm, approximately, showing signs of saturation for larger thickness. This dependence is well described in terms of a spin current pumped in the platinum film by the magnon accumulation in the magnetic material. The spin current is generated by a gradient of temperature in the system and detected by the Pt top contact by means of inverse spin Hall effect. Calculations in the frame of the linear response theory adjust with a high degree of accuracy the experimental data, giving a thermal length scale of the magnon accumulation (Λ) of 17 ± 3 nm at 300 K and Λ = 40 ± 10 nm at 70 K.

  1. First-order phase transitions in CaFe2As2 single crystal: a local probe study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzamora, M; Munevar, J; Baggio-Saitovitch, E; Bud'ko, S L; Ni Ni; Canfield, P C; Sanchez, D R

    2011-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural and magnetic phase transitions of CaFe 2 As 2 (T N = 173 K) single crystals. For this compound we found that V ZZ is positive and parallel to the c-axis of the tetragonal structure. For CaFe 2 As 2 a magnetic hyperfine field B hf was observed at the 57 Fe nucleus below T N ∼ 173 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of B hf data using the Bean-Rodbell model shows that the Fe spins undergo a first-order magnetic transition at ∼ 173 K. A collinear antiferromagnetic structure is established below this temperature with the Fe spin lying in the (a, b) plane. Below T N the paramagnetic fraction of Fe decreases down to 150 K and for lower temperatures all the Fe spins are magnetically ordered.

  2. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  3. H+ irradiation effect in Co-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Taen, T.; Tamegai, T.; Kitamura, H.; Murakami, T.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of H + irradiation on the suppression of Tc in Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 . H + irradiation introduces nonmagnetic scattering centers. Critical Scattering rate is much higher than that expected in s±-pairing scenario. We report the suppression of the critical temperature T c in single crystalline Ba(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 at under-, optimal-, and over-doping levels by 3 MeV proton irradiation. T c decreases and residual resistivity increases monotonically with increasing the dose. The low-temperature resistivity does not show the upturn in contrast with the α-particle irradiated NdFeAs(O,F), which suggests that proton irradiation introduces nonmagnetic scattering centers. Critical scattering rates for all samples obtained by three different ways are much higher than that expected in s±-pairing scenario based on inter-band scattering due to antiferro-magnetic spin fluctuations.

  4. Magnetic phase transitions and large mass enhancement in single crystal CaFe4As3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Dong; Wu Wei; Zheng Ping; Wang Nan-Lin; Luo Jian-Lin

    2012-01-01

    High quality single crystal CaFe 4 As 3 was grown by using the Sn flux method. Unlike layered CaFe 2 As 2 , CaFe 4 As 3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic three-dimensional structure. Two magnetic ordering transitions are observed at ∼ 90 K and ∼ 27 K, respectively. The high temperature transition is an antiferromagnetic(AF) ordering transition. However, the low temperature transition shows complex properties. It shows a ferromagnetic-like transition when a field is applied along b-axis, while antiferromagnetism-like transition when a field is applied perpendicular to b-axis. These results suggest that the low temperature transition at 27 K is a first-order transition from an AF state to a canted AF state. In addition, the low temperature electron specific heat coefficient reaches as high as 143 mJ/mol·K 2 , showing a heavy fermion behavior. (rapid communication)

  5. Magnetocrystalline two-fold symmetry in CaFe2O4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Das, Rajasree; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in CaFe 2 O 4 is a matter of importance for its future applications. A high quality single crystal CaFe 2 O 4 sample is studied by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, a magnetometer and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. A broad feature of the susceptibility curve around room temperature is observed, indicating the development of 1D spin interactions above the on-set of antiferromagnetic transition. The angular dependency of ESR reveals an in-plane two-fold symmetry, suggesting a strong correlation between the room temperature spin structure and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This finding opens an opportunity for the device utilizing the anisotropy field of CaFe 2 O 4 . (paper)

  6. Magnetocrystalline two-fold symmetry in CaFe2O4 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaganlal Gandhi, Ashish; Das, Rajasree; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-05-01

    Understanding of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in CaFe2O4 is a matter of importance for its future applications. A high quality single crystal CaFe2O4 sample is studied by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, a magnetometer and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. A broad feature of the susceptibility curve around room temperature is observed, indicating the development of 1D spin interactions above the on-set of antiferromagnetic transition. The angular dependency of ESR reveals an in-plane two-fold symmetry, suggesting a strong correlation between the room temperature spin structure and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This finding opens an opportunity for the device utilizing the anisotropy field of CaFe2O4.

  7. High stability and reactivity of defective graphene-supported Fe{sub n}Pt{sub 13−n} (n = 1, 2, and 3) nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction: a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Duo [Harbin Normal University, Key Laboratory for Photo/Electro Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education (China); Tian, Yu [Harbin Normal University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Xuanzhang, E-mail: xzwang@126.com [Harbin Normal University, Key Laboratory for Photo/Electro Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-01-15

    Recent experimental studies have shown that the FePt nanoparticles (NPs) assembled on graphene exhibit enhanced durability and catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than Pt—only catalysts. In this work, we have performed density functional theory calculations to investigate the stability and reactivity of several Fe{sub n}Pt{sub 13−n} NPs deposited on defective graphene for ORR, where n is adopted as 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The results indicate that the alloying between Fe and Pt can enhance the stability of NPs and promote their oxygen reduction activity. Moreover, the monovacancy site in the graphene can provide anchoring sites for these bimetallic NPs by forming strong metal–substrate interaction, ensuring their high stability. Importantly, the O{sub 2} adsorption on these composites is weakened in various ways, which is ascribed to the change in their averaged d-band center. Thus, these composites exhibit superior catalytic performance in ORR by providing a balance in the O{sub 2} binding strength that allows for enhanced turnover. Our results may be useful to unravel the high stability and reactivity of defective graphene-FePt NPs for ORR from a theoretical perspective.

  8. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of single-crystalline K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} and K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yuu, E-mail: tsuchiya.yuu1990@gmail.com; Ikeda, Shugo; Kobayashi, Hisao [University of Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the physical properties of single-crystalline K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} and K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} samples using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The observed {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra were reconstructed using a major antiferromagnetic ordered K{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 5} phase and a minor paramagnetic phase down to 5 K, despite being superconducting below 32.2 K in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2}. The analysis of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum for K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} at 290 K confirms the presence of a major antiferromagnetic ordered K{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}S{sub 5} phase and a minor paramagnetic phase in the K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystal. The derived hyperfine interaction parameters of the paramagnetic phase in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} suggest that the microstructure of this phase in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} is similar to that of the superconducting phase in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} although the K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystals exhibit no superconductivity down to 5 K.

  9. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of single crystalline Fe/CoO/Ag(001) bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrudan, R.M.

    2007-07-16

    The structural and magnetic properties of epitaxially deposited single-crystalline CoO layers and Fe/CoO bilayers on Ag(001) were investigated. CoO films on Ag(001) exhibit (1 x 1) Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) patterns similar to the clean Ag(001) substrate. The vertical interlayer spacing of the CoO films, deduced from a kinematic analysis of LEED I(E) curves, is a {sub perpendicular} {sub to} /2=2.17 Aa, slightly expanded along the film normal. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) show a big improvement in the surface roughness after annealing the CoO films at 750 K in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetic measurements using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) show a characteristic increase of the coercive field when the Fe/CoO bilayer system is cooled down from room temperature to 150 K. The ordering temperature for the antiferromagnetic layer is in the same range as the Neel temperature for bulk CoO (T{sub N}=290 K). X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to probe magnetic and electronic properties with elemental selectivity. Absorption spectra taken from bilayers with different amounts of deposited Fe show only a weak indication for the formation of Fe oxide at the Fe/CoO interface (0.3 ML Fe). From the spectral shape it is concluded that an FeO type of oxide is formed. X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) measurements exhibit a sizeable induced ferromagnetic signal at the Co L{sub 2,3} absorption edge, corresponding to an interface layer of 1.1 ML in which the magnetic spins couple with the Fe layer. The angular dependence of the X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism XMCD at both the Co and Fe L{sub 2,3} edges shows the orientation of the Co and Fe moments in the bilayers with respect to the crystallographic direction. PhotoElectron Emission Microscope (PEEM) is used to image each ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layer separately. Magnetic contrast due to the induced magnetic spins at the interface is also

  10. Structural and physical properties of new uranium and transition element ternary stannides (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt); Proprietes structurales et physiques de nouveaux stannures ternaires a base d'uranium et d'element de transition (Fe, Co, Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirambet, F

    1993-12-15

    This work is dedicated to the study of ternary stannides based on uranium. The author reviews the structural, magnetic and electric properties of different families of stannides. The study of the U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn family where M stands for Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt shows that the magnetic behaviour of uranium in these compounds is strongly influenced by the transition element M, which is explained by the hybridization force 5f(U) - nd(M) that depends on the number of electrons on the d shell of the M element. For instance, for the elements whose d shell is low filled (Fe, Ru), the U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn stannides show no magnetic order. On the other hand, when the number of d-electrons increases, a magnetic order appears progressively.

  11. Adsorption Kinetics of Fe and Mn with Using Fly Ash from PT Semen Baturaja in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Purnamasari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One used method to reduce heavy metal ions in acid mine drainage is to adsorb them by coal fly ash. This research aimed to study the isotherms equilibrium and the adsorpstion kinetics that fit with decreasing metals ion. Acid mine draigane and fly ash were charge into batch coloumn adsorption with specified comparison. Variables investigated were dactivated and activated fly ash, adsorption times (0, 20, 30, 40,50, and 60 minutes, adsorben weights (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 gram, and pH (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. The results showed that fly ash can be used to reduce the levels of heavy metal ions Fe and Mn. Coal fly ash adsorption model of acid mine drainage fits to Freundlich adsorption isotherm in all condition. First order pseudo model kinetics is suitable for Fe and Mn adsorption processes. The value of adsorpsi rate constants vary around : Fe and Mn (deactivated fly ash 0.2388 min-1 with R2 = 0.4455 and 0.4173 min-1 with R2 = 0.9781, Fe and Mn (activated fly ash 0.5043 min-1 dengan R2 = 1 and  0.2027 min-1 with R2 = 0.8803.

  12. Effect of annealing temperature on the magnetoelectric properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, You Jeong; Hwang, Sung Ok; Koo, Chang Young; Lee, Jai Yeoul; Lee, Hee Young [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Min [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(CoFO)/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) multilayer films were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. A thin Pt layer was inserted between the ferrimagnetic and the ferroelectric layers in order to suppress diffusion at high temperatures and thereby to prevent possible interfacial reactions. The effect of annealing on the film's microstructure and multiferroic properties was then investigated using thin film stacks heat-treated at temperatures ranging from 550 to 650 .deg. C. The magnetoelectric coefficients were calculated from the magnetoelectric voltages measured using a magnetoelectric measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the magnetoelectric coupling in the CoFO/Pt/PZT multilayer thin film is discussed in detail.

  13. Oxygen vacancies effect on ionic conductivity and relaxation phenomenon in undoped and Mn doped PZN-4.5PT single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobor, Diouma; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    AC-impedance spectroscopic studies in the temperature range 550-700 deg. C are carried out on undoped and Mn doped PZN-PT single crystals grown by the flux method. The variation of dielectric permittivity with temperature at different frequencies shows normal ferroelectric and relaxor-like dependence for the doped and undoped crystals, respectively. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic modulus plots reveal a much broader peak for PZN-4.5PT + 1%Mn compared with that for PZN-4.5PT, which is different from the dielectric behaviour of the doped one. Complex modulus imaginary part (Z-prime) versus real part (Z') plots fit well with one semicircle thus indicating only bulk contribution. The relaxation observed in the spectroscopic plots was assigned to mobile relaxor species such as oxygen vacancies and ions. No such relaxation could be observed for PZN-4.5PT + 1%Mn in the dielectric measurements. For both undoped and Mn doped crystals, the conduction behaviour was modelled by the universal dynamic response equation and by the NTC (negative temperature coefficient) materials resistance-temperature behaviour. A large difference in behaviour was found between the two single crystals such as the thermistor coefficients and the activation energy values, which could explain the increase in the thermal stability observed in the Mn doped PZN-PT single crystals by many studies

  14. Effect of the compressive stress on both polarization rotation and phase transitions in PMN-30%PT single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the dependence of both the electromechanical effect and the electrostriction on the compressive stress in PMN-30%PT single crystal on the basis of single domain polarization rotation model. In the model, the electroelastic energy induced by the compressive stress is taken into account. The results have demonstrated that the compressive stress can lead to a significant change in the initial polarization state in the crystal. The reason lies in the stress induced anisotropy which is the coupling between the compressive stress and the electrostrictive coefficients. Thus, the initial polarization state in single crystal is determined by the combination of both electrocrystalline anisotropy and the stress induced anisotropy. The compressive stress along the [100] axis can make the polarization in the crystal be perpendicular to the stress direction, and make it difficult to be polarized to the saturation. This model is useful for better understanding both the polarization rotation and electromechanical effect in ferroelectric crystals with the compressive stress present.

  15. Spin-waves in Antiferromagnetic Single-crystal LiFePO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiying; Garlea, Vasile O.; Zarestky, Jarel; Vaknin, D.

    2006-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersions in the antiferromagnetic state of single-crystal LiFePO 4 were determined by inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The dispersion curves measured from the (0,1,0) reflection along both a* and b* reciprocal-space directions reflect the anisotropic coupling of the layered Fe 2+ (S=2) spin system. The spin-wave dispersion curves were theoretically modeled using linear spin-wave theory by including in the spin Hamiltonian in-plane nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions (J 1 and J 2 ), inter-plane nearest-neighbor interactions (J(perpendicular)) and a single-ion anisotropy (D). A weak (0,1,0) magnetic peak was observed in elastic neutron scattering studies of the same crystal indicating that the ground state of the staggered iron moments is not along the (0,1,0) direction, as previously reported from polycrystalline samples studies, but slightly rotated away from this axis.

  16. Photon-assisted tunneling in a Fe-8 single-molecule magnet

    OpenAIRE

    Sorace, L.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Thirion, C.; Barra, A. L.; Pacchioni, M.; Mailly, D.; Barbara, B.

    2003-01-01

    The low temperature spin dynamics of a Fe8 Single-Molecule Magnet was studied under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation allowing us to establish clearly photon-assisted tunneling. This effect, while linear at low power, becomes highly non-linear above a relatively low power threshold. This non-linearity is attributed to the nature of the coupling of the sample to the thermostat.These results are of great importance if such systems are to be used as quantum computers.

  17. Analytical calculation of spin tunneling effect in single molecule magnet Fe8 with considering quadrupole excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Y Yousefi; H Fakhari; K Muminov; M R Benam

    2018-01-01

    Spin tunneling effect in Single Molecule Magnet Fe8 is studied by instanton calculation technique using SU(3) generalized spin coherent state in real parameter as a trial function. For this SMM, tunnel splitting arises due to the presence of a Berry like phase in action, which causes interference between tunneling trajectories (instantons). For this SMM, it is established that the use of quadrupole excitation (g dependence) changes not only the location of the quenching points, but also the n...

  18. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  19. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul

    2006-06-21

    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations.

  20. KEMAMPUAN TANAMAN EKOR KUCING (Typha latifolia DAN PURUN TIKUS (Eleocharis dulcis DALAM PENURUNAN KONSENTRASI Fe DAN Mn DARI AIR LIMBAH PIT BARAT PT PAMAPERSADA NUSANTARA DISTRIK KCMB KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sulthoni A. D. N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Ability Test Ekor kucing Plants (Typha latifolia and Purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis in Fe and Mn concentrations decrease from the West Pit Wastewater PT Pamapersada District KCMB Kabupaten Banjar. This research held in April 2013 to August 2013. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of plants Ekor kucing and plants Purun tikus in lowering the concentration of  Fe and Mn from waste coal mine and phytoremediation mechanisms that occur. This research uses experimental and survey methods. Results showed that plants Ekor kucing  and Purun tikus are hiperakumulator plants to Fe and Mn in which the plant is able to absorb Fe respectively by 284% and 92%. For Mn, respectively 207% and 1277%. Phytoremediation mechanisms with Ekor kucing for Fe is fitostabilization  and Purun tikus is fitoextraction, while the Mn is fitoextraction.

  1. Fracture mechanics behavior of a Ni-Fe superalloy sheath for superconducting fusion magnets. Pt. 1. Property measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, R.L.; Hwang, I.S.; Steeves, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.2 see ibid., p.269-79 (1997). A seamless extruded conduit for superconductor cabling was fabricated and subjected to mechanical tests. The conduit is made of a nickel-iron alloy having aging and thermal contraction characteristics comparable with Nb 3 Sn conductors. The conduit in liquid helium at 4 K retains its ductility and offers high strength, toughness, and fatigue resistance. Specimens with surface cracks in tension offer substantial fracture resistance for the practical case of crack propagation in the through-wall direction. Fatigue tests indicate that surface cracks adopt a nearly semicircular shape as they grow through the conduit wall (L-S orientation) at rates in the power-law region that are no faster than rates in the transverse direction (L-T orientation). The serviceability of this material is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Inclusive photoproduction of single charged particles at high pT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Flower, P.S.; Hallewell, G.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Paterson, C.N.; Sharp, P.H.; Atkinson, M.; Brook, N.; Coyle, P.; Dickinson, B.; Donnachie, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Ellison, R.J.; Foster, J.M.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Ibbotson, M.; Kolya, S.D.; Lafferty, G.D.; McCann, H.; McManus, C.; Mercer, D.; Ottewell, P.J.; Reid, D.; Thompson, R.J.; Waterhouse, J.; Barberis, D.; Davenport, M.; Eades, J.; McClatchey, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Charity, T.; Clegg, A.B.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hickman, M.T.; Keemer, N.R.; Newton, D.; O'Connor, A.; Wilson, G.W.; Danaher, S.; Galbraith, W.; Thacker, N.A.; Thompson, L.

    1989-01-01

    Single charged-particle inclusive cross sections for photon, pion and kaon beams on hydrogen at the CERN-SPS are presented as functions of p T and x F . Data cover the range 0.0 T F T < 1.6 GeV/c for the photon-induced data. Using the hadron-induced data to estimate the hadronic behaviour of the photon, the difference distributions and ratios of cross sections are a measure of the contribution of the point-like photon interactions. The data are compared with QCD calculations and show broadly similar features. (orig.)

  3. Preparation and enhanced oxidation performance of a Hf-doped single-phase Pt-modified aluminide coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.F.; Jiang, C.Y.; Yao, H.R.; Bao, Z.B.; Zhu, S.L.; Wang, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Tiny Hf particles were successfully incorporated into Pt plating via simple electro-plating method. The hafnium particles were either nipped at Pt grain boundaries or wrapped inside Pt grains, and most of them were below 3 μm in size, showing a uniform distribution within the Pt plating. - Highlights: • A Hf-rich belt formed between outer (Ni,Pt)Al and IDZ after aluminisation. • Hf-doped coating showed much decreased mass gain and oxidation rate constant k_p. • Hf-rich belt acted as diffusion barrier by restraining diffusions of Al and W. • Degradation of β was effectively postponed by the unique Hf addition. • Hf-doped coating exhibited lighter oxide scale rumpling tendency. - Abstract: A Hf-doped β-(Ni,Pt)Al coating was prepared by co-deposition of a Pt-Hf composite plating and successive aluminisation. Then, a distinct Hf-rich belt was formed internally between the outer additive (Ni,Pt)Al coating and interdiffusion zone. An isothermal oxidation test at 1100 °C revealed a relatively lower oxidation rate constant and decreased oxide scale rumpling tendency for the Hf-doped coating during which the Hf-rich belt partly acted as an effective diffusion barrier. The unique addition of Hf into a β-(Ni,Pt)Al coating can delay the transitional oxidation period from transient alumina to stable one and postpone the degradation from β to γ'.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FeCo epitaxial thin films grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikada, Kouhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. FeCo thin films with (100), (211), and (110) planes parallel to the substrate surface grow on respective MgO substrates. FeCo/MgO interface structures are studied by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and the epitaxial growth mechanism is discussed. Atomically sharp boundaries are recognized between the FeCo thin films and the MgO substrates where misfit dislocations are introduced in the FeCo thin films presumably to decrease the lattice misfits. Misfit dislocations are observed approximately every 9 and 1.4 nm in FeCo thin film at the FeCo/MgO(100) and the FeCo/MgO(110) interfaces, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the lattice spacing measured parallel to the single-crystal substrate surfaces are in agreement within 0.1% with those of the respective bulk values of Fe 50 Co 50 alloy crystal, showing that the FeCo film strain is very small. The magnetic anisotropies of these epitaxial films basically reflect the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk FeCo alloy crystal

  5. Critical current density, vortex dynamics, and phase diagram of single-crystal FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Ryo; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2015-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the vortex pinning and dynamics in a high-quality FeSe single crystal which is free from doping-introduced inhomogeneities and charged quasiparticle scattering because of its innate superconductivity. The critical current density Jc is found to be almost isotropic and reaches a value of ˜3 ×104 A /cm2 at 2 K (self-field) for both H ∥c and a b . The normalized magnetic relaxation rate S (=∣d ln M /d ln t ∣ ) shows a temperature-insensitive plateau behavior in the intermediate temperature range with a relatively high creep rate (S ˜ 0.02 under zero field), which is interpreted in the framework of the collective creep theory. A crossover from the elastic to plastic creep is observed, while the fishtail effect is absent for both H ∥c and a b . Based on this observation, the origin of the fishtail effect is also discussed. Combining the results of Jc and S , the vortex motion in the FeSe single crystal is found to be dominated by sparse, strong pointlike pinning from nanometer-sized defects or imperfections. The weak collective pinning is also observed and proved in the form of large bundles. Besides, the vortex phase diagram of FeSe is also constructed and discussed.

  6. Redundancy-free single-particle equation-of-motion method for nuclei. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolnick, P.; Goswami, A.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1986-01-01

    The problem of coupling an odd nucleon to the collective states of an even core is considered in the intermediate-coupling limit. It is now well known that such intermediate-coupling calculations in spherical open-shell nuclei necessitate the inclusion of ground-state correlation or backward coupling which gives rise to an overcomplete basic set of states for the diagonalization of the hamiltonian. In a recent letter, we have derived a technique to free the single-particle equation-of-motion method of redundancy. Here we shall apply this redundancy-free equation-of-motion method to intermediate-coupling calculations in two regions of near-spherical odd-mass nuclei where forward coupling alone has not been successful. It is shown that qualitative effects of backward coupling previously reported are not spurious effects of double counting, although they are significantly modified by the removal of redundancy. We also discuss what further modifications of the theory will be needed in order to treat the dynamical interplay of collective and single-particle modes in nuclei self-consistently on the same footing. (orig.)

  7. London penetration depth measurements in Ba (Fe1-xTx)2As2(T=Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Pt,Co+Cu) superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Ryan T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The London penetration depth has been measured in various doping levels of single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Pt,Co+Cu) superconductors by utilizing a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) apparatus. All in-plane penetration depth measurements exhibit a power law temperature dependence of the form Δλab(T) = CTn, indicating the existence of low-temperature, normal state quasiparticles all the way down to the lowest measured temperature, which was typically 500 mK. Several different doping concentrations from the Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Ni) systems have been measured and the doping dependence of the power law exponent, n, is compared to results from measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat. In addition, a novel method has been developed to allow for the measurement of the zero temperature value of the in-plane penetration depth, λab(0), by using TDR frequency shifts. By using this technique, the doping dependence of λab(0) has been measured in the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 series, which has allowed also for the construction of the doping-dependent superfluid phase stiffness, ρs(T) = [λ(0)/λ(T)]2. By studying the effects of disorder on these superconductors using heavy ion irradiation, it has been determined that the observed power law temperature dependence likely arises from pair-breaking impurity scattering contributions, which is consistent with the proposed s±-wave symmetry of the superconducting gap in the dirty scattering limit. This hypothesis is supported by the measurement of an exponential temperature dependence of the penetration depth in the intrinsically clean LiFeAs, indicative of a nodeless superconducting gap.

  8. A Synthetic Single-Site Fe Nitrogenase: High Turnover, Freeze-Quench (57)Fe Mössbauer Data, and a Hydride Resting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Trevor J; Thompson, Niklas B; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-04-27

    The mechanisms of the few known molecular nitrogen-fixing systems, including nitrogenase enzymes, are of much interest but are not fully understood. We recently reported that Fe-N2 complexes of tetradentate P3(E) ligands (E = B, C) generate catalytic yields of NH3 under an atmosphere of N2 with acid and reductant at low temperatures. Here we show that these Fe catalysts are unexpectedly robust and retain activity after multiple reloadings. Nearly an order of magnitude improvement in yield of NH3 for each Fe catalyst has been realized (up to 64 equiv of NH3 produced per Fe for P3(B) and up to 47 equiv for P3(C)) by increasing acid/reductant loading with highly purified acid. Cyclic voltammetry shows the apparent onset of catalysis at the P3(B)Fe-N2/P3(B)Fe-N2(-) couple and controlled-potential electrolysis of P3(B)Fe(+) at -45 °C demonstrates that electrolytic N2 reduction to NH3 is feasible. Kinetic studies reveal first-order rate dependence on Fe catalyst concentration (P3(B)), consistent with a single-site catalyst model. An isostructural system (P3(Si)) is shown to be appreciably more selective for hydrogen evolution. In situ freeze-quench Mössbauer spectroscopy during turnover reveals an iron-borohydrido-hydride complex as a likely resting state of the P3(B)Fe catalyst system. We postulate that hydrogen-evolving reaction activity may prevent iron hydride formation from poisoning the P3(B)Fe system. This idea may be important to consider in the design of synthetic nitrogenases and may also have broader significance given that intermediate metal hydrides and hydrogen evolution may play a key role in biological nitrogen fixation.

  9. Modulated magnetic structure of an inhomogeneous stressed single crystal FeBO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharipiv, M.Z.; Dzhuraev, D.R.; Sokolov, B.Yu.; Kurbanov, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the help of low-symmetry mechanical stresses, we induced an additional spatially inhomogeneous anisotropy in the basal plane of a single crystal FeBO 3 . By the magnetooptical method, we study the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy on the magnetic state of this easy-plane weak ferromagnetic. It is established that, at the magnetization of inhomogeneously stressed FeBO 3 in the basal plane near some separated direction, the crystal transits from the homogeneous state into a spatially modulated magnetic state. The latter can be represented in the form of a static spin wave, in which a local vector of ferromagnetism oscillates near the direction of the mean magnetization of a crystal, by remaining in the basal plane.

  10. Synthesis of single-phase L10-FeNi magnet powder by nitrogen insertion and topotactic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Sho; Kura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Hayashi, Yasushi; Yanagihara, Hideto; Shimada, Yusuke; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Takanashi, Koki; Kita, Eiji

    2017-10-16

    Tetrataenite (L1 0 -FeNi) is a promising candidate for use as a permanent magnet free of rare-earth elements because of its favorable properties. In this study, single-phase L1 0 -FeNi powder with a high degree of order was synthesized through a new method, nitrogen insertion and topotactic extraction (NITE). In the method, FeNiN, which has the same ordered arrangement as L1 0 -FeNi, is formed by nitriding A1-FeNi powder with ammonia gas. Subsequently, FeNiN is denitrided by topotactic reaction to derive single-phase L1 0 -FeNi with an order parameter of 0.71. The transformation of disordered-phase FeNi into the L1 0 phase increased the coercive force from 14.5 kA/m to 142 kA/m. The proposed method not only significantly accelerates the development of magnets using L1 0 -FeNi but also offers a new synthesis route to obtain ordered alloys in non-equilibrium states.

  11. Fe-Ti-O based catalyst for large-chiral-angle single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Catalyst selection is very crucial for controlled growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Here we introduce a well-designed Fe-Ti-O solid solution for SWNT growth with a high preference to large chiral angles. The Fe-Ti-O catalyst was prepared by combining Ti layer deposition onto premade...... Fe nanoparticles with subsequent high-temperature air calcination, which favours the formation of a homogeneous Fe-Ti-O solid solution. Using CO as the carbon feedstock, chemical vapour deposition growth of SWNTs at 800 °C was demonstrated on the Fe-Ti-O catalyst. Nanobeam electron diffraction...... characterization on a number of individual SWNTs revealed that more than 94% of SWNTs have chiral angles larger than 15°. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study was carried out to reveal the catalyst dynamics upon reduction. Our results identify that the phase segregation through reducing Fe...

  12. Direct versus ligand-exchange synthesis of [PtAg28(BDT)12(TPP)4]4− nanoclusters: effect of a single-atom dopant on the optoelectronic and chemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2017-06-07

    Heteroatom doping of atomically precise nanoclusters (NCs) often yields a mixture of doped and undoped products of single-atom difference, whose separation is extremely difficult. To overcome this challenge, novel synthesis methods are required to offer monodisperse doped NCs. For instance, the direct synthesis of PtAg28 NCs produces a mixture of [Ag29(BDT)12(TPP)4]3- and [PtAg28(BDT)12(TPP)4]4- NCs (TPP: triphenylphosphine; BDT: 1,3-benzenedithiolate). Here, we designed a ligand-exchange (LE) strategy to synthesize single-sized, Pt-doped, superatomic Ag NCs [PtAg28(BDT)12(TPP)4]4- by LE of [Pt2Ag23Cl7(TPP)10] NCs with BDTH2 (1,3-benzenedithiol). The doped NCs were thoroughly characterized by optical and photoelectron spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, total electron count, and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We show that the Pt dopant occupies the center of the PtAg28 cluster, modulates its electronic structure and enhances its photoluminescence intensity and excited-state lifetime, and also enables solvent interactions with the NC surface. Furthermore, doped NCs showed unique reactivity with metal ions - the central Pt atom of PtAg28 could not be replaced by Au, unlike the central Ag of Ag29 NCs. The achieved synthesis of single-sized PtAg28 clusters will facilitate further applications of the LE strategy for the exploration of novel multimetallic NCs.

  13. Cell characteristics of FePt nano-dot memories with a high-k Al2O3 blocking oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gae Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Yang, Hyung Jun; Song, Yun Heub; Bea, Ji Cheol; Tanaka, Testsu

    2012-01-01

    The cell characteristics of an alloy FePt nano-dot (ND) charge trapping memory with a high-k dielectric as a blocking oxide was investigated. Adoption of a high-k Al 2 O 3 material as a blocking oxide for the metal nano-dot memory provided a superior scaling of the operation voltage compared to silicon oxide under a similar gate leakage level. For the 40-nm-thick high-k (Al 2 O 3 ) blocking oxide, we confirmed an operation voltage reduction of ∼7 V under the same memory window on for silicon dioxide. Also, this device showed a large memory window of 7.8 V and a low leakage current under 10 -10 A in an area of Φ 0.25 mm. From these results, the use of a dielectric (Al 2 O 3 ) as a blocking oxide for a metal nano-dot device is essential, and a metal nano-dot memory with a high-k dielectric will be one of the candidates for a high-density non-volatile memory device.

  14. Binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Pt and their isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron induced binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections have been evaluated for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Pt and their isotopes in the 'energy range 0.5 MeV to 20 MeV using the nuclear statistical empirical model. The reactions considered are (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He), (n,α), (n,np), (n,nd), (n,nt), (n,n 3 He), (n,nα), (n,pn), (n,2p), (n,ν), (n,αp), (n,dn) and (n,pα). Most of the above mentioned elements are used as structural materials in nuclear reactors and the measured cross-section data for the above listed reactions are seldom available for the radiation damage and safety analysis. With a view to providing these data, this nuclear model based evaluation has been undertaken. The associated uncertainties in the cross-sections and their fission averages have also been evaluated. (author)

  15. Electric field control of magnetic states in isolated and dipole-coupled FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a PMN-PT substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-10-09

    We report observation of a 'non-volatile' converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. The nanomagnets are first magnetized with a magnetic field directed along their nominal major axes. Subsequent application of a strong electric field across the piezoelectric substrate generates strain in the substrate, which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates the magnetizations of some of them away from their initial orientations. The rotated magnetizations remain in their new orientations after the field is removed, resulting in 'non-volatility'. In isolated nanomagnets, the magnetization rotates by <90° upon application of the electric field, but in a dipole-coupled pair consisting of one 'hard' and one 'soft' nanomagnet, which are both initially magnetized in the same direction by the magnetic field, the soft nanomagnet's magnetization rotates by [Formula: see text] upon application of the electric field because of the dipole influence of the hard nanomagnet. This effect can be utilized for a nanomagnetic NOT logic gate.

  16. Single crystal growth and electrical and magnetic measurements on CeFe4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, I.; Sugawara, H.; Magishi, K.; Saito, T.; Koyama, K.; Kikuchi, D.; Tanaka, K.; Sato, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have succeeded in growing single crystals of CeFe 4 Sb 12 by a Sb-self-flux method and measured the electrical resistivity and magnetization. The residual resistivity is about two times smaller than that of polycrystalline ones, suggesting that the sample quality is highly improved. The magnetization measurements at low temperature revealed that the sample contains almost no magnetic impurities which are always observed in polycrystalline samples. The weak temperature dependence and a broad maximum around 115K in magnetic susceptibility, which is a typical feature of valence fluctuation compounds, have been observed

  17. Photon-assisted tunneling in a Fe8 single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, L.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Thirion, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Pacchioni, M.; Mailly, D.; Barbara, B.

    2003-12-01

    The low-temperature spin dynamics of a Fe8 single-molecule magnet was studied under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation allowing us to establish clearly photon-assisted tunneling. This effect, while linear at low power, becomes highly nonlinear above a relatively low-power threshold. Heating due to phonon emission, spin-spin interactions, and coherent emission/absorption of photons might lead to the observed nonlinearity. These results are of importance if such systems are to be used as quantum computers.

  18. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of SrFeOsub(3-x)(x=0. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Takei, H; Watanabe, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1977-01-01

    Neutron diffraction study was carried out on single crystals of the perovskite oxide SrFeOsub(3-x)(x=0.1). SrFeOsub(3-x)(x=0.1) has a proper screw spin structure with the propagation vector parallel to (111) direction and its Neel temperature is 118 K. The electron configuration of Fe/sup 4 +/(3d/sup 4/) ion is close to the low-spin state (tsub(2g)sup(4)) and the oxygen ion has the unpaired electron with the magnetic moment of 0.3..mu..sub(B) antiparallel to the vector sum of the magnetic moments of two iron ions lying on the neighbouring planes perpendicular to the screw axis. The absolute value of the propagation vector is almost constant. 0.130x..sqrt..3.2..pi../a A/sup -1/, at temperatures below 50 K, while it decreases gradually at higher temperatures reaching 0.118x..sqrt..3.2..pi../a A/sup -1/ at Tsub(N).

  19. Single step thermal decomposition approach to prepare supported γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Geetu; Jeevanandam, P.

    2012-01-01

    γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles supported on MgO (macro-crystalline and nanocrystalline) were prepared by an easy single step thermal decomposition method. Thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate in diphenyl ether, in the presence of the supports followed by calcination, leads to iron oxide nanoparticles supported on MgO. The X-ray diffraction results indicate the stability of γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase on MgO (macro-crystalline and nanocrystalline) up to 1150 °C. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the supported iron oxide nanoparticles are agglomerated while the energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicates the presence of iron, magnesium and oxygen in the samples. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate the presence of smaller γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on nanocrystalline MgO. The magnetic properties of the supported magnetic nanoparticles at various calcination temperatures (350-1150 °C) were studied using a superconducting quantum interference device which indicates superparamagnetic behavior.

  20. Study on the effect of the metal–support (Fe-MgO and Pt-MgO) interaction in alcohol-CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steplewska, Anna; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the effect of the metal–support interaction in two systems: (1) iron particle, and (2) platinum particles, being supported on magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowder in alcohol-CVD process for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth. The employment of the different metals but the same substrate (with equal molar ratio) resulted in the synthesis of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) or double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs), using iron and platinum, respectively. Furthermore, along with the prolongation of the process time, the decrease of the mean nanotubes diameter in case of iron-catalyzed materials was detected. Interestingly, the extention of the growth time in the synthesis using Pt/MgO resulted in the synthesis of the thicker mean nanotubes diameter. However, for both applied catalytic systems the reduction of the diameter distribution of the tubes and the increase of relative purity of the samples upon the growth time increase were detected.

  1. Study on the effect of the metal-support (Fe-MgO and Pt-MgO) interaction in alcohol-CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steplewska, Anna, E-mail: asteplewska@zut.edu.pl; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa [West Pomeranian University of Technology, Centre of Knowledge Based Nanomaterials and Technologies, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the effect of the metal-support interaction in two systems: (1) iron particle, and (2) platinum particles, being supported on magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowder in alcohol-CVD process for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth. The employment of the different metals but the same substrate (with equal molar ratio) resulted in the synthesis of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) or double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs), using iron and platinum, respectively. Furthermore, along with the prolongation of the process time, the decrease of the mean nanotubes diameter in case of iron-catalyzed materials was detected. Interestingly, the extention of the growth time in the synthesis using Pt/MgO resulted in the synthesis of the thicker mean nanotubes diameter. However, for both applied catalytic systems the reduction of the diameter distribution of the tubes and the increase of relative purity of the samples upon the growth time increase were detected.

  2. Pt, Co–Pt and Fe–Pt alloy nanoclusters encapsulated in virus capsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, M; Eloi, J-C; Jones, S E Ward; Schwarzacher, W; Verwegen, M; Cornelissen, J J L M

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured Pt-based alloys show great promise, not only for catalysis but also in medical and magnetic applications. To extend the properties of this class of materials, we have developed a means of synthesizing Pt and Pt-based alloy nanoclusters in the capsid of a virus. Pure Pt and Pt-alloy nanoclusters are formed through the chemical reduction of [PtCl 4 ] − by NaBH 4 with/without additional metal ions (Co or Fe). The opening and closing of the ion channels in the virus capsid were controlled by changing the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The size of the nanoclusters is limited to 18 nm by the internal diameter of the capsid. Their magnetic properties suggest potential applications in hyperthermia for the Co–Pt and Fe–Pt magnetic alloy nanoclusters. This study introduces a new way to fabricate size-restricted nanoclusters using virus capsid. (paper)

  3. An internal magnetic field strategy to reuse pulverized active materials for high performance: a magnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO2/CoPt/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiping; Hong, Liang; Li, Jiquan; Hou, Guangya; Cao, Huazhen; Wu, Liankui; Zheng, Guoqu; Wu, Qingliu

    2017-05-09

    A ferromagnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO 2 /CoPt/α-Fe 2 O 3 (3DOMTCF) nanocomposite was synthesized via a sol-gel approach templated by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres. After magnetization, it exhibited an extremely high reversible capacity and a long cycle life, which were ascribed to the internal magnetic field for reusing pulverized active materials and its unique structure.

  4. Effects of a single high dose of 55Fe in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissue, J.A.; Burlington, H.; Cronkite, E.P.; Heldman, B.; Reincke, U.

    1979-01-01

    High doses of 55 Fe induced cytocide in maturing erythroid cells, due to the short-range deposition of decay energy. Organ damage at the time of death was evaluated in a group of 45 female mice of the C 57 BL/6 J strain given a single i.v. injection of 2,800 μCi, 1,400 μCi or 700 μCi of 55 FeCl 3 when 10 to 14 weeks old. A corresponding amount of cold iron was given to control animals by the same route. Radioiron-treated mice died spontaneously, or were killed when moribund. Mice given 2,800 μCi died after a median survival time of 27 days with severe depletion of hemopoietic cells in bone marrow and spleen, marked atrophy of lymphoid tissues and mild liver damage. After 1,400 μCi or 700 μCi, the median survival time was 117 and 439, respectively. In contrast, median survival was 847 days in control animals allowed to survive. In the two lower 55 Fe-dose groups, there was a dose-dependent pancytopenia. Atrophy of lymphoid tissues was moderate, and signs of liver damage slight. The degree of organ hemosiderosis in experimental and control animals was slight to moderate. Organ damage associated with deposition of cold iron was not apparent in tissue sections. Morphological signs of damage to non-hemopoietic organs such as the liver were not conspicuous. Direct radiation damage, primarily to the erythroid series, and competition for stem cells between the heavily depleted erythroid and the other hemopoietic cell lines must be considered among the possible factors leading to pancytopenia. Out of 14 55 Fe-treated mice who survived longer than 300 days developed tumors of hemopoietic and lymphoid tissues, or osteosarcomas. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Single crystal polarized neutron diffraction study of the magnetic structure of HoFeO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, T; Stunault, A; Brown, P J

    2017-09-27

    Polarised neutron diffraction measurements have been made on HoFeO 3 single crystals magnetised in both the [0 0 1] and [1 0 0] directions (Pbnm setting). The polarisation dependencies of Bragg reflection intensities were measured both with a high field of [Formula: see text] T parallel to [0 0 1] at [Formula: see text] K and with the lower field [Formula: see text] T parallel to [1 0 0] at [Formula: see text] K. A Fourier projection of magnetization induced parallel to [0 0 1], made using the hk0 reflections measured in 9 T, indicates that almost all of it is due to alignment of Ho moments. Further analysis of the asymmetries of general reflections in these data showed that although, at 70 K, 9 T applied parallel to [0 0 1] hardly perturbs the antiferromagnetic order of the Fe sublattices, it induces significant antiferromagnetic order of the Ho sublattices in the [Formula: see text] plane, with the antiferromagnetic components of moment having the same order of magnitude as the induced ferromagnetic ones. Strong intensity asymmetries measured in the low temperature [Formula: see text] structure with a lower field, 0.5 T [Formula: see text] [1 0 0] allowed the variation of the ordered components of the Ho and Fe moments to be followed. Their absolute orientations, in the [Formula: see text] domain stabilised by the field were determined relative to the distorted perovskite structure. This relationship fixes the sign of the Dzyalshinski-Moriya (D-M) interaction which leads to the weak ferromagnetism. Our results indicate that the combination of strong y-axis anisotropy of the Ho moments and Ho-Fe exchange interactions breaks the centrosymmetry of the structure and could lead to ferroelectric polarization.

  6. Highly (002) textured large grain bcc Cr{sub 80}Mn{sub 20} seed layer on Cr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50} amorphous layer for FePt-C granular film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Jae, E-mail: jsjigst@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Saito, Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hinata, Shintaro [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellow (PD), 5-3-1, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Takahashi, Migaku [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Effect of bcc Cr{sub 80}Mn{sub 20} seed layer and Cr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50} amorphous texture inducing layer on the heteroepitaxy system in FePt-C granular film was studied by introducing a new concept of the layered structure. The concept suggested that the large grain seed layer in which the crystallographic texture was initially formed on an amorphous layer in the layered structure can reduce the angular distribution of (002) c-axis crystal orientation in the FePt-C granular film owing to heteroepitaxial growth. Structure analysis by X-ray diffraction revealed that (1) when the substrate heating temperature was elevated from 300 °C to 500 °C, grain size in the seed layer increased from 9.8 nm to 11.6 nm, and then decreased with further increasing the substrate temperature. The reduction of the grain size over 500 °C corresponds to the crystallization of the amorphous texture inducing layer, (2) when the grain size increased from 9.8 nm to 11.6 nm, the angular distribution of the (002) orientation in the seed layer dramatically decreased from 13.7° to 4.1°. It was shown that the large grain seed layer increased the perpendicular hysteresis in FePt-C granular film.

  7. Preparation and structural characterization of FeCo epitaxial thin films on insulating single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(111), SrTiO 3 (111), and Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of insulating substrate material on the film growth process and the structures were investigated. FeCo(110) bcc films grow on MgO substrates with two type domains, Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) relationships. On the contrary, FeCo films grown on SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 substrates include FeCo(111) bcc crystal in addition to the FeCo(110) bcc crystals with NW and KS relationships. The FeCo(111) bcc crystal consists of two type domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. The out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of FeCo(110) bcc and FeCo(111) bcc crystals formed on the insulating substrates are in agreement with those of the bulk Fe 50 Co 50 (at. %) crystal with small errors ranging between +0.2% and +0.4%, showing that the strains in the epitaxial films are very small.

  8. Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoest, J.M. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H 2 + at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)

  9. Temperature induced Spin Switching in SmFeO3 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixun; Zhao, Huazhi; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The prospect of controlling the magnetization (M) of a material is of great importance from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and future applications of emerging spintronics. A class of rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R is rare-earth element) materials exhibit striking physical properties of spin switching and magnetization reversal induced by temperature and/or applied magnetic field. Furthermore, due to the novel magnetic, magneto-optic and multiferroic properties etc., RFeO3 materials are attracting more and more interests in recent years. We have prepared and investigated a prototype of RFeO3 materials, namely SmFeO3 single-crystal. And we report magnetic measurements upon both field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC) of the sample, as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. The central findings of this study include that the magnetization of single-crystal SmFeO3 can be switched by temperature, and tuning the magnitude of applied magnetic field allows us to realize such spin switching even at room temperature.

  10. Thermally stable single atom Pt/m-Al2O3 for selective hydrogenation and CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zailei; Zhu, Yihan; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jiaguang; Zhou, Maoxiang; Han, Yu; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Yan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    with outstanding stability in several reactions under demanding conditions. The Pt atoms are firmly anchored in the internal surface of mesoporous Al2O3, likely stabilized by coordinatively unsaturated pentahedral Al3+ centres. The catalyst keeps its structural

  11. Fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Bok; Hsu, David K; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Young-Gil; Barnard, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT, and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications. As a front matching layer between test material (Austenite stainless steel, SUS316) and piezoelectric materials, alumina ceramics was selected. The appropriate acoustic impedance of the backing materials for each transducer was determined based on the results of KLM model simulation. Prototype ultrasonic transducers with the center frequencies of approximately 2.25 and 5MHz for contact measurement were fabricated and compared to each other. The PMN-PT single crystal ultrasonic transducer shows considerably improved performance in sensitivity over the PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Population Pharmacokinetic Modelling of FE 999049, a Recombinant Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, in Healthy Women After Single Ascending Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Trine Høyer; Röshammar, Daniel; Erichsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    reproductive technologies. Methods: Serum FSH levels were measured following a single subcutaneous FE 999049 injection of 37.5, 75, 150, 225 or 450 IU in 27 pituitary-suppressed healthy female subjects participating in this first-in-human single ascending dose trial. Data was analysed by nonlinear mixed...... volume of distribution (V/F) estimates were found to increase with body weight. Body weight was included as an allometrically scaled covariate with a power exponent of 0.75 for CL/F and 1 for V/F. Conclusions: The single-dose pharmacokinetics of FE 999049 were adequately described by a population...

  13. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  14. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  15. Multiband superconductivity in heavy fermion compound CePt3Si without inversion symmetry. An NMR study on a high-quality single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukuda, Hidekazu; Nishide, Sachihiro; Harada, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    We report on novel superconducting characteristics of the heavy fermion (HF) superconductor CePt 3 Si without inversion symmetry through 195 Pt-NMR study on a single crystal with T c =0.46 K that is lower than T c - 0.75 K for polycrystals. We show that the intrinsic superconducting characteristics inherent to CePt 3 Si can be understood in terms of the unconventional strong-coupling state with a line-node gap below T c =0.46 K. The mystery about the sample dependence of T c is explained by the fact that more or less polycrystals and single crystals inevitably contain some disordered domains, which exhibit a conventional BCS s-wave superconductivity (SC) below 0.8 K. In contrast, the Neel temperature T N - 2.2 K is present regardless of the quality of samples, revealing that the Fermi surface responsible for SC differ from that for the antiferromagnetic order. These unusual characteristics of CePt 3 Si can be also described by a multiband model; in the homogeneous domains, the coherent HF bands are responsible for the unconventional SC, whereas in the disordered domains the conduction bands existing commonly in LaPt 3 Si may be responsible for the conventional s-wave SC. We remark that some impurity scatterings in the disordered domains break up the 4f-electrons-derived coherent bands but not others. In this context, the small peak in 1/T 1 just below T c reported before [Yogi et al. (2004)] is not due to a two-component order parameter composed of spin-singlet and spin-triplet Cooper pairing states, but due to the contamination of the disorder domains which are in the s-wave SC state. (author)

  16. Deposition and characterization of single magnetron deposited Fe:SnO{sub x} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormunda, Martin, E-mail: martin.kormunda@ujep.cz [J.E. Purkinje University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Fischer, Daniel; Hertwig, Andreas; Beck, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 6 4 Surface Technologies, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Sebik, Matej; Pavlik, Jaroslav [J.E. Purkinje University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Esser, Norbert [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften — ISAS e.V., Department Berlin, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-30

    Coatings deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from a single RF magnetron with a ceramic SnO{sub 2} target with iron inset in argon plasma were studied. The mass spectra of the process identified Sn{sup +} and SnO{sup +} species as the dominant species sputtered from the target, but no SnO{sub 2}{sup +} species were detected. The dominant positive ions in argon plasma are Ar{sup +} species. The only detected negative ions were O{sup −}. Sputtered neutral tin related species were not detected. Iron related species were also not detected because their concentration is below the detection limit. The concentration of iron dopant in the tin oxide coatings was controlled by the RF bias applied on the substrate holder while the discharge pressure also has some influence. The iron concentration was in the range from 0.9 at.% up to 19 at.% increasing with the substrate bias while the sheet resistivity decreases. The stoichiometry ratio of O/(Sn + Fe) in the coatings increased from 1.7 up to 2 in dependence on the substrate bias from floating bias (− 5 V) up to − 120 V of RF self-bias, respectively. The tin in the coatings was mainly bonded in Sn{sup 4+} state and iron was mainly in Fe{sup 2+} state when other tin bonding states were detected only in a small amounts. Iron bonding states in contrary to elemental compositions of the coatings were not influenced by the RF bias applied on the substrate. The coatings showed high transparency in the visible spectral range. However, an increased metallic behavior could be detected by using a higher RF bias for the deposition. The X-ray diffraction patterns and electron microscopy pictures made on the coatings confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering of SnO{sub 2} target with Fe inset in argon investigated by mass spectrometry • Optical properties of Fe doped SnO{sub x} coatings characterized • Analyses of overlapped XPS peaks at a spectrum from Fe doped SnO{sub x} coatings

  17. A Nanoindentation Study of the Plastic Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms in Single-Crystalline CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Keara G.; Bakst, Ian; Sypek, John T.; Vijayan, Sriram; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Canfield, Paul C.; Aindow, Mark; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2018-04-01

    The plastic deformation and fracture mechanisms in single-crystalline CaFe2As2 has been studied using nanoindentation and density functional theory simulations. CaFe2As2 single crystals were grown in a Sn-flux, resulting in homogeneous and nearly defect-free crystals. Nanoindentation along the [001] direction produces strain bursts, radial cracking, and lateral cracking. Ideal cleavage simulations along the [001] and [100] directions using density functional theory calculations revealed that cleavage along the [001] direction requires a much lower stress than cleavage along the [100] direction. This strong anisotropy of cleavage strength implies that CaFe2As2 has an atomic-scale layered structure, which typically exhibits lateral cracking during nanoindentation. This special layered structure results from weak atomic bonding between the (001) Ca and Fe2As2 layers.

  18. Synaptic Plasticity and Learning Behaviors Mimicked in Single Inorganic Synapses of Pt/HfOx/ZnOx/TiN Memristive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai-Guo; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a kind of new memristor with the simple structure of Pt/HfOx/ZnOx/TiN was fabricated completely via combination of thermal-atomic layer deposition (TALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD). The synaptic plasticity and learning behaviors of Pt/HfOx/ZnOx/TiN memristive system have been investigated deeply. Multilevel resistance states are obtained by varying the programming voltage amplitudes during the pulse cycling. The device conductance can be continuously increased or decreased from cycle to cycle with better endurance characteristics up to about 3 × 103 cycles. Several essential synaptic functions are simultaneously achieved in such a single double-layer of HfOx/ZnOx device, including nonlinear transmission properties, such as long-term plasticity (LTP), short-term plasticity (STP), and spike-timing-dependent plasticity. The transformation from STP to LTP induced by repetitive pulse stimulation is confirmed in Pt/HfOx/ZnOx/TiN memristive device. Above all, simple structure of Pt/HfOx/ZnOx/TiN by ALD technique is a kind of promising memristor device for applications in artificial neural network.

  19. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. M., E-mail: mrkongara@boisestate.edu; Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Padture, Nitin P. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  20. Single crystal EPR determination of the quantum energy level structure for Fe8 molecular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagnano, S.; Hill, S.; Negusse, E.; Lussier, A.; Mola, M. M.; Achey, R.; Dalal, N. S.

    2001-05-01

    Using a high sensitivity resonance cavity technique,^1 we are able to obtain high field/frequency (up to 9 tesla/210 GHz) EPR spectra for oriented single crystals of [Fe_8O_2(OH)_12(tacn)_6]Br_8.9H_2O (or Fe8 for short). Extrapolating the frequency dependence of transitions to zero-field (for any orientation of the field) allows us to directly, and accurately (to within 0.5 percent), determine the first five zero-field splittings, which are in reasonable agreement with recent inelastic neutron studies.^2 The dependence of these splittings on the applied field strength, and its orientation with respect to the crystal, enables us to identify (to within 1^o) the easy, intermediate and hard magnetic axes. Subsequent analysis of EPR spectra for field parallel to the easy axis yields a value of for gz which is appreciably different from the value assumed in a recent high field EPR study by Barra et al.^3 ^1 M.M. Mola, S. Hill, P. Goy, and M. Gross, Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 186 (2000). ^2 R. Caciuffo, G. Amoretti, R. Sessoli, A. Caneschi, and D. Gatteschi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4744 (1998). ^3 A. L. Barra, D. Gatteschi, and R. Sessoli, cond?mat/0002386 (Feb, 2000).

  1. Magnetism and superconductivity in CeFe2-xTxAs2 (T = Co and Ni) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamizhavel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of pure and transition metal doped CaFe 2- x T x As 2 (T = Co and Ni) have been grown by flux method using molten Sn as solvent. The magnetic and superconducting properties of the grown crystals were studied by measuring the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and neutron diffraction measurements. A spin density wave (SDW)/structural transition is observed at 170 K for the pure CaFe 2 As 2 single crystal and it gets suppressed with T (Co and Ni) doping. For an optimum dopant concentration of x = 0.06, the sample becomes superconducting. From the detailed studies on CaFe 2- x Ni x As 2 single crystals we have constructed a magnetic phase diagram. (author)

  2. Analytical calculation of spin tunneling effect in single molecule magnet Fe8 with considering quadrupole excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yousefi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spin tunneling effect in Single Molecule Magnet Fe8 is studied by instanton calculation technique using SU(3 generalized spin coherent state in real parameter as a trial function. For this SMM, tunnel splitting arises due to the presence of a Berry like phase in action, which causes interference between tunneling trajectories (instantons. For this SMM, it is established that the use of quadrupole excitation (g dependence changes not only the location of the quenching points, but also the number of these points. Also, these quenching points are the steps in hysteresis loops of this SMM. If dipole and quadrupole excitations in classical energy considered, the number of these steps equals to the number that obtained from experimental data.

  3. Flux distribution in single phase, Si-Fe, wound transformer cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizos, George; Kefalas, Themistoklis; Kladas, Antonios; Souflaris, Thanassis; Paparigas, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows experimental results of longitudinal flux density and its harmonics at the limb, the yoke and the corner as well as normal flux in the step lap joint of a single phase, Si-Fe, wound transformer core. Results show that the flux density as well as the harmonics content is higher in the inner (window) side of the core and reduces gradually towards the outer side. Variations of flux density distribution between the limb and the corner or the yoke of the core were observed. A full record of normal flux around the step lap region of the model core was also obtained. Longitudinal and normal flux findings will enable the development of more accurate numerical models that describe the magnetic behavior of magnetic cores

  4. Dependency of tunneling magnetoresistance ratio on Pt seed-layer thickness for double MgO perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction spin-valves with a top Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex-situ annealed at 400 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2016-12-02

    For the double MgO based perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (p-MTJ) spin-valves with a top Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, the tunneling-magnetoresistance ratio (TMR) strongly depended on the platinum (Pt) seed layer thickness (t Pt ): it peaked (∼134%) at a specific t Pt (3.3 nm). The TMR ratio was initially and slightly increased from 113%-134% by the enhancement of the magnetic moment of the Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 pinned layer when t Pt increased from 2.0-3.3 nm, and then rapidly decreased from 134%-38.6% by the degrading face-centered-cubic crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier when t Pt increased from 3.3-14.3 nm.

  5. Single-crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets for high-rate Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Peng, Lele; Liu, Borui; Yu, Guihua

    2014-05-14

    The lithiation/delithiation in LiFePO4 is highly anisotropic with lithium-ion diffusion being mainly confined to channels along the b-axis. Controlling the orientation of LiFePO4 crystals therefore plays an important role for efficient mass transport within this material. We report here the preparation of single crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets with a large percentage of highly oriented {010} facets, which provide the highest pore density for lithium-ion insertion/extraction. The LiFePO4 nanosheets show a high specific capacity at low charge/discharge rates and retain significant capacities at high C-rates, which may benefit the development of lithium batteries with both favorable energy and power density.

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition in [Fe (HB(tz)3) 2] single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Rat, Sylvain; Shepherd, Helena J.; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2017-10-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition have been thoroughly investigated in single crystals of the mononuclear spin-crossover (SCO) complex [Fe (HB (tz )3)2] (tz = 1 ,2 ,4-triazol-1-yl) by optical microscopy. This compound exhibits an abrupt spin transition centered at 334 K with a narrow thermal hysteresis loop of ˜1 K (first-order transition). Most single crystals of this compound reveal exceptional resilience upon repeated switching (several hundred cycles), which allowed repeatable and quantitative measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the nucleation and growth processes to be carried out. These experiments revealed remarkable properties of the thermally induced spin transition: high stability of the thermal hysteresis loop, unprecedented large velocities of the macroscopic low-spin/high-spin phase boundaries up to 500 µm/s, and no visible dependency on the temperature scan rate. We have also studied the dynamics of the low-spin → high-spin transition induced by a local photothermal excitation generated by a spatially localized (Ø = 2 μ m ) continuous laser beam. Interesting phenomena have been evidenced both in quasistatic and dynamic conditions (e.g., threshold effects and long incubation periods, thermal activation of the phase boundary propagation, stabilization of the crystal in a stationary biphasic state, and thermal cutoff frequency). These measurements demonstrated the importance of thermal effects in the transition dynamics, and they enabled an accurate determination of the thermal properties of the SCO compound in the framework of a simple theoretical model.

  7. Transition to collapsed tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 single crystals as seen by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ma, Xiaoming; Tomić, Milan; Ran, Sheng; Valentí, Roser; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependent measurements of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra on CaFe2As2 single crystals in the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases are reported. Clear features in the temperature dependencies of the isomer shift, relative spectra area, and quadrupole splitting are observed at the transition from the tetragonal to the collapsed tetragonal phase. From the temperature dependent isomer shift and spectral area data, an average stiffening of the phonon modes in the collapsed tetragonal phase is inferred. The quadrupole splitting increases by ˜25 % on cooling from room temperature to ˜100 K in the tetragonal phase and is only weakly temperature dependent at low temperatures in the collapsed tetragonal phase, in agreement with the anisotropic thermal expansion in this material. In order to gain microscopic insight about these measurements, we perform ab initio density functional theory calculations of the electric field gradient and the electron density of CaFe2As2 in both phases. By comparing the experimental data with the calculations we are able to fully characterize the crystal structure of the samples in the collapsed-tetragonal phase through determination of the As z coordinate. Based on the obtained temperature dependent structural data we are able to propose charge saturation of the Fe-As bond region as the mechanism behind the stabilization of the collapsed-tetragonal phase at ambient pressure.

  8. Dielectric properties of layered FeGaInS{sub 4} single crystals in an alternating electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammadov, F. M. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Nagiyev Institute of Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry (Azerbaijan); Niftiyev, N. N., E-mail: namiq7@bk.ru [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan)

    2016-09-15

    The results of investigations of the frequency and temperature dependences of dielectric losses and the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity in FeGaInS{sub 4} single crystals are presented. Their experimental values are determined. It is established that the loss tangent and the imaginary part of the permittivity of FeGaInS{sub 4} single crystals in a field with frequencies of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 6} Hz decrease inversely proportional to the frequency (tanδ ~ 1/ω), and the conductivity is characterized by the band–hopping mechanism. For FeGaInS{sub 4}, the relaxation time is calculated, and it is established that there is a mechanism of electron polarization caused by thermal motion in this crystal.

  9. From Single Atoms to Nanoparticles: Autocatalysis and Metal Aggregation in Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt on TiO2 Nanopowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Fabio; Van Bui, Hao; La Zara, Damiano; Aarnink, Antonius A I; Kovalgin, Alexey Y; Kooyman, Patricia; Kreutzer, Michiel T; van Ommen, Jan Rudolf

    2018-05-10

    A fundamental understanding of the interplay between ligand-removal kinetics and metal aggregation during the formation of platinum nanoparticles (NPs) in atomic layer deposition of Pt on TiO 2 nanopowder using trimethyl(methylcyclo-pentadienyl)platinum(IV) as the precursor and O 2 as the coreactant is presented. The growth follows a pathway from single atoms to NPs as a function of the oxygen exposure (P O2 × time). The growth kinetics is modeled by accounting for the autocatalytic combustion of the precursor ligands via a variant of the Finke-Watzky two-step model. Even at relatively high oxygen exposures ( 120 mbar s. The deposition of more Pt leads to the formation of NPs that can be as large as 6 nm. Crucially, high P O2 (≥5 mbar) hinders metal aggregation, thus leading to narrow particle size distributions. The results show that ALD of Pt NPs is reproducible across small and large surface areas if the precursor ligands are removed at high P O2 . © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 195mPt-cisplatin in normal volunteers. Imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathekge, M; Wagener, J; Smith, S V; Soni, N; Marjanovic-Painter, B; Zinn, C; Van de Wiele, C; D'Asseler, Y; Perkins, G; Zeevaart, J R

    2013-12-13

    195mPt-cisplatin is regarded as a promising imaging agent for optimizing dosage in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. We investigated the whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of 195mPt-cisplatin in humans. Whole-body scans were obtained up to 144 h after intravenous injection of 112.4 MBq 195mPt-cisplatin in each of five subjects. Blood samples were taken at various times up to 144 h after injection. Urine was collected up to 114 h after injection for calculation of renal clearance and whole-body clearance. Time/activity curves were generated by fitting the organ-specific geometric mean counts, obtained from regions of interest, on the respective images as a function of the time after injection. OLINDA software package was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation dose for various organs. Most of the activity (32 ± 4%) was excreted in the urine during the first 5 h. The effective clearance half-life derived from extrapolation of the whole-body curve was 40 hours (1.7 days). On average, the highest dose was received by the kidneys (mean dose received 2.68 ± 1.5 mGy/MBq), followed by the spleen (mean dose received 1.6 ± 0.8 mGy/MBq) followed by the liver (mean dose received 1.45 ± 0.38 mGy/MBq). The estimated mean effective dose for the adult subject was 0.185 ± 0.034 mSv/MBq. 195mPt-cisplatin proved a safe radiopharmaceutical with a favourable biodistribution for early and delayed imaging of pathology above the diaphragm. The ED obtained was 0.185 ± 0.034 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose was received by the kidneys (2.68 ± 1.5 mGy/MBq).

  11. Temperature dependence of the short-range order parameter and the concentration dependence of the order disorder temperature for Ni-Pt and Ni-Fe systems in the improved statistical pseudopotential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.

    1980-08-01

    The calculations for the temperature dependence of the first shell short-range order (SRO) parameter for Ni 3 Fe using the cubic approximation of Tahir Kheli, and the concentration dependence of order-disorder temperature Tsub(c) for Ni-Fe and Ni-Pt systems using the linear approximation, have been carried out in the framework of pseudopotential theory. It is shown that the cubic approximation yields a good agreement between the theoretical prediction of the α 1 and the experimental data. Results for the concentration dependence of the Tsub(c) show that improvements in the statistical pseudo-potential approach are essential to achieve a good agreement with experiment. (author)

  12. Superconducting, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of FeTe1-xSex single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Sudesh, Varma, G. D.

    2018-05-01

    The single crystalline samples with compositions FeTe1-xSex (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) have been prepared via self-flux method and the superconducting, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of the grown crystals were investigated. The superconducting onset temperatures have been determined from the measurements of zero field cooled magnetization and resistance with temperatures. In the present case, highest superconducting transition temperature TC (onset) ˜ 15 K has been obtained for x=0.5. The HC2 (T=0 K) values have been estimated by fitting the experimental HC2 - T plots with WHH model. The highest HC2(0) has been obtained for x=0.5. The activation energy of the thermally activated flux flow has been found from the broadening of superconducting transition in an applied magnetic field using the Arrhenius law. Our results show that the activation energy (U0) decreases with the increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, the magnetization measurements for x=0.4 and 0.5 samples have been performed at T=5 K in the magnetic field range ±7 T to estimate critical current density at different applied magnetic fields using Bean formula. We see that the sample x=0.5 has higher values of JC as compared to that of x=0.4 at all magnetic fields. This is in conformity with the behavior of U0-H plots.

  13. The influence of Si on the superconducting properties of LiFeAs single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyk, L; Bischoff, M; Niewa, R

    2012-01-01

    The results of Si doping on the superconducting transition temperature, critical current density, irreversibility field, upper critical field, coherence length and magnetic relaxation of LiFeAs single crystals are reported for H ∥ c. The superconducting transition temperature of the Si doped sample decreases by about of 6.4 K/at.%, which is likely due to the pair breaking effect. The presence of a secondary high-field fishtail maximum, which shifts progressively with temperature, is associated with the extrinsic pinning centers created by Si. The increase of the critical current densities in intermediate magnetic fields of about three times as compared to our undoped material indicates that very small amounts of Si act as effective pinning sites for the flux pinning enhancement in the material. Pinning force curves measured at different temperatures obey a normalized form of Kramer’s law, which indicates that the critical current density is limited by one predominant flux pinning mechanism. Analysis of the temperature and field dependences of the magnetic relaxation is consistent with the collective pinning model. The magnetic relaxation measurements combined with the peak position of the critical current density in the B–T phase diagram suggest an elastic–plastic transition of the vortex lattice at higher temperatures and fields. (paper)

  14. Optical properties of the iron-based superconductor LiFeAs single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byeong Hun; Kwon, Yong Seung; Hong, Jong Beom; Yun, Jae Hyun; Bang, Yunkyu; Iizuka, Takuya; Kimura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the reflectivity spectra of the LiFeAs (T c = 17.6 K) single crystal in the temperature range from 4 to 300 K. In the superconducting (SC) state (T c ), the clean opening of the optical absorption gap was observed below 25 cm −1 , indicating an isotropic full gap formation. In the normal state (T > T c ), the optical conductivity spectra display typical metallic behavior with the Drude-type spectra at low frequencies, but we found that the introduction of the two Drude components best fits the data, indicating the multiband nature of this compound. A theoretical analysis of the low-temperature data (T = 4 K c ) also suggests that two SC gaps best fit the data and their values were estimated as Δ 1 = 3.3 meV and Δ 2 = 1.59 meV, respectively. Using the Ferrell–Glover–Tinkham sum rule and dielectric function ϵ 1 (ω), the plasma frequency of the SC condensate (ω ps ) is consistently estimated to be 6665 cm −1 , implying that about 65% of the free carriers of the normal state condense into the SC condensate. To investigate the various interband transition processes (for ω > 200 cm −1 ), we have also performed the local-density approximation band calculation and calculated the optical spectra of the interband transitions. This theoretical result provided qualitative agreement with the experimental data below 4000 cm −1 . (paper)

  15. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,La)FeAs{sub 2} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglieris, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Lamura, G.; Putti, M. [CNR-SPIN and Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Sala, A. [CNR-SPIN and Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Fujioka, M. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Hummel, F.; Johrendt, D. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Department Chemie, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 München (Germany); Takano, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ishida, S.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ogino, H.; Yakita, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}FeAs{sub 2} single crystal with T{sub c} = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density J{sub c} for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as J{sub c}(B = 0) ∼ 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}. This demonstrates not only bulk superconductivity but also the potential of 112 superconductors towards applications. Interestingly, this superconducting compound undergoes a structural transition below 100 K which is evidenced by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction measurements. Data analysis of Hall resistance and magnetoresistivity indicate that magnetotransport properties are largely dominated by an electron band, with a change of regime observed in correspondence of the onset of a structural transition. In the low temperature regime, the contribution of a hole band to transport is suggested, possibly playing a role in determining the superconducting state.

  16. Magnetization, shape memory and hysteresis behavior of single and polycrystalline FeNiCoTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Efstathiou, C.; Maier, H.J.; Chumlyakov, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the shape memory characteristics and magnetic behavior of polycrystalline and single crystalline FeNiCoTi. Predeforming the samples in the martensitic state and biasing of the martensite variants produced anisotropy in the magnetization behavior allowing the 'easy axis' to be identified as the 'a-axis' in the martensitic state. Based on these results, we provide an estimate of the magnetic anisotropy energy as 8.34x10 5 ergs/cm 3 . The results confirm the different magnetization behavior in the martensitic and austenitic states, and the shift in transformation temperatures upon application of a magnetic field. Shape memory strains near 2.5% are demonstrated under constant stress temperature cycling and upon heating at zero stress after deformation. We present a thermodynamics based theory that explains the origin of the hysteresis in this class of alloys emanating from the dissipation of energy due to plastic deformation. We predict the thermal hysteresis (135 K), and the shift in transformation temperature (14 K) with applied magnetic fields in agreement with the experimental results. The possibility of utilizing these classes of alloys as magnetic shape memory alloys is discussed

  17. Superconductivity in Sm-doped CaFe2As2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Yun, Chen; Bin-Bin, Ruan; Jia, Yu; Qi, Guo; Xiao-Chuan, Wang; Qing-Ge, Mu; Bo-Jin, Pan; Tong, Liu; Gen-Fu, Chen; Zhi-An, Ren

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the Sm-doping single crystals Ca1 - x Sm x Fe2As2 (x = 0 ˜ 0.2) were prepared by the CaAs flux method, and followed by a rapid quenching treatment after the high temperature growth. The samples were characterized by structural, resistive, and magnetic measurements. The successful Sm-substitution was revealed by the reduction of the lattice parameter c, due to the smaller ionic radius of Sm3+ than Ca2+. Superconductivity was observed in all samples with onset T c varying from 27 K to 44 K upon Sm-doping. The coexistence of a collapsed phase transition and the superconducting transition was found for the lower Sm-doping samples. Zero resistivity and substantial superconducting volume fraction only happen in higher Sm-doping crystals with the nominal x > 0.10. The doping dependences of the c-axis length and onset T c were summarized. The high-T c observed in these quenched crystals may be attributed to simultaneous tuning of electron carriers doping and strain effect caused by lattice reduction of Sm-substitution. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474339), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2010CB923000 and 2011CBA00100), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100).

  18. Rich magnetoelectric phase diagrams of multiferroic single-crystal α -NaFeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Noriki; Ikedo, Yuta; Sato, Hirohiko; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Manuel, Pascal; Miyake, Atsushi; Matsuo, Akira; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kindo, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic and dielectric properties of the multiferroic triangular lattice magnet compound α -NaFeO2 were studied by magnetization, specific heat, dielectric permittivity, and pyroelectric current measurements and by neutron diffraction experiments using single crystals grown by a hydrothermal synthesis method. This work produced magnetic field (in the monoclinic a b -plane, Ba b, and along the c*-axis, Bc) versus temperature magnetic phase diagrams, including five and six magnetically ordered phases in Ba b and along Bc, respectively. In zero magnetic field, two spin-density-wave orderings with different k vectors—(0 ,q ,1/2 ) in phase I and (qa,qb,qc ) in phase II—appeared at T =9.5 and 8.25 K, respectively. Below T =5 K, a commensurate order with k =(0.5 ,0 ,0.5 ) was stabilized as the ground state in phase III. Both Ba b≥3 T and Bc≥5 T were found to induce ferroelectric phases at the lowest temperature (2 K), with an electric polarization that was not confined to any highly symmetric directions in phases IVa b (3.3 ≤Ba b≤8.5 T), Va b (8.5 ≤Ba b≤13.6 T), IVc (5.0 ≤Bc≤8.5 T), and Vc (8.5 ≤Bc≤13.5 T). In phase VIc, within a narrow temperature region in Bc, the polarization was confined to the a b plane. For each of the ferroelectric phases, the k vector was (qa,qb,qc ), and noncollinear structures were identified, including a general spiral in IVa b an a b cycloid in IVc and Vc, and a proper screw in VIc, along with a triclinic 11' magnetic point group allowing polarization in the general direction. Comparing the polarization direction to the magnetic structures in the ferroelectric phases, we conclude that the extended inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya mechanism expressed by the orthogonal components p1∝ri j×(Si×Sj) and p2∝Si×Sj can explain the polarization directions. Based on calculations incorporating exchange interactions up to fourth-nearest-neighbor (NN) couplings, we infer that competition among antiferromagnetic second NN

  19. Synthesis of single-crystalline hollow β-FeOOH nanorods via a controlled incomplete-reaction course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiyun; Song Xinyu; Yin Zhilei; Fan Weiliu; Tan Xuejie; Fan Chunhua; Sun Sixiu

    2007-01-01

    The single-crystalline β-FeOOH hollow nanorods with a diameter ranging from 20∼30 nm and length in the range of 70-110 nm have been successfully synthesized through a two-step route in the solution. The phase transformation and the morphologies of the hollow β-FeOOH nanorods were investigated with X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electric diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These studies indicate that the first step is an incomplete-reaction course. Furthermore, The formation mechanism of the hollow nanorods has been discussed. It is found that the mixed system including chitosan and n-propanol is essential for the final formation of the hollow β-FeOOH nanorods

  20. First order magnetic transition in single crystal CaFe2As2 detected by 75As NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Ho [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Curro, Nicholas J [UC - DAVIS

    2008-01-01

    We report {sup 75}As Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data in a single crystal of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The Knight shift, the electric field gradient, and the spin lattice relaxation rate are strongly temperature dependent in the paramagnetic state, and change discontinuously at the structural transition temperature, T{sub S} = T{sub N} = 167 K. Immediately below, the NMR spectra reveal an internal field at the As site associated with the presence of a commensurate magnetic order. These results indicate that the structural and magnetic transitions in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are first order and strongly coupled, and that the electron density in the FeAs plane is highly sensitive to the out-of-plane structure.

  1. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, Adam J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C. S.; Soares, Thereza A.; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-06-07

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a modeled water molecule. Recently, a computational analysis of this pathway revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) could form hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implicating that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. Substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in a 2.5-fold enhancement in H2 production activity, suggesting that Arg286 serves an important role in controlling the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate approximately 5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to enable proton transfer. Interestingly, QM/MM and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play an electronic or structural role. QM calculations also estimate that including Ser320 in the pathway does not significantly change the barrier to proton movement, providing further support for its role as a member of the proton pathway. While further studies are needed to quantify the role of Ser320, collectively, these data provide evidence that the enzyme scaffold plays a significant role in modulating the activity of the enzyme, demonstrating that the rate of intraprotein proton transfer can be accelerated, particularly in a non-biological context. This work was supported by the DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (DOE BER Office of Science, DE-FC02-07ER64494). In addition, support from the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (WJS, BGP, SR) is gratefully acknowledged. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of

  2. PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Xu, Xiaochen; Gottlieb, Emanuel J; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Ameri, Hossein; Humayun, Mark S; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-03-01

    High-frequency needle ultrasound transducers with an aperture size of 0.4 mm were fabricated using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-33% PT) as the active piezoelectric material. The active element was bonded to a conductive silver particle matching layer and a conductive epoxy backing through direct contact curing. An outer matching layer of parylene was formed by vapor deposition. The active element was housed within a polyimide tube and a 20-gauge needle housing. The magnitude and phase of the electrical impedance of the transducer were 47 omega and -38 degrees, respectively. The measured center frequency and -6 dB fractional bandwidth of the PMN-PT needle transducer were 44 MHz and 45%, respectively. The two-way insertion loss was approximately 15 dB. In vivo high-frequency, pulsed-wave Doppler patterns of blood flow in the posterior portion and in vitro ultrasonic backscatter microscope (UBM) images of the rabbit eye were obtained with the 44-MHz needle transducer.

  3. Structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles deposited onto single-crystalline surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kleibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic nanostructures and nanoparticles often show novel magnetic phenomena not known from the respective bulk materials. In the past, several methods to prepare such structures have been developed – ranging from wet chemistry-based to physical-based methods such as self-organization or cluster growth. The preparation method has a significant influence on the resulting properties of the generated nanostructures. Taking chemical approaches, this influence may arise from the chemical environment, reaction kinetics and the preparation route. Taking physical approaches, the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the growth mode or – when depositing preformed clusters/nanoparticles on a surface – the landing kinetics and subsequent relaxation processes have a strong impact and thus need to be considered when attempting to control magnetic and structural properties of supported clusters or nanoparticles.Results: In this contribution we focus on mass-filtered Fe nanoparticles in a size range from 4 nm to 10 nm that are generated in a cluster source and subsequently deposited onto two single crystalline substrates: fcc Ni(111/W(110 and bcc W(110. We use a combined approach of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM to shed light on the complex and size-dependent relation between magnetic properties, crystallographic structure, orientation and morphology. In particular XMCD reveals that Fe particles on Ni(111/W(110 have a significantly lower (higher magnetic spin (orbital moment compared to bulk iron. The reduced spin moments are attributed to the random particle orientation being confirmed by RHEED together with a competition of magnetic exchange energy at the interface and magnetic anisotropy energy in the particles. The RHEED data also show that the Fe particles on W(110 – despite of the large lattice mismatch between iron and tungsten – are

  4. Pressure-dependence of the zero-field splittings for the Fe8 single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S.; Thompson, E.; Hill, S.; Tozer, S. W.; Harter, A. G.; Dalal, N. S.

    2006-03-01

    We present a study of the pressure-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum for the Fe8 single-molecule magnet (SMM). The biaxial [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O (Fe8) SMM has recently been studied extensively because its low-temperature magnetization dynamics are dominated by quantum tunneling of its spin S = 10 magnetic moment through a sizeable anisotropy barrier. To date, chemical methods have usually been employed in order to control the magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) behavior of a SMM, e.g. by varying the magnetic ions in the molecular core, or the ligand/solvent environment. The advantage of this approach is that many different SMMs can be realized in this way, with widely varying MQT behavior. However, controllable variation of MQT is difficult. As an alternative approach for manipulation of the MQT, we have recently studied the effect of physical pressure on the Fe8 SMM. In this presentation, we show the pressure dependence of the zero-field splittings of Fe8, as studied by an angle and pressure-dependent high-frequency EPR technique.

  5. Giant Electric Field Control of Magnetism and Narrow Ferromagnetic Resonance Linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN PT Multiferroic Heterostructures (Open Access Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    the widely used lead zirconate titanate ceramics which have a typical piezoelectric coefficient d31 of ~- 200pC/N, PMN-PT single crystals used in...substrate clamping effect, therefore, a relatively giant tunability can be obtained. However, the normally large roughness of piezoelectric layer...is the saturation magnetostriction constant, Y the Young’s modulus of the magnetic film, deff the effective piezoelectric coefficient, E

  6. Recognizing Single Collisions of PtCl6(2-) at Femtomolar Concentrations on Ultramicroelectrodes by Nucleating Electrocatalytic Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J

    2015-11-04

    We report the electrodeposition of electrocatalytic clusters of platinum from femtomolar platinate solutions. An inert carbon fiber ultramicroelectrode (UME) was held at a potential where proton reduction was unfavorable on carbon but favorable on platinum in a 1 M sulfuric acid solution. Upon addition of femtomolar amounts of hexachloroplatinic acid, which will also reduce to Pt(0) at the applied potential on the carbon fiber UME, cathodic blips were observed in the amperometric i-t response. These blips correspond to the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen at the small platinum clusters followed by a rapid deactivation likely due to hydrogen bubble formation. On average, these current spikes occur when five platinum atoms have been formed on the electrode, as determined by a comparative analysis of experimental cathodic blips and calculated hexachloroplatinate molecule collision frequencies.

  7. DFT + U investigation on the adsorption and initial decomposition of methylamine by a Pt single-atom catalyst supported on rutile (110) TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Cun-Qin [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Jian-Hong, E-mail: ljh173@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Guo, Yong; Li, Xue-Mei [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Wang, Gui-Chang, E-mail: wangguichang@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Lab. of Metal and Molecule-Based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • DFT + U is used to investigate the initial decomposition of methylamine. • The adsorption characteristics of possible intermediates involved in methylamine initial decomposition are discussed. • The energy barriers of the possible elementary reactions involved are obtained. • C−H bond scission is the most favored among the C−H, N−H and C−N bond breakings in methylamine. - Abstract: The adsorption and initial decomposition for methylamine catalyzed by a single Pt atom supported on rutile (110) titania (namely, Pt{sub 1}/TiO{sub 2}–R(110)) surface have been investigated by the density functional theory slab calculations with Hubbard corrections (DFT + U). The main purpose of the work is to better understand the role of dispersed platinum metal on the surface of rutile (110) titania in the initial decomposition of methylamine. Our calculated results show that the barriers increased with the order of C−H < N−H < C−N, which indicates that the C−H bond is the easiest to decompose and the C−N bond is the most difficult to break.

  8. Detailed single-crystal EPR line shape measurements for the single-molecule magnets Fe8Br and Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S.; Maccagnano, S.; Park, Kyungwha; Achey, R. M.; North, J. M.; Dalal, N. S.

    2002-06-01

    It is shown that our multi-high-frequency (40-200 GHz) resonant cavity technique yields distortion-free high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra for single-crystal samples of the uniaxial and biaxial spin S=10 single-molecule magnets (SMM's) [Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4].2CH3COOH.4H2O and [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O. The observed line shapes exhibit a pronounced dependence on temperature, magnetic field, and the spin quantum numbers (MS values) associated with the levels involved in the transitions. Measurements at many frequencies allow us to separate various contributions to the EPR linewidths, including significant D strain, g strain, and broadening due to the random dipolar fields of neighboring molecules. We also identify asymmetry in some of the EPR line shapes for Fe8 and a previously unobserved fine structure to some of the EPR lines for both the Fe8 and Mn12 systems. These findings prove relevant to the mechanism of quantum tunneling of magnetization in these SMM's.

  9. Transverse anisotropic magnetoresistance effects in pseudo-single-crystal γ′-Fe4N thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Kabara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transverse anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR effects, for which magnetization is rotated in an orthogonal plane to the current direction, were investigated at various temperatures, in order to clarify the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry in a pseudo-single-crystal Fe4N film, which is predicted from the usual in-plane AMR measurements by the theory taking into account the spin-orbit interaction and crystal field splitting of 3d bands. According to a phenomenological theory of AMR, which derives only from the crystal symmetry, a cos 2θ component ( C 2 tr exists in transverse AMR curves for a tetragonal system but does not for a cubic system. In the Fe4N film, the C 2 tr shows a positive small value (0.12% from 300 K to 50 K. However, the C 2 t r increases to negative value below 50 K and reaches to -2% at 5 K. The drastic increasing of the C 2 tr demonstrates the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry below 50 K in the Fe4N film. In addition, the out-of-plane and in-plane lattice constants (c and a were precisely determined with X-ray diffraction at room temperature using the Nelson-Riely function. As a result, the positive small C 2 t r above 50 K is attributed to a slightly distorted Fe4N lattice (c/a = 1.002.

  10. Steam reforming of methane over Pt/Rh based wire mesh catalyst in single channel reformer for small scale syngas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    of a catalytic parallel plate type heat exchanger (CPHE) reformer stack, where coated Pt/Rh based wire mesh is used as a catalyst. Heat is supplied to the endothermic reaction with infrared electric heaters. All the experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure and at stable operating conditions......The purpose of this study is to investigate a small scale steam methane reformer for syngas production for a micro combined heat and power (mCPH) unit under different operational conditions. The study presents an experimental analysis of the performance of a specially built single channel...... to evaluate the effect of flow maldistribution in a CPHE reformer stack on the CH4 conversion and H2 yield....

  11. Measurement of the nucleation and domain depinning field in a single Co/Pt multilayer dot by Anomalous Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delalande, M.; Vries, J. de; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Co/Pt multilayer dots with perpendicular anisotropy and with diameters of 250 and 350 nm were fabricated on top of a Hall cross configuration. The angular dependence of the magnetic reversal of the individual dot was investigated by Anomalous Hall effect measurements. At near in-plane angles (85° with the magnetic easy axis) the dot switches partially into a stable two-domain state. This allows for separate analysis of the angular dependence of both the field required for nucleation of a reversed domain, and the field required for depinning of the domain wall. The angular dependence of the depinning field fits accurately to a 1/cos(θ) behavior, whereas the angular dependence of the nucleation field shows a minimum close to 45°. The latter dependency can be accurately fitted to the modified Kondorsky model proposed by Schumacher . - Highlights: ► Reversal takes place by nucleation and subsequent propagation of a domain wall. ► The domain wall can be trapped in the dot at near in-plane field angles. ► Angular dependence of depinning is accurately predicted by the Kondorsky model. ► Angular dependence of nucleation can be fitted to a modified Kondorksy model.

  12. Enhancement of the oxygen reduction on nitride stabilized pt-M (M=Fe, Co, and Ni) core–shell nanoparticle electrocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Choi, YongMan; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Park, Gu-Gon; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Su, Dong; Sasaki, Kotaro; Liu, Ping; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-01-01

    Given the harsh operating conditions in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells, the stability of catalysts is one of the critical questions affecting their commercialization. We describe a distinct class of oxygen reduction (ORR) core–shell electrocatalysts comprised of nitride metal cores enclosed by thin Pt shells that is easily synthesized. The synthesis is reproducible and amenable to scale up. Our theoretical analysis and the experimental data indicate that metal nitride nanoparticle cores could significantly enhance the ORR activity as well as the durability of the core–shell catalysts as a consequence of combined geometrical, electronic and segregation effects on the Pt shells. In addition to its fuel cells application, this class of catalysts holds promise to significantly contribute in resolving the problem of platinum scarcity and furthermore indicates the guidelines for future research and development.

  13. Enhancement of the oxygen reduction on nitride stabilized pt-M (M=Fe, Co, and Ni) core–shell nanoparticle electrocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.

    2015-04-01

    Given the harsh operating conditions in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells, the stability of catalysts is one of the critical questions affecting their commercialization. We describe a distinct class of oxygen reduction (ORR) core–shell electrocatalysts comprised of nitride metal cores enclosed by thin Pt shells that is easily synthesized. The synthesis is reproducible and amenable to scale up. Our theoretical analysis and the experimental data indicate that metal nitride nanoparticle cores could significantly enhance the ORR activity as well as the durability of the core–shell catalysts as a consequence of combined geometrical, electronic and segregation effects on the Pt shells. In addition to its fuel cells application, this class of catalysts holds promise to significantly contribute in resolving the problem of platinum scarcity and furthermore indicates the guidelines for future research and development.

  14. Electronic structure and lattice dynamics at the interface of single layer FeSe and SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Balatsky, Alexander; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    Recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with the superconducting energy gap opening at temperatures close to or above the liquid nitrogen boiling point in the single-layer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 has attracted significant interest. It suggests that the interface effects can be utilized to enhance the superconductivity. It has been shown recently that the coupling between the electrons in FeSe and vibrational modes at the interface play an important role. Here we report on a detailed study of electronic structure and lattice dynamics in the single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 interface by using the state-of-art electronic structure method within the density functional theory. The nature of the vibrational modes at the interface and their coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom are analyzed. In addition, the effect of hole and electron doping in SrTiO3 on the electron-mode coupling strength is also considered. This work was carried out under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396, and was supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  15. [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)4]-: a new building block for designing single-chain magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Luminita Marilena; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2012-11-28

    We herein present the synthesis and magneto-structural study of a new family of heterobimetallic chains of general formula {[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(2)}(n)·pnH(2)O [dmbpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; M = Mn (2), Cu (3), Ni (4) and Co (5) with p = 4 (2), 3 (3), 9 (4) and 3.5 (5)] which were prepared by using the mononuclear PPh(4)[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)]·3H(2)O (1) building block (PPh(4)(+) = tetraphenylphosphonium) as a ligand toward fully solvated M(II) ions. The structure of 1 consists of discrete [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](-) anions, tetraphenylphosphonium cations and noncoordinated water molecules. Complexes 2-5 are isostructural compounds whose structure consists of neutral 4,2-wave like heterobimetallic chains of formula {[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(2)}(n) where the [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](-) entity adopts a bis-monodentate coordination mode toward trans-[M(II)(H(2)O)(2)] units through two of its four cyanide groups in cis positions. 1 exhibits the magnetic behaviour of magnetically isolated six-coordinate low-spin Fe(III) complexes with an important orbital contribution. 2 behaves as ferrimagnetic Fe(III)(2)Mn(II) chains, whereas 3-5 exhibit intrachain ferromagnetic couplings between the low-spin Fe(III) and either Cu(II) (3), Ni (4) or Co(II) (5) as well as frequency-dependence of the out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals below 3.0 (3), 5.5 (4) and 5.0 K (5). The relaxation time and the energy to reverse the magnetization of 3-5 are related to the anisotropy of the M(II) center and to the intra- and interchain magnetic interactions. Unprecedentedly in the world of cyanide-bearing complexes, 5 exhibits a double slow relaxation of the magnetization.

  16. A high sensitive biosensor based on FePt/CNTs nanocomposite/N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide modified carbon paste electrode for simultaneous determination of glutathione and piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Tahernejad-Javazmi, Fahimeh; Ensafi, Ali A; Moradi, Reza; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Beitollahi, Hadi

    2014-10-15

    This study describes the development, electrochemical characterization and utilization of novel modified N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide-FePt/CNTs carbon paste electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of glutathione (GSH) in the presence of piroxicam (PXM) for the first time. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized with different methods such as TEM and XRD. The modified electrode exhibited a potent and persistent electron mediating behavior followed by well-separated oxidation peaks of GSH and PXM. The peak currents were linearly dependent on GSH and PXM concentrations in the range of 0.004-340 and 0.5-550 µmol L(-1), with detection limits of 1.0 nmol L(-1) and 0.1 µmolL(-1), respectively. The modified electrode was successfully used for the determination of the analytes in real samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impulse voltage control of continuously tunable bipolar resistive switching in Pt/Bi{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}/Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Maocai; Liu, Meifeng; Wang, Xiuzhang [Hubei Normal University, Institute for Advanced Materials, and School of Physics and Electronic Science, Huangshi (China); Li, Meiya; Zhu, Yongdan; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Shuai [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro/Nano Structures of the Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Hu, Zhongqiang [Northeastern University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston, MA (United States); Liu, Jun-Ming [Nanjing University, Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Epitaxial Bi{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} (BEFO) thin films are deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (NSTO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition to fabricate the Pt/BEFO/NSTO (001) heterostructures. These heterostructures possess bipolar resistive switching, where the resistances versus writing voltage exhibits a distinct hysteresis loop and a memristive behavior with good retention and anti-fatigue characteristics. The local resistive switching is confirmed by the conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), suggesting the possibility to scale down the memory cell size. The observed memristive behavior could be attributed to the ferroelectric polarization effect, which modulates the height of potential barrier and width of depletion region at the BEFO/NSTO interface. The continuously tunable resistive switching behavior could be useful to achieve non-volatile, high-density, multilevel random access memory with low energy consumption. (orig.)

  18. First-principle study of single TM atoms X (X=Fe, Ru or Os) doped monolayer WS2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2018-05-01

    We report the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of the pristine and single TM atoms X (X = Fe, Ru or Os) doped monolayer WS2 systems based on first-principle calculations. The results show that the W-S bond shows a stronger covalent bond, but the covalency is obviously weakened after the substitution of W atom with single X atoms, especially for Ru (4d75s1) with the easily lost electronic configuration. The smaller total energies of the doped systems reveal that the spin-polarized states are energetically favorable than the non-spin-polarized states, and the smallest total energy of -373.918 eV shows the spin-polarized state of the Os doped monolayer WS2 system is most stable among three doped systems. In addition, although the pristine monolayer WS2 system is a nonmagnetic-semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.813 eV, single TM atoms Fe and Ru doped monolayer WS2 systems transfer to magnetic-HM with the total moments Mtot of 1.993 and 1.962 μB , while single TM atom Os doped monolayer WS2 systems changes to magnetic-metal with the total moments Mtot of 1.569 μB . Moreover, the impurity states with a positive spin splitting energies of 0.543, 0.276 and 0.1999 eV near the Fermi level EF are mainly contributed by X-dxy and X-dx2-y2 states hybridized with its nearest-neighbor atom W-dz2 states for Fe, Ru and Os doped monolayer WS2 system, respectively. Finally, we hope that the present study on monolayer WS2 will provide a useful theoretical guideline for exploring low-dimensional spintronic materials in future experiments.

  19. Compact Ag@Fe3O4 Core-shell Nanoparticles by Means of Single-step Thermal Decomposition Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brollo, Maria Eugênia F.; López-Ruiz, Román; Muraca, Diego; Figueroa, Santiago J. A.; Pirota, Kleber R.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    A temperature pause introduced in a simple single-step thermal decomposition of iron, with the presence of silver seeds formed in the same reaction mixture, gives rise to novel compact heterostructures: brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles. This novel method is relatively easy to implement, and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining a multifunctional heteroparticle in which a noble metal is surrounded by magnetite. Structural analyses of the samples show 4 nm silver nanoparticles wrapped within compact cubic external structures of Fe oxide, with curious rectangular shape. The magnetic properties indicate a near superparamagnetic like behavior with a weak hysteresis at room temperature. The value of the anisotropy involved makes these particles candidates to potential applications in nanomedicine.

  20. In-plane electronic anisotropy of underdoped '122' Fe-arsenide superconductors revealed by measurements of detwinned single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I R; Shen, Z X; Degiorgi, L

    2011-01-01

    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four-fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe-arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  1. Large rotating field entropy change in ErFeO3 single crystal with angular distribution contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruoxiang; Cao, Shixun; Ren, Wei; Zhan, Sheng; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang

    2013-10-01

    We report the rotating field entropy of ErFeO3 single-crystal in a temperature range of 3-40 K. The giant magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -20.7 J/(kg K), and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 273.5 J/kg, are observed near T =6 K. The anisotropic constants at 6 K, K1 = 1.24× 103 J/kg, K2 = 0.74 × 103 J/kg, in the bc plane are obtained. By considering the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Fermi-Dirac angular distribution along the orientation of spontaneous magnetization, the experimental results can be well simulated. Our present work demonstrates that ErFeO3 crystal may find practical use for low temperature anisotropic magnetic refrigeration.

  2. In-Plane Electronic Anisotropy of Underdoped ___122___ Fe-Arsenide Superconductors Revealed by Measurements of Detwinned Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Ian Randal

    2012-05-08

    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and ARPES measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  3. Impacts of Co-doping on the superconductivity and the orbital ordering state in Fe1-xCoxSe single crystal studied by the electrical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Takahiro; Tanabe, Yoichi; Heguri, Satoshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    In the FeSe with the simplest crystal structure in the Fe-based superconductor families, although both the superconductivity and the orbital ordering states are investigated, the relation between them is still unclear. Here, we report Co doping effects on the superconductivity and the orbital ordering state in Fe1-xCoxSe single crystals. The electrical transport measurements demonstrated that the superconductivity vanishes at 4 % Co doping while the orbital ordering state may be robust against Co doping. Present results suggest that the orbital ordering state is not related to the emergence of the superconductivity in FeSe.

  4. Ir4+-Doped NiFe LDH to expedite hydrogen evolution kinetics as a Pt-like electrocatalyst for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Hou, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Xiao; Shi, Rui; Chen, Yong

    2018-06-06

    NiFe-layered double hydroxide (NiFe LDH) is a state-of-the-art oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst, yet it suffers from rather poor catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) due to its extremely sluggish water dissociation kinetics, severely restricting its application in overall water splitting. Herein, we report a novel strategy to expedite the HER kinetics of NiFe LDH by an Ir4+-doping strategy to accelerate the water dissociation process (Volmer step), and thus this catalyst exhibits superior and robust catalytic activity for finally oriented overall water splitting in 1 M KOH requiring only a low initial voltage of 1.41 V delivering at 20 mA cm-2 for more than 50 h.

  5. Growth, mechanical, and magnetic study of SmFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, P. Ramesh [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Single crystals of Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO{sub 3}) have been grown by the optical floating zone technique. The growth parameters to yield good quality crystals are 5 mm/h for pulling and 30–40 rpm for rotation. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been investigated. Rosette pattern has been observed around the indentation and the microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. For load higher than 1.96 N there is a transition from palmqvist to median crack due to plastic deformation of the crystal. The hardness parameters like fracture toughness, brittleness index, and yield strength have also been calculated for palmqvist and median cracks occurring on the crystal surface. The magnetic investigations revealed that a magnetic transition in the range of 300–180 K. Above 180 K, the magnetization decreases as Sm and Fe sublattices have opposite spins. At high temperature, two anomalies are observed, one due to near spin reorientation (T{sub SR} = 480 K) and the other is AFM to paramagnetic transitions (T{sub N} = 670 K). The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state of the SmFeO{sub 3} crystals. Bloch parameter (3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}) has also been evaluated. - Highlights: • SmFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • The microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. • At 472 K, spin reorientation occurs in Fe sublattice. • The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for SmFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}).

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single-crystalline BaFe12O19 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiangying; Tang Shaolong; Zhai Lin; Shi Yangguang; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    Rod-like and platelet-like nanoparticles of simple-crystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) have been synthesized by the molten salt method. Both particle size and morphology change with the reaction temperature and time. The easy magnetization direction (0 0 l) of the BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles has been observed directly by performing X-ray diffraction on powders aligned at 0.5 T magnetic field. The magnetic properties of the BaFe 12 O 19 magnet were investigated with various sintering temperatures. The maximum values of saturation magnetization (σ s =65.8 emu/g), remanent magnetization (σ r =56 emu/g) and coercivity field (H ic =5251 Oe) of the aligned samples occurred at the sintering temperatures of 1100 deg. C. These results indicate that BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles synthesized by the molten salt method should enable detailed investigation of the size-dependent evolution of magnetism, microwave absorption, and realization of a nanodevice of magnetic media.

  7. Single step preparation of NdFeB alloy by magnesiothermic reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Vinay Kant; Surendranathana, A.O.; John Berchmans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesiothermic reduction is a new approach to produce the NdFeB alloy on a commercial scale. Similar studies were conducted for the preparation of LaNi 5 and SmCo 5 using magnesium as the reductant. In the present investigation NdFeB Hard magnetic bulk materials were synthesized by metallothermic 'Reduction – Diffusion (R-D) Process' using Magnesium as a reductant. For this process oxide precursors of Nd, Fe and B were blended with flux (LiCl/CaCl 2 ) and Mg chips were sandwiched in alternate layers. Thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) was carried out to find the dissociation and decomposition temperature of the reactants. The phase analysis, structure, and elemental composition were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The infrared (IR) spectra were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The morphological features and particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The magnetic behaviour of the alloy was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and vibratory sample magnetometer (VSM). From these studies it has been concluded that the NdFeB magnetic particles can be prepared using magnesium as the reductant. The process is faster and consumes very less amount of energy for the completion as compared to conventional calciothermic reduction process. Traces of MgO were detected in the alloy which increases the perpendicular anisotropy, thus increasing the coercivity of the material

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy on iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe(Se, Te) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukita, R.; Sugimoto, A.; Ekino, T.

    2011-01-01

    We show scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) results of Fe(Se, Te). STM topography shows square arrangements of spots with the lattice spacing 0.37 nm. Te and Se atoms are randomly distributed in the STM topography. The STM topography of FeTe exhibits clusters of separated iron atoms. We have investigated the iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe(Se, Te) using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) technique. STM topography at 4.9 K shows clear regular square arrangements of spots with the lattice spacing ∼0.37 nm, from which what we observe are attributed to Se or Te atomic plane. In the topography, brighter and darker atomic spots are randomly distributed, which are most probably due to Te and Se atoms, respectively. For the FeTe compound, the topography exhibits clusters of the bright spots probably arising from separated iron atoms distributing over several Te lattice sites. The STS measurements clarify the existence of the large-size gap with 2Δ = 0.4-0.6 eV.

  9. Ultralong Lifespan and Ultrafast Li Storage: Single-Crystal LiFePO4 Nanomeshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Hui Juan; Feng, Yang Yang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-27

    A novel LiFePO4 material, in the shape of a nanomesh, has been rationally designed and synthesized based on the low crystal-mismatch strategy. The LiFePO4 nanomesh possesses several advantages in morphology and crystal structure, including a mesoporous structure, its crystal orientation that is along the [010] direction, and a shortened Li-ion diffusion path. These properties are favorable for their application as cathode in Li-ion batteries, as these will accelerate the Li-ion diffusion rate, improve the Li-ion exchange between the LiFePO4 nanomesh and the electrolyte, and reduce the Li-ion capacitive behavior during Li intercalation. So the LiFePO4 nanomesh exhibits a high specific capacity, enhanced rate capability, and strengthened cyclability. The method developed here can also be extended to other similar systems, for instance, LiMnPO4 , LiCoPO4 , and LiNiPO4 , and may find more applications in the designed synthesis of functional materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. One-step synthesis of single phase micro-sized BaFe12O19 hexaplates via a modified hydrothermal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liangliang; Zeng, Yanwei; Ding, Chuan; Li, Rongjie; Li, Chuanming; Zhang, Chengzhe

    2016-01-01

    Single phase BaFe 12 O 19 ferrite identified by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy has been successfully synthesized using Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 as starting materials and NaOH as a precipitant via a modified one-step hydrothermal approach which involves the elimination of carbonate radicals from reaction system based on the stoichiometric ratio of [Ba 2+ ]/[Fe 3+ ]. Hydrothermal products under various synthetic conditions were studied, including different addition amounts of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 in the modified operation, reaction temperatures and times, and hydroxyl concentrations. The BaFe 12 O 19 particles featuring an excellent hexagonal plates shape can be hydrothermally synthesized with the aid of polyethylene glycol. It has been found that the presence of α-Fe 2 O 3 in a traditional hydrothermal process is motivated by the deviation from the desired [Ba 2+ ]/[Fe 3+ ] ratio caused by the negligent precipitation of Ba 2+ ions to BaCO 3 . An investigation on the preferred hydrothermal product through thermodynamic calculation shows that the reduction in Gibbs free energy for the exclusive formation of BaFe 12 O 19 with 1 mol of Fe 3+ ions at 220 °C is approximately 32 kJ higher than that for the complete transformation to α-Fe 2 O 3 with an equal consumption quantity of Fe 3+ ions. - Highlights: • Pure BaFe 12 O 19 was hydrothermally synthesized based on the stoichiometric ratio. • A modified operation was employed to eliminate self-invited carbonate ions. • BaFe 12 O 19 particles feature an excellent micro-sized hexaplates shape. • BaFe 12 O 19 was thermodynamically confirmed to be preferred result instead of α-Fe 2 O 3 .

  11. Single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films prepared on Si wafer by femtosecond laser ablation and its photoluminescence at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Peixiang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou Youhua [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Physics and Information School, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)]. E-mail: yhzhou@jhun.edu.cn; Zheng Qiguang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang Guang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2006-02-06

    Single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films were prepared on Si(100) and Si(111) wafers by using femtosecond laser deposition with a FeSi{sub 2} alloy target for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), electron backscattered diffraction pattern (EBSD), and Fourier-transform Raman infrared spectroscopy (FTRIS) were used to characterize the structure, composition, and properties of the {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si films. The orientation of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} grains was found to depend on the orientation of the Si substrates, and photoluminescence at wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m was observed from the single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si thin film at room temperature (20 {sup o}C)

  12. Magnetic properties of Co 2 2+ Co 1 - x 3+ Fe x 3+ BO5 ( x = 0.10) single crystals with a ludwigite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Yu. V.; Kazak, N. V.; Bayukov, O. A.; Platunov, M. S.; Velikanov, D. A.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Ivanova, N. B.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-04-01

    The investigation of mixed Co-Fe ludwigite single crystals shows that their magnetic properties are close to the magnetic properties of Fe3BO5 despite the predominance of cobalt ions. The magnetic properties of Co3 - x Fe x BO5 single crystals with x = 0.10 are studied in detail. Magnetometric measurements demonstrate a strong magnetic anisotropy with easy magnetization axis b, and the orbital magnetic moment of cobalt is in a frozen state. The detected temperature dependence of the absorption of Mössbauer spectra allowed us to determine the magnetic ordering temperature, which agrees with the results of magnetization measurements ( T C = 84 K).

  13. Superconductivity and electronic structure in single-layer FeSe on SrTiO{sub 3} probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandke, Jasmin; Dressner, Jonas; Wulfhekel, Wulf [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Yang, Fang; Gao, Chunlei [Fudan Universitaet, Shanghai (China)

    2016-07-01

    We use high-resolution scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to study single-layer FeSe on Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (001). Features of bosonic excitations were observed in the measured quasiparticle density of states. Furthermore, using STS, quasiparticle interference (QPI) imaging was performed in order to map the multiband electronic structure of FeSe. Compared to previous measurements, an additional feature is visible in our measured QPI maps on a single-layer FeSe/SrTiO{sub 3}. The origin of this feature will be discussed.

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory studies of (FeS)mH- (m = 2-4) cluster anions: effects of the single hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2017-12-20

    Single hydrogen containing iron hydrosulfide cluster anions (FeS) m H - (m = 2-4) are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) at 3.492 eV (355 nm) and 4.661 eV (266 nm) photon energies, and by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The structural properties, relative energies of different spin states and isomers, and the first calculated vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of different spin states for these (FeS) m H - (m = 2-4) cluster anions are investigated at various reasonable theory levels. Two types of structural isomers are found for these (FeS) m H - (m = 2-4) clusters: (1) the single hydrogen atom bonds to a sulfur site (SH-type); and (2) the single hydrogen atom bonds to an iron site (FeH-type). Experimental and theoretical results suggest such available different SH- and FeH-type structural isomers should be considered when evaluating the properties and behavior of these single hydrogen containing iron sulfide clusters in real chemical and biological systems. Compared to their related, respective pure iron sulfur (FeS) m - clusters, the first VDE trend of the diverse type (FeS) m H 0,1 - (m = 1-4) clusters can be understood through (1) the different electron distribution properties of their highest singly occupied molecular orbital employing natural bond orbital analysis (NBO/HSOMO), and (2) the partial charge distribution on the NBO/HSOMO localized sites of each cluster anion. Generally, the properties of the NBO/HSOMOs play the principal role with regard to the physical and chemical properties of all the anions. The change of cluster VDE from low to high is associated with the change in nature of their NBO/HSOMO from a dipole bound and valence electron mixed character, to a valence p orbital on S, to a valence d orbital on Fe, and to a valence p orbital on Fe or an Fe-Fe delocalized valence bonding orbital. For clusters having the same properties for NBO/HSOMOs, the partial charge distributions at the NBO/HSOMO localized sites additionally

  15. Remarkable Electromechanical Coupling in the 2–2 Composite Based on Single-domain PMN–0.33PT Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Yu. TOPOLOV

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel parallel-connected 2–2 single-domain 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3 – 0.33PbTiO3 crystal / polymer composite with various orientations of polarization vectors of the components is proposed to analyze behavior of electromechanical coupling factors k*3j and k*k where j = 1, 2 and 3. It is shown that the combination of the highly piezo-active relaxor-ferroelectric single-domain component and the piezoelectric polymer provides considerable values of k*k (min k*k » –0.8 and max k*k» 0.7 and |k*33| (about 0.9. The active role of the polarization orientation effect and the composite structure in attaining the high performance is emphasized in this work. A strong correlation between k*k and the hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficient is first revealed near min k*k and max k*k of the 2–2 composite. Some advantages concerned with the presence of the single-domain component in the 2–2 composite are discussed in connection with the large values of k*3j and k*k as well as with the considerable anisotropy of k*3j.

  16. W/FeSb2/W Heterostructure for Single-Photon Detection in a Wide Range of Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen KUZANYAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of computer simulation of heat distribution processes taking place after the absorption of single photons of 1 – 1000 eV energy in the three- layer detection pixel of the thermoelectric detector are being analyzed. Different geometries of the detection pixel with thermoelectric sensor made of strongly correlated semiconductor FeSb2, tungsten absorber and heat sink are considered. It is concluded that such detector may register individual photons from IR to X-ray providing energy resolution of not less than 1 % and terahertz counting rate.

  17. Electrical properties of InP:Fe single crystals implanted by phosphorus ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radautsan, S.I.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Pyshnaya, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of phosphorus ion implantation in InP:Fe monocrystals and of the post-implantation annealing process upon the electrical properties of InP:Fe were carried out. The electrical parameters of the samples have been determined by Hall effect measurements. The curves of electron surface concentration n s and mobility μ s as functions of annealing temperature in the range of 200 to 600 0 C are shown and discussed. In order to estimate the depth of donor levels in annealed samples the temperature dependence of the surface Hall coefficient has been studied in the range 100 to 400 K. The thermal electron activation energy has been determined to be 0.09 eV

  18. AFM observation of Fe-Al single crystals under in situ deformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, J.; Cieslar, M.; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 618-621 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/10/0438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * Fe 3 Al * TEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  19. Ion backscattering, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis study of passive films formed on FeCrNi and FeCrNiMo (100) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C; Schmaus, D [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Groupe de Physique des Solides de l' ENS; Elbiache, A; Marcus, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1990-01-01

    The compositions of passive films formed on Fe-17Fr-13Ni (at. %) and Fe-18.5Cr-14Ni-1.5Mo (100) single crystals have been determined and the structure of the alloy under the film has been investigated. The alloys were passivated in 0.05M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 250 mV/SHE for 30 min. The oxygen content was measured by nuclear microanalysis using the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O* reaction. The oxygen content in the passive film is similar for the two alloys and equal to (12{plus minus}2) 10{sup 15} O/cm{sup 2}. The cationic compositions of the passive films have been determined by {sup 4}He channeling at two incident beam energies: 0.8 and 2.0 MeV. For the two alloys studied, a total cation content of (5{plus minus}2)10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} is found in the passive films. The corresponding thickness is about 12 A. There is an excess of oxygen, which can be attributed to the presence of hydroxyls and sulfate. A strong chromium enrichment is found in the passive film formed on both alloys: chromium represents about 50% of the cations. There is no evidence of molybdenum enrichment in the passive film formed on the Mo-alloyed stainless steel. The comparison of the results obtained at the two different incident beam energies (0.8MeV and 2MeV) reveals the existence of defects at the alloy/passive film interface. (author).

  20. A single optical sensor with high sensitivity for detection of Fe{sup 3+} and CN{sup −} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshani, Jafar [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badiei, Alireza, E-mail: abadiei@khayam.ut.ac.ir [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanobiomedicine Center of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Maryam; Shayesteh, Alireza; Karimi, Mehdi; Lashgari, Negar [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi [Department of Chemistry, Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    1,2-Bis(2-hydroxymethylphenoxy)ethane was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The sensing ability of the sensor was studied in the presence of different cations and anions. Following the excitation wavelengths at 275 nm in EtOH/H{sub 2}O (1:9, v/v) and 310 nm in MeCN/H{sub 2}O (1:9, v/v), two distinct emissions at 305 and 356 nm were obtained, respectively. Fe{sup 3+} and CN{sup −} ions were successfully detected in EtOH/H{sub 2}O and MeCN/H{sub 2}O mixtures, respectively. While the fluorescence intensity of the sensor quenched considerably in the presence of Fe{sup 3+} cation at 305 nm, it enhanced in the presence of CN{sup −} anion at 356 nm. Selectivity of the sensor toward these ions was verified in the presence of a variety of common interfering ions. The detection limits of Fe{sup 3+} and CN{sup −} were calculated as 5.4 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} and 1.9 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}, respectively which shows the high sensitivity of the sensor toward the target ions. Finally, the interaction of the sensor and CN{sup −} anion was determined by computational studies.

  1. CO Reduction to CH3OSiMe3: Electrophile-Promoted Hydride Migration at a Single Fe Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Meaghan M; Peters, Jonas C

    2017-02-22

    One of the major challenges associated with developing molecular Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is the design of systems that promote the formation of C-H bonds from H 2 and CO while also facilitating the release of the resulting CO-derived organic products. To this end, we describe the synthesis of reduced iron-hydride/carbonyl complexes that enable an electrophile-promoted hydride migration process, resulting in the reduction of coordinated CO to a siloxymethyl (L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 ) group. Intramolecular hydride-to-CO migrations are extremely rare, and to our knowledge the system described herein is the first example where such a process can be accessed from a thermally stable M(CO)(H) complex. Further addition of H 2 to L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 releases CH 3 OSiMe 3 , demonstrating net four-electron reduction of CO to CH 3 OSiMe 3 at a single Fe site.

  2. Paramagnetic Spin Correlations in CaFe2As2 Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Pratt, Daniel; Fernandes, Rafael; Tian, Wei; Zarestky, J.L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Perring, T.G.; Broholm, C.; Ni, Ni; Budko, S.L.; Canfield, Paul; Li, Haifeng; Vaknin, D.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A.I.; Mcqueeney, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic correlations in the paramagnetic phase of CaFe2As2(TN=172 K) have been examined by means of inelastic neutron scattering from 180 K ( 1.05TN) up to 300 K (1.8TN). Despite the first-order nature of the magnetic ordering, strong but short-ranged antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations are clearly observed. These correlations, which consist of quasielastic scattering centered at the wave vector QAFM of the low-temperature AFM structure, are observed up to the highest measured temperature of 300 K and at high energy transfer ( >60 meV). The L dependence of the scattering implies rather weak interlayer coupling in the tetragonal c direction corresponding to nearly two-dimensional fluctuations in the (ab) plane. The spin correlation lengths within the Fe layer are found to be anisotropic, consistent with underlying fluctuations of the AFM stripe structure. Similar to the cobalt-doped superconducting BaFe2As2 compounds, these experimental features can be adequately reproduced by a scattering model that describes short-ranged and anisotropic spin correlations with overdamped dynamics.

  3. Chemically ordered face-centred tetragonal Fe–Pt nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Heat treatment of Fe/Pt co-doped films in air caused generation of Pt NPs first. At this stage, Fe .... water to salt can be varied from 26 to 28) and mixed with ..... electron diffraction (SAED) pattern (grey scale inverted; fig- ure 5c) ...

  4. Continuous quantum mechanics of single particles in closed and quasi-closed systems: Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brieger, M.

    2004-01-01

    The established statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics never envisioned our today's ability to handle and investigate single particles in trap devices. After scrutinizing the development of quantum mechanics, we point out that Schroedinger's equation establishes an energy representation, which obtains the energy eigenvalues as extrema of the energy curve or on the energy hypersurface, respectively. We also strongly emphasize its never exhausted capability of accounting in classical terms and full detail for the dynamics of single particles in closed systems. This is demonstrated for several familiar examples. They show that the eigensolutions to Schroedinger's equation must not blindly be identified with physically stationary states. The gained insight into the true dynamics allows to describe, without involving QED, the time evolution of a complete spontaneous transition as being driven by unbalanced internal dynamics. This mechanism relies on the fact that perfect balances are only possible in the exact extrema of the total energy and that any deviation, which is characterized by nonstationary states, makes multipole moments oscillate and emit electromagnetic radiation. (orig.)

  5. Continuous quantum mechanics of single particles in closed and quasi-closed systems: Pt. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieger, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Physik

    2004-07-01

    The established statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics never envisioned our today's ability to handle and investigate single particles in trap devices. After scrutinizing the development of quantum mechanics, we point out that Schroedinger's equation establishes an energy representation, which obtains the energy eigenvalues as extrema of the energy curve or on the energy hypersurface, respectively. We also strongly emphasize its never exhausted capability of accounting in classical terms and full detail for the dynamics of single particles in closed systems. This is demonstrated for several familiar examples. They show that the eigensolutions to Schroedinger's equation must not blindly be identified with physically stationary states. The gained insight into the true dynamics allows to describe, without involving QED, the time evolution of a complete spontaneous transition as being driven by unbalanced internal dynamics. This mechanism relies on the fact that perfect balances are only possible in the exact extrema of the total energy and that any deviation, which is characterized by nonstationary states, makes multipole moments oscillate and emit electromagnetic radiation. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Spin-Crossover-Induced Pore Contraction on CO2–Host Interactions in the Porous Coordination Polymers [Fe(pyrazine)M(CN)4] (M = Ni, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Jeffrey T; Chen, De-Li; Liu, Jinchen; Chirdon, Danielle; Kauffman, Kristi; Goodman, Angela; Johnson, J Karl

    2013-02-01

    Variable-temperature in situ ATR-FTIR spectra are presented for the porous spin-crossover compounds [Fe(pyrazine)Ni(CN)4] and [Fe(pyrazine)Pt(CN)4] under CO2 pressures of up to 8 bar. Significant shifts in the ν3 and ν2 IR absorption bands of adsorbed CO2 are observed as the host materials undergo transition between low- and high-spin states. Computational models used to determine the packing arrangement of CO2 within the pore structures show a preferred orientation of one of the adsorbed CO2 molecules with close O=C=O···H contacts with the pyrazine pillar ligands. The interaction is a consequence of the commensurate distance of the inter-pyrazine separations and the length of the CO2 molecule, which allows the adsorbed CO2 to effectively bridge the pyrazine pillars in the structure. The models were used to assign the distinct shifts in the IR absorption bands of the adsorbed CO2 that arise from changes in the O=C=O···H contacts that strengthen and weaken in correlation with changes in the Fe–N bond lengths as the spin state of Fe changes. The results indicate that spin-crossover compounds can function as a unique type of flexible sorbent in which the pore contractions associated with spin transition can affect the strength of CO2–host interactions.

  7. Giant volume magnetostriction in the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S. A., E-mail: nikitin@phys.msu.ru; Pankratov, N. Yu.; Smarzhevskaya, A. I.; Politova, G. A. [Physics Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Pastushenkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yupast@mail.ru; Skokov, K. P. [Physics Faculty, Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Moral, A. del [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Slidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragn, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza-C.S.I.C, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-05-21

    An investigation of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compound belonging to the class of intermetallic alloys of rare-earth and 3d-transition metals is presented. The magnetization, magnetostriction, and thermal expansion of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal were studied. The forced magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were investigated in the temperature range of the magnetic ordering close to the room temperature. The giant field induced volume magnetostriction was discovered in the room temperature region in the magnetic field up to 1.2 T. The contributions of both anisotropic single-ion and isotropic pair exchange interactions to the volume magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were determined. The experimental results were interpreted within the framework of the Standard Theory of Magnetostriction and the Landau thermodynamic theory. It was found out that the giant values of the volume magnetostriction were caused by the strong dependence of the 3d-electron Coulomb charge repulsion on the deformations and width of the 3d-electron energy band.

  8. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of electromagnetic parameters of Fe-C coaxial single fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei, E-mail: cslggncl@163.com [Key Laboratory of Safety Design and Reliability Technology for Engineering Vehicle, Hunan Province, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Hunan Province Higher Education Key Laboratory of Modeling and Monitoring on the Near-Earth Electromagnetic Environments, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhu, Xukun; Kuang, Jiacai [Key Laboratory of Safety Design and Reliability Technology for Engineering Vehicle, Hunan Province, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Hunan Province Higher Education Key Laboratory of Modeling and Monitoring on the Near-Earth Electromagnetic Environments, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Yi, Shihe; Cheng, Haifeng [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Guo, Zhanhu; He, Qingliang [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Theoretical formula and calculation results of effective permeability and effective permittivity of the Fe-C coaxial fiber are obtained based on the Maxwell equation. • The coaxial fiber has stronger anisotropy and better electromagnetic dissipation performance than the hollow carbon fiber and solid iron fiber with the same volume content. • Greater conductivity, larger aspect ratio, thin iron shell play important roles to improve the electromagnetic matching ability and microwave attenuation for the Fe-C coaxial fibers. - Abstract: Based on the Maxwell equation, the electromagnetic model in the coaxial fiber was described. The interaction with electromagnetic wave was analysed and the theoretical formula of axial permeability (μ{sub ∥}), axial permittivity (ε{sub ∥}), radial permeability (μ{sub ⊥}) and radial permittivity (ε{sub ⊥}) of Fe-C coaxial fiber were derived, and the demagnetization factor (N) of fibrous material was revised. Calculation results indicate that the composite fiber has stronger anisotropy and better EM dissipation performance than the hollow carbon fiber and solid iron fiber with the same volume content. These properties can be enhanced through increasing aspect ratio and carbon content. The μ{sub ‖} is 5.18-4.46i, μ{sub ⊥} is 2.58-0.50i, ε{sub ∥} is 7.63-6.97i, and ε{sub ⊥} is 1.98-0.15i when the electromagnetic wave frequency is 5 GHz with the outer diameter of 0.866 μm, inner diameter of 0.500 μm, and length of 20 μm. The maximum of the imaginary part of μ{sub ∥} and ε{sub ∥} are much larger than that of μ{sub ⊥} and ε{sub ⊥} when the structural parameters change, and the maximum of μ{sub ∥} and ε{sub ∥} can reach 6.429 and 23.59. Simulation results show that greater conductivity, larger aspect ratio, thin iron shell play important roles to improve the electromagnetic matching ability and microwave attenuation for the Fe-C coaxial fibers.

  9. Photorefractive features of non-stoichiometry codoped Hf:Fe:LiNbO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Chunliang; Bi, Jiancong; Sun, Liang; Xu, Yuheng

    2008-01-01

    Hf(2mol%):Fe(0.05wt%):LiNbO 3 crystals with various [Li]/[Nb] ratios of 0.94, 1.05, 1.2 and 1.38 have been grown. The photorefractive resistant ability increases with the accretion of [Li]/[Nb] ratio. When the ratio of [Li]/[Nb] is 1.20 or 1.38, the OH - absorption band shifts to about 3477cm -1 . The mechanisms of the photorefractive resistant ability increase and the absorption band shift have been discussed. The exponential gain coefficient (Γ) of the crystals was measured with two-beam coupling method and the effective charge carrier concentration (N eff ) was calculated. The results show that Γ and N eff increase with the accretion of [Li]/[Nb] ratio. The temperature effect of codoped Hf:Fe:LiNbO 3 crystals was also studied, it was found that the exponential gain coefficient increase dramatically at about 55 C, 70 C and 110 C, this is due to the inner electric field which is resulted from structure phase change. (copyright 2007 WILEY -VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Chemical doping in pnictides superconductors: The case of Ca(Fe1-xXx) 2As2 , X = Co, Ni, Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continenza, Alessandra; Profeta, Gianni

    2018-04-01

    We present a comparative and detailed study of transition metal doping in CaFe2As2. Comparing with several experimental results and carefully analyzing how the states at the Fermi level are affected by doping we show that: i) simulation of real doping and considering induces structural relaxations are crucial to correctly address the physical mechanisms induced by transition metal substitutions; ii) different dopant concentration induces changes on the band structure that can not be described within a simple rigid-band picture; iii) careful comparison with the available ARPES results shows that the main effects on band filling and symmetry can be caught within DFT.

  11. Fabrication of a PMN-PT Single Crystal-Based Transcranial Doppler Transducer and the Power Regulation of Its Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT were chosen to be the piezoelectric transducer material due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high electromechanical coupling coefficients and low dielectric loss. The pulse-echo response of the transducer was measured using the conventional pulse-echo method in a water bath at room temperature. The −6 dB bandwidth of the transducer is 68.4% and the sensitivity is −17.4 dB. In order to get a good match between transducer and detection system, different transmission powers have been regulated by changing the impedance of the transmitting electric circuit. In the middle cerebral artery (MCA measurement photograph results, as the transmission power is increasing, the detection results become clearer and clearer. A comparison at the same transmission power for different transducers shows that the detection photograph obtained by the crystal transducer was clearer than that obtained with a commercial transducer, which should make it easier for doctors to find the cerebral arteries.

  12. Synthesis, single-crystal structure refinement and Fe/T site preference in the ternary borides Fe {sub x}T{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} (T = Ru, Rh; 0 < x {<=} 1.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokwa, Boniface P.T. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: drons@HAL9000.ac.rwth-aachen.de

    2007-01-31

    Single crystals of the borides Fe {sub x}Rh{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} (1 < x < 1.5) and Fe {sub x}Ru{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} (0 < x < 1) have been synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under argon atmosphere. The silver-like products, structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, adopt the hexagonal Th{sub 7}Fe{sub 3} structure type (space group P6{sub 3} mc, no. 186) with Z = 2. Their structures consist of layers of boron-centered trigonal prisms of rhodium or ruthenium (Rh;Ru) and iron on the one side, and one-dimensional channels of face-sharing octahedral (Rh;Ru){sub 6} clusters on the other. Unlike in FeRh{sub 6}B{sub 3}, the iron substitution takes place at two (6c and 2b) of the three available rhodium/ruthenium positions, with a preference for the 6c site in the case of the Fe {sub x}Rh{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} compounds but not for Fe {sub x}Ru{sub 7-x}B{sub 3}.

  13. Oxygen reduction reaction on a highly-alloyed Pt-Ni supported carbon electrocatalyst in acid solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zheng, H

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Alloyed electrocatalysts such as PtNi/C[1-2], PtCo/C[3], PtCr/C[4], PtFe/C [5-6], and non-alloyed Pt-TiO2/C were reportedly investigated for methanol tolerance during Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The high methanol tolerance...

  14. Continuous quantum mechanics of single particles in closed and quasi-closed systems: Pt. III and IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieger, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Physik

    2005-07-01

    The rigorous solution to Schroedinger's nonrelativistic time-dependent equation of a single electron's spin-orbit or magnetic hyperfine interaction reveals the full dynamics of angular momentum coupling especially in the presence of an external, arbitrarily oriented magnetic field. Besides of making a description of major dynamical properties possible in simple classical terms, it also sheds new light on the seeming quantization of states: They turn out to be exceptional states of dynamical balance, which in the field-free case are only made possible by the respective pairs of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Moreover, the results not only show that integer and half-integer quantum numbers of the total angular momentum only apply to this special case but that in the general case they are also able to obtain the well-known splitting pattern of the stationary energy levels in the field as produced by separately identifiable, field-dependent contributions from the spin-orbit or the magnetic hyperfine interactions on the one hand, and the magnetic dipole interaction with external magnetic fields on the other in a way not accessible to the Breit-Rabi formula. The results further demonstrate that the total magnetic moment responds quite sensitively to even weak field strengths, i.e., with substantial changes although the linear Zeeman effect suggests their seeming constancy in low fields also for levels with vertical stroke M{sub J} vertical stroke < l+1/2. Although Schroedinger's equation is equivalent to an energy representation this detailed description of the behavior of the total magnetic moment is made possible by the fortunate fact that the coupling magnetic moments enter the Hamiltonian linearly. This circumstance can be exploited to describe in full detail how the total magnetic moment behaves in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field. It is found that its motion in this environment consists of a basic Larmor precession about the field direction

  15. Continuous quantum mechanics of single particles in closed and quasi-closed systems: Pt. III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brieger, M.

    2005-01-01

    The rigorous solution to Schroedinger's nonrelativistic time-dependent equation of a single electron's spin-orbit or magnetic hyperfine interaction reveals the full dynamics of angular momentum coupling especially in the presence of an external, arbitrarily oriented magnetic field. Besides of making a description of major dynamical properties possible in simple classical terms, it also sheds new light on the seeming quantization of states: They turn out to be exceptional states of dynamical balance, which in the field-free case are only made possible by the respective pairs of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Moreover, the results not only show that integer and half-integer quantum numbers of the total angular momentum only apply to this special case but that in the general case they are also able to obtain the well-known splitting pattern of the stationary energy levels in the field as produced by separately identifiable, field-dependent contributions from the spin-orbit or the magnetic hyperfine interactions on the one hand, and the magnetic dipole interaction with external magnetic fields on the other in a way not accessible to the Breit-Rabi formula. The results further demonstrate that the total magnetic moment responds quite sensitively to even weak field strengths, i.e., with substantial changes although the linear Zeeman effect suggests their seeming constancy in low fields also for levels with vertical stroke M J vertical stroke < l+1/2. Although Schroedinger's equation is equivalent to an energy representation this detailed description of the behavior of the total magnetic moment is made possible by the fortunate fact that the coupling magnetic moments enter the Hamiltonian linearly. This circumstance can be exploited to describe in full detail how the total magnetic moment behaves in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field. It is found that its motion in this environment consists of a basic Larmor precession about the field direction superimposed on which is

  16. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Bogle, K A [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Magaraggia, R [University of Glasgow; Stamps, R [University of Glasgow; Ogale, S [National Chemical Laboratory, India; Potdar, H S [National Chemical Laboratory, India

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of 1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  17. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Bogle, K. A.; Kumar, A.; Jesse, S.; Magaraggia, R.; Stamps, R.; Ogale, S. B.; Potdar, H. S.; Nagarajan, V.

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of ˜1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  18. Moessbauer studies of single crystal Pr sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Uhm, Y R; Kim, C S; Tomioka, Y; Tokura, Y

    2000-01-01

    Single crystal Pr sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3 was synthesized by using the floating zone method and the relation of magnetic properties and charge ordering transition with lattice dynamics was systematically investigated. Moessbauer spectra of Pr sub 1 sub / sub 3 sub S r sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3 were taken at various temperatures ranging from 20 K to room temperature. The charge disproportionation, in which iron with valence states Fe sup 3 sup + and Fe sup 5 sup + was found in a ratio of 2:1, was detected in Pr sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3 below 190+-3 K. Iron with valence state Fe sup 4 sup + coexisted in Pr sub 1 sub / sub 3 sub S r sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3 at and above 150 K, and its ratio increased from 13 to 66 % with increasing temperature. This result means that charge-ordered and -disordered phases co-exist in Pr sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3.

  19. Electron transport in a Pt-CO-Pt nanocontact: Density functional theory calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    We have performed first-principles calculations for the mechanic and electric properties of pure Pt nanocontacts and a Pt contact with a single CO molecule adsorbed. For the pure Pt