WorldWideScience

Sample records for fbi fingerprint image

  1. The FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Onyshczak, R.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations. We will review the current status of the FBI standard, including the compliance testing process and the details of the first-generation encoder.

  2. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI`s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  3. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hopper, T. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  4. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  5. A New Approach for Fingerprint Image Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazieres, Bertrand

    1997-12-01

    The FBI has been collecting fingerprint cards since 1924 and now has over 200 million of them. Digitized with 8 bits of grayscale resolution at 500 dots per inch, it means 2000 terabytes of information. Also, without any compression, transmitting a 10 Mb card over a 9600 baud connection will need 3 hours. Hence we need a compression and a compression as close to lossless as possible: all fingerprint details must be kept. A lossless compression usually do not give a better compression ratio than 2:1, which is not sufficient. Compressing these images with the JPEG standard leads to artefacts which appear even at low compression rates. Therefore the FBI has chosen in 1993 a scheme of compression based on a wavelet transform, followed by a scalar quantization and an entropy coding : the so-called WSQ. This scheme allows to achieve compression ratios of 20:1 without any perceptible loss of quality. The publication of the FBI specifies a decoder, which means that many parameters can be changed in the encoding process: the type of analysis/reconstruction filters, the way the bit allocation is made, the number of Huffman tables used for the entropy coding. The first encoder used 9/7 filters for the wavelet transform and did the bit allocation using a high-rate bit assumption. Since the transform is made into 64 subbands, quite a lot of bands receive only a few bits even at an archival quality compression rate of 0.75 bit/pixel. Thus, after a brief overview of the standard, we will discuss a new approach for the bit-allocation that seems to make more sense where theory is concerned. Then we will talk about some implementation aspects, particularly for the new entropy coder and the features that allow other applications than fingerprint image compression. Finally, we will compare the performances of the new encoder to those of the first encoder.

  6. The wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for digital fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    A new digital image compression standard has been adopted by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation for use on digitized gray-scale fingerprint images. The algorithm is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform image decomposition and is referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization standard. The standard produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20:1 and will allow the FBI to replace their current database of paper fingerprint cards with digital imagery.

  7. Low-Speed Fingerprint Image Capture System User`s Guide, June 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitus, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Jatko, W.B.; Manges, W.W.; Treece, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Low-Speed Fingerprint Image Capture System (LS-FICS) uses a Sun workstation controlling a Lenzar ElectroOptics Opacity 1000 imaging system to digitize fingerprint card images to support the Federal Bureau of Investigation`s (FBI`s) Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) program. The system also supports the operations performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory- (ORNL-) developed Image Transmission Network (ITN) prototype card scanning system. The input to the system is a single FBI fingerprint card of the agreed-upon standard format and a user-specified identification number. The output is a file formatted to be compatible with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) draft standard for fingerprint data exchange dated June 10, 1992. These NIST compatible files contain the required print and text images. The LS-FICS is designed to provide the FBI with the capability of scanning fingerprint cards into a digital format. The FBI will replicate the system to generate a data base of test images. The Host Workstation contains the image data paths and the compression algorithm. A local area network interface, disk storage, and tape drive are used for the image storage and retrieval, and the Lenzar Opacity 1000 scanner is used to acquire the image. The scanner is capable of resolving 500 pixels/in. in both x and y directions. The print images are maintained in full 8-bit gray scale and compressed with an FBI-approved wavelet-based compression algorithm. The text fields are downsampled to 250 pixels/in. and 2-bit gray scale. The text images are then compressed using a lossless Huffman coding scheme. The text fields retrieved from the output files are easily interpreted when displayed on the screen. Detailed procedures are provided for system calibration and operation. Software tools are provided to verify proper system operation.

  8. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  9. Results of a Pilot Test of the FBI Civil Fingerprint File

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly R; Timm, Howard M; Linder, Donald; Sanner, Deanna; Rhoades, Chad; Kipp, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    .... A pilot test was conducted using fingerprints and other identifying information for 1,143 military applicants who processed through the Los Angeles Military Entrant Processing Station between December 2004 and May 2005...

  10. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  11. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the importance of the image processing of fingerprint images prior to image enrolment or comparison, the set of fingerprint images in databases (a) and (b) of the FVC (Fingerprint Verification Competition) 2000 database were analyzed using a features extraction algorithm. This paper presents the results of ...

  12. Efficient Filtering of Noisy Fingerprint Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Liliana Costin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint identification is an important field in the wide domain of biometrics with many applications, in different areas such: judicial, mobile phones, access systems, airports. There are many elaborated algorithms for fingerprint identification, but none of them can guarantee that the results of identification are always 100 % accurate. A first step in a fingerprint image analysing process consists in the pre-processing or filtering. If the result after this step is not by a good quality the upcoming identification process can fail. A major difficulty can appear in case of fingerprint identification if the images that should be identified from a fingerprint image database are noisy with different type of noise. The objectives of the paper are: the successful completion of the noisy digital image filtering, a novel more robust algorithm of identifying the best filtering algorithm and the classification and ranking of the images. The choice about the best filtered images of a set of 9 algorithms is made with a dual method of fuzzy and aggregation model. We are proposing through this paper a set of 9 filters with different novelty designed for processing the digital images using the following methods: quartiles, medians, average, thresholds and histogram equalization, applied all over the image or locally on small areas. Finally the statistics reveal the classification and ranking of the best algorithms.

  13. Tools for quality control of fingerprint databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, B. Scott; Libert, John M.; Lepley, Margaret A.

    2010-04-01

    Integrity of fingerprint data is essential to biometric and forensic applications. Accordingly, the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division has sponsored development of software tools to facilitate quality control functions relative to maintaining its fingerprint data assets inherent to the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and Next Generation Identification (NGI). This paper provides an introduction of two such tools. The first FBI-sponsored tool was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and examines and detects the spectral signature of the ridge-flow structure characteristic of friction ridge skin. The Spectral Image Validation/Verification (SIVV) utility differentiates fingerprints from non-fingerprints, including blank frames or segmentation failures erroneously included in data; provides a "first look" at image quality; and can identify anomalies in sample rates of scanned images. The SIVV utility might detect errors in individual 10-print fingerprints inaccurately segmented from the flat, multi-finger image acquired by one of the automated collection systems increasing in availability and usage. In such cases, the lost fingerprint can be recovered by re-segmentation from the now compressed multi-finger image record. The second FBI-sponsored tool, CropCoeff was developed by MITRE and thoroughly tested via NIST. CropCoeff enables cropping of the replacement single print directly from the compressed data file, thus avoiding decompression and recompression of images that might degrade fingerprint features necessary for matching.

  14. Fingerprint image enhancement by differential hysteresis processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotta, Eduardo; Moler, Emilce

    2004-05-10

    A new method to enhance defective fingerprints images through image digital processing tools is presented in this work. When the fingerprints have been taken without any care, blurred and in some cases mostly illegible, as in the case presented here, their classification and comparison becomes nearly impossible. A combination of spatial domain filters, including a technique called differential hysteresis processing (DHP), is applied to improve these kind of images. This set of filtering methods proved to be satisfactory in a wide range of cases by uncovering hidden details that helped to identify persons. Dactyloscopy experts from Policia Federal Argentina and the EAAF have validated these results.

  15. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox

    2015-01-01

    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates. PMID:25835186

  16. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jim Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS, successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM, based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates.

  17. Fingerprint matching algorithm for poor quality images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedpal Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to establish an efficient platform for fingerprint matching for low-quality images. Generally, fingerprint matching approaches use the minutiae points for authentication. However, it is not such a reliable authentication method for low-quality images. To overcome this problem, the current study proposes a fingerprint matching methodology based on normalised cross-correlation, which would improve the performance and reduce the miscalculations during authentication. It would decrease the computational complexities. The error rate of the proposed method is 5.4%, which is less than the two-dimensional (2D dynamic programming (DP error rate of 5.6%, while Lee's method produces 5.9% and the combined method has 6.1% error rate. Genuine accept rate at 1% false accept rate is 89.3% but at 0.1% value it is 96.7%, which is higher. The outcome of this study suggests that the proposed methodology has a low error rate with minimum computational effort as compared with existing methods such as Lee's method and 2D DP and the combined method.

  18. Aplicación del NFIS (Nist Fingerprint Image Software para la Extracción de Características de Huellas Dactilares Aplicación del NFIS (Nist Fingerprint Image Software para la Extracción de Características de Huellas Dactilares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Mosqueda Valadez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción acerca de las huellas dactilares y sus características, así como la extracción de puntos característicos de la misma por medio del programa NFIS desarrollado por el NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology en conjunción con el FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation, descripción de algunas herramientas, así como un panorama general de un sistema AFAS (Automatic Fingerprint Authentification System y de un sistema AFIS (Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This paper presents a description about the fingerprints and its characteristics, as well as the extraction of their characteristic points by means of the application of the program NFIS (NIST Fingerprint Image Software developed by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology in conjunction with the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation, the description of some tools, as well as a general view of a system AFAS (Automatic Fingerprint Authentification System and of a system AFIS (Automatic Fingerprint Identification System.

  19. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  20. Conversion Between Sine Wave and Square Wave Spatial Frequency Response of an Imaging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nill, Norman B

    2001-01-01

    ...), is a primary image quality metric that is commonly measured with a sine wave target. The FBI certification program for commercial fingerprint capture devices, which MITRE actively supports, has an MTF requirement...

  1. Missing data reconstruction using Gaussian mixture models for fingerprint images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Yeole, Rushikesh D.; Rao, Shishir P.; Mulawka, Marzena; Troy, Mike; Reinecke, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 25 May 2016, was replaced with a revised version on 16 June 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF, but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. One of the most important areas in biometrics is matching partial fingerprints in fingerprint databases. Recently, significant progress has been made in designing fingerprint identification systems for missing fingerprint information. However, a dependable reconstruction of fingerprint images still remains challenging due to the complexity and the ill-posed nature of the problem. In this article, both binary and gray-level images are reconstructed. This paper also presents a new similarity score to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed binary image. The offered fingerprint image identification system can be automated and extended to numerous other security applications such as postmortem fingerprints, forensic science, investigations, artificial intelligence, robotics, all-access control, and financial security, as well as for the verification of firearm purchasers, driver license applicants, etc.

  2. Optical Methods in Fingerprint Imaging for Medical and Personality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, analysis and induction of personality traits has been a topic for individual subjective conjecture or speculation, rather than a focus of inductive scientific analysis. This study proposes a novel framework for analysis and induction of personality traits. First, 14 personality constructs based on the “Big Five” personality factors were developed. Next, a new fingerprint image algorithm was used for classification, and the fingerprints were classified into eight types. The relationship between personality traits and fingerprint type was derived from the results of the questionnaire survey. After comparison of pre-test and post-test results, this study determined the induction ability of personality traits from fingerprint type. Experimental results showed that the left/right thumbprint type of a majority of subjects was left loop/right loop and that the personalities of individuals with this fingerprint type were moderate with no significant differences in the 14 personality constructs.

  3. Optical Methods in Fingerprint Imaging for Medical and Personality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Wein; Lin, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Yao-Lang; Kuo, Chia-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, analysis and induction of personality traits has been a topic for individual subjective conjecture or speculation, rather than a focus of inductive scientific analysis. This study proposes a novel framework for analysis and induction of personality traits. First, 14 personality constructs based on the “Big Five” personality factors were developed. Next, a new fingerprint image algorithm was used for classification, and the fingerprints were classified into eight types. The relationship between personality traits and fingerprint type was derived from the results of the questionnaire survey. After comparison of pre-test and post-test results, this study determined the induction ability of personality traits from fingerprint type. Experimental results showed that the left/right thumbprint type of a majority of subjects was left loop/right loop and that the personalities of individuals with this fingerprint type were moderate with no significant differences in the 14 personality constructs. PMID:29065556

  4. Optical Methods in Fingerprint Imaging for Medical and Personality Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Wang, Jing-Wein; Lin, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Yao-Lang; Kuo, Chia-Ming

    2017-10-23

    Over the years, analysis and induction of personality traits has been a topic for individual subjective conjecture or speculation, rather than a focus of inductive scientific analysis. This study proposes a novel framework for analysis and induction of personality traits. First, 14 personality constructs based on the "Big Five" personality factors were developed. Next, a new fingerprint image algorithm was used for classification, and the fingerprints were classified into eight types. The relationship between personality traits and fingerprint type was derived from the results of the questionnaire survey. After comparison of pre-test and post-test results, this study determined the induction ability of personality traits from fingerprint type. Experimental results showed that the left/right thumbprint type of a majority of subjects was left loop/right loop and that the personalities of individuals with this fingerprint type were moderate with no significant differences in the 14 personality constructs.

  5. Fingerprint Image Enhancement Based on Second Directional Derivative of the Digital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onnia Vesa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of fingerprint image enhancement that relies on detecting the fingerprint ridges as image regions where the second directional derivative of the digital image is positive. A facet model is used in order to approximate the derivatives at each image pixel based on the intensity values of pixels located in a certain neighborhood. We note that the size of this neighborhood has a critical role in achieving accurate enhancement results. Using neighborhoods of various sizes, the proposed algorithm determines several candidate binary representations of the input fingerprint pattern. Subsequently, an output binary ridge-map image is created by selecting image zones, from the available binary image candidates, according to a MAP selection rule. Two public domain collections of fingerprint images are used in order to objectively assess the performance of the proposed fingerprint image enhancement approach.

  6. Oriented diffusion filtering for enhancing low-quality fingerprint images

    KAUST Repository

    Gottschlich, C.; Schönlieb, C.-B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance low-quality fingerprint images, we present a novel method that first estimates the local orientation of the fingerprint ridge and valley flow and next performs oriented diffusion filtering, followed by a locally adaptive contrast enhancement step. By applying the authors' new approach to low-quality images of the FVC2004 fingerprint databases, the authors are able to show its competitiveness with other state-of-the-art enhancement methods for fingerprints like curved Gabor filtering. A major advantage of oriented diffusion filtering over those is its computational efficiency. Combining oriented diffusion filtering with curved Gabor filters led to additional improvements and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the lowest equal error rates achieved so far using MINDTCT and BOZORTH3 on the FVC2004 databases. The recognition performance and the computational efficiency of the method suggest to include oriented diffusion filtering as a standard image enhancement add-on module for real-time fingerprint recognition systems. In order to facilitate the reproduction of these results, an implementation of the oriented diffusion filtering for Matlab and GNU Octave is made available for download. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  7. Oriented diffusion filtering for enhancing low-quality fingerprint images

    KAUST Repository

    Gottschlich, C.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance low-quality fingerprint images, we present a novel method that first estimates the local orientation of the fingerprint ridge and valley flow and next performs oriented diffusion filtering, followed by a locally adaptive contrast enhancement step. By applying the authors\\' new approach to low-quality images of the FVC2004 fingerprint databases, the authors are able to show its competitiveness with other state-of-the-art enhancement methods for fingerprints like curved Gabor filtering. A major advantage of oriented diffusion filtering over those is its computational efficiency. Combining oriented diffusion filtering with curved Gabor filters led to additional improvements and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, the lowest equal error rates achieved so far using MINDTCT and BOZORTH3 on the FVC2004 databases. The recognition performance and the computational efficiency of the method suggest to include oriented diffusion filtering as a standard image enhancement add-on module for real-time fingerprint recognition systems. In order to facilitate the reproduction of these results, an implementation of the oriented diffusion filtering for Matlab and GNU Octave is made available for download. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  8. Self-Organizing Maps for Fingerprint Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin Aastrup; Tabassi, Elham; Makarov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification and iden......Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification...... machine learning techniques. We train a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster blocks of fingerprint images based on their spatial information content. The output of the SOM is a high-level representation of the finger image, which forms the input to a Random Forest trained to learn the relationship between...

  9. Image-based fingerprint verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Singla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric-based identification/verification systems provide a solution to the security concerns in the modern world where machine is replacing human in every aspect of life. Fingerprints, because of their uniqueness, are the most widely used and highly accepted biometrics. Fingerprint biometric systems are either minutiae-based or pattern learning (image based. The minutiae-based algorithm depends upon the local discontinuities in the ridge flow pattern and are used when template size is important while image-based matching algorithm uses both the micro and macro feature of a fingerprint and is used if fast response is required. In the present paper an image-based fingerprint verification system is discussed. The proposed method uses a learning phase, which is not present in conventional image-based systems. The learning phase uses pseudo random sub-sampling, which reduces the number of comparisons needed in the matching stage. This system has been developed using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench toolbox version 6i. The availability of datalog files in LabVIEW makes it one of the most promising candidates for its usage as a database. Datalog files can access and manipulate data and complex data structures quickly and easily. It makes writing and reading much faster. After extensive experimentation involving a large number of samples and different learning sizes, high accuracy with learning image size of 100 100 and a threshold value of 700 (1000 being the perfect match has been achieved.

  10. Three-dimensional imaging of artificial fingerprint by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Cheng, Yezeng

    2008-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the popular used methods of biometrics. However, due to the surface topography limitation, fingerprint recognition scanners are easily been spoofed, e.g. using artificial fingerprint dummies. Thus, biometric fingerprint identification devices need to be more accurate and secure to deal with different fraudulent methods including dummy fingerprints. Previously, we demonstrated that Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images revealed the presence of the artificial fingerprints (made from different household materials, such as cement and liquid silicone rubber) at all times, while the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader. Also we demonstrated that an analysis of the autocorrelation of the OCT images could be used in automatic recognition systems. Here, we exploited the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the artificial fingerprint by OCT to generate vivid 3D image for both the artificial fingerprint layer and the real fingerprint layer beneath. With the reconstructed 3D image, it could not only point out whether there exists an artificial material, which is intended to spoof the scanner, above the real finger, but also could provide the hacker's fingerprint. The results of these studies suggested that Optical Coherence Tomography could be a powerful real-time noninvasive method for accurate identification of artificial fingerprints real fingerprints as well.

  11. A topology based approach to categorization of fingerprint images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, A.; Olsen, M. A.; Busch, C.

    2012-01-01

    , an image is viewed as a triangulated point cloud and the topology associated with this construct is summarized using its first betti number - a number that indicates the number of distinct cycles in the triangulation associated to the particular image. This number is then compared against the first betti...... numbers of “n” prototype images in order to perform classification (“fingerprint” vs “non-fingerprint”). The proposed method is compared against SIVV (a tool provided by NIST). Experimental results on fingerprint and iris databases demonstrate the potential of the scheme....

  12. Person recognition using fingerprints and top-view finger images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panyayot Chaikan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our multimodal biometric system combines fingerprinting with a top-view finger image captured by a CCD camera without user intervention. The greyscale image is preprocessed to enhance its edges, skin furrows, and the nail shape before being manipulated by a bank of oriented filters. A square tessellation is applied to the filtered image to create a feature map, called a NailCode, which is employed in Euclidean distance computations. The NailCode reduces system errors by 17.68% in the verification mode, and by 6.82% in the identification mode.

  13. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  14. Snake Model Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic fingerprint identification technology is a quite mature research field in biometric identification technology. As the preprocessing step in fingerprint identification, fingerprint segmentation can improve the accuracy of fingerprint feature extraction, and also reduce the time of fingerprint preprocessing, which has a great significance in improving the performance of the whole system. Based on the analysis of the commonly used methods of fingerprint segmentation, the existing segmentation algorithm is improved in this paper. The snake model is used to segment the fingerprint image. Additionally, it is improved by using the global optimization of the improved genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that the algorithm has obvious advantages both in the speed of image segmentation and in the segmentation effect.

  15. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  16. Straightforward fabrication of black nano silica dusting powder for latent fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komalasari, Isna; Krismastuti, Fransiska Sri Herwahyu; Elishian, Christine; Handayani, Eka Mardika; Nugraha, Willy Cahya; Ketrin, Rosi

    2017-11-01

    Imaging of latent fingerprint pattern (aka fingermark) is one of the most important and accurate detection methods in forensic investigation because of the characteristic of individual fingerprint. This detection technique relies on the mechanical adherence of fingerprint powder to the moisture and oily component of the skin left on the surface. The particle size of fingerprint powder is one of the critical parameter to obtain excellent fingerprint image. This study develops a simple, cheap and straightforward method to fabricate Nano size black dusting fingerprint powder based on Nano silica and applies the powder to visualize latent fingerprint. The nanostructured silica was prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then modified with Nano carbon, methylene blue and sodium acetate to color the powder. Finally, as a proof-of-principle, the ability of this black Nano silica dusting powder to image latent fingerprint is successfully demonstrated and the results show that this fingerprint powder provides clearer fingerprint pattern compared to the commercial one highlighting the potential application of the nanostructured silica in forensic science.

  17. RSA Key Development Using Fingerprint Image on Text Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sayuti; Triana, Indah; Khairani, Sumi; Yasir, Amru; Sundari, Siti

    2017-12-01

    Along with the development of technology today, humans are very facilitated in accessing information and Communicate with various media, including through the Internet network . Messages are sent by media such as text are not necessarily guaranteed security. it is often found someone that wants to send a secret message to the recipient, but the messages can be known by irresponsible people. So the sender feels dissappointed because the secret message that should be known only to the recipient only becomes known by the irresponsible people . It is necessary to do security the message by using the RSA algorithm, Using fingerprint image to generate RSA key.This is a solution to enrich the security of a message,it is needed to process images firstly before generating RSA keys with feature extraction.

  18. Verification and Validation of a Fingerprint Image Registration Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for reliable identification and authentication is driving the increased use of biometric devices and systems. Verification and validation techniques applicable to these systems are rather immature and ad hoc, yet the consequences of the wide deployment of biometric systems could be significant. In this paper we discuss an approach towards validation and reliability estimation of a fingerprint registration software. Our validation approach includes the following three steps: (a the validation of the source code with respect to the system requirements specification; (b the validation of the optimization algorithm, which is in the core of the registration system; and (c the automation of testing. Since the optimization algorithm is heuristic in nature, mathematical analysis and test results are used to estimate the reliability and perform failure analysis of the image registration module.

  19. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Uncovers Photosynthetic Fingerprint of Citrus Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Cen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus, which has posed a serious threat to the global citrus production. This research was aimed to explore the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging combined with feature selection to characterize and detect the HLB disease. Chlorophyll fluorescence images of citrus leaf samples were measured by an in-house chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The commonly used chlorophyll fluorescence parameters provided the first screening of HLB disease. To further explore the photosynthetic fingerprint of HLB infected leaves, three feature selection methods combined with the supervised classifiers were employed to identify the unique fluorescence signature of HLB and perform the three-class classification (i.e., healthy, HLB infected, and nutrient deficient leaves. Unlike the commonly used fluorescence parameters, this novel data-driven approach by using the combination of the mean fluorescence parameters and image features gave the best classification performance with the accuracy of 97%, and presented a better interpretation for the spatial heterogeneity of photochemical and non-photochemical components in HLB infected citrus leaves. These results imply the potential of the proposed approach for the citrus HLB disease diagnosis, and also provide a valuable insight for the photosynthetic response to the HLB disease.

  20. Image encryption using fingerprint as key based on phase retrieval algorithm and public key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.

  1. Accessible biometrics: A frustrated total internal reflection approach to imaging fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan D; Sharp, James S

    2017-05-01

    Fingerprints are widely used as a means of identifying persons of interest because of the highly individual nature of the spatial distribution and types of features (or minuta) found on the surface of a finger. This individuality has led to their wide application in the comparison of fingerprints found at crime scenes with those taken from known offenders and suspects in custody. However, despite recent advances in machine vision technology and image processing techniques, fingerprint evidence is still widely being collected using outdated practices involving ink and paper - a process that can be both time consuming and expensive. Reduction of forensic service budgets increasingly requires that evidence be gathered and processed more rapidly and efficiently. However, many of the existing digital fingerprint acquisition devices have proven too expensive to roll out on a large scale. As a result new, low-cost imaging technologies are required to increase the quality and throughput of the processing of fingerprint evidence. Here we describe an inexpensive approach to digital fingerprint acquisition that is based upon frustrated total internal reflection imaging. The quality and resolution of the images produced are shown to be as good as those currently acquired using ink and paper based methods. The same imaging technique is also shown to be capable of imaging powdered fingerprints that have been lifted from a crime scene using adhesive tape or gel lifters. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polarization-based and specular-reflection-based noncontact latent fingerprint imaging and lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Schön; Yemelyanov, Konstantin M.; Pugh, Edward N., Jr.; Engheta, Nader

    2006-09-01

    In forensic science the finger marks left unintentionally by people at a crime scene are referred to as latent fingerprints. Most existing techniques to detect and lift latent fingerprints require application of a certain material directly onto the exhibit. The chemical and physical processing applied to the fingerprint potentially degrades or prevents further forensic testing on the same evidence sample. Many existing methods also have deleterious side effects. We introduce a method to detect and extract latent fingerprint images without applying any powder or chemicals on the object. Our method is based on the optical phenomena of polarization and specular reflection together with the physiology of fingerprint formation. The recovered image quality is comparable to existing methods. In some cases, such as the sticky side of tape, our method shows unique advantages.

  3. The application of infrared chemical imaging to the detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints: method optimization and further findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Mark; Despland, Pauline; Shimmon, Ronald; Kalman, John R; Reedy, Brian J

    2007-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging allows the collection of fingerprint images from backgrounds that have traditionally posed problems for conventional fingerprint detection methods. In this work, the suitability of this technique for the imaging of fingerprints on a wider range of difficult surfaces (including polymer banknotes, various types of paper, and aluminum drink cans) has been tested. For each new surface, a systematic methodology was employed to optimize settings such as spectral resolution, number of scans, and pixel aggregation in order to reduce collection time and file-size without compromising spatial resolution and the quality of the final fingerprint image. The imaging of cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints on polymer banknotes has been improved, with shorter collection times for larger image areas. One-month-old fingerprints on polymer banknotes have been successfully fumed and imaged. It was also found that FTIR chemical imaging gives high quality images of cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints on aluminum drink cans, regardless of the printed background. Although visible and UV light sources do not yield fingerprint images of the same quality on difficult, nonporous backgrounds, in many cases they can be used to locate a fingerprint prior to higher quality imaging by the FTIR technique. Attempts to acquire FTIR images of fingerprints on paper-based porous surfaces that had been treated with established reagents such as ninhydrin were all unsuccessful due to the swamping effect of the cellulose constituents of the paper.

  4. Partial Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Region Division Technique and Morphological Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Arshad, I.; Raja, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprints are the most renowned biometric trait for identification and verification. The quality of fingerprint image plays a vital role in feature extraction and matching. Existing algorithms work well for good quality fingerprint images and fail for partial fingerprint images as they are obtained from excessively dry fingers or affected by disease resulting in broken ridges. We propose an algorithm to enhance partial fingerprint images using morphological operatins with region division technique. The proposed method divides low quality image into six regions from top to bottom. Morphological operations choose an appropriate Structuring Element (SE) that joins broken ridges and thus enhance the image for further processing. The proposed method uses SE line with suitable angle theta and radius r in each region based on the orientation of the ridges. The algorithm is applied to 14 low quality fingerprint images from FVC-2002 database. Experimental results show that percentage accuracy has been improved using the proposed algorithm. The manual markup has been reduced and accuracy of 76.16% with Equal Error Rate (EER) of 3.16% is achieved. (author)

  5. MR fingerprinting using the quick echo splitting NMR imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Jerecic, Renate; Duerk, Jeffrey; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a quantitative method for the relaxation properties with a reduced radio frequency (RF) power deposition by combining magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) technique with quick echo splitting NMR imaging technique (QUEST). A QUEST-based MRF sequence was implemented to acquire high-order echoes by increasing the gaps between RF pulses. Bloch simulations were used to calculate a dictionary containing the range of physically plausible signal evolutions using a range of T 1 and T 2 values based on the pulse sequence. MRF-QUEST was evaluated by comparing to the results of spin-echo methods. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of MRF-QUEST was compared with the clinically available methods. MRF-QUEST quantifies the relaxation properties with good accuracy at the estimated head SAR of 0.03 W/kg. T 1 and T 2 values estimated by MRF-QUEST are in good agreement with the traditional methods. The combination of the MRF and the QUEST provides an accurate quantification of T 1 and T 2 simultaneously with reduced RF power deposition. The resulting lower SAR may provide a new acquisition strategy for MRF when RF energy deposition is problematic. Magn Reson Med 77:979-988, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Ridge Distance Estimation in Fingerprint Images: Algorithm and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to estimate the ridge distance accurately, an intrinsic texture property of a fingerprint image. Up to now, only several articles have touched directly upon ridge distance estimation. Little has been published providing detailed evaluation of methods for ridge distance estimation, in particular, the traditional spectral analysis method applied in the frequency field. In this paper, a novel method on nonoverlap blocks, called the statistical method, is presented to estimate the ridge distance. Direct estimation ratio (DER and estimation accuracy (EA are defined and used as parameters along with time consumption (TC to evaluate performance of these two methods for ridge distance estimation. Based on comparison of performances of these two methods, a third hybrid method is developed to combine the merits of both methods. Experimental results indicate that DER is 44.7%, 63.8%, and 80.6%; EA is 84%, 93%, and 91%; and TC is , , and seconds, with the spectral analysis method, statistical method, and hybrid method, respectively.

  7. Optical image encryption using QR code and multilevel fingerprints in gyrator transform domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang; Yan, Aimin; Dong, Jiabin; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao

    2017-11-01

    A new concept of GT encryption scheme is proposed in this paper. We present a novel optical image encryption method by using quick response (QR) code and multilevel fingerprint keys in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this method, an original image is firstly transformed into a QR code, which is placed in the input plane of cascaded GTs. Subsequently, the QR code is encrypted into the cipher-text by using multilevel fingerprint keys. The original image can be obtained easily by reading the high-quality retrieved QR code with hand-held devices. The main parameters used as private keys are GTs' rotation angles and multilevel fingerprints. Biometrics and cryptography are integrated with each other to improve data security. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed encryption scheme. In the future, the method of applying QR codes and fingerprints in GT domains possesses much potential for information security.

  8. Dillinger’s files in the FBI archives of 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Yaroslav Alexandrovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John Dillinger (1903-1934 years, a famous American criminal and bank robber of the times of the Great Depression (1929-1939 years, "The Public Enemy number one". Dillinger became a symbol of his time, and his annihilation was one of the first major operations of the FBI which was still growing in strength. Over time Dillinger gained a glory of a public hero of the United States, kind of a "Robin Hood of the Great Depression". This article focuses on the FBI archive documents that show the initial stage of image-building and his high profile case. Materials of the National Archives of the FBI are used in this article.

  9. Detection of visible and latent fingerprints using micro-X-ray fluorescence elemental imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Christopher G; Wiltshire, Sara S; Miller, Thomasin C; Havrilla, George J; Majidi, Vahid

    2006-01-01

    Using micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF), a novel means of detecting fingerprints was examined in which the prints were imaged based on their elemental composition. MXRF is a nondestructive technique. Although this method requires a priori knowledge about the approximate location of a print, it offers a new and complementary means for detecting fingerprints that are also left pristine for further analysis (including potential DNA extraction) or archiving purposes. Sebaceous fingerprints and those made after perspiring were detected based on elements such as potassium and chlorine present in the print residue. Unique prints were also detected including those containing lotion, saliva, banana, or sunscreen. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential for visualizing fingerprints by MXRF on surfaces that can be problematic using current methods.

  10. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting - a promising new approach to obtain standardized imaging biomarkers from MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Current routine MRI examinations rely on the acquisition of qualitative images that have a contrast "weighted" for a mixture of (magnetic) tissue properties. Recently, a novel approach was introduced, namely MR Fingerprinting (MRF) with a completely different approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization. Instead of using a repeated, serial acquisition of data for the characterization of individual parameters of interest, MRF uses a pseudo randomized acquisition that causes the signals from different tissues to have a unique signal evolution or 'fingerprint' that is simultaneously a function of the multiple material properties under investigation. The processing after acquisition involves a pattern recognition algorithm to match the fingerprints to a predefined dictionary of predicted signal evolutions. These can then be translated into quantitative maps of the magnetic parameters of interest. MR Fingerprinting (MRF) is a technique that could theoretically be applied to most traditional qualitative MRI methods and replaces them with acquisition of truly quantitative tissue measures. MRF is, thereby, expected to be much more accurate and reproducible than traditional MRI and should improve multi-center studies and significantly reduce reader bias when diagnostic imaging is performed. Key Points • MR fingerprinting (MRF) is a new approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization.• MRF provides highly accurate quantitative maps of T1, T2, proton density, diffusion.• MRF may offer multiparametric imaging with high reproducibility, and high potential for multicenter/ multivendor studies.

  12. Effect of Aging and Surface Interactions on the Diffusion of Endogenous Compounds in Latent Fingerprints Studied by Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kelly C; Lee, Young Jin

    2018-05-01

    The ability to determine the age of fingerprints would be immeasurably beneficial in criminal investigations. We explore the possibility of determining the age of fingerprints by analyzing various compounds as they diffuse from the ridges to the valleys of fingerprints using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The diffusion of two classes of endogenous fingerprint compounds, fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TGs), was studied in fresh and aged fingerprints on four surfaces. We expected higher molecular weight TGs would diffuse slower than fatty acids and allow us to determine the age of older fingerprints. However, we found interactions between endogenous compounds and the surface have a much stronger impact on diffusion than molecular weight. For example, diffusion of TGs is faster on hydrophilic plain glass or partially hydrophilic stainless steel surfaces, than on a hydrophobic Rain-x treated surface. This result further complicates utilizing a diffusion model to age fingerprints. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. A Novel Approach Based on PCNNs Template for Fingerprint Image Thinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacheng, X.; Bailiang, L.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kacprzyk, J.

    2009-01-01

    A PCNNs-based square-and-triangle-template method for binary fingerprint image thinning is proposed. The algorithm is iterative, in which a combined sequential and parallel processing is employed to accelerate execution. When a neuron satisfies the square template, the pixel corresponding to this

  14. Two-Level Evaluation on Sensor Interoperability of Features in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shuo Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, which refers to the feature’s ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints captured by different sensors. To address this issue, this paper presents a two-level feature evaluation method, including the first level feature evaluation based on segmentation error rate and the second level feature evaluation based on decision tree. The proposed method is performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the sensor interoperability of features, and the features with good evaluation results acquire better segmentation accuracies of images originating from different sensors.

  15. Novelty detection-based internal fingerprint segmentation in optical coherence tomography images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, Rethabile

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, from images acquired using contact-less 3-D swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer from the external...

  16. Novelty detection-based internal fingerprint segmentation in optical coherence tomography images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, in 3-D swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images. The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer external skin problems. The slices composing...

  17. Contrast enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarasan Ezhilmaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel contrast image enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory is recommended in this work. The method of Hamacher T co-norm(S norm which generates a new membership function with the help of upper and lower membership function of type II fuzzy set. The finger print identification is one of the very few techniques employed in forensic science to aid criminal investigations in daily life, providing access control in financial security;-, visa related services, as well as others. Mostly fingerprint images are poorly illuminated and hardly visible, so it is necessary to enhance the input images. The enhancement is useful for authentication and matching. The fingerprint enhancement is vital for identifying and authenticating people by matching their fingerprints with the stored one in the database. The proposed enhancement of the intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory results showed that it is more effective, especially, very useful for forensic science operations. The experimental results were compared with non-fuzzy, fuzzy, intuitionistic fuzzy and type II fuzzy methods in which the proposed method offered better results with good quality, less noise and low blur features.

  18. Efficient Hardware Implementation For Fingerprint Image Enhancement Using Anisotropic Gaussian Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq Mahmood; Bailey, Donald G; Khan, Mohammad A U; Kong, Yinan

    2017-05-01

    A real-time image filtering technique is proposed which could result in faster implementation for fingerprint image enhancement. One major hurdle associated with fingerprint filtering techniques is the expensive nature of their hardware implementations. To circumvent this, a modified anisotropic Gaussian filter is efficiently adopted in hardware by decomposing the filter into two orthogonal Gaussians and an oriented line Gaussian. An architecture is developed for dynamically controlling the orientation of the line Gaussian filter. To further improve the performance of the filter, the input image is homogenized by a local image normalization. In the proposed structure, for a middle-range reconfigurable FPGA, both parallel compute-intensive and real-time demands were achieved. We manage to efficiently speed up the image-processing time and improve the resource utilization of the FPGA. Test results show an improved speed for its hardware architecture while maintaining reasonable enhancement benchmarks.

  19. Compression of fingerprint data using the wavelet vector quantization image compression algorithm. 1992 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1992-04-11

    This report describes the development of a Wavelet Vector Quantization (WVQ) image compression algorithm for fingerprint raster files. The pertinent work was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This document describes a previously-sent package of C-language source code, referred to as LAFPC, that performs the WVQ fingerprint compression and decompression tasks. The particulars of the WVQ algorithm and the associated design procedure are detailed elsewhere; the purpose of this document is to report the results of the design algorithm for the fingerprint application and to delineate the implementation issues that are incorporated in LAFPC. Special attention is paid to the computation of the wavelet transform, the fast search algorithm used for the VQ encoding, and the entropy coding procedure used in the transmission of the source symbols.

  20. High-speed biometrics ultrasonic system for 3D fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman G.; Severin, Fedar

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new robust fingerprint identification technology based upon forming surface-subsurface (under skin) ultrasonic 3D images of the finger pads. The presented work aims to create specialized ultrasonic scanning methods for biometric purposes. Preliminary research has demonstrated the applicability of acoustic microscopy for fingerprint reading. The additional information from internal skin layers and dermis structures contained in the scan can essentially improve confidence in the identification. Advantages of this system include high resolution and quick scanning time. Operating in pulse-echo mode provides spatial resolution up to 0.05 mm. Technology advantages of the proposed technology are the following: • Full-range scanning of the fingerprint area "nail to nail" (2.5 x 2.5 cm) can be done in less than 5 sec with a resolution of up to 1000 dpi. • Collection of information about the in-depth structure of the fingerprint realized by the set of spherically focused 50 MHz acoustic lens provide the resolution ~ 0.05 mm or better • In addition to fingerprints, this technology can identify sweat porous at the surface and under the skin • No sensitivity to the contamination of the finger's surface • Detection of blood velocity using Doppler effect can be implemented to distinguish living specimens • Utilization as polygraph device • Simple connectivity to fingerprint databases obtained with other techniques • The digitally interpolated images can then be enhanced allowing for greater resolution • Method can be applied to fingernails and underlying tissues, providing more information • A laboratory prototype of the biometrics system based on these described principles was designed, built and tested. It is the first step toward a practical implementation of this technique.

  1. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Kellman

    Full Text Available Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert

  2. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J; Mnookin, Jennifer L; Erlikhman, Gennady; Garrigan, Patrick; Ghose, Tandra; Mettler, Everett; Charlton, David; Dror, Itiel E

    2014-01-01

    Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert performance and

  3. Segmentation of forensic latent fingerprint images lifted contact-less from planar surfaces with optical cohererence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available the substrate surface plus the latent fingerprint impression left on it. They are concatenated together to form a 2-D segmented image of the lifted fingerprint. After enhancement using contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization, minutiae were extracted...

  4. The use of [18F]4-fluorobenzyl iodide (FBI) in PET radiotracer synthesis: model alkylation studies and its application in the design of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-based imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.H.; Elder, S.T.; Morton, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    [ 18 F]4-Fluorobenzyl iodide ([ 18 F]FBI) was prepared, and a series of model alkylation studies were conducted to determine its chemical reactivity toward nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles of varying nucleophilicities. [ 18 F]FBI was found to react rapidly with secondary amines and anilines to give the corresponding N-[ 18 F]4-fluorobenzyl analogue in high yield. Amides and thiol groups required the use of a base catalyst. The utility of [ 18 F]FBI was documented by investigation of dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptor-based radiotracers. (author)

  5. Fingerprint image reconstruction for swipe sensor using Predictive Overlap Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiansyah Ahmad Zafrullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Swipe sensor is one of many biometric authentication sensor types that widely applied to embedded devices. The sensor produces an overlap on every pixel block of the image, so the picture requires a reconstruction process before heading to the feature extraction process. Conventional reconstruction methods require extensive computation, causing difficult to apply to embedded devices that have limited computing process. In this paper, image reconstruction is proposed using predictive overlap method, which determines the image block shift from the previous set of change data. The experiments were performed using 36 images generated by a swipe sensor with 128 x 8 pixels size of the area, where each image has an overlap in each block. The results reveal computation can increase up to 86.44% compared with conventional methods, with accuracy decreasing to 0.008% in average.

  6. Congress, NRC mull utility access to FBI criminal files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultroska, D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiences at Alabama Power Company and other nuclear utilities have promped a request for institutionalizing security checks of personnel in order to eliminated convicted criminals and drug users. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which could provide FBI criminal history information by submitting fingerprints, does not do so, and would require new legislation to take on that duty. Believing that current malevolent employees can be managed with existing procedures, NRC allows criminal background checks only on prospective employees in order to avoid a negative social impact on personnel. Legislation to transfer criminal histories to nuclear facilities is now pending, and NRC is leaning toward a request for full disclosure, partly because of terrorist threats and partly to save manpower time and costs in reviewing case histories

  7. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting - a promising new approach to obtain standardized imaging biomarkers from MRI

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Current routine MRI examinations rely on the acquisition of qualitative images that have a contrast ?weighted? for a mixture of (magnetic) tissue properties. Recently, a novel approach was introduced, namely MR Fingerprinting (MRF) with a completely different approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization. Instead of using a repeated, serial acquisition of data for the characterization of individual parameters of interest, MRF uses a pseudo randomized acquisition that causes ...

  8. Usefulness of biological fingerprint in magnetic resonance imaging for patient verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Junji; Kudomi, Shohei; Ueda, Katsuhiko

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the feasibility of automated patient verification using multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images generated from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain. Several anatomy-related MPR images generated from three-dimensional fast scout scan of each MR examination were used as biological fingerprint images in this study. The database of this study consisted of 730 temporal pairs of MR examination of the brain. We calculated the correlation value between current and prior biological fingerprint images of the same patient and also all combinations of two images for different patients to evaluate the effectiveness of our method for patient verification. The best performance of our system were as follows: a half-total error rate of 1.59 % with a false acceptance rate of 0.023 % and a false rejection rate of 3.15 %, an equal error rate of 1.37 %, and a rank-one identification rate of 98.6 %. Our method makes it possible to verify the identity of the patient using only some existing medical images without the addition of incidental equipment. Also, our method will contribute to patient misidentification error management caused by human errors.

  9. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  10. 77 FR 36292 - Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Level III Evaluation; FBI National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...: Approval of a reinstated collection. 2. Title of the Forms: FBI National Academy Post-Course Questionnaire... FBI National Academy. These surveys have been developed that will measure the effectiveness of...

  11. A Fingerprint Image Encryption Scheme Based on Hyperchaotic Rössler Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abundiz-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biometric identifiers have been used to identify or authenticate users in a biometric system to increase the security in access control systems. Nevertheless, there are several attacks on the biometric system to steal and recover the user’s biometric trait. One of the most powerful attacks is extracting the fingerprint pattern when it is transmitted over communication lines between modules. In this paper, we present a novel fingerprint image encryption scheme based on hyperchaotic Rössler map to provide high security and secrecy in user’s biometric trait, avoid identity theft, and increase the robustness of the biometric system. A complete security analysis is presented to justify the secrecy of the biometric trait by using our proposed scheme at statistical level with 100% of NPCR, low correlation, and uniform histograms. Therefore, it can be used in secure biometric access control systems.

  12. Interpretation of fingerprint image quality features extracted by self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Ivan; Olsen, Martin A.; Busch, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Accurate prediction of fingerprint quality is of significant importance to any fingerprint-based biometric system. Ensuring high quality samples for both probe and reference can substantially improve the system's performance by lowering false non-matches, thus allowing finer adjustment of the decision threshold of the biometric system. Furthermore, the increasing usage of biometrics in mobile contexts demands development of lightweight methods for operational environment. A novel two-tier computationally efficient approach was recently proposed based on modelling block-wise fingerprint image data using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to extract specific ridge pattern features, which are then used as an input to a Random Forests (RF) classifier trained to predict the quality score of a propagated sample. This paper conducts an investigative comparative analysis on a publicly available dataset for the improvement of the two-tier approach by proposing additionally three feature interpretation methods, based respectively on SOM, Generative Topographic Mapping and RF. The analysis shows that two of the proposed methods produce promising results on the given dataset.

  13. Fingerprint pores extractor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngenge, NA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available , this is not always the case because of diseases and hash working conditions that affect fingerprints. In order to maintain high level of security independent of varying fingerprint image quality research suggests the use of other fingerprint features to compliment...

  14. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  15. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunqiang Tao

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6 images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2 Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3 A larger sample (83 pairs was collected. (4 A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5 A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  16. Acquiring a 2D rolled equivalent fingerprint image from a non-contact 3D finger scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehpuria, Abhishika; Lau, Daniel L.; Hassebrook, Laurence G.

    2006-04-01

    The use of fingerprints as a biometric is both the oldest mode of computer aided personal identification and the most relied-upon technology in use today. But current fingerprint scanning systems have some challenging and peculiar difficulties. Often skin conditions and imperfect acquisition circumstances cause the captured fingerprint image to be far from ideal. Also some of the acquisition techniques can be slow and cumbersome to use and may not provide the complete information required for reliable feature extraction and fingerprint matching. Most of the difficulties arise due to the contact of the fingerprint surface with the sensor platen. To attain a fast-capture, non-contact, fingerprint scanning technology, we are developing a scanning system that employs structured light illumination as a means for acquiring a 3-D scan of the finger with sufficiently high resolution to record ridge-level details. In this paper, we describe the postprocessing steps used for converting the acquired 3-D scan of the subject's finger into a 2-D rolled equivalent image.

  17. FBI hakkab Wall Streeti puistama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    FBI hakkab uurima nelja äsja hiigelkahjumeid kandnud suurfirmat - Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Lehman Brothers, AIG - võimaliku hüpoteegipettuse pärast. Hüpoteegikriisi pärast on uurimise all ka ligi 1400 individuaalset kinnisvaravahendajat. USA-s levivast kinnisvarapetuskeemist. Lisa: Kongress vaidleb triljonite üle

  18. Semantic Analysis of FBI News Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present our work on semantic analysis of FBI News reports. In the paper we have considered the News which are of the immense significance for the analyst who want to analyze the News of specific area. With this definite analysis we are able to extract critical events or concepts...

  19. SU-E-I-75: Development of New Biological Fingerprints for Patient Recognition to Identify Misfiled Images in a PACS Server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y; Yoon, Y; Iwase, K; Yasumatsu, S; Matsunobu, Y; Morishita, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We are trying to develop an image-searching technique to identify misfiled images in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) server by using five biological fingerprints: the whole lung field, cardiac shadow, superior mediastinum, lung apex, and right lower lung. Each biological fingerprint in a chest radiograph includes distinctive anatomical structures to identify misfiled images. The whole lung field was less effective for evaluating the similarity between two images than the other biological fingerprints. This was mainly due to the variation in the positioning for chest radiographs. The purpose of this study is to develop new biological fingerprints that could reduce influence of differences in the positioning for chest radiography. Methods: Two hundred patients were selected randomly from our database (36,212 patients). These patients had two images each (current and previous images). Current images were used as the misfiled images in this study. A circumscribed rectangular area of the lung and the upper half of the rectangle were selected automatically as new biological fingerprints. These biological fingerprints were matched to all previous images in the database. The degrees of similarity between the two images were calculated for the same and different patients. The usefulness of new the biological fingerprints for automated patient recognition was examined in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the circumscribed rectangle of the lung, upper half of the rectangle, and whole lung field were 0.980, 0.994, and 0.950, respectively. The new biological fingerprints showed better performance in identifying the patients correctly than the whole lung field. Conclusion: We have developed new biological fingerprints: circumscribed rectangle of the lung and upper half of the rectangle. These new biological fingerprints would be useful for automated patient identification system

  20. SU-E-I-75: Development of New Biological Fingerprints for Patient Recognition to Identify Misfiled Images in a PACS Server

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y; Yoon, Y; Iwase, K; Yasumatsu, S; Matsunobu, Y [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JP (Japan); Morishita, J [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JP (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We are trying to develop an image-searching technique to identify misfiled images in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) server by using five biological fingerprints: the whole lung field, cardiac shadow, superior mediastinum, lung apex, and right lower lung. Each biological fingerprint in a chest radiograph includes distinctive anatomical structures to identify misfiled images. The whole lung field was less effective for evaluating the similarity between two images than the other biological fingerprints. This was mainly due to the variation in the positioning for chest radiographs. The purpose of this study is to develop new biological fingerprints that could reduce influence of differences in the positioning for chest radiography. Methods: Two hundred patients were selected randomly from our database (36,212 patients). These patients had two images each (current and previous images). Current images were used as the misfiled images in this study. A circumscribed rectangular area of the lung and the upper half of the rectangle were selected automatically as new biological fingerprints. These biological fingerprints were matched to all previous images in the database. The degrees of similarity between the two images were calculated for the same and different patients. The usefulness of new the biological fingerprints for automated patient recognition was examined in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the circumscribed rectangle of the lung, upper half of the rectangle, and whole lung field were 0.980, 0.994, and 0.950, respectively. The new biological fingerprints showed better performance in identifying the patients correctly than the whole lung field. Conclusion: We have developed new biological fingerprints: circumscribed rectangle of the lung and upper half of the rectangle. These new biological fingerprints would be useful for automated patient identification system

  1. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) at 7 T: Effective Quantitative Imaging for Rodent Disease Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Chen, Yong; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Herrmann, Kelsey A.; Vincent, Jason A.; Dell, Katherine M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.; Griswold, Mark A.; Flask, Chris A.; Lu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    High field, preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are now commonly used to quantitatively assess disease status and efficacy of novel therapies in a wide variety of rodent models. Unfortunately, conventional MRI methods are highly susceptible to respiratory and cardiac motion artifacts resulting in potentially inaccurate and misleading data. We have developed an initial preclinical, 7.0 T MRI implementation of the highly novel Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) methodology that has been previously described for clinical imaging applications. The MRF technology combines a priori variation in the MRI acquisition parameters with dictionary-based matching of acquired signal evolution profiles to simultaneously generate quantitative maps of T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density. This preclinical MRF acquisition was constructed from a Fast Imaging with Steady-state Free Precession (FISP) MRI pulse sequence to acquire 600 MRF images with both evolving T1 and T2 weighting in approximately 30 minutes. This initial high field preclinical MRF investigation demonstrated reproducible and differentiated estimates of in vitro phantoms with different relaxation times. In vivo preclinical MRF results in mouse kidneys and brain tumor models demonstrated an inherent resistance to respiratory motion artifacts as well as sensitivity to known pathology. These results suggest that MRF methodology may offer the opportunity for quantification of numerous MRI parameters for a wide variety of preclinical imaging applications. PMID:25639694

  2. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sébastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-02-01

    To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this paper, we present a novel software-based fake detection method that can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security of biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and non-intrusive manner, through the use of image quality assessment. The proposed approach presents a very low degree of complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications, using 25 general image quality features extracted from one image (i.e., the same acquired for authentication purposes) to distinguish between legitimate and impostor samples. The experimental results, obtained on publicly available data sets of fingerprint, iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method is highly competitive compared with other state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis of the general image quality of real biometric samples reveals highly valuable information that may be very efficiently used to discriminate them from fake traits.

  3. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Field Office Jurisdiction/Divisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset represents the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) national field office jurisdiction/divisional boundary locations. The field offices are centrally...

  4. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  5. Comparative study of different approaches for multivariate image analysis in HPTLC fingerprinting of natural products such as plant resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristivojević, Petar; Trifković, Jelena; Vovk, Irena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2017-01-01

    Considering the introduction of phytochemical fingerprint analysis, as a method of screening the complex natural products for the presence of most bioactive compounds, use of chemometric classification methods, application of powerful scanning and image capturing and processing devices and algorithms, advancement in development of novel stationary phases as well as various separation modalities, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting is becoming attractive and fruitful field of separation science. Multivariate image analysis is crucial in the light of proper data acquisition. In a current study, different image processing procedures were studied and compared in detail on the example of HPTLC chromatograms of plant resins. In that sense, obtained variables such as gray intensities of pixels along the solvent front, peak area and mean values of peak were used as input data and compared to obtained best classification models. Important steps in image analysis, baseline removal, denoising, target peak alignment and normalization were pointed out. Numerical data set based on mean value of selected bands and intensities of pixels along the solvent front proved to be the most convenient for planar-chromatographic profiling, although required at least the basic knowledge on image processing methodology, and could be proposed for further investigation in HPLTC fingerprinting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MR fingerprinting using fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP) with spiral readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the possibility of using gradient echo-based sequences other than balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) in the magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) framework to quantify the relaxation parameters . An MRF method based on a fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) sequence structure is presented. A dictionary containing possible signal evolutions with physiological range of T1 and T2 was created using the extended phase graph formalism according to the acquisition parameters. The proposed method was evaluated in a phantom and a human brain. T1 , T2 , and proton density were quantified directly from the undersampled data by the pattern recognition algorithm. T1 and T2 values from the phantom demonstrate that the results of MRF FISP are in good agreement with the traditional gold-standard methods. T1 and T2 values in brain are within the range of previously reported values. MRF-FISP enables a fast and accurate quantification of the relaxation parameters. It is immune to the banding artifact of bSSFP due to B0 inhomogeneities, which could improve the ability to use MRF for applications beyond brain imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Photogrammetric fingerprint unwrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, Gerhard; del Pilar Caballo Perucha, Maria; Bauer, Arnold; Nauschnegg, Bernhard

    2008-04-01

    Fingerprints are important biometric cues. Compared to conventional fingerprint sensors the use of contact-free stereoscopic image acquisition of the front-most finger segment has a set of advantages: Finger deformation is avoided, the entire relevant area for biometric use is covered, some technical aspects like sensor maintenance and cleaning are facilitated, and access to a three-dimensional reconstruction of the covered area is possible. We describe a photogrammetric workflow for nail-to-nail fingerprint reconstruction: A calibrated sensor setup with typically 5 cameras and dedicated illumination acquires adjacent stereo pairs. Using the silhouettes of the segmented finger a raw cylindrical model is generated. After preprocessing (shading correction, dust removal, lens distortion correction), each individual camera texture is projected onto the model. Image-to-image matching on these pseudo ortho images and dense 3D reconstruction obtains a textured cylindrical digital surface model with radial distances around the major axis and a grid size in the range of 25-50 µm. The model allows for objective fingerprint unwrapping and novel fingerprint matching algorithms since 3D relations between fingerprint features are available as additional cues. Moreover, covering the entire region with relevant fingerprint texture is particularly important for establishing a comprehensive forensic database. The workflow has been implemented in portable C and is ready for industrial exploitation. Further improvement issues are code optimization, unwrapping method, illumination strategy to avoid highlights and to improve the initial segmentation, and the comparison of the unwrapping result to conventional fingerprint acquisition technology.

  8. Angstrom-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Single Molecules via Wave-Function Fingerprints of Nuclear Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2016-08-01

    Single-molecule sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and angstrom resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the highest challenges in magnetic microscopy. Recent development in dynamical-decoupling- (DD) enhanced diamond quantum sensing has enabled single-nucleus NMR and nanoscale NMR. Similar to conventional NMR and MRI, current DD-based quantum sensing utilizes the "frequency fingerprints" of target nuclear spins. The frequency fingerprints by their nature cannot resolve different nuclear spins that have the same noise frequency or differentiate different types of correlations in nuclear-spin clusters, which limit the resolution of single-molecule MRI. Here we show that this limitation can be overcome by using "wave-function fingerprints" of target nuclear spins, which is much more sensitive than the frequency fingerprints to the weak hyperfine interaction between the targets and a sensor under resonant DD control. We demonstrate a scheme of angstrom-resolution MRI that is capable of counting and individually localizing single nuclear spins of the same frequency and characterizing the correlations in nuclear-spin clusters. A nitrogen-vacancy-center spin sensor near a diamond surface, provided that the coherence time is improved by surface engineering in the near future, may be employed to determine with angstrom resolution the positions and conformation of single molecules that are isotope labeled. The scheme in this work offers an approach to breaking the resolution limit set by the "frequency gradients" in conventional MRI and to reaching the angstrom-scale resolution.

  9. FBI's Employee Assistance Program: an advanced law enforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, V J

    1999-01-01

    As we approach the 21st century the FBI has enhanced its Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to include EAP services, Peer Support and Critical Incident Stress Management/Debriefing (CISM/D) and Chaplains' Program. This EAP is now anticipating the future to include a Compassion Fatigue Program for its counselors and coordinators, as well as developing CISD protocols for incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. As the FBI has accepted new challenges in the investigative arena throughout the world, so the FBI's Employee Assistance and related programs have set out to support their employees and family members with a continuum of integrated confidential services. The FBI recognizes that its most important asset is its personnel, and EAP is the vehicle to assist the FBI family in remaining healthy and strong for the continuous quest to fulfill its mission.

  10. Reference point detection for improved fingerprint matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Kalker, A.A.C.M.; Veen, van der M.; Bazen, A.; Delp, E.J.; Wong, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important stages of fingerprint recognition is the registration of the fingerprints with respect to the original template. This is not a straightforward task as fingerprint images may have been subject to rotations and translations. Popular techniques for fingerprint registration use a

  11. Rapid and quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ouri; Huang, Shuning; McMahon, Michael T; Rosen, Matthew S; Farrar, Christian T

    2018-05-13

    To develop a fast magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) method for quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging. We implemented a CEST-MRF method to quantify the chemical exchange rate and volume fraction of the N α -amine protons of L-arginine (L-Arg) phantoms and the amide and semi-solid exchangeable protons of in vivo rat brain tissue. L-Arg phantoms were made with different concentrations (25-100 mM) and pH (pH 4-6). The MRF acquisition schedule varied the saturation power randomly for 30 iterations (phantom: 0-6 μT; in vivo: 0-4 μT) with a total acquisition time of ≤2 min. The signal trajectories were pattern-matched to a large dictionary of signal trajectories simulated using the Bloch-McConnell equations for different combinations of exchange rate, exchangeable proton volume fraction, and water T 1 and T 2 relaxation times. The chemical exchange rates of the N α -amine protons of L-Arg were significantly (P exchange using saturation power method. Similarly, the L-Arg concentrations determined using MRF were significantly (P exchange rate was well fit (R 2  = 0.9186) by a base catalyzed exchange model. The amide proton exchange rate measured in rat brain cortex (34.8 ± 11.7 Hz) was in good agreement with that measured previously with the water exchange spectroscopy method (28.6 ± 7.4 Hz). The semi-solid proton volume fraction was elevated in white (12.2 ± 1.7%) compared to gray (8.1 ± 1.1%) matter brain regions in agreement with previous magnetization transfer studies. CEST-MRF provides a method for fast, quantitative CEST imaging. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahansky, Martin; Dolezel, Michal; Urbanek, Jaroslav; Brezinova, Eva; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2012-01-01

    There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described. PMID:22654483

  13. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  14. Online fingerprint verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  15. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    J, Ravi.; Raja, K. B.; R, Venugopal. K.

    2010-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  16. Singular point detection algorithm based on the transition line of the fingerprint orientation image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathekga, ME

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available there is another core immediately afterwards, as in fig- ures 1 and 2. Thus, the transition columns where this condition is satisfied is set as the location of the core singular point. a and c or b and f in figure 4 must be comparable as ridges are expected... of Singularities and Pseudo Ridges”, Patt. Recog., Vol. 37, 2004, p 2233– 2243. [9] Msiza, I.S., Leke-Betechuoh, B., Nelwamondo, F.V., and Msimang, N., “A Fingerprint Pattern Classification Ap- proach Based on the Coordinate Geometry of Singulari- ties”, In...

  17. Fingerprint Change: Not Visible, But Tangible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Francesca V; De Giorgi, Annamaria; Bozzetti, Cecilia; Squadrilli, Anna; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Leonardi, Francesco; Bisogno, Luigi; Garofano, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    Hand-foot syndrome, a chemotherapy-induced cutaneous toxicity, can cause an alteration in fingerprints causing a setback for cancer patients due to the occurrence of false rejections. A colon cancer patient was fingerprinted after not having been able to use fingerprint recognition devices after 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. The fingerprint images were digitally processed to improve fingerprint definition without altering the papillary design. No evidence of skin toxicity was present. Two months later, the situation returned to normal. The fingerprint evaluation conducted on 15 identification points highlighted the quantitative and qualitative fingerprint alteration details detected after the end of chemotherapy and 2 months later. Fingerprint alteration during chemotherapy has been reported, but to our knowledge, this particular case is the first ever reported without evident clinical signs. Alternative fingerprint identification methods as well as improved biometric identification systems are needed in case of unexpected situations. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  19. Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  20. Edge preserving smoothing and segmentation of 4-D images via transversely isotropic scale-space processing and fingerprint analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Gullberg, Grant T; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2004-01-01

    Enhancements are described for an approach that unifies edge preserving smoothing with segmentation of time sequences of volumetric images, based on differential edge detection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Potential applications of these 4-D methods include segmentation of respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) transmission images to improve accuracy of attenuation correction for imaging heart and lung lesions, and segmentation of dynamic cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to facilitate unbiased estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic parameters for left ventricular volumes of interest. Improved segmentation of lung surfaces in simulated respiratory gated cardiac PET transmission images is achieved with a 4-D edge detection operator composed of edge preserving 1-D operators applied in various spatial and temporal directions. Smoothing along the axis of a 1-D operator is driven by structure separation seen in the scale-space fingerprint, rather than by image contrast. Spurious noise structures are reduced with use of small-scale isotropic smoothing in directions transverse to the 1-D operator axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for directional derivatives of the smoothed, edge preserved image, and the expressions are used to compose a 4-D operator that detects edges as zero-crossings in the second derivative in the direction of the image intensity gradient. Additional improvement in segmentation is anticipated with use of multiscale transversely isotropic smoothing and a novel interpolation method that improves the behavior of the directional derivatives. The interpolation method is demonstrated on a simulated 1-D edge and incorporation of the method into the 4-D algorithm is described

  1. Fingerprinting with Wow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eugene; Craver, Scott

    2006-02-01

    Wow, or time warping caused by speed fluctuations in analog audio equipment, provides a wealth of applications in watermarking. Very subtle temporal distortion has been used to defeat watermarks, and as components in watermarking systems. In the image domain, the analogous warping of an image's canvas has been used both to defeat watermarks and also proposed to prevent collusion attacks on fingerprinting systems. In this paper, we explore how subliminal levels of wow can be used for steganography and fingerprinting. We present both a low-bitrate robust solution and a higher-bitrate solution intended for steganographic communication. As already observed, such a fingerprinting algorithm naturally discourages collusion by averaging, owing to flanging effects when misaligned audio is averaged. Another advantage of warping is that even when imperceptible, it can be beyond the reach of compression algorithms. We use this opportunity to debunk the common misconception that steganography is impossible under "perfect compression."

  2. BETTER FINGERPRINT IMAGE COMPRESSION AT LOWER BIT-RATES: AN APPROACH USING MULTIWAVELETS WITH OPTIMISED PREFILTER COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Rema

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multiwavelet based fingerprint compression technique using set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT algorithm with optimised prefilter coefficients is proposed. While wavelet based progressive compression techniques give a blurred image at lower bit rates due to lack of high frequency information, multiwavelets can be used efficiently to represent high frequency information. SA4 (Symmetric Antisymmetric multiwavelet when combined with SPIHT reduces the number of nodes during initialization to 1/4th compared to SPIHT with wavelet. This reduction in nodes leads to improvement in PSNR at lower bit rates. The PSNR can be further improved by optimizing the prefilter coefficients. In this work genetic algorithm (GA is used for optimizing prefilter coefficients. Using the proposed technique, there is a considerable improvement in PSNR at lower bit rates, compared to existing techniques in literature. An overall average improvement of 4.23dB and 2.52dB for bit rates in between 0.01 to 1 has been achieved for the images in the databases FVC 2000 DB1 and FVC 2002 DB3 respectively. The quality of the reconstructed image is better even at higher compression ratios like 80:1 and 100:1. The level of decomposition required for a multiwavelet is lesser compared to a wavelet.

  3. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  4. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting using echo-planar imaging: Joint quantification of T1 and T2∗ relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Benedikt; Zimmer, Fabian; Zapp, Jascha; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-11-01

    To develop an implementation of the magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) paradigm for quantitative imaging using echo-planar imaging (EPI) for simultaneous assessment of T 1 and T2∗. The proposed MRF method (MRF-EPI) is based on the acquisition of 160 gradient-spoiled EPI images with rapid, parallel-imaging accelerated, Cartesian readout and a measurement time of 10 s per slice. Contrast variation is induced using an initial inversion pulse, and varying the flip angles, echo times, and repetition times throughout the sequence. Joint quantification of T 1 and T2∗ is performed using dictionary matching with integrated B1+ correction. The quantification accuracy of the method was validated in phantom scans and in vivo in 6 healthy subjects. Joint T 1 and T2∗ parameter maps acquired with MRF-EPI in phantoms are in good agreement with reference measurements, showing deviations under 5% and 4% for T 1 and T2∗, respectively. In vivo baseline images were visually free of artifacts. In vivo relaxation times are in good agreement with gold-standard techniques (deviation T 1 : 4 ± 2%, T2∗: 4 ± 5%). The visual quality was comparable to the in vivo gold standard, despite substantially shortened scan times. The proposed MRF-EPI method provides fast and accurate T 1 and T2∗ quantification. This approach offers a rapid supplement to the non-Cartesian MRF portfolio, with potentially increased usability and robustness. Magn Reson Med 78:1724-1733, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Latent fingerprint wavelet transform image enhancement technique for optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (FMR) and Equal Error Rate (EER) were used. The results of these two measures gives the FMR of 3% and EER of 1.9% for denoised images which is better than non-denoised images where the EER is 8.7%....

  6. One-step synthesis of solid state luminescent carbon-based silica nanohybrids for imaging of latent fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Hongren; Cui, Tianfang

    2017-11-01

    Fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials(CNs) with tunable visible emission are biocompatible, environment friendly and most suitable for various biomedical applications. Despite the successes in preparing strongly fluorescent CNs, preserving the luminescence in solid materials is still challenging because of the serious emission quenching of CNs in solid state materials. In this work, fluorescent carbon and silica nanohybrids (SiCNHs) were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal approach by carbonizing sodium citrate and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane(APTES), and hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS). The resultant SiCNs were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The SiCNs exhibited strong fluorescence in both aqueous and solid states. The luminescent solid state SiCNs power were successfully used as a fluorescent labeling material for enhanced imaging of latent fingerprints(LFPs) on single background colour and multi-coloured surfaces substrates in forensic science for individual identification.

  7. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    is another cognitive fingerprint that has been used extensively for authorship . This work has been ex- tended to authentication by relating keyboard...this work is the inference of high-level features such as personality, gender , and dominant hand but those features have not been integrated to date

  8. ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini M.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  9. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  10. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Drahansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described.

  11. An investigation of fake fingerprint detection approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asraful Syifaa'; Hassan, Rohayanti; Othman, Razib M.

    2017-10-01

    The most reliable biometrics technology, fingerprint recognition is widely used in terms of security due to its permanence and uniqueness. However, it is also vulnerable to the certain type of attacks including presenting fake fingerprints to the sensor which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. Particularly, the aim is to identify the most recent literature related to the fake fingerprint recognition and only focus on software-based approaches. A systematic review is performed by analyzing 146 primary studies from the gross collection of 34 research papers to determine the taxonomy, approaches, online public databases, and limitations of the fake fingerprint. Fourteen software-based approaches have been briefly described, four limitations of fake fingerprint image were revealed and two known fake fingerprint databases were addressed briefly in this review. Therefore this work provides an overview of an insight into the current understanding of fake fingerprint recognition besides identifying future research possibilities.

  12. Fingerprint segmentation: an investigation of various techniques and a parameter study of a variance-based method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint image segmentation plays an important role in any fingerprint image analysis implementation and it should, ideally, be executed during the initial stages of a fingerprint manipulation process. After careful consideration of various...

  13. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 9: Functional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The current system and subsystem used by the Identification Division are described. System constraints that dictate the system environment are discussed and boundaries within which solutions must be found are described. The functional requirements were related to the performance requirements. These performance requirements were then related to their applicable subsystems. The flow of data, documents, or other pieces of information from one subsystem to another or from the external world into the identification system is described. Requirements and design standards for a computer based system are presented.

  14. Time efficient whole-brain coverage with MR Fingerprinting using slice-interleaved echo-planar-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Benedikt; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Pariente, José C; Llufriu, Sara; Martinez-Heras, Eloy; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R

    2018-04-27

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) is a promising method for fast simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue parameters. The objective of this study is to improve the coverage of MRF based on echo-planar imaging (MRF-EPI) by using a slice-interleaved acquisition scheme. For this, the MRF-EPI is modified to acquire several slices in a randomized interleaved manner, increasing the effective repetition time of the spoiled gradient echo readout acquisition in each slice. Per-slice matching of the signal-trace to a precomputed dictionary allows the generation of T 1 and T 2 * maps with integrated B 1 + correction. Subsequent compensation for the coil sensitivity profile and normalization to the cerebrospinal fluid additionally allows for quantitative proton density (PD) mapping. Numerical simulations are performed to optimize the number of interleaved slices. Quantification accuracy is validated in phantom scans and feasibility is demonstrated in-vivo. Numerical simulations suggest the acquisition of four slices as a trade-off between quantification precision and scan-time. Phantom results indicate good agreement with reference measurements (Difference T 1 : -2.4 ± 1.1%, T 2 *: -0.5 ± 2.5%, PD: -0.5 ± 7.2%). In-vivo whole-brain coverage of T 1 , T 2 * and PD with 32 slices was acquired within 3:36 minutes, resulting in parameter maps of high visual quality and comparable performance with single-slice MRF-EPI at 4-fold scan-time reduction.

  15. OPTIMAL EXPERIMENT DESIGN FOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FINGERPRINTING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bo; Haldar, Justin P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cram��r-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experi...

  16. The Einstein dossiers science and politics - Einstein's Berlin period with an appendix on Einstein's FBI file

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...

  17. Fissile fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article looks at recent research which may allow police and customs officers to detect smuggled weapons-grade plutonium and uranium. Contrary to popular opinion, nuclear materials do not have a nuclear ''fingerprint'' but enough information can be gleaned from sources to confirm what has been learnt from other data. Indeed, two leading nuclear laboratories can look at the same analytical results and draw different conclusions. The case of a lead cylinder seized from a German garage is examined to illustrate the confusion. (UK)

  18. FBI kogemusega ekspert kaitseb mõõdikute süsteemi / Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Endise FBI töötaja ja praeguse politseiameti nõuniku Bill Moschella sõnul on justiitsministeeriumi mõõdikutekavaga sarnane süsteem olnud FBI-s kasutusel juba aastaid ja nii on see ka paljudes teistes riikides. Lisa: Asjatundja

  19. 76 FR 78950 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... amounts for volunteers, as explained at 75 FR 18752, and Centralized Billing Service Providers (CBSPs), as... Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI.... Enourato, Section Chief, Resources Management Section, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, FBI...

  20. Data protection by design als argument in het FBI vs. Appledebat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Sascha; Cuijpers, Colette

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an

  1. Implementation of Minutiae Based Fingerprint Identification System Using Crossing Number Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S. CHAUDHARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which recognizes a person by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological (e.g., fingerprints, face, retina, iris or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature characteristic possessed by that person. Among all the presently employed biometric techniques, fingerprint identification systems have received the most attention due to the long history of fingerprints and its extensive use in forensics. Fingerprint is reliable biometric characteristic as it is unique and persistence. Fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys on the surface of fingertip. However, recognizing fingerprints in poor quality images is still a very complex job, so the fingerprint image must be preprocessed before matching. It is very difficult to extract fingerprint features directly from gray scale fingerprint image. In this paper we have proposed the system which uses minutiae based matching algorithm for fingerprint identification. There are three main phases in proposed algorithm. First phase enhance the input fingerprint image by preprocessing it. The enhanced fingerprint image is converted into thinned binary image and then minutiae are extracted by using Crossing Number Concept in second phase. Third stage compares input fingerprint image (after preprocessing and minutiae extraction with fingerprint images enrolled in database and makes decision whether the input fingerprint is matched with the fingerprint stored in database or not.

  2. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  3. Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhoury, SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...

  4. Fingerprint and Face Identification for Large User Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Ko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of the current biometric (fingerprint and face technology, lessons learned during the investigative analysis performed to ascertain the benefits of using combined fingerprint and facial technologies, and recommendations for the use of current available fingerprint and face identification technologies for optimum identification performance for applications using large user population. Prior fingerprint and face identification test study results have shown that their identification accuracies are strongly dependent on the image quality of the biometric inputs. Recommended methodologies for ensuring the capture of acceptable quality fingerprint and facial images of subjects are also presented in this paper.

  5. Emigrant psychoanalysts in the USA and the FBI archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, James E; Goggin, Eileen Brockman; Hill, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Interest in the fate of the German psychoanalysts who had to flee Hitler's Germany and find refuge in a new nation, such as the United States, has increased. The "émigré research" shows that several themes recur: (1) the theme of "loss" of one's culture, homeland, language, and family; and (2) the ambivalent welcome these émigrés received in their new country. We describe the political-social-cultural context that existed in the United States during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. Documentary evidence found in the FBI files of three émigré psychoanalysts, Clara Happel, Martin Grotjahn, and Otto Fenichel, are then presented in combination with other source material. This provides a provisional impression of how each of these three individuals experienced their emigration. As such, it gives us elements of a history. The FBI documents suggest that the American atmosphere of political insecurity and fear-based ethnocentric nationalism may have reinforced their old fears of National Socialism, and contributed to their inclination to inhibit or seal off parts of themselves and their personal histories in order to adapt to their new home and become Americanized. They abandoned the rich social, cultural, political tradition that was part of European psychoanalysis. Finally, we look at these elements of a history in order to ask a larger question about the appropriate balance between a liberal democratic government's right to protect itself from internal and external threats on the one hand, or crossover into the blatant invasion of civil rights and due process on the other.

  6. Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Afzel; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Houck, Max M

    2007-07-04

    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking technique using face and demographic text data as multiple watermarks for verifying the chain of custody and protecting the integrity of a fingerprint image. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a fingerprint image using discrete wavelet transform. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible and maintain the minutiae details. The integrity of the fingerprint image is verified through the high matching scores obtained from an automatic fingerprint identification system. There is also a high degree of visual correlation between the embedded images, and the extracted images from the watermarked fingerprint. The degree of similarity is computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. The results also show that the proposed watermarked fingerprint and the extracted images are resilient to common attacks such as compression, filtering, and noise.

  7. Mass spectrometry imaging of illicit drugs in latent fingerprints by matrix-free and matrix-assisted desorption/ionization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriba, Anton; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Compared with classical matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI), the matrix free-based strategies generate a cleaner background, without significant noise or interference coming from an applied matrix, which is beneficial for the analysis of small molecules, such as drugs of abuse. In this work, we probed the detection efficiency of methamphetamine, heroin and cocaine in nanostructure-assisted laser desorption-ionization (NALDI) and desorption electrospray ionization and compared the sensitivity of these two matrix-free tools with a standard MALDI mass spectrometry experiment. In a typical mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) setup, papillary line latent fingerprints were recorded as a mixture a common skin fatty acid or interfering cosmetics with a drug. In a separate experiment, all drugs (1 µL of 1 μM standard solution) were detected by all three ionization techniques on a target. In the case of cocaine and heroin, NALDI mass spectrometry was the most sensitive and revealed signals even from 0.1 μM solution. The drug/drug contaminant (fatty acid or cosmetics) MSI approach could be used by law enforcement personnel to confirm drug abusers of having come into contact with the suspected drug by use of fingerprint scans at time of apprehension which can aid in reducing the work of lab officials.

  8. Advanced Fingerprint Analysis Project Fingerprint Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GM Mong; CE Petersen; TRW Clauss

    1999-10-29

    The work described in this report was focused on generating fundamental data on fingerprint components which will be used to develop advanced forensic techniques to enhance fluorescent detection, and visualization of latent fingerprints. Chemical components of sweat gland secretions are well documented in the medical literature and many chemical techniques are available to develop latent prints, but there have been no systematic forensic studies of fingerprint sweat components or of the chemical and physical changes these substances undergo over time.

  9. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E

    2008-01-01

    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  10. Endine FBI agent õpetab eestlasi allilma imbuma / Bill Moschella ; interv. Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moschella, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Föderaalse Juurdlusbüroo (FBI) endine eriagent Bill Moschella hakkab treenima siinseid kriminaalpolitseinikke, õpetab, kuidas paremini tööd organiseerida ja kurjategijate paljastamiseks varioperatsioone korraldada. Lisa: Bill Moschella

  11. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  12. A fingerprint classification algorithm based on combination of local and global information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongjin; Fu, Xiang; Bian, Junjie; Feng, Jufu

    2011-12-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most important technologies in biometric identification and has been wildly applied in commercial and forensic areas. Fingerprint classification, as the fundamental procedure in fingerprint recognition, can sharply decrease the quantity for fingerprint matching and improve the efficiency of fingerprint recognition. Most fingerprint classification algorithms are based on the number and position of singular points. Because the singular points detecting method only considers the local information commonly, the classification algorithms are sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprint classification algorithm combining the local and global information of fingerprint. Firstly we use local information to detect singular points and measure their quality considering orientation structure and image texture in adjacent areas. Furthermore the global orientation model is adopted to measure the reliability of singular points group. Finally the local quality and global reliability is weighted to classify fingerprint. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy and effectivity of our algorithm especially for the poor quality fingerprint images.

  13. An Efficient Reconfigurable Architecture for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S. Bhairannawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint identification is an efficient biometric technique to authenticate human beings in real-time Big Data Analytics. In this paper, we propose an efficient Finite State Machine (FSM based reconfigurable architecture for fingerprint recognition. The fingerprint image is resized, and Compound Linear Binary Pattern (CLBP is applied on fingerprint, followed by histogram to obtain histogram CLBP features. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT Level 2 features are obtained by the same methodology. The novel matching score of CLBP is computed using histogram CLBP features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Similarly, the DWT matching score is computed using DWT features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Further, the matching scores of CLBP and DWT are fused with arithmetic equation using improvement factor. The performance parameters such as TSR (Total Success Rate, FAR (False Acceptance Rate, and FRR (False Rejection Rate are computed using fusion scores with correlation matching technique for FVC2004 DB3 Database. The proposed fusion based VLSI architecture is synthesized on Virtex xc5vlx30T-3 FPGA board using Finite State Machine resulting in optimized parameters.

  14. Secure fingerprint identification based on structural and microangiographic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zaki, Farzana; Wang, Yahui; Huang, Qiongdan; Mei, Xin; Wang, Jiangjun

    2017-03-10

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows noncontact acquisition of fingerprints and hence is a highly promising technology in the field of biometrics. OCT can be used to acquire both structural and microangiographic images of fingerprints. Microangiographic OCT derives its contrast from the blood flow in the vasculature of viable skin tissue, and microangiographic fingerprint imaging is inherently immune to fake fingerprint attack. Therefore, dual-modality (structural and microangiographic) OCT imaging of fingerprints will enable more secure acquisition of biometric data, which has not been investigated before. Our study on fingerprint identification based on structural and microangiographic OCT imaging is, we believe, highly innovative. In this study, we performed OCT imaging study for fingerprint acquisition, and demonstrated the capability of dual-modality OCT imaging for the identification of fake fingerprints.

  15. Fingerprints in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, K.

    1994-01-01

    Gene research has shown that factors causing cancer, or carcinogens, may leave marks typical of each particular carcinogen (fingerprints) in the genotype of the cell. Radiation, for instance, may leave such fingerprints in a cancer cell. In particular, the discovery of a gene called p53 has yielded much new information on fingerprints. It has been discovered, for example, that toxic fungus and UV-radiation each leave fingerprints in the p53 gene. Based on the detection of fingerprints, it may be possible in the future to tell a cancer patient what factor had trigged the maglinancy

  16. Using fingerprint image quality to improve the identification performance of the U.S. Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Lawrence M; Baveja, Manas

    2005-05-24

    Motivated by the difficulty of biometric systems to correctly match fingerprints with poor image quality, we formulate and solve a game-theoretic formulation of the identification problem in two settings: U.S. visa applicants are checked against a list of visa holders to detect visa fraud, and visitors entering the U.S. are checked against a watchlist of criminals and suspected terrorists. For three types of biometric strategies, we solve the game in which the U.S. Government chooses the strategy's optimal parameter values to maximize the detection probability subject to a constraint on the mean biometric processing time per legal visitor, and then the terrorist chooses the image quality to minimize the detection probability. At current inspector staffing levels at ports of entry, our model predicts that a quality-dependent two-finger strategy achieves a detection probability of 0.733, compared to 0.526 under the quality-independent two-finger strategy that is currently implemented at the U.S. border. Increasing the staffing level of inspectors offers only minor increases in the detection probability for these two strategies. Using more than two fingers to match visitors with poor image quality allows a detection probability of 0.949 under current staffing levels, but may require major changes to the current U.S. biometric program. The detection probabilities during visa application are approximately 11-22% smaller than at ports of entry for all three strategies, but the same qualitative conclusions hold.

  17. FINGERPRINT MATCHING BASED ON PORE CENTROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.

  18. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  19. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  20. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  1. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32 P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

  2. Optimal experiment design for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Zhao; Haldar, Justin P; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experiment design problem based on the CRB to choose a set of acquisition parameters (e.g., flip angles and/or repetition times) that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio efficiency of the resulting experiment. The utility of the proposed approach is validated by numerical studies. Representative results demonstrate that the optimized experiments allow for substantial reduction in the length of an MR fingerprinting acquisition, and substantial improvement in parameter estimation performance.

  3. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-01-01

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  4. Network-based Fingerprint Authentication System Using a Mobile Device

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qihu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— Fingerprint-based user authentication is highly effective in networked services such as electronic payment, but conventional authentication solutions have problems in cost, usability and security. To resolve these problems, we propose a touch-less fingerprint authentication solution, in which a mobile device's built-in camera is used to capture fingerprint image, and then it is sent to the server to determine the identity of the user. We designed and implemented a prototype as an a...

  5. 28 CFR 513.11 - Procedures for requesting a FBI identification record or a NCIC/III record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for requesting a FBI identification record or a NCIC/III record. 513.11 Section 513.11 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Production or Disclosure of FBI...

  6. Fingerprint enhancement using a multispectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Nixon, Kristin A.

    2005-03-01

    The level of performance of a biometric fingerprint sensor is critically dependent on the quality of the fingerprint images. One of the most common types of optical fingerprint sensors relies on the phenomenon of total internal reflectance (TIR) to generate an image. Under ideal conditions, a TIR fingerprint sensor can produce high-contrast fingerprint images with excellent feature definition. However, images produced by the same sensor under conditions that include dry skin, dirt on the skin, and marginal contact between the finger and the sensor, are likely to be severely degraded. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional images with new information about the fingerprint that can significantly augment the system performance under both normal and adverse sample conditions. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used to broadly denote a collection of images taken under different illumination conditions: different polarizations, different illumination/detection configurations, as well as different wavelength illumination. Results from three small studies using an early-stage prototype of the multispectral-TIR (MTIR) sensor are presented along with results from the corresponding TIR data. The first experiment produced data from 9 people, 4 fingers from each person and 3 measurements per finger under "normal" conditions. The second experiment provided results from a study performed to test the relative performance of TIR and MTIR images when taken under extreme dry and dirty conditions. The third experiment examined the case where the area of contact between the finger and sensor is greatly reduced.

  7. Enhance Criminal Investigation by Proposed Fingerprint Recognition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.H.; Maolod, A.T.; Mohammad, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Law enforcement officers and forensic specialists spend hours thinking about how fingerprints solve crimes, and trying to find, collect, record and compare these unique identifiers that can connect a specific person to a specific crime. These individuals understand that a basic human feature that most people take for granted, can be one of the most effective tools in crime solving.This research exploits our previous work to be applicable in criminal investigation field. The present study aims to solve the advance crime by strength fingerprint’s criminal investigation to control the alterations happen intentionally to criminals’ fingerprint. That done by suggest strategy introduce an optimal fingerprint image feature’s vector to the person and then considers it to be stored in database for future matching. Selecting optimal fingerprint feature’s vector strategy deal with considering 10 fingerprints for each criminal person (take the fingerprint in different time and different circumstance of criminal such as finger is dirty, wet, trembling, etc.). Proposal begun with apply a proposed enrollment on all 10 fingerprint for each criminal, the enrollment include the following consequence steps; begin with preprocessing step for each of 10 images including enhancement, then two level of feature extraction (first level to extract arches, whorls, and loops, where second level extract minutiae), after that applying proposed Genetic Algorithm to select optimal fingerprint, master fingerprint, which in our point of view present the most universal image which include more detailed features to recognition. Master fingerprint will be feature’s vector which stored in database. Then apply the proposed matching by testing fingerprints with these stored in database.While, measuring of criminal fingerprint investigation performance by calculating False Reject Rate (FRR)and False Accept Rate (FAR) for the traditional system and the proposed in criminal detection field. The

  8. Dna fingerprinting - review paper

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Renald

    2006-01-01

    Before the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was established, DNA fingerprinting technology has relied for years on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number of Tandom Repeats (VNTR) analysis, a very efficient technique but quite laborious and not suitable for high throughput mapping. Since its, development, PCR has provided a new and powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting.

  9. Physics and fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss-de Haan, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    This article discusses a variety of aspects in the detection and development of fingerprints and the physics involved in it. It gives an introduction to some basic issues like composition and properties of fingerprint deposits and a rudimentary framework of dactyloscopy; it covers various techniques for the visualization of latent fingerprints; and it concludes with a view of current research topics. The techniques range from very common procedures, such as powdering and cyanoacrylate fuming, to more demanding methods, for example luminescence and vacuum metal deposition, to fairly unusual approaches like autoradiography. The emphasis is placed on the physical rather than the forensic aspects of these topics while trying to give the physicist—who is not dealing with fingerprinting and forensic science on a daily basis—a feeling for the problems and solutions in the visualization of latent fingerprints.

  10. A network identity authentication system based on Fingerprint identification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong-Bin; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liu, Yuan

    2005-10-01

    Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. However, most of the automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is not run via Internet/Intranet environment to meet today's increasing Electric commerce requirements. This paper describes the design and implementation of the archetype system of identity authentication based on fingerprint biometrics technology, and the system can run via Internet environment. And in our system the COM and ASP technology are used to integrate Fingerprint technology with Web database technology, The Fingerprint image preprocessing algorithms are programmed into COM, which deployed on the internet information server. The system's design and structure are proposed, and the key points are discussed. The prototype system of identity authentication based on Fingerprint have been successfully tested and evaluated on our university's distant education applications in an internet environment.

  11. Black Lives Matter of Black Identity Extremist? : The FBI, Black Activists and the Struggle for Victimhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The question 'who is the victim?' is an important social directive that shapes the struggles for victimhood in which Black Lives Matters, U.S. police forces and their various (counter)publics are currently engaging. This column begins with a controversial FBI report on so-called Black Identity

  12. 77 FR 49830 - Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Post-Course Questionnaire for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the... Laleatha B. Goode, Management and Program Analyst for the Evaluation Program, Federal Bureau of... measure the effectiveness of services that the FBI National Academy provides and will utilize the...

  13. 78 FR 13085 - Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Level 1 Evaluation: Student Course...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Academy: General Remarks Questionnaire ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal... the following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review... Information Collection: Approval of reinstated collection. 2. Title of the Forms: FBI National Academy Level 1...

  14. Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  15. Advances in fingerprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pompi; Russell, David A

    2012-04-10

    Fingerprints have been used in forensic investigations for the identification of individuals since the late 19th century. However, it is now clear that fingerprints can provide significantly more information about an individual. Here, we highlight the considerable advances in fingerprinting technology that can simultaneously provide chemical information regarding the drugs ingested and the explosives and drugs handled by a person as well as the identity of that individual. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Generating cancelable fingerprint templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Nalini K; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan H; Bolle, Ruud M

    2007-04-01

    Biometrics-based authentication systems offer obvious usability advantages over traditional password and token-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns. A biometric is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed. Hence, if a biometric identifier is compromised, it is lost forever and possibly for every application where the biometric is used. Moreover, if the same biometric is used in multiple applications, a user can potentially be tracked from one application to the next by cross-matching biometric databases. In this paper, we demonstrate several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome these problems. In essence, a user can be given as many biometric identifiers as needed by issuing a new transformation "key." The identifiers can be cancelled and replaced when compromised. We empirically compare the performance of several algorithms such as Cartesian, polar, and surface folding transformations of the minutiae positions. It is demonstrated through multiple experiments that we can achieve revocability and prevent cross-matching of biometric databases. It is also shown that the transforms are noninvertible by demonstrating that it is computationally as hard to recover the original biometric identifier from a transformed version as by randomly guessing. Based on these empirical results and a theoretical analysis we conclude that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments.

  17. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  18. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers for fingerprint sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yipeng

    Fingerprint identification is the most prevalent biometric technology due to its uniqueness, universality and convenience. Over the past two decades, a variety of physical mechanisms have been exploited to capture an electronic image of a human fingerprint. Among these, capacitive fingerprint sensors are the ones most widely used in consumer electronics because they are fabricated using conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology. However, capacitive fingerprint sensors are extremely sensitive to finger contamination and moisture. This thesis will introduce an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a PMUT array, which offers a potential solution to this problem. In addition, it has the potential to increase security, as it allows images to be collected at various depths beneath the epidermis, providing images of the sub-surface dermis layer and blood vessels. Firstly, PMUT sensitivity is maximized by optimizing the layer stack and electrode design, and the coupling coefficient is doubled via series transduction. Moreover, a broadband PMUT with 97% fractional bandwidth is achieved by utilizing a thinner structure excited at two adjacent mechanical vibration modes with overlapping bandwidth. In addition, we proposed waveguide PMUTs, which function to direct acoustic waves, confine acoustic energy, and provide mechanical protection for the PMUT array. Furthermore, PMUT arrays were fabricated with different processes to form the membrane, including front-side etching with a patterned sacrificial layer, front-side etching with additional anchor, cavity SOI wafers and eutectic bonding. Additionally, eutectic bonding allows the PMUT to be integrated with CMOS circuits. PMUTs were characterized in the mechanical, electrical and acoustic domains. Using transmit beamforming, a narrow acoustic beam was achieved, and high-resolution (sub-100 microm) and short-range (~1 mm) pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging was demonstrated using a steel

  19. Study of noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints using UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang; Mao, Lin-jie; Chen, Jing-rong

    2011-06-01

    Latent fingerprints present a considerable challenge in forensics, and noninvasive procedure that captures a digital image of the latent fingerprints is significant in the field of criminal investigation. The capability of photography technologies using 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as excitation light source to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints is demonstrated. Unprocessed latent fingerprints were developed on various non-absorbent and absorbing substrates. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carbosylic acid salts etc) to the UV light to weaken or eliminate the background disturbance and increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and using 266nm UV laser as excitation light source, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects as magazine cover, glass, back of cellphone, wood desktop paintwork and two types of absorbing objects as manila envelope, notebook paper were noninvasive detected and appeared through reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, and the results meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  20. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  1. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  2. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  3. Fingerprint recognition system by use of graph matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Shen, Jun; Zheng, Huicheng

    2001-09-01

    Fingerprint recognition is an important subject in biometrics to identify or verify persons by physiological characteristics, and has found wide applications in different domains. In the present paper, we present a finger recognition system that combines singular points and structures. The principal steps of processing in our system are: preprocessing and ridge segmentation, singular point extraction and selection, graph representation, and finger recognition by graphs matching. Our fingerprint recognition system is implemented and tested for many fingerprint images and the experimental result are satisfactory. Different techniques are used in our system, such as fast calculation of orientation field, local fuzzy dynamical thresholding, algebraic analysis of connections and fingerprints representation and matching by graphs. Wed find that for fingerprint database that is not very large, the recognition rate is very high even without using a prior coarse category classification. This system works well for both one-to-few and one-to-many problems.

  4. Evaluation of fingerprint deformation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Maxey, Jessica R.; Silva, Luciano; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-02-01

    Biometric identification systems have important applications to privacy and security. The most widely used of these, print identification, is based on imaging patterns present in the fingers, hands and feet that are formed by the ridges, valleys and pores of the skin. Most modern print sensors acquire images of the finger when pressed against a sensor surface. Unfortunately, this pressure may result in deformations, characterized by changes in the sizes and relative distances of the print patterns, and such changes have been shown to negatively affect the performance of fingerprint identification algorithms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that is capable of imaging the subsurface of biological tissue. Hence, OCT may be used to obtain images of subdermal skin structures from which one can extract an internal fingerprint. The internal fingerprint is very similar in structure to the commonly used external fingerprint and is of increasing interest in investigations of identify fraud. We proposed and tested metrics based on measurements calculated from external and internal fingerprints to evaluate the amount of deformation of the skin. Such metrics were used to test hypotheses about the differences of deformation between the internal and external images, variations with the type of finger and location inside the fingerprint.

  5. An Introduction to DNA Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Carol Ely; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides background information on DNA fingerprinting, and describes exercises for introducing general biology students at the high school or college level to the methodology and applications of DNA fingerprinting. (PR)

  6. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  7. Artificial fingerprint recognition by using optical coherence tomography with autocorrelation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yezeng; Larin, Kirill V.

    2006-12-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most widely used methods of biometrics. This method relies on the surface topography of a finger and, thus, is potentially vulnerable for spoofing by artificial dummies with embedded fingerprints. In this study, we applied the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to distinguish artificial materials commonly used for spoofing fingerprint scanning systems from the real skin. Several artificial fingerprint dummies made from household cement and liquid silicone rubber were prepared and tested using a commercial fingerprint reader and an OCT system. While the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader, OCT images revealed the presence of them at all times. We also demonstrated that an autocorrelation analysis of the OCT images could be potentially used in automatic recognition systems.

  8. A Fingerprint Encryption Scheme Based on Irreversible Function and Secure Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fingerprint encryption scheme based on irreversible function has been designed in this paper. Since the fingerprint template includes almost the entire information of users’ fingerprints, the personal authentication can be determined only by the fingerprint features. This paper proposes an irreversible transforming function (using the improved SHA1 algorithm to transform the original minutiae which are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image. Then, Chinese remainder theorem is used to obtain the biokey from the integration of the transformed minutiae and the private key. The result shows that the scheme has better performance on security and efficiency comparing with other irreversible function schemes.

  9. Uniform Local Binary Pattern for Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Gaussian Pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition schemas are widely used in our daily life, such as Door Security, Identification, and Phone Verification. However, the existing problem is that fingerprint recognition systems are easily tricked by fake fingerprints for collaboration. Therefore, designing a fingerprint liveness detection module in fingerprint recognition systems is necessary. To solve the above problem and discriminate true fingerprint from fake ones, a novel software-based liveness detection approach using uniform local binary pattern (ULBP in spatial pyramid is applied to recognize fingerprint liveness in this paper. Firstly, preprocessing operation for each fingerprint is necessary. Then, to solve image rotation and scale invariance, three-layer spatial pyramids of fingerprints are introduced in this paper. Next, texture information for three layers spatial pyramids is described by using uniform local binary pattern to extract features of given fingerprints. The accuracy of our proposed method has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in fingerprint liveness detection. Experiments based on standard databases, taken from Liveness Detection Competition 2013 composed of four different fingerprint sensors, have been carried out. Finally, classifier model based on extracted features is trained using SVM classifier. Experimental results present that our proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy compared with other methods.

  10. An Investigation on the Problem of Thinning in Fingerprint Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Omeiza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reliability and thus require additional minutiae-pruning stage to discard the erroneous minutiae in the obtained skeletons. The work involves a careful blending of some already existing algorithms to achieve optimal performance in thinning binarised fingerprint images. The algorithms considered are as follows. The "Zhang and Suen" parallel algorithm for thinning digital patterns, the improved parallel thinning algorithm by Holt and company and template-based thinning algorithm by Stentiford and Mortimer. The idea of combining these stand-alone algorithms to improve the quality of obtained objects skeleton in general image processing was first suggested in a text by Parker in 1998. However, his work does not specifically address the fingerprint problem. This work has examined and proves the plausibility of this thinning approach in the particular case of fingerprint application domain. The thinning procedure obtained satisfactory skeletons for fingerprint applications.

  11. Partial Device Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, M.; Hernandez Ganan, C.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In computing, remote devices may be identified by means of device fingerprinting, which works by collecting a myriad of clientside attributes such as the device’s browser and operating system version, installed plugins, screen resolution, hardware artifacts, Wi-Fi settings, and anything else

  12. Performance characterization of structured light-based fingerprint scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Wang, Minghao; Daley, Raymond C.

    2013-05-01

    Our group believes that the evolution of fingerprint capture technology is in transition to include 3-D non-contact fingerprint capture. More specifically we believe that systems based on structured light illumination provide the highest level of depth measurement accuracy. However, for these new technologies to be fully accepted by the biometric community, they must be compliant with federal standards of performance. At present these standards do not exist for this new biometric technology. We propose and define a set of test procedures to be used to verify compliance with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's image quality specification for Personal Identity Verification single fingerprint capture devices. The proposed test procedures include: geometric accuracy, lateral resolution based on intensity or depth, gray level uniformity and flattened fingerprint image quality. Several 2-D contact analogies, performance tradeoffs and optimization dilemmas are evaluated and proposed solutions are presented.

  13. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 Synergistically Activate Transcription of Fatty-acid Synthase Gene (FASN)*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F.; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-01-01

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  14. Data Compression of Fingerprint Minutiae

    OpenAIRE

    VISHAL SHRIVASTAVA; SUMIT SHARMA

    2012-01-01

    Biometric techniques have usual advantages over conventional personal identification technique. Among various commercially available biometric techniques such as face, fingerprint, Iris etc., fingerprint-based techniques are the most accepted recognition system. Fingerprints are trace or impression of patterns created byfriction ridges of the skin in the fingers and thumbs. Steganography usually used in smart card is a safe technique for authenticating a person. In steganography, biometric ch...

  15. Multiscale reconstruction for MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Eric Y; Ma, Dan; Chen, Yong; Badve, Chaitra; Griswold, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    To reduce the acquisition time needed to obtain reliable parametric maps with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. An iterative-denoising algorithm is initialized by reconstructing the MRF image series at low image resolution. For subsequent iterations, the method enforces pixel-wise fidelity to the best-matching dictionary template then enforces fidelity to the acquired data at slightly higher spatial resolution. After convergence, parametric maps with desirable spatial resolution are obtained through template matching of the final image series. The proposed method was evaluated on phantom and in vivo data using the highly undersampled, variable-density spiral trajectory and compared with the original MRF method. The benefits of additional sparsity constraints were also evaluated. When available, gold standard parameter maps were used to quantify the performance of each method. The proposed approach allowed convergence to accurate parametric maps with as few as 300 time points of acquisition, as compared to 1000 in the original MRF work. Simultaneous quantification of T1, T2, proton density (PD), and B0 field variations in the brain was achieved in vivo for a 256 × 256 matrix for a total acquisition time of 10.2 s, representing a three-fold reduction in acquisition time. The proposed iterative multiscale reconstruction reliably increases MRF acquisition speed and accuracy. Magn Reson Med 75:2481-2492, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Holistic processing of fingerprints by expert forensic examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Macgregor D; Palmeri, Thomas J; Busey, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    Holistic processing is often characterized as a process by which objects are perceived as a whole rather than a compilation of individual features. This mechanism may play an important role in the development of perceptual expertise because it allows for rapid integration across image regions. The present work explores whether holistic processing is present in latent fingerprint examiners, who compare fingerprints collected from crime scenes against a set of standards taken from a suspect. We adapted a composite task widely used in the face recognition and perceptual expertise literatures, in which participants were asked to match only a particular half of a fingerprint with a previous image while ignoring the other half. We tested both experts and novices, using both upright and inverted fingerprints. For upright fingerprints, we found weak evidence for holistic processing, but with no differences between experts and novices with respect to holistic processing. For inverted fingerprints, we found stronger evidence of holistic processing, with weak evidence for differences between experts and novices. These relatively weak holistic processing effects contrast with robust evidence for holistic processing with faces and with objects in other domains of perceptual expertise. The data constrain models of holistic processing by demonstrating that latent fingerprint experts and novices may not substantively differ in terms of the amount of holistic processing and that inverted stimuli actually produced more evidence for holistic processing than upright stimuli. Important differences between the present fingerprint stimuli and those in the literature include the lack of verbal labels for experts and the absence of strong vertical asymmetries, both of which might contribute to stronger holistic processing signatures in other stimulus domains.

  17. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate the reference point. For binary images, Katz's algorithm is employed to estimate the fractal dimension (FD from a two-dimensional (2D image. Biometric features are extracted as fractal patterns using different FDs. Probabilistic neural network (PNN as a classifier performs to compare the fractal patterns among the small-scale database. A PSO algorithm is used to tune the optimal parameters and heighten the accuracy. For 30 subjects in the laboratory, the proposed classifier demonstrates greater efficiency and higher accuracy in fingerprint recognition.

  18. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  19. Nanotag luminescent fingerprint anti-counterfeiting technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Johansen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method to fabricate, transfer and validate via image processing nanofibre- based, unique security marks (“nanotags”) for anti-counterfeiting purposes. Epitaxial surface growth of oligophenylenes on a heated muscovite mica crystal results in a thin film of mutually aligned nanofibres....... This fingerprint can be transferred on an adhesive tape as a label of a product, imaged using low magnification microscopy, digitalised and stored in a database. Infrared surface heating, enforced cooling and load lock transfer makes the fabrication process fast and scalable to mass production....

  20. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Representation in Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Maeva, E. Y.; Severin, F. M.

    Biometrics is an important field which studies different possible ways of personal identification. Among a number of existing biometric techniques fingerprint recognition stands alone - because very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are an important evidence that can be collected at a crime scene. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. Ultrasonic method of fingerprint imaging was originally introduced over a decade as the mapping of the reflection coefficient at the interface between the finger and a covering plate and has shown very good reliability and free from imperfections of previous two methods. This work introduces a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging, focusing on the imaging of the internal structures of fingerprints (including sweat pores) with raw acoustic resolution of about 500 dpi (0.05 mm) using a scanning acoustic microscope to obtain images and acoustic data in the form of 3D data array. C-scans from different depths inside the fingerprint area of fingers of several volunteers were obtained and showed good contrast of ridges-and-valleys patterns and practically exact correspondence to the standard ink-and-paper prints of the same areas. Important feature reveled on the acoustic images was the clear appearance of the sweat pores, which could provide additional means of identification.

  1. A STRONG SECURITY PROTOCOL AGAINST FINGERPRINT DATABASE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Latha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Biometric data is subject to on-going changes and create a crucial problem in fingerprint database. To deal with this, a security protocol is proposed to protect the finger prints information from the prohibited users. Here, a security protocol is proposed to protect the finger prints information. The proposed system comprised of three phases namely, fingerprint reconstruction, feature extraction and development of trigon based security protocol. In fingerprint reconstruction, the different crack variance level finger prints images are reconstructed by the M-band Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT. After that features are extracted by binarization. A set of finger print images are utilized to evaluate the performance of security protocol and the result from this process guarantees the healthiness of the proposed trigon based security protocol. The implementation results show the effectiveness of proposed trigon based security protocol in protecting the finger print information and the achieved improvement in image reconstruction and the security process.

  2. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  3. Multispectral imaging for biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Corcoran, Stephen P.; Nixon, Kristin A.; Ostrom, Robert E.

    2005-03-01

    Automated identification systems based on fingerprint images are subject to two significant types of error: an incorrect decision about the identity of a person due to a poor quality fingerprint image and incorrectly accepting a fingerprint image generated from an artificial sample or altered finger. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional information about a finger that significantly augments the information collected using a conventional fingerprint imager based on total internal reflectance. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used broadly to denote a collection of images taken under different polarization conditions and illumination configurations, as well as using multiple wavelengths. Background information is provided on conventional fingerprint imaging. A multispectral imager for fingerprint imaging is then described and a means to combine the two imaging systems into a single unit is discussed. Results from an early-stage prototype of such a system are shown.

  4. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases. (paper)

  5. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  6. Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1993-01-01

    It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs

  7. A novel hand-type detection technique with fingerprint sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Narishige; Shinzaki, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    In large-scale biometric authentication systems such as the US-Visit (USA), a 10-fingerprints scanner which simultaneously captures four fingerprints is used. In traditional systems, specific hand-types (left or right) are indicated, but it is difficult to detect hand-type due to the hand rotation and the opening and closing of fingers. In this paper, we evaluated features that were extracted from hand images (which were captured by a general optical scanner) that are considered to be effective for detecting hand-type. Furthermore, we extended the knowledge to real fingerprint images, and evaluated the accuracy with which it detects hand-type. We obtained an accuracy of about 80% with only three fingers (index, middle, ring finger).

  8. Efficient internal and surface fingerprint extraction and blending using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas; Connan, James

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography provides a 3D representation of fingertip skin where surface and internal fingerprints are found. These fingerprints are topographically identical. However, the surface skin is prone to damage, distortion, and spoofing; and the internal fingerprint is difficult to access and extract. This research presents a novel scaling-resolution approach to fingerprint zone detection and extraction. Furthermore, a local-quality-based blending procedure is also proposed. The accuracy of the zone-detection algorithm is comparable to an earlier work, yielding a mean-squared error of 25.9 and structural similarity of 95.8% (compared to a ground-truth estimate). Blending the surface and internal fingerprints improved the National Institute of Science and Technology's Fingerprint Image Quality scores and the average maximum match scores (when matched against conventional surface counterparts). The fingerprint blending procedure was able to combine high-quality regions from both fingerprints, thus mitigating surface wrinkles and anomalous poor-quality regions. Furthermore, spoof detection via a surface-to-internal fingerprint comparison was proposed and tested.

  9. Distributed construction of quantum fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Ambainis, Andris; Shi, Yaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Quantum fingerprints are useful quantum encodings introduced by Buhrman, Cleve, Watrous, and de Wolf (Physical Review Letters, Volume 87, Number 16, Article 167902, 2001; quant-ph/0102001) in obtaining an efficient quantum communication protocol. We design a protocol for constructing the fingerprint in a distributed scenario. As an application, this protocol gives rise to a communication protocol more efficient than the best known classical protocol for a communication problem.

  10. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology.

  11. Detection of cores in fingerprints with improved dimension reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    In this paper, we present a statistical approach to core detection in fingerprint images that is based on the likelihood ratio, using models of variation of core templates and randomly chosen templates. Additionally, we propose an alternative dimension reduction method. Unlike standard linear

  12. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... be determined by current costs, using a method of analysis consistent with widely accepted accounting principles and practices, and calculated in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 9701 and other... less than every four years, to determine the current cost of processing fingerprint identification...

  13. An SDN-Based Fingerprint Hopping Method to Prevent Fingerprinting Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprinting attacks are one of the most severe threats to the security of networks. Fingerprinting attack aims to obtain the operating system information of target hosts to make preparations for future attacks. In this paper, a fingerprint hopping method (FPH is proposed based on software-defined networks to defend against fingerprinting attacks. FPH introduces the idea of moving target defense to show a hopping fingerprint toward the fingerprinting attackers. The interaction of the fingerprinting attack and its defense is modeled as a signal game, and the equilibriums of the game are analyzed to develop an optimal defense strategy. Experiments show that FPH can resist fingerprinting attacks effectively.

  14. Robust efficient video fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  15. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-03-14

    Magnetic resonance is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of a magnetic resonance experiment has remained largely unchanged for almost 50 years, being mainly restricted to the qualitative probing of only a limited set of the properties that can in principle be accessed by this technique. Here we introduce an approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization--which we term 'magnetic resonance fingerprinting' (MRF)--that permits the simultaneous non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue. MRF thus provides an alternative way to quantitatively detect and analyse complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to identify the presence of a specific target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity and speed of a magnetic resonance study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern-recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and can thus improve measurement accuracy.

  16. Visualization of latent fingerprints beneath opaque electrical tapes by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kangkang; Zhang, Ning; Meng, Li; Li, Zhigang; Xu, Xiaojing

    2018-03-01

    Electrical tape is found as one type of important trace evidence in crime scene. For example, it is very frequently used to insulate wires in explosive devices in many criminal cases. The fingerprints of the suspects were often left on the adhesive side of the tapes, which can provide very useful clues for the investigation and make it possible for individual identification. The most commonly used method to detect and visualize those latent fingerprints is to peel off each layer of the tapes first and then adopt the chemical methods to develop the fingerprints on the tapes. However, the peeling-off and chemical development process would degrade and contaminate the fingerprints and thus adversely affect the accuracy of identification. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel forensic imaging modality based on lowcoherence interferometry, which has the advantages of non-destruction, micrometer-level high resolution and crosssectional imaging. In this study, a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system with {6μm resolution was employed to obtain the image of fingerprint sandwiched between two opaque electrical tapes without any pre-processing procedure like peeling-off. Three-dimensional (3D) OCT reconstruction was performed and the subsurface image was produced to visualize the latent fingerprints. The results demonstrate that OCT is a promising tool for recovering the latent fingerprints hidden beneath opaque electrical tape non-destructively and rapidly.

  17. A preliminary study of DTI Fingerprinting on stroke analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heather T; Ye, Chenfei; Wu, Jun; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xuhui; Yang, Zhengyi; Ma, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) is a well-known MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) technique which provides useful structural information about human brain. However, the quantitative measurement to physiological variation of subtypes of ischemic stroke is not available. An automatically quantitative method for DTI analysis will enhance the DTI application in clinics. In this study, we proposed a DTI Fingerprinting technology to quantitatively analyze white matter tissue, which was applied in stroke classification. The TBSS (Tract Based Spatial Statistics) method was employed to generate mask automatically. To evaluate the clustering performance of the automatic method, lesion ROI (Region of Interest) is manually drawn on the DWI images as a reference. The results from the DTI Fingerprinting were compared with those obtained from the reference ROIs. It indicates that the DTI Fingerprinting could identify different states of ischemic stroke and has promising potential to provide a more comprehensive measure of the DTI data. Further development should be carried out to improve DTI Fingerprinting technology in clinics.

  18. Mass spectrometry imaging of illicit drugs in latent fingerprints by matrix-free and matrix-assisted desorption/ionization techniques.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škríba, Anton; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2018), s. 124-128 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20229S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MALDI * Mass spectrometry imaging * NALDI Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.022, year: 2016

  19. On the introduction of secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fingerprint classification is an important one because of the need to, before executing a database search procedure, virtually break the fingerprint template database into smaller, manageable partitions. This is done in order to avoid...

  20. Fingerprint matching with optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolla, Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition is an important security technique with a steadily growing usage for the identification and verification of individuals. However, current fingerprint acquisition systems have certain disadvantages, which include...

  1. Fingerprint separation: an application of ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Kalra, Prem Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Among all existing biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method, which has been successfully used in numerous applications. Fingerprint-based identification is the most recognized tool in biometrics because of its reliability and accuracy. Fingerprint identification is done by matching questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions from fingers, palms, and toes to determine if the impressions are from the same finger (or palm, toe, etc.). There are many fingerprint matching algorithms which automate and facilitate the job of fingerprint matching, but for any of these algorithms matching can be difficult if the fingerprints are overlapped or mixed. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm for separating overlapped or mixed fingerprints so that the performance of the matching algorithms will improve when they are fed with these inputs. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been used as a tool to separate the overlapped or mixed fingerprints.

  2. Chemical Visualization of Sweat Pores in Fingerprints Using GO-Enhanced TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lesi; Xia, Meng-Chan; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhao, Ya-Bin; Li, Zhanping; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-08-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used in imaging of small molecules (SIMS was used to detect and image relatively high mass molecules such as poison, alkaloids (>600 Da) and controlled drugs, and antibiotics (>700 Da) in fingerprints. Detail features of fingerprints such as the number and distribution of sweat pores in a ridge and even the delicate morphology of one pore were clearly revealed in SIMS images of relatively high mass molecules. The detail features combining with identified chemical composition were sufficient to establish a human identity and link the suspect to a crime scene. The wide detectable mass range and high spatial resolution make GO-enhanced TOF-SIMS a promising tool in accurate and fast analysis of fingerprints, especially in fragmental fingerprint analysis.

  3. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) Represses Transcription of the Tumor Suppressor Rb Gene via Binding Competition with Sp1 and Recruitment of Co-repressors*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-01-01

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp –308 to –188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp –65 to –56) and GC-box 2 (bp –18 to –9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp –244 to –236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression. PMID:18801742

  4. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  5. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  6. Sex Determination from Fingerprint Ridge Density | Gungadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density. The fingerprints were taken from 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females) in the age group of 18-60 years. After taking fingerprints, the ridges were counted in the upper portion of the radial border of each print for all ...

  7. MR fingerprinting reconstruction with Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Zechen; Chen, Shiyang; Chen, Shuo; Li, Rui; Hu, Xiaoping

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MR fingerprinting or MRF) is a newly introduced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique, which enables simultaneous multi-parameter mapping in a single acquisition with improved time efficiency. The current MRF reconstruction method is based on dictionary matching, which may be limited by the discrete and finite nature of the dictionary and the computational cost associated with dictionary construction, storage and matching. In this paper, we describe a reconstruction method based on Kalman filter for MRF, which avoids the use of dictionary to obtain continuous MR parameter measurements. With this Kalman filter framework, the Bloch equation of inversion-recovery balanced steady state free-precession (IR-bSSFP) MRF sequence was derived to predict signal evolution, and acquired signal was entered to update the prediction. The algorithm can gradually estimate the accurate MR parameters during the recursive calculation. Single pixel and numeric brain phantom simulation were implemented with Kalman filter and the results were compared with those from dictionary matching reconstruction algorithm to demonstrate the feasibility and assess the performance of Kalman filter algorithm. The results demonstrated that Kalman filter algorithm is applicable for MRF reconstruction, eliminating the need for a pre-define dictionary and obtaining continuous MR parameter in contrast to the dictionary matching algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a diffractive element-based sensor for detection of latent fingerprints from a curved smooth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Myller, Kari

    2009-01-01

    An optical measurement device, which is a diffractive element-based sensor, is presented for the detection of latent fingerprints on curved objects such as a ballpoint pen. The device provides image and gloss information on the ridges of a fingerprint. The device is expected to have applications in forensic studies. (technical design note)

  9. Efficiency and Flexibility of Fingerprint Scheme Using Partial Encryption and Discrete Wavelet Transform to Verify User in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ali A

    2014-01-01

    Now, the security of digital images is considered more and more essential and fingerprint plays the main role in the world of image. Furthermore, fingerprint recognition is a scheme of biometric verification that applies pattern recognition techniques depending on image of fingerprint individually. In the cloud environment, an adversary has the ability to intercept information and must be secured from eavesdroppers. Unluckily, encryption and decryption functions are slow and they are often hard. Fingerprint techniques required extra hardware and software; it is masqueraded by artificial gummy fingers (spoof attacks). Additionally, when a large number of users are being verified at the same time, the mechanism will become slow. In this paper, we employed each of the partial encryptions of user's fingerprint and discrete wavelet transform to obtain a new scheme of fingerprint verification. Moreover, our proposed scheme can overcome those problems; it does not require cost, reduces the computational supplies for huge volumes of fingerprint images, and resists well-known attacks. In addition, experimental results illustrate that our proposed scheme has a good performance of user's fingerprint verification.

  10. Free Radical Scavenging Fingerprints of Selected Aromatic and Medicinal Tunisian Plants Assessed by Means of TLC-DPPH(•) Test and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions.

  11. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkuk Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC. To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger’s ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  13. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonkuk; Pi, Jae-Eun; Cho, Sung Haeung; Kang, Seung-Youl; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Jeon, Ho-Sik; Kim, Jong-Uk; Lee, Myunghee

    2018-01-19

    In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT) sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC) are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE) amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC). To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger's ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  14. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. DWI-Based Neural Fingerprinting Technology: A Preliminary Study on Stroke Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfei Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a common neural disorder in neurology clinics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become an important tool to assess the neural physiological changes under stroke, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Quantitative analysis of MRI images would help medical doctors to localize the stroke area in the diagnosis in terms of structural information and physiological characterization. However, current quantitative approaches can only provide localization of the disorder rather than measure physiological variation of subtypes of ischemic stroke. In the current study, we hypothesize that each kind of neural disorder would have its unique physiological characteristics, which could be reflected by DWI images on different gradients. Based on this hypothesis, a DWI-based neural fingerprinting technology was proposed to classify subtypes of ischemic stroke. The neural fingerprint was constructed by the signal intensity of the region of interest (ROI on the DWI images under different gradients. The fingerprint derived from the manually drawn ROI could classify the subtypes with accuracy 100%. However, the classification accuracy was worse when using semiautomatic and automatic method in ROI segmentation. The preliminary results showed promising potential of DWI-based neural fingerprinting technology in stroke subtype classification. Further studies will be carried out for enhancing the fingerprinting accuracy and its application in other clinical practices.

  16. DWI-based neural fingerprinting technology: a preliminary study on stroke analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chenfei; Ma, Heather Ting; Wu, Jun; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xuhui; Yang, Zhengyi; Ma, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a common neural disorder in neurology clinics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool to assess the neural physiological changes under stroke, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Quantitative analysis of MRI images would help medical doctors to localize the stroke area in the diagnosis in terms of structural information and physiological characterization. However, current quantitative approaches can only provide localization of the disorder rather than measure physiological variation of subtypes of ischemic stroke. In the current study, we hypothesize that each kind of neural disorder would have its unique physiological characteristics, which could be reflected by DWI images on different gradients. Based on this hypothesis, a DWI-based neural fingerprinting technology was proposed to classify subtypes of ischemic stroke. The neural fingerprint was constructed by the signal intensity of the region of interest (ROI) on the DWI images under different gradients. The fingerprint derived from the manually drawn ROI could classify the subtypes with accuracy 100%. However, the classification accuracy was worse when using semiautomatic and automatic method in ROI segmentation. The preliminary results showed promising potential of DWI-based neural fingerprinting technology in stroke subtype classification. Further studies will be carried out for enhancing the fingerprinting accuracy and its application in other clinical practices.

  17. Improved fingercode alignment for accurate and compact fingerprint recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alignment for Accurate and Compact Fingerprint Recognition Dane Brown∗† and Karen Bradshaw∗ ∗Department of Computer Science Rhodes University Grahamstown, South Africa †Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Modelling and Digital Sciences Pretoria.... The experimental analysis and results are discussed in Section IV. Section V concludes the paper. II. RELATED STUDIES FingerCode [1] uses circular tessellation of filtered finger- print images centered at the reference point, which results in a circular ROI...

  18. Graphene Nanopres for DNA Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Haraldsen, J. T.; Schuller, Ivan K.; di Ventra, M.; Wikfeldt, K. T.

    2013-03-01

    The recent progress in nanopore experiments with transverse current is important for the development of fast, accurate and cheap finger-printing techniques for single nucleotide. Despite its enormous potential for the next generation DNA sequencing technology, the presence of large noise in the temporal spectrum of transverse current remains a big challenge for getting highly accurate interpretation of data. In this paper we present our abinitio calculations, and propose graphene based device for DNA fingerprinting. We calculate transmission current through graphene for each DNA base (A,C,G,T). As shown in our work, a proper time-series analysis of a signal provides a higher quality information in identifying single bio-molecule is translocating through the nanopores. This work is supported by LANL, Nordita, US DOE, AFOSR, and NIH.

  19. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  20. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Fingerprint start the next generation of payment method : Fingerprint payment: a new mode of mobile payment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    In the generation of mobile internet, fingerprint payment is one of the most popular topics at the moment. China has a big market and many users are using the mobile payment methods. There are a large number of mobile phones equipped with fingerprint recognition technology. As we know, fingerprint payment brings us more convenience and safety. We do not need to use many bankcards, and fingerprint also eliminates the users from the trouble of queuing to pay. However, users send traditional dig...

  2. Study on internal to surface fingerprint correlation using optical coherence tomography and internal fingerprint extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, LN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of, the above-mentioned works. Internal fingerprint zone detection is an improvement as it uses fuzzy c-means to improve clustering performance, uses better cluster result postprocessing, and improves upon the fine-tuning procedure through... Internal fingerprint extraction consists of two main parts: fingerprint zone detection and extraction. Zone detection uses fuzzy c-means clustering to approximate the location of the papillary junction (i.e., the internal fingerprint zone). Edge detection...

  3. Fingerprint multicast in secure video streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2006-01-01

    Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.

  4. Multiscale Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Eric Y.; Ma, Dan; Chen, Yong; Badve, Chaitra; Griswold, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To reduce acquisition time needed to obtain reliable parametric maps with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. Methods An iterative-denoising algorithm is initialized by reconstructing the MRF image series at low image resolution. For subsequent iterations, the method enforces pixel-wise fidelity to the best-matching dictionary template then enforces fidelity to the acquired data at slightly higher spatial resolution. After convergence, parametric maps with desirable spatial resolution are obtained through template matching of the final image series. The proposed method was evaluated on phantom and in-vivo data using the highly-undersampled, variable-density spiral trajectory and compared with the original MRF method. The benefits of additional sparsity constraints were also evaluated. When available, gold standard parameter maps were used to quantify the performance of each method. Results The proposed approach allowed convergence to accurate parametric maps with as few as 300 time points of acquisition, as compared to 1000 in the original MRF work. Simultaneous quantification of T1, T2, proton density (PD) and B0 field variations in the brain was achieved in vivo for a 256×256 matrix for a total acquisition time of 10.2s, representing a 3-fold reduction in acquisition time. Conclusions The proposed iterative multiscale reconstruction reliably increases MRF acquisition speed and accuracy. PMID:26132462

  5. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  6. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadzadeh, Farzad; Willems, Frans M. J.; Voloshinovskiy, Sviatoslav

    2014-01-01

    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of the C-terminal domain of Rv3262 (FbiB) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehan, Aisyah M.; Bashiri, Ghader; Paterson, Neil G.; Baker, Edward N.; Squire, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of FbiB, a bifunctional protein that is essential for the biosynthesis of cofactor F 420 in M. tuberculosis, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and were suitable for structure determination. During cofactor F 420 biosynthesis, the enzyme F 420 -γ-glutamyl ligase (FbiB) catalyzes the addition of γ-linked l-glutamate residues to form polyglutamylated F 420 derivatives. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv3262 (FbiB) consists of two domains: an N-terminal domain from the F 420 ligase superfamily and a C-terminal domain with sequence similarity to nitro-FMN reductase superfamily proteins. To characterize the role of the C-terminal domain of FbiB in polyglutamyl ligation, it has been purified and crystallized in an apo form. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron source and belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 1 2 1 2 (or P4 3 2 1 2), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.6, c = 101.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  8. FINGERPRINT VERIFICATION IN PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION BY APPLYING LOCAL WALSH HADAMARD TRANSFORM AND GABOR COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Pushpalatha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In an era of advanced computer technology world where innumerable services such as access to bank accounts, or access to secured data or entry to some national important organizations require authentication of genuine individual. Among all biometric personal identification systems, fingerprint recognition system is most accurate and economical technology. In this paper we have proposed fingerprint recognition system using Local Walsh Hadamard Transform (LWHT with Phase Magnitude Histograms (PMHs for feature extraction. Fingerprints display oriented texture-like patterns. Gabor filters have the property of capturing global and local texture information from blur or unclear images and filter bank provides the orientation features which are robust to image distortion and rotation. The LWHT algorithm is compared with other two approaches viz., Gabor Coefficients and Directional Features. The three methods are compared using FVC 2006 Finger print database images. It is found from the observation that the values of TSR, FAR and FRR have improved results compared to existing algorithm.

  9. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  10. Predicting the performance of fingerprint similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints are bit string representations of molecular structure that typically encode structural fragments, topological features, or pharmacophore patterns. Various fingerprint designs are utilized in virtual screening and their search performance essentially depends on three parameters: the nature of the fingerprint, the active compounds serving as reference molecules, and the composition of the screening database. It is of considerable interest and practical relevance to predict the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. A quantitative assessment of the potential that a fingerprint search might successfully retrieve active compounds, if available in the screening database, would substantially help to select the type of fingerprint most suitable for a given search problem. The method presented herein utilizes concepts from information theory to relate the fingerprint feature distributions of reference compounds to screening libraries. If these feature distributions do not sufficiently differ, active database compounds that are similar to reference molecules cannot be retrieved because they disappear in the "background." By quantifying the difference in feature distribution using the Kullback-Leibler divergence and relating the divergence to compound recovery rates obtained for different benchmark classes, fingerprint search performance can be quantitatively predicted.

  11. Fingerprint matching on smart card: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baruni, Kedimotse P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint Match-on-Card (MoC) offers the highest degree of privacy and security to cardholders as the fingerprint never leaves the secure environment of a smart card. The level of security of a biometric system is evaluated by the location where...

  12. Integrated fingerprinting in secure digital cinema projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.

  13. DNA fingerprints come to court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, a new technique, which produces a visual representation of a person's genome, enables the identification of perpetrators from as little as a single hair root, providing they have left some biologic evidence-hair, skin cells, blood, or semen-at the scene of the crime. DNA fingerprinting was developed by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, PhD, in 1985. Jeffreys, professor genetics at the University of Leicester, built upon a discovery, five years earlier, of certain hypervariable regions called minisatellites in unexpressed areas of DNA. The hypervariability was evidenced in the number of repetitions of certain sequences of base pairs. It was this aspect that revealed to Jeffreys something that had eluded other investigators. He realized that these minisatellite regions had a potential for identification far greater than that of conventional genetic markers, which are defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). RFLPs are characterized by the substitution of one base pair for another, resulting in the presence or absence of a restriction enzyme site. Thus, each offers a limited number of alleles. In contrast, minisatellite regions have an accordion-like range of length, as the number of repetitions of a given sequence varies widely from person to person

  14. Extracting valley-ridge lines from point-cloud-based 3D fingerprint models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xufang; Song, Zhan; Xie, Wuyuan

    2013-01-01

    3D fingerprinting is an emerging technology with the distinct advantage of touchless operation. More important, 3D fingerprint models contain more biometric information than traditional 2D fingerprint images. However, current approaches to fingerprint feature detection usually must transform the 3D models to a 2D space through unwrapping or other methods, which might introduce distortions. A new approach directly extracts valley-ridge features from point-cloud-based 3D fingerprint models. It first applies the moving least-squares method to fit a local paraboloid surface and represent the local point cloud area. It then computes the local surface's curvatures and curvature tensors to facilitate detection of the potential valley and ridge points. The approach projects those points to the most likely valley-ridge lines, using statistical means such as covariance analysis and cross correlation. To finally extract the valley-ridge lines, it grows the polylines that approximate the projected feature points and removes the perturbations between the sampled points. Experiments with different 3D fingerprint models demonstrate this approach's feasibility and performance.

  15. Nucleus fingerprinting for the unique identification of Feulgen-stained nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, David; Brozio, Matthias; Bell, André; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    DNA Image Cytometry is a method for non-invasive cancer diagnosis which measures the DNA content of Feulgen-stained nuclei. DNA content is measured using a microscope system equipped with a digital camera as a densitometer and estimating the DNA content from the absorption of light when passing through the nuclei. However, a DNA Image Cytometry measurement is only valid if each nucleus is only measured once. To assist the user in preventing multiple measurements of the same nucleus, we have developed a unique digital identifier for the characterization of Feulgen-stained nuclei, the so called Nucleus Fingerprint. Only nuclei with a new fingerprint can be added to the measurement. This fingerprint is based on basic nucleus features, the contour of the nucleus and the spatial relationship to nuclei in the vicinity. Based on this characterization, a classifier for testing two nuclei for identity is presented. In a pairwise comparison of ~40000 pairs of mutually different nuclei, 99.5% were classified as different. In another 450 tests, the fingerprints of the same nucleus recorded a second time were in all cases judged identical. We therefore conclude that our Nucleus Fingerprint approach robustly prevents the repeated measurement of nuclei in DNA Image Cytometry.

  16. DNA Electronic Fingerprints by Local Spectroscopy on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsky, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Working and scalable alternatives to the conventional chemical methods of DNA sequencing that are based on electronic/ionic signatures would revolutionize the field of sequencing. The approach of a single molecule imaging and spectroscopy with unprecedented resolution, achieved by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) and nanopore electronics could enable this revolution. We use the data from our group and others in applying this local scanning tunneling microscopy and illustrate possibilities of electronic sequencing of freeze dried deposits on graphene. We will present two types of calculated fingerprints: first in Local Density of States (LDOS) of DNA nucleotide bases (A,C,G,T) deposited on graphene. Significant base-dependent features in the LDOS in an energy range within few eV of the Fermi level were found in our calculations. These features can serve as electronic fingerprints for the identification of individual bases in STS. In the second approach we present calculated base dependent electronic transverse conductance as DNA translocates through the graphene nanopore. Thus we argue that the fingerprints of DNA-graphene hybrid structures may provide an alternative route to DNA sequencing using STS. Work supported by US DOE, NORDITA.

  17. Franck-Condon fingerprinting of vibration-tunneling spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Sundaradevan, Praveen; Gruebele, Martin

    2013-08-15

    We introduce Franck-Condon fingerprinting as a method for assigning complex vibration-tunneling spectra. The B̃ state of thiophosgene (SCCl2) serves as our prototype. Despite several attempts, assignment of its excitation spectrum has proved difficult because of near-degenerate vibrational frequencies, Fermi resonance between the C-Cl stretching mode and the Cl-C-Cl bending mode, and large tunneling splittings due to the out-of-plane umbrella mode. Hence, the spectrum has never been fitted to an effective Hamiltonian. Our assignment approach replaces precise frequency information with intensity information, eliminating the need for double resonance spectroscopy or combination differences, neither of which have yielded a full assignment thus far. The dispersed fluorescence spectrum of each unknown vibration-tunneling state images its character onto known vibrational progressions in the ground state. By using this Franck-Condon fingerprint, we were able to determine the predominant character of several vibration-tunneling states and assign them; in other cases, the fingerprinting revealed that the states are strongly mixed and cannot be characterized with a simple normal mode assignment. The assigned transitions from vibration-tunneling wave functions that were not too strongly mixed could be fitted within measurement uncertainty by an effective vibration-tunneling Hamiltonian. A fit of all observed vibration-tunneling states will require a full resonance-tunneling Hamiltonian.

  18. Attendance fingerprint identification system using arduino and single board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, M. A.; Seniman; Arisandi, D.; Hasanah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fingerprint is one of the most unique parts of the human body that distinguishes one person from others and is easily accessed. This uniqueness is supported by technology that can automatically identify or recognize a person called fingerprint sensor. Yet, the existing Fingerprint Sensor can only do fingerprint identification on one machine. For the mentioned reason, we need a method to be able to recognize each user in a different fingerprint sensor. The purpose of this research is to build fingerprint sensor system for fingerprint data management to be centralized so identification can be done in each Fingerprint Sensor. The result of this research shows that by using Arduino and Raspberry Pi, data processing can be centralized so that fingerprint identification can be done in each fingerprint sensor with 98.5 % success rate of centralized server recording.

  19. Fast group matching for MR fingerprinting reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Stephen F; Setsompop, Kawin; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ye, Huihui; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Griswold, Mark A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-08-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) is a technique for quantitative tissue mapping using pseudorandom measurements. To estimate tissue properties such as T1 , T2 , proton density, and B0 , the rapidly acquired data are compared against a large dictionary of Bloch simulations. This matching process can be a very computationally demanding portion of MRF reconstruction. We introduce a fast group matching algorithm (GRM) that exploits inherent correlation within MRF dictionaries to create highly clustered groupings of the elements. During matching, a group specific signature is first used to remove poor matching possibilities. Group principal component analysis (PCA) is used to evaluate all remaining tissue types. In vivo 3 Tesla brain data were used to validate the accuracy of our approach. For a trueFISP sequence with over 196,000 dictionary elements, 1000 MRF samples, and image matrix of 128 × 128, GRM was able to map MR parameters within 2s using standard vendor computational resources. This is an order of magnitude faster than global PCA and nearly two orders of magnitude faster than direct matching, with comparable accuracy (1-2% relative error). The proposed GRM method is a highly efficient model reduction technique for MRF matching and should enable clinically relevant reconstruction accuracy and time on standard vendor computational resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fingerprint re-alignment: a solution based on the true fingerprint center point

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Solution Based on the True Fingerprint Center Point Ishmael S. Msiza, Brain Leke-Betechuoh, and Tendani Malumedzha Biometrics Research Group ? Information Security CSIR, Modelling & Digital Science Unit Pretoria, Republic of South Africa e... with a pattern that belongs to the Tented Arch (TA) fingerprint class. Fingerprints that belong to the TA class have a single core and a single delta, with the core located almost directly above the delta, as depicted in figure 3 (b). Many singular...

  1. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Keizer

    Full Text Available Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body.We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30 decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29 also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group.The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed.

  2. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.; Bretschneider, Simon A.; Bergmann, Victor W.; Li, Dan; Klasen, Alexander; Mars, Julian; Tremel, Wolfgang; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Butt, Hans-Jü rgen; Mezger, Markus; Berger, Rü diger; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Weber, Stefan A. L.

    2016-01-01

    sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route

  3. Capabilities of diffusion-weighted and fresh blood imaging in depicting fresh thrombus. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ritsuko; Manabe, Tsutomu; Tazawa, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined the capabilities of diffusion-weighted (DWI) and fresh-blood imaging (FBI) in depicting thrombus. A paper-clay phantom holding test syringes of various sizes filled with either contrast medium or fresh human blood were scanned using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI of the specimens were obtained. FBI depicted all the specimens regardless of syringe diameter, but DWI failed to image the syringe measuring 0.5 cm in diameter. B-factors and/or number of acquisitions (NAQ) seemed responsible for DWI's depiction capability. ADC values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI correlated with the viscosity of the contrast medium samples. Clotted blood, the most viscous of the samples, had the smallest ADC value and no relationship with signal intensities on DWI and FBI. Larger b-factors reduced signal intensity in contrast medium on DWI, but signals decreased only minimally in clotted blood. The result suggested that although viscosity was the influential factor for signal intensities on DWI in contrast medium, other factors, such as particle sizes of fibrin and hemoglobin, accounted for the low ADC values in clotting blood. T 2 relaxation time seemed to play a significant role in making signal intensities on DWI irrelevant to b-factors. Despite lapsed time, the clots were persistently hyperintense on FBI with a tendency to decrease only gradually. On DWI, there was a certain period when signal intensities were high and ADC values were low. The signal intensities on DWI and ADC values were considered to be influenced by the process of clot formation, and disappearance of signal seemed likely attributable to degeneration of protein and organization of the clot. (author)

  4. Machine-assisted verification of latent fingerprints: first results for nondestructive contact-less optical acquisition techniques with a CWL sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Krapyvskyy, Dmytro; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    A machine-assisted analysis of traces from crime scenes might be possible with the advent of new high-resolution non-destructive contact-less acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints. This requires reliable techniques for the automatic extraction of fingerprint features from latent and exemplar fingerprints for matching purposes using pattern recognition approaches. Therefore, we evaluate the NIST Biometric Image Software for the feature extraction and verification of contact-lessly acquired latent fingerprints to determine potential error rates. Our exemplary test setup includes 30 latent fingerprints from 5 people in two test sets that are acquired from different surfaces using a chromatic white light sensor. The first test set includes 20 fingerprints on two different surfaces. It is used to determine the feature extraction performance. The second test set includes one latent fingerprint on 10 different surfaces and an exemplar fingerprint to determine the verification performance. This utilized sensing technique does not require a physical or chemical visibility enhancement of the fingerprint residue, thus the original trace remains unaltered for further investigations. No particular feature extraction and verification techniques have been applied to such data, yet. Hence, we see the need for appropriate algorithms that are suitable to support forensic investigations.

  5. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future

    OpenAIRE

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67–73 and Nature 1985, 316:76–79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the n...

  6. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  7. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Recognizable Characteristics in Biometrics Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Yu.; Maeva, A.; Severin, F.

    Biometrics is a rapidly evolving scientific and applied discipline that studies possible ways of personal identification by means of unique biological characteristics. Such identification is important in various situations requiring restricted access to certain areas, information and personal data and for cases of medical emergencies. A number of automated biometric techniques have been developed, including fingerprint, hand shape, eye and facial recognition, thermographic imaging, etc. All these techniques differ in the recognizable parameters, usability, accuracy and cost. Among these, fingerprint recognition stands alone since a very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are key evidence left at a crime scene and can be used to indentify suspects. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. We introduce a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging. The proposed method obtains a scan only once and then varies the C-scan gate position and width to visualize acoustic reflections from any appropriate depth inside the skin. Also, B-scans and A-scans can be recreated from any position using such data array, which gives the control over the visualization options. By setting the C-scan gate deeper inside the skin, distribution of the sweat pores (which are located along the ridges) can be easily visualized. This distribution should be unique for each individual so this provides a means of personal identification, which is not affected by any changes (accidental or intentional) of the fingers' surface conditions. This paper discusses different setups, acoustic parameters of the system, signal and image processing options and possible ways of 3-dimentional visualization that could be used as a recognizable characteristic in biometric identification.

  8. Fusion of gait and fingerprint for user authentication on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Mohammad; Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    A new multi-modal biometric authentication approach using gait signals and fingerprint images as biometric traits is proposed. The individual comparison scores derived from the gait and fingers are normalized using four methods (min-max, z-score, median absolute deviation, tangent hyperbolic...

  9. Three-dimensional fingerprint recognition by using convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianyu; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the improvement of social information, fingerprint recognition technology has become a hot research direction and been widely applied in many actual fields because of its feasibility and reliability. The traditional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint recognition method relies on matching feature points. This method is not only time-consuming, but also lost three-dimensional (3D) information of fingerprint, with the fingerprint rotation, scaling, damage and other issues, a serious decline in robustness. To solve these problems, 3D fingerprint has been used to recognize human being. Because it is a new research field, there are still lots of challenging problems in 3D fingerprint recognition. This paper presents a new 3D fingerprint recognition method by using a convolution neural network (CNN). By combining 2D fingerprint and fingerprint depth map into CNN, and then through another CNN feature fusion, the characteristics of the fusion complete 3D fingerprint recognition after classification. This method not only can preserve 3D information of fingerprints, but also solves the problem of CNN input. Moreover, the recognition process is simpler than traditional feature point matching algorithm. 3D fingerprint recognition rate by using CNN is compared with other fingerprint recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D fingerprint recognition method has good recognition rate and robustness.

  10. Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.

  11. Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    query time, no extra space and no preprocessing achieves significantly better average case performance. We show a new algorithm, Fingerprint k , which for a parameter k, 1 ≤ k ≤ [log n], on a string of length n and alphabet size σ, gives O(k n1/k) query time using O(k n) space and O(k n + sort......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst....... The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear...

  12. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  13. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  14. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  15. A comparison of fingerprint sweat corrosion of different alloys of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Stephanie; Bond, John W

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint sweat from 40 donors was deposited onto samples of five α and α + β phase brasses, comprising five alloys with different copper and zinc concentrations, two of which also had the addition of small concentrations of lead. Visual grading of the visibility of the corrosion revealed that brasses with the least amount of zinc produced the most visible and fully formed fingerprints from the most donors. Consideration of previously reported mechanisms for the corrosion of brass suggests red copper (I) oxide as a likely corrosion product for low zinc brasses, and a consideration of the color, composition, and solubility of fingerprint sweat corrosion products suggests that copper (I) oxide produces good contrast and visibility with the brass substrate. Scanning electron microscope images of the corrosion of all five alloys confirmed the enhanced contrast between corroded and uncorroded areas for low zinc alloys. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Partial fingerprint identification algorithm based on the modified generalized Hough transform on mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Tang, Siqi; Han, Congying; Guo, Tiande

    2018-04-01

    Partial fingerprint identification technology which is mainly used in device with small sensor area like cellphone, U disk and computer, has taken more attention in recent years with its unique advantages. However, owing to the lack of sufficient minutiae points, the conventional method do not perform well in the above situation. We propose a new fingerprint matching technique which utilizes ridges as features to deal with partial fingerprint images and combines the modified generalized Hough transform and scoring strategy based on machine learning. The algorithm can effectively meet the real-time and space-saving requirements of the resource constrained devices. Experiments on in-house database indicate that the proposed algorithm have an excellent performance.

  17. Fingerprint Identification Using SIFT-Based Minutia Descriptors and Improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuqiang Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1 the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2 high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM, is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements.

  18. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, Manuel, E-mail: malgarra67@gmail.com [Centro de Geología da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamemto do Territorio do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Beograd (Serbia); Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071Málaga (Spain); Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da [Centro de Investigação em Química (CIQ-UP). Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Guerrero-González, Juan José [Policía Científica, Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, Málaga (Spain)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH{sub 2}@CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods.

  19. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarra, Manuel; Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar; Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da; Guerrero-González, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH 2 @CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods

  20. In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dan; Yu, Yong; Folick, Andrew; Currie, Erin; Farese, Robert V; Tsai, Tsung-Huang; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Wang, Meng C

    2014-06-18

    Metabolic fingerprinting provides valuable information on the physiopathological states of cells and tissues. Traditional imaging mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance imaging are unable to probe the spatial-temporal dynamics of metabolites at the subcellular level due to either lack of spatial resolution or inability to perform live cell imaging. Here we report a complementary metabolic imaging technique that is based on hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (hsSRS). We demonstrated the use of hsSRS imaging in quantifying two major neutral lipids: cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol in cells and tissues. Our imaging results revealed previously unknown changes of lipid composition associated with obesity and steatohepatitis. We further used stable-isotope labeling to trace the metabolic dynamics of fatty acids in live cells and live Caenorhabditis elegans with hsSRS imaging. We found that unsaturated fatty acid has preferential uptake into lipid storage while saturated fatty acid exhibits toxicity in hepatic cells. Simultaneous metabolic fingerprinting of deuterium-labeled saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in living C. elegans revealed that there is a lack of interaction between the two, unlike previously hypothesized. Our findings provide new approaches for metabolic tracing of neutral lipids and their precursors in living cells and organisms, and could potentially serve as a general approach for metabolic fingerprinting of other metabolites.

  1. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-03

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67-73 and Nature 1985, 316:76-79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined "Fingerprint News" was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on "DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications". Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting ("the past") was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as "DNA fingerprinting in the present", and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA sequencing

  2. Latent fingerprints on different type of screen protective films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the quality of latent fingerprint on different types of screen protective films including screen protector, matte screen protector, anti-fingerprint clear screen protector and anti-fingerprint matte screen protector by using black powder method in developing latent fingerprints. The fingerprints were performed by 10 volunteers whose fingers (right index, right thumb, left index and left thumb were stubbing at different types of screen protective films and subsequently latent fingerprints were developed by brushing with black powder. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS counted the numbers of minutiae points from 320 latent fingerprints. Anti-fingerprint matte screen protective film produced the best quality of latent fingerprint with an average minutiae point 72.65, followed by matte screen protective film, clear screen protective film and anti-fingerprint clear screen protective film with an average minutiae point of 155.2, 135.0 and 72.65 respectively. The quality of latent fingerprints developed between a clear and a matte surface of screen protective films showed a significant difference (sig>0.05, whereas the coat and the non-coat with anti-fingerprint chemical revealed a non-significant difference (sig<0.05 in their number of minutiae points.

  3. On Realistically Attacking Tor with Website Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Website fingerprinting allows a local, passive observer monitoring a web-browsing client’s encrypted channel to determine her web activity. Previous attacks have shown that website fingerprinting could be a threat to anonymity networks such as Tor under laboratory conditions. However, there are significant differences between laboratory conditions and realistic conditions. First, in laboratory tests we collect the training data set together with the testing data set, so the training data set is fresh, but an attacker may not be able to maintain a fresh data set. Second, laboratory packet sequences correspond to a single page each, but for realistic packet sequences the split between pages is not obvious. Third, packet sequences may include background noise from other types of web traffic. These differences adversely affect website fingerprinting under realistic conditions. In this paper, we tackle these three problems to bridge the gap between laboratory and realistic conditions for website fingerprinting. We show that we can maintain a fresh training set with minimal resources. We demonstrate several classification-based techniques that allow us to split full packet sequences effectively into sequences corresponding to a single page each. We describe several new algorithms for tackling background noise. With our techniques, we are able to build the first website fingerprinting system that can operate directly on packet sequences collected in the wild.

  4. Near-Optimal Fingerprinting with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás Gábor György

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people show large behavioural uniqueness. This has serious privacy implications as most individuals become increasingly re-identifiable in large datasets or can be tracked, while they are browsing the web, using only a couple of their attributes, called as their fingerprints. Often, the success of these attacks depends on explicit constraints on the number of attributes learnable about individuals, i.e., the size of their fingerprints. These constraints can be budget as well as technical constraints imposed by the data holder. For instance, Apple restricts the number of applications that can be called by another application on iOS in order to mitigate the potential privacy threats of leaking the list of installed applications on a device. In this work, we address the problem of identifying the attributes (e.g., smartphone applications that can serve as a fingerprint of users given constraints on the size of the fingerprint. We give the best fingerprinting algorithms in general, and evaluate their effectiveness on several real-world datasets. Our results show that current privacy guards limiting the number of attributes that can be queried about individuals is insufficient to mitigate their potential privacy risks in many practical cases.

  5. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  6. Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

  7. Fingerprinting Mobile Devices Using Personalized Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Apple removed access to various device hardware identifiers that were frequently misused by iOS third-party apps to track users. We are, therefore, now studying the extent to which users of smartphones can still be uniquely identified simply through their personalized device configurations. Using Apple’s iOS as an example, we show how a device fingerprint can be computed using 29 different configuration features. These features can be queried from arbitrary thirdparty apps via the official SDK. Experimental evaluations based on almost 13,000 fingerprints from approximately 8,000 different real-world devices show that (1 all fingerprints are unique and distinguishable; and (2 utilizing a supervised learning approach allows returning users or their devices to be recognized with a total accuracy of 97% over time

  8. Comparing Categorical and Probabilistic Fingerprint Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Brandon; Mitchell, Gregory; Scurich, Nicholas

    2018-04-23

    Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms. We studied model language developed by the U.S. Defense Forensic Science Center to summarize results of statistical analysis of the similarity between prints. Participant ratings of the likelihood the defendant left prints at the crime scene and committed the crime were similar when exposed to categorical and strong probabilistic match evidence. Participants reduced these likelihoods when exposed to the weaker probabilistic evidence, but did not otherwise discriminate among the prints assigned different match probabilities. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically collapse data from many subjects, but brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a 'fingerprint' that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual's connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence: the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects on the basis of functional connectivity fMRI.

  10. Diversity of DNA fingerprints in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, A; Swinne, D; Staib, F; Bennett, J E; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1995-07-01

    DNA fingerprint patterns of 156 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates (26 AIDS patients, 46 non-AIDS patients, and 40 environmental sources) from both varieties (126 C. neoformans var. neoformans and 30 C. neoformans var. gattii isolates) and from seven countries were analyzed by using the DNA probe UT-4p. Nine and twelve distinct DNA fingerprint patterns were observed for isolates of the C. neoformans var. neoformans and var. gattii, respectively. No pattern was unique to AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, or the environment. Pattern II was observed more often in non-AIDS patients (8 of 23) than in AIDS patients (0 of 25). Pattern V was the most prevalent pattern (42 of 82) in clinical and environmental isolates. Isolates from three AIDS patients in Burundi and Zaire exhibited patterns identical to each other but different from those of isolates collected from their houses (i.e., dust of floors, walls, etc.) or a nearby pigeon coop. DNA fingerprint stability was determined for 53 isolates from nine non-AIDS patients at different time intervals during 5 to 128 weeks of antifungal therapy. For eight patients, the fingerprint pattern was stable while the ninth may have had a mixed infection. Pattern II was observed in 4 of 9 patients, which is similar to 4 of 14 in other non-AIDS patients as reported here. In spite of the extensive pattern heterogeneity among 15 C. neoformans var. gattii isolates in Australia, the patterns observed in seven California isolates were quite different from those in Australia. Among isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii, one fingerprint pattern (designated b) was observed in several countries of the Far East. The fingerprint patterns of two of three environmental isolates from Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in Australia were identical to those of 2 of the 12 clinical isolates from the country.

  11. FINGERPRINT DETECTION AND RECOGNIZATION TECHNIQUES USING GABOR FILTER

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Verma*, Prof. Bhagwati Charan Patel

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints are most extensively and effectively appropriate for the proof of identity in present days. Mostly because of their uniqueness among the people, public acceptance, originality, stability through life, and their least risk of invasion. Fingerprint technology, which is basically a biometric system, is utilized to identify an individual based on their physical qualities. Fingerprint matching is the trendiest biometric method appropriate to provide authentication. Fingerprint verific...

  12. Interoperability between Fingerprint Biometric Systems: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, I.; Mason, S.; Lugini, L.; Marasco, E.; Cukic, B.

    2014-01-01

    Fingerprints are likely the most widely used biometric in commercial as well as law enforcement applications. With the expected rapid growth of fingerprint authentication in mobile devices their importance justifies increased demands for dependability. An increasing number of new sensors,applications and a diverse user population also intensify concerns about the interoperability in fingerprint authentication. In most applications, fingerprints captured for user enrollment with one device may...

  13. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  14. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  15. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law...

  16. Screen Fingerprints as a Novel Modality for Active Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Screen fingerprint is the new cyber biometric modality that we have proposed to measure and analyze active authentication. The screen finger ...as a new biometric modality for active authentication. Such a fingerprint is acquired by taking a screen recording of the computer being used and...extracting discriminative visual feature from the recording. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active authentication, screen fingerprints, biometrics 16. SECURITY

  17. An investigation on the problem of thinning in fingerprint processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reli abi lity and thus require additional ...

  18. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  19. Low rank alternating direction method of multipliers reconstruction for MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for magnetic resonance fingerprinting. Based on a singular value decomposition of the signal evolution, magnetic resonance fingerprinting is formulated as a low rank (LR) inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This LR approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the LR approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the LR inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers. The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, in vivo examples are provided. The proposed LR alternating direction method of multipliers approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstruction, to a LR approximation alone and to an alternating direction method of multipliers approach without a LR approximation. Incorporating sensitivity encoding allows for further artifact reduction. The proposed reconstruction provides robust convergence, reduced computational burden and improved image quality compared to other magnetic resonance fingerprinting reconstruction approaches evaluated in this study. Magn Reson Med 79:83-96, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Design And Implementation Of Bank Locker Security System Based On Fingerprint Sensing Circuit And RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing Mar Htwe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main goal of this system is to design a locker security system using RFID and Fingerprint. In this system only authenticated person can open the door. A security system is implemented containing door locking system using passive type of RFID which can activate authenticate and validate the user and unlock the door in real time for secure access. The advantage of using passive RFID is that it functions without a battery and passive tags are lighter and are less expensive than the active tags. This system consists of fingerprint reader microcontroller RFID reader and PC. The RFID reader reads the id number from passive. The fingerprint sensor will check incoming image with enrolled data and it will send confirming signal for C program. If both RFID check and fingerprint image confirmation are matched the microcontroller will drive door motor according to sensors at door edges. This system is more secure than other systems because two codes protection method used.

  1. Use of nitrogen cryogun for separating duct tape and recovery of latent fingerprints with a powder suspension method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James A; Crane, Jonathan Stuart

    2011-07-15

    Duct tape is sometimes recovered as physical evidence in crimes. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of latent prints on the adhesive and non-adhesive surfaces of duct tape samples that were separated using three methods. Three hundred donor fingerprint impressions were deposited on duct tape. Sections of duct tape were affixed to sections of cardboard and a fingerprint placed on the non-adhesive surface of the tape. A second layer of duct tape was prepared and a fingerprint placed on the adhesive side of the tape and then the tape was affixed to the piece of tape on the cardboard. After a 24-h period, the samples were separated using gradual force, liquid nitrogen applied with a cryogun and an adhesive neutralizer to separate the layers of tape. The recovered fingerprints were processed with a fingerprint powder suspension method. The recovered fingerprint images were evaluated and rated as +1, +2, or +3. The liquid nitrogen spray separation method yielded the highest number of +3 prints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Location Fingerprinting (LF) is a promising location technique for many awareness applications in pervasive computing. However, as research on LF systems goes beyond basic methods there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed LF systems. Developers of LF systems are also lacking...

  3. Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless clients measure signal strength differently. This is a fundamental problem for indoor location fingerprinting, and it has a high impact on the positioning accuracy. Mapping-based solutions have been presented that require manual and error-prone calibration for each new clie...

  4. Pseudo Identities Based on Fingerprint Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delvaux, Nicolas; Chabanne, Herve; Bringer, Julien; Kindarji, Bruno; Lindeberg, Patrik; Midgren, Johannes; Breebaart, Jeroen; Akkermans, Ton; van der Veen, M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kindt, Els; Simoens, Koen; Busch, Christoph; Bours, Patrick; Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Yang, Bian; Stern, Julien; Rust, Carsten; Cucinelli, Bruno; Skepastianos, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integrated project TURBINE which is funded under the EU 7th research framework programme. This research is a multi-disciplinary effort on privacy enhancing technology, combining innovative developments in cryptography and fingerprint recognition. The objective of this project

  5. Forensic use of fingermarks and fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Li, Stan Z.; Jain, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this entry is to describe and explain the main forensic uses of fingermarks and fingerprints. It defines the concepts and provides the nomenclature related to forensic dactyloscopy. It describes the structure of the papillary ridges, the organization of the information in three levels,

  6. Genetic fingerprinting and phylogenetic diversity of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic fingerprinting of 18 different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Nigeria using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was carried out. Ten out of 100 Operon primers showed polymorphism among the isolates tested generating 88 bands, 51 of which were polymorphic with sizes ranging between 200 and ...

  7. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of herbal formulations. A simple, rapid and validated fingerprint method has developed for estimation of piperine in 'Talisadi churna', a well known herbal formulation in India. The estimation was carried out in two ...

  8. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China). Jin-Long Ni Jun-Lai Liu Xiao-Ling Tang ...

  9. Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin

    2007-01-01

      Peptide mass fingerprinting is an effective way of identifying, e.g., gel-separated proteins, by matching experimentally obtained peptide mass data against large databases. However, several factors are known to influence the quality of the resulting matches, such as proteins contaminating the s...

  10. Indoor Localization Accuracy Estimation from Fingerprint Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikitin, Artyom; Laoudias, Christos; Chatzimilioudis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    on arbitrary FMs coined ACCES. Our framework comprises a generic interpolation method using Gaussian Processes (GP), upon which a navigability score at any location is derived using the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Our approach does not rely on the underlying physical model of the fingerprint data. Our...

  11. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  12. Collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting: a unified framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Wang, Z. Jane; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2004-06-01

    Digital fingerprints are unique labels inserted in different copies of the same content before distribution. Each digital fingerprint is assigned to an inteded recipient, and can be used to trace the culprits who use their content for unintended purposes. Attacks mounted by multiple users, known as collusion attacks, provide a cost-effective method for attenuating the identifying fingerprint from each coluder, thus collusion poses a reeal challenge to protect the digital media data and enforce usage policies. This paper examines a few major design methodologies for collusion-resistant fingerprinting of multimedia, and presents a unified framework that helps highlight the common issues and the uniqueness of different fingerprinting techniques.

  13. Dealing with Insufficient Location Fingerprints in Wi-Fi Based Indoor Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet of Things has accelerated research in the indoor location fingerprinting technique, which provides value-added localization services for existing WLAN infrastructures without the need for any specialized hardware. The deployment of a fingerprinting based localization system requires an extremely large amount of measurements on received signal strength information to generate a location fingerprint database. Nonetheless, this requirement can rarely be satisfied in most indoor environments. In this paper, we target one but common situation when the collected measurements on received signal strength information are insufficient, and show limitations of existing location fingerprinting methods in dealing with inadequate location fingerprints. We also introduce a novel method to reduce noise in measuring the received signal strength based on the maximum likelihood estimation, and compute locations from inadequate location fingerprints by using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Our experiment results show that our proposed method can achieve better localization performance even when only a small quantity of RSS measurements is available. Especially when the number of observations at each location is small, our proposed method has evident superiority in localization accuracy.

  14. Repeatability and reproducibility of decisions by latent fingerprint examiners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. We tested latent print examiners on the extent to which they reached consistent decisions. This study assessed intra-examiner repeatability by retesting 72 examiners on comparisons of latent and exemplar fingerprints, after an interval of approximately seven months; each examiner was reassigned 25 image pairs for comparison, out of total pool of 744 image pairs. We compare these repeatability results with reproducibility (inter-examiner results derived from our previous study. Examiners repeated 89.1% of their individualization decisions, and 90.1% of their exclusion decisions; most of the changed decisions resulted in inconclusive decisions. Repeatability of comparison decisions (individualization, exclusion, inconclusive was 90.0% for mated pairs, and 85.9% for nonmated pairs. Repeatability and reproducibility were notably lower for comparisons assessed by the examiners as "difficult" than for "easy" or "moderate" comparisons, indicating that examiners' assessments of difficulty may be useful for quality assurance. No false positive errors were repeated (n = 4; 30% of false negative errors were repeated. One percent of latent value decisions were completely reversed (no value even for exclusion vs. of value for individualization. Most of the inter- and intra-examiner variability concerned whether the examiners considered the information available to be sufficient to reach a conclusion; this variability was concentrated on specific image pairs such that repeatability and reproducibility were very high on some comparisons and very low on others. Much of the variability appears to be due to making categorical decisions in borderline cases.

  15. Fast probabilistic file fingerprinting for big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakov, Konstantin; Laur, Sven; Smant, Geert; Vilo, Jaak; Prins, Pjotr

    2013-01-01

    Biological data acquisition is raising new challenges, both in data analysis and handling. Not only is it proving hard to analyze the data at the rate it is generated today, but simply reading and transferring data files can be prohibitively slow due to their size. This primarily concerns logistics within and between data centers, but is also important for workstation users in the analysis phase. Common usage patterns, such as comparing and transferring files, are proving computationally expensive and are tying down shared resources. We present an efficient method for calculating file uniqueness for large scientific data files, that takes less computational effort than existing techniques. This method, called Probabilistic Fast File Fingerprinting (PFFF), exploits the variation present in biological data and computes file fingerprints by sampling randomly from the file instead of reading it in full. Consequently, it has a flat performance characteristic, correlated with data variation rather than file size. We demonstrate that probabilistic fingerprinting can be as reliable as existing hashing techniques, with provably negligible risk of collisions. We measure the performance of the algorithm on a number of data storage and access technologies, identifying its strengths as well as limitations. Probabilistic fingerprinting may significantly reduce the use of computational resources when comparing very large files. Utilisation of probabilistic fingerprinting techniques can increase the speed of common file-related workflows, both in the data center and for workbench analysis. The implementation of the algorithm is available as an open-source tool named pfff, as a command-line tool as well as a C library. The tool can be downloaded from http://biit.cs.ut.ee/pfff.

  16. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  17. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.

  18. Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Ronny; Breuhan, Andy; Hildebrandt, Mario; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-06-01

    In the field of crime scene forensics, current methods of evidence collection, such as the acquisition of shoe-marks, tireimpressions, palm-prints or fingerprints are in most cases still performed in an analogue way. For example, fingerprints are captured by powdering and sticky tape lifting, ninhydrine bathing or cyanoacrylate fuming and subsequent photographing. Images of the evidence are then further processed by forensic experts. With the upcoming use of new multimedia systems for the digital capturing and processing of crime scene traces in forensics, higher resolutions can be achieved, leading to a much better quality of forensic images. Furthermore, the fast and mostly automated preprocessing of such data using digital signal processing techniques is an emerging field. Also, by the optical and non-destructive lifting of forensic evidence, traces are not destroyed and therefore can be re-captured, e.g. by creating time series of a trace, to extract its aging behavior and maybe determine the time the trace was left. However, such new methods and tools face different challenges, which need to be addressed before a practical application in the field. Based on the example of fingerprint age determination, which is an unresolved research challenge to forensic experts since decades, we evaluate the influences of different environmental conditions as well as different types of sweating and their implications to the capturing sensory, preprocessing methods and feature extraction. We use a Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor to exemplary represent such a new optical and contactless measurement device and investigate the influence of 16 different environmental conditions, 8 different sweat types and 11 different preprocessing methods on the aging behavior of 48 fingerprint time series (2592 fingerprint scans in total). We show the challenges that arise for such new multimedia systems capturing and processing forensic evidence

  19. SVD compression for magnetic resonance fingerprinting in the time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Debra F; Pierre, Eric; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Saybasili, Haris; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is a technique for acquiring and processing MR data that simultaneously provides quantitative maps of different tissue parameters through a pattern recognition algorithm. A predefined dictionary models the possible signal evolutions simulated using the Bloch equations with different combinations of various MR parameters and pattern recognition is completed by computing the inner product between the observed signal and each of the predicted signals within the dictionary. Though this matching algorithm has been shown to accurately predict the MR parameters of interest, one desires a more efficient method to obtain the quantitative images. We propose to compress the dictionary using the singular value decomposition, which will provide a low-rank approximation. By compressing the size of the dictionary in the time domain, we are able to speed up the pattern recognition algorithm, by a factor of between 3.4-4.8, without sacrificing the high signal-to-noise ratio of the original scheme presented previously.

  20. FBI's DNA analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John R.

    1994-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling technology is a significant law enforcement tool due to its superior discriminating power. Applying the principles of population genetics to the DNA profile obtained in violent crime investigations results in low frequency of occurrence estimates for the DNA profile. These estimates often range from a frequency of occurrence of 1 in 50 unrelated individuals to 1 in a million unrelated individuals or even smaller. It is this power to discriminate among individuals in the population that has propelled forensic DNA technology to the forefront of forensic testing in violent crime cases. Not only is the technology extremely powerful in including or excluding a criminal suspect as the perpetrator, but it also gives rise to the potential of identifying criminal suspects in cases where the investigators of unknown suspect cases have exhausted all other available leads.

  1. Reference Device-Assisted Adaptive Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Location fingerprinting suffers in dynamic environments and needs recalibration from time to time to maintain system performance. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for location fingerprinting. Based on real-time received signal strength indicator (RSSI samples measured by a group of reference devices, the approach applies a modified Universal Kriging (UK interpolant to estimate adaptive temporal and environmental radio maps. The modified UK can take the spatial distribution characteristics of RSSI into account. In addition, the issue of device heterogeneity caused by multiple reference devices is further addressed. To compensate the measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices, differential RSSI metric is employed. Extensive experiments were conducted in an indoor field and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only adapts to dynamic environments and the situation of changing APs’ positions, but it is also robust toward measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices.

  2. SURVEY ON E-FINGERPRINT TICKET

    OpenAIRE

    Zakkam Solomon; Meghana K M; Manjula; Roshini B

    2017-01-01

    Earlier work has demonstrated that when going in a transport the installment accomplished for ticket is with money .The transport ticket has such an installment figure which makes the voyager or the conductor shy of cash as far as change. This makes the conductor to keep the change with himself .This makes bother to the explorers. Subsequently there is a requirement for better workplace. To conquer this issue we are making utilization of fingerprints of the voyager which are connected to the ...

  3. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    by 15.8 percent points on brushed stainless steel using the same classifier. This also allows for a successful biometric matching of 3 of the 8 latent fingerprint samples with the corresponding exemplar fingerprint on this particular substrate. For contrast enhancement analysis of classification results we suggest to use known Visual Quality Indexes (VQI)3 as a contrast enhancement quality indicator and discuss our first preliminary results using the exemplary chosen VQI Edge Similarity Score (ESS),4 showing a tendency that higher image differences between a substrate containing a fingerprint and a substrate with a blank surface correlate with a higher recognition accuracy between a latent fingerprint and an exemplar fingerprint. Those first preliminary results support further research into VQIs as contrast enhancement quality indicator for a given feature space.

  4. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Saxifraga stolonifera Meerb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Dong Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprints and the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of aqueous extracts from Saxifraga stolonifera. The fingerprints of S. stolonifera from various sources were established by HPLC and evaluated by similarity analysis (SA, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA. Nine samples were obtained from these 24 batches of different origins, according to the results of SA, HCA and the common chromatographic peaks area. A testosterone-induced mouse model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to establish the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of these nine S. stolonifera samples. The model was evaluated by analyzing prostatic index (PI, serum acid phosphatase (ACP activity, concentrations of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT, prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP and type II 5α-reductase (SRD5A2. The spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities were investigated using Grey Correlation Analysis (GRA and partial least squares regression (PLSR. The results showed that a close correlation existed between the fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities, and peak 14 (chlorogenic acid, peak 17 (quercetin 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and peak 18 (quercetin 3-O-β-l-rhamno-pyranoside in the HPLC fingerprints might be the main active components against anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia. This work provides a general model for the study of spectrum-effect relationships of S. stolonifera by combing HPLC fingerprints with a testosterone-induced mouse model of BPH, which can be employed to discover the principle components of anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia bioactivity.

  5. An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, Josphineleela; Ramakrishnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric syste...

  6. Vitality detection in personal authentication systems using fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Coli, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Fingerprints are considered as the sign of each human being, and this has contributed the development of biometric applications based on such features. Since 2002, an important vulnerability has been shown: it is possible to deceive fingerprint scanners through artificial replicas of fingertips. In order to address this shortcoming it is need to recognize a spoofing attempt with artificial fingers looking for some “life signs” each time an user submit a fingerprint (vitality detection problem...

  7. Aspects of physicochemical methods for the detection of latent fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews physicochemical methods of detecting latent finger-prints on a wide range of materials commonly found at the scene of a crime, with particular emphasis placed on the newer autoradiographic techniques. This is set against a description of studies on the fundamental nature of the latent fingerprint and its host substrate, with a brief review of the history of reagents used in latent fingerprint examination. (author)

  8. Fingerprints as a Proxy for Readership of Sales Flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus J.; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2007-01-01

      Can readership of sales flyers and free newspapers be estimated by revealing fingerprints? In this paper we report the results of an empirical analysis based on 4604 flyer-pages conducted to assess the feasibility of the method. Results are encouraging, and indicate that the method presently may...... serve as a conservative estimate of readership. Advertising management may thus use the fingerprints-approach as an alternative audience measure and thereby assess the convergent validity of the traditional interview method and the fingerprint approach. While the fingerprint method appears valid...

  9. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  10. Fingerprint Sensors: Liveness Detection Issue and Hardware based Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Memon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Securing an automated and unsupervised fingerprint recognition system is one of the most critical and challenging tasks in government and commercial applications. In these systems, the detection of liveness of a finger placed on a fingerprint sensor is a major issue that needs to be addressed in order to ensure the credibility of the system. The main focus of this paper is to review the existing fingerprint sensing technologies in terms of liveness detection and discusses hardware based ‘liveness detection’ techniques reported in the literature for automatic fingerprint biometrics.

  11. Recovery of latent fingerprints and DNA on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Doris; Seul, Andrea; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Bohnert, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The project "Latent Fingerprints and DNA on Human Skin" was the first systematic research in Europe dealing with detection of fingerprints and DNA left by offenders on the skin of corpses. One thousand samples gave results that allow general statements on the materials and methods used. The tests were carried out according to a uniform trial structure. Fingerprints were deposited by natural donors on corpses. The latent fingerprints were treated with magnetic powder or black fingerprint powder. Afterward, they were lifted with silicone casting material (Isomark(®)) or gelatine foil. All lifts were swabbed to recover DNA. It was possible to visualize comparable and identifiable fingerprints on the skin of corpses (16%). In the same categories, magnetic powder (18.4%) yielded better results than black fingerprint powder (13.6%). The number of comparable and identifiable fingerprints decreased on the lifts (12.7%). Isomark(®) (14.9%) was the better lifting material in comparison with gelatine foil (10.1%). In one-third of the samples, DNA could be extracted from the powdered and lifted latents. Black fingerprint powder delivered the better result with a rate of 2.2% for full DNA profiles and profiles useful for exclusion in comparison with 1.8% for the magnetic powder traces. Isomark(®) (3.1%) yielded better results than gelatine foil (0.6%). © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Integrated DNA and fingerprint analyses in the identification of 60-year-old mummified human remains discovered in an Alaskan glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreille, Odile M; Parr, Ryan L; McGregor, Kevin A; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Lyon, Chriss; Yang, Dongya Y; Speller, Camilla F; Grimm, Michael R; Grimm, Michael J; Irwin, Jodi A; Robinson, Edward M

    2010-05-01

    This report describes the identification of a merchant mariner who perished in 1948 when Northwest Airlines Flight 4422, a DC-4 carrying 24 seamen and six crew members crashed into Mount Sanford, Alaska. Fifty-one years later, a human forearm and hand were found close by the wreckage of the plane, prompting identification efforts using DNA and fingerprints. There were significant challenges to both the fingerprint and DNA analyses. The hand was badly desiccated, making fingerprint friction-ridge detail almost invisible and the remains had been embalmed upon discovery, making DNA amplification difficult. We present the results of an interdisciplinary approach that successfully addressed these challenges and ultimately led to the identification of the remains. These efforts relied on efficient fingerprint rejuvenation and imaging techniques that improved print resolution, as well as new DNA extraction techniques optimized for aggressively embalmed remains.

  13. Fingerprint Quality Evaluation in a Novel Embedded Authentication System for Mobile Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vitello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The way people access resources, data and services, is radically changing using modern mobile technologies. In this scenario, biometry is a good solution for security issues even if its performance is influenced by the acquired data quality. In this paper, a novel embedded automatic fingerprint authentication system (AFAS for mobile users is described. The goal of the proposed system is to improve the performance of a standard embedded AFAS in order to enable its employment in mobile devices architectures. The system is focused on the quality evaluation of the raw acquired fingerprint, identifying areas of poor quality. Using this approach, no image enhancement process is needed after the fingerprint acquisition phase. The Agility RC2000 board has been used to prototype the embedded device. Due its different image resolution and quality, the experimental tests have been conducted on both PolyU and FVC2002 DB2-B free databases. Experimental results show an interesting trade-off between used resources, authentication time, and accuracy rate. The best achieved false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR indexes are 0% and 6.25%, respectively. The elaboration time is 62.6 ms with a working frequency of 50 MHz.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  15. A fingerprint key binding algorithm based on vector quantization and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ke; He, Ning

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, researches on seamless combination cryptosystem with biometric technologies, e.g. fingerprint recognition, are conducted by many researchers. In this paper, we propose a binding algorithm of fingerprint template and cryptographic key to protect and access the key by fingerprint verification. In order to avoid the intrinsic fuzziness of variant fingerprints, vector quantization and error correction technique are introduced to transform fingerprint template and then bind with key, after a process of fingerprint registration and extracting global ridge pattern of fingerprint. The key itself is secure because only hash value is stored and it is released only when fingerprint verification succeeds. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ideas.

  16. Likelihood ratio data to report the validation of a forensic fingerprint evaluation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Data to which the authors refer to throughout this article are likelihood ratios (LR computed from the comparison of 5–12 minutiae fingermarks with fingerprints. These LRs data are used for the validation of a likelihood ratio (LR method in forensic evidence evaluation. These data present a necessary asset for conducting validation experiments when validating LR methods used in forensic evidence evaluation and set up validation reports. These data can be also used as a baseline for comparing the fingermark evidence in the same minutiae configuration as presented in (D. Meuwly, D. Ramos, R. Haraksim, [1], although the reader should keep in mind that different feature extraction algorithms and different AFIS systems used may produce different LRs values. Moreover, these data may serve as a reproducibility exercise, in order to train the generation of validation reports of forensic methods, according to [1]. Alongside the data, a justification and motivation for the use of methods is given. These methods calculate LRs from the fingerprint/mark data and are subject to a validation procedure. The choice of using real forensic fingerprint in the validation and simulated data in the development is described and justified. Validation criteria are set for the purpose of validation of the LR methods, which are used to calculate the LR values from the data and the validation report. For privacy and data protection reasons, the original fingerprint/mark images cannot be shared. But these images do not constitute the core data for the validation, contrarily to the LRs that are shared.

  17. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  18. Security and matching of partial fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jea, Tsai-Yang; Chavan, Viraj S.; Govindaraju, Venu; Schneider, John K.

    2004-08-01

    Despite advances in fingerprint identification techniques, matching incomplete or partial fingerprints still poses a difficult challenge. While the introduction of compact silicon chip-based sensors that capture only a part of the fingerprint area have made this problem important from a commercial perspective, there is also considerable interest on the topic for processing partial and latent fingerprints obtained at crime scenes. Attempts to match partial fingerprints using singular ridge structures-based alignment techniques fail when the partial print does not include such structures (e.g., core or delta). We present a multi-path fingerprint matching approach that utilizes localized secondary features derived using only the relative information of minutiae. Since the minutia-based fingerprint representation, is an ANSI-NIST standard, our approach has the advantage of being directly applicable to already existing databases. We also analyze the vulnerability of partial fingerprint identification systems to brute force attacks. The described matching approach has been tested on one of FVC2002"s DB1 database11. The experimental results show that our approach achieves an equal error rate of 1.25% and a total error rate of 1.8% (with FAR at 0.2% and FRR at 1.6%).

  19. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies upon request to the...

  20. Teaching DNA Fingerprinting using a Hands-on Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thatcher

    1998-01-01

    Presents an inexpensive hands-on lesson in DNA fingerprinting that can be completed in a single class period. Involves students in solving a murder in which a drop of blood is fingerprinted and matched with the blood of the murderer. (DDR)

  1. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  2. Rotation-invariant fingerprint matching using radon and DCT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangita Bharkad

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... [6] Bazen A and Gerez S 2003 Fingerprint matching by thin- plate spline modeling of elastic deformations. Pattern. Recogn. 36(8): 1859–1867. [7] Jain A, Hong L and Bolle R 1997 On-line fingerprint veri- fication. IEEE Trans.

  3. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  4. Fingerprint Recognition using Fuzzy Logic with Triangular Pattern Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A fingerprint is a pattern of ridges and valleys that exist on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint is typically determined by the overall pattern of ridges and valleys as well as the local ridge structures e.g., a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending, which are called minutiae...

  5. dna and seed proteins fingerprinting of egyptian crop plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Haddad

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... combinations were used for fingerprinting six cultivars which belongs to barley, rice and wheat cultivars leading to the production of numerous AFLP bands, 300 of them were polymorphic. Thirty SSR markers were obtained from fingerprinting eight cultivars belonging to the five studied species using 11.

  6. Friction ridge skin - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes the development and the forensic use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). AFISs were initially developed in order to overcome the limitations of the paper-based fingerprint collections, by digitizing the ten-print cards in computerized databases and to

  7. Utilizing AFIS searching tools to reduce errors in fingerprint casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenburg, Glenn; Hall, Carey; Rosemarie, Quincy

    2015-12-01

    Fifty-six (56) adjudicated, property crime cases involving fingerprint evidence were reviewed using a case-specific AFIS database tool. This tool allowed fingerprint experts to search latent prints in the cases against a database of friction ridge exemplars limited to only the individuals specific to that particular case. We utilized three different methods to encode and search the latent prints: automatic feature extraction, manual encoding performed by a student intern, and manual encoding performed by a fingerprint expert. Performance in the study was strongest when the encoding was conducted by the fingerprint expert. The results of the study showed that while the AFIS tools failed to locate all of the identifications originally reported by the initial fingerprint expert that worked the case, the AFIS tools helped to identify 7 additional latent prints that were not reported by the initial fingerprint expert. We conclude that this technology, when combined with fingerprint expertise, will reduce the number of instances where an erroneous exclusion could occur, increase the efficiency of a fingerprint unit, and be a useful tool for reviewing active or cold cases for missed opportunities to report identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [HPLC characteristic fingerprints of sedi linearis herba and sedi herba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lan-Qing; Mei, Qing; Wan, Ding-Rong; Yang, Xin-Zhou; Qiao, Shu; Zhao, Yu-Dan

    2014-04-01

    To study HPLC characteristic fingerprint of Sedum lineare from different harvest periods, and to compare with its related species Sedum sarmentosum. The HPLC fingerprints of Sedum lineare from different collecting periods were established and compared with Sedum sarmentosum by the same detection method. Hyperin, isoquercitrin and astragaloside were identified from the HPLC fingerprint of Sedum lineare. The fingerprint of Sedum lineare growing in the same area but different environment were basically identical; while there were remarkable differences of Sedum lineare growing in the same place but from different harvest periods, with the area of most common peaks changing from little to great, and slightly different peak number. The HPLC fingerprint of the two Sedum species had four common peaks, but could be distinguished from each other. The optimal harvest period of these two species should be full-bloom stage. The established method can provide reference for identification and quality analysis of Sedum lineare.

  9. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  10. [Studies on fingerprinting of Flos Buddleja by RP-HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Cui, Ya-jun; Guo, Hong-zhu; Guo, De-an

    2004-10-01

    To establish fingerprinting of Flos Buddleja by using RP-HPLC for the quality control. The HPLC condition was as follows: Inertsil ODS-3 C18 analytical column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm), gredient eluation with MeCN (0.1% TFA)-H2O (0.1%TFA), flow rate 1.0 mL x min(-1), detection wavelength 254 nm. 10 commercial samples were analyzed to establish a fingerprinting. Among the obtained fingerprinting, most of the detected peaks were separated effectively. The accuracy, repeatability and stability of this method were satisfied. The RSDs of relative retention time and area of aimed peaks which existed in all samples wereless than 5%. Theresults were in accordance with the request of fingerprinting. The established fingerprinting can be used for the quality control of Flos Buddleja.

  11. Anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint recognition system using single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-08-01

    Fingerprint is a unique, un-alterable and easily collected biometric of a human being. Although it is a 3D biological characteristic, traditional methods are designed to provide only a 2D image. This touch based mapping of 3D shape to 2D image losses information and leads to nonlinear distortions. Moreover, as only topographic details are captured, conventional systems are potentially vulnerable to spoofing materials (e.g. artificial fingers, dead fingers, false prints, etc.). In this work, we demonstrate an anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint detection system using a combination of single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis. For fingerprint detection using fringe projection, light from a low power LED source illuminates a finger through a sinusoidal grating. The fringe pattern modulated because of features on the fingertip is captured using a CCD camera. Fourier transform method based frequency filtering is used for the reconstruction of 3D fingerprint from the captured fringe pattern. In the next step, for spoof detection using biospeckle analysis a visuo-numeric algorithm based on modified structural function and non-normalized histogram is proposed. High activity biospeckle patterns are generated because of interaction of collimated laser light with internal fluid flow of the real finger sample. This activity reduces abruptly in case of layered fake prints, and is almost absent in dead or fake fingers. Furthermore, the proposed setup is fast, low-cost, involves non-mechanical scanning and is highly stable.

  12. Fingerprinting of cell lines by directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of in vitro propagation of cells has been an extraordinary technical advance for several biological studies. The correct identification of the cell line used, however, is crucial, as a mistaken identity or the presence of another contaminating cell may lead to invalid and/or erroneous conclusions. We report here the application of a DNA fingerprinting procedure (directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA, developed by Heath et al. [Nucleic Acids Research (1993 21: 5782-5785], to the characterization of cell lines. Genomic DNA of cells in culture was extracted and amplified by PCR in the presence of VNTR core sequences, and the amplicons were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. After image capture with a digital camera, the banding profiles obtained were analyzed using a software (AnaGel specially developed for the storage and analysis of electrophoretic fingerprints. The fingerprints are useful for construction of a data base for identification of cell lines by comparison to reference profiles as well as comparison of similar lines from different sources and periodic follow-up of cells in culture.

  13. Metabolic fingerprint of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Danuta; Zorawski, Marcin; Skotnicki, Mariusz; Zarzycki, Wieslaw; Kozlowska, Gabryela; Bibik-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Vallejo, María; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Ramos, M Pilar

    2014-05-30

    Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is causing severe short- and long-term complications for mother, fetus or neonate. As yet, the metabolic alterations that are specific for the development of GDM have not been fully determined, which also precludes the early diagnosis and prognosis of this pathology. In this pilot study, we determine the metabolic fingerprint, using a multiplatform LC-QTOF/MS, GC-Q/MS and CE-TOF/MS system, of plasma and urine samples of 20 women with GDM and 20 with normal glucose tolerance in the second trimester of pregnancy. Plasma fingerprints allowed for the discrimination of GDM pregnant women from controls. In particular, lysoglycerophospholipids showed a close association with the glycemic state of the women. In addition, we identified some metabolites with a strong discriminative power, such as LPE(20:1), (20:2), (22:4); LPC(18:2), (20:4), (20:5); LPI(18:2), (20:4); LPS(20:0) and LPA(18:2), as well as taurine-bile acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives. Finally, we provide evidence for the implication of these compounds in metabolic routes, indicative of low-grade inflammation and altered redox-balance, that may be related with the specific pathophysiological context of the genesis of GDM. This highlights their potential use as prognostic markers for the identification of women at risk to develop severe glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and, although diabetes usually remits after pregnancy, women with GDM have a high risk of developing postpartum type 2-diabetes, particularly when accompanied by obesity. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of GDM, as well as the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early diagnostic markers for GDM are relevant issues. In the present study, we devised a multiplatform metabolic fingerprinting approach to obtain a comprehensive picture of the early metabolic alternations that occur in GDM, and may

  14. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  15. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Perfoliati Herba is widely used in China with antibacterium, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antitumor, and antivirus activities. To reveal the mechanisms of the activities of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba, the relationship between the fingerprinting profile and its bioactivities was investigated. In the present study, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC fingerprinting method was developed. The established method was applied to analyze 51 batches of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba samples collected from different locations or in different harvesting times in China. Chemometrics, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis, were used to express their similarities. It was found that similarity values of the samples were in the range of 0.432–0.998. The results of analgesic tests indicated that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba could significantly inhibit pain induced by hot plate and acetic acid in mice. The results of anti-inflammatory tests showed that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba had good anti-inflammatory effects (P < 0.01 in two models including dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced peritoneal permeability in mice. Combining the results from chromatographic fingerprints with those from bioactivities, we found that seven peaks from Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were mainly responsible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  16. The Ins and Outs of DNA Fingerprinting the Infectious Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R.

    2000-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting methods have evolved as major tools in fungal epidemiology. However, no single method has emerged as the method of choice, and some methods perform better than others at different levels of resolution. In this review, requirements for an effective DNA fingerprinting method are proposed and procedures are described for testing the efficacy of a method. In light of the proposed requirements, the most common methods now being used to DNA fingerprint the infectious fungi are described and assessed. These methods include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), RFLP with hybridization probes, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and other PCR-based methods, electrophoretic karyotyping, and sequencing-based methods. Procedures for computing similarity coefficients, generating phylogenetic trees, and testing the stability of clusters are then described. To facilitate the analysis of DNA fingerprinting data, computer-assisted methods are described. Finally, the problems inherent in the collection of test and control isolates are considered, and DNA fingerprinting studies of strain maintenance during persistent or recurrent infections, microevolution in infecting strains, and the origin of nosocomial infections are assessed in light of the preceding discussion of the ins and outs of DNA fingerprinting. The intent of this review is to generate an awareness of the need to verify the efficacy of each DNA fingerprinting method for the level of genetic relatedness necessary to answer the epidemiological question posed, to use quantitative methods to analyze DNA fingerprint data, to use computer-assisted DNA fingerprint analysis systems to analyze data, and to file data in a form that can be used in the future for retrospective and comparative studies. PMID:10756003

  17. Disease state fingerprint for fall risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla

    2014-01-01

    Fall prevention is an important and complex multifactorial challenge, since one third of people over 65 years old fall at least once every year. A novel application of Disease State Fingerprint (DSF) algorithm is presented for holistic visualization of fall risk factors and identifying persons with falls history or decreased level of physical functioning based on fall risk assessment data. The algorithm is tested with data from 42 older adults, that went through a comprehensive fall risk assessment. Within the study population the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale score, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score and the number of drugs in use were the three most relevant variables, that differed between the fallers and non-fallers. This study showed that the DSF visualization is beneficial in inspection of an individual's significant fall risk factors, since people have problems in different areas and one single assessment scale is not enough to expose all the people at risk.

  18. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.

    2016-02-12

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite materials show an outstanding performance in photovoltaic devices. However, certain material properties, especially the possible ferroic behavior, remain unclear. We observed distinct nanoscale periodic domains in the piezoresponse of MAPbI3(Cl) grains. The structure and the orientation of these striped domains indicate ferroelasticity as their origin. By correlating vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy experiments performed at different sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route. The formation of the ferroelastic twin domains could be induced by internal strain during the cubic-tetragonal phase transition.

  19. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  20. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  1. Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor With Transmit Beamforming Based on a PMUT Array Bonded to CMOS Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyue; Tang, Hao-Yen; Lu, Yipeng; Ng, Eldwin J; Tsai, Julius M; Boser, Bernhard E; Horsley, David A

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a single-chip 65 ×42 element ultrasonic pulse-echo fingerprint sensor with transmit (TX) beamforming based on piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers directly bonded to a CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The readout ASIC was realized in a standard 180-nm CMOS process with a 24-V high-voltage transistor option. Pulse-echo measurements are performed column-by-column in sequence using either one column or five columns to TX the ultrasonic pulse at 20 MHz. TX beamforming is used to focus the ultrasonic beam at the imaging plane where the finger is located, increasing the ultrasonic pressure and narrowing the 3-dB beamwidth to [Formula: see text], a factor of 6.4 narrower than nonbeamformed measurements. The surface of the sensor is coated with a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer to provide good acoustic impedance matching to skin. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry of the PDMS surface was used to map the ultrasonic pressure field at the imaging surface, demonstrating the expected increase in pressure, and reduction in beamwidth. Imaging experiments were conducted using both PDMS phantoms and real fingerprints. The average image contrast is increased by a factor of 1.5 when beamforming is used.

  2. MR fingerprinting with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be used for quantitative estimation of physical parameters in MRI. Here, we extend the method to incorporate B1 estimation. The acquisition is based on steady state free precession MR fingerprinting with a Cartesian trajectory. To increase the sensitivity to the B1 profile, abrupt changes in flip angle were introduced in the sequence. Slice profile and B1 effects were included in the dictionary and the results from two- and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions were compared. Acceleration was demonstrated using retrospective undersampling in the phase encode directions of 3D data exploiting redundancy between MRF frames at the edges of k-space. Without B1 estimation, T2 and B1 were inaccurate by more than 20%. Abrupt changes in flip angle improved B1 maps. T1 and T2 values obtained with the new MRF methods agree with classical spin echo measurements and are independent of the B1 field profile. When using view sharing reconstruction, results remained accurate (error Reson Med 76:1127-1135, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  4. Interrogation of an autofluorescence-based method for protein fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaramaiah, Manjunath; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S; Joshi, Manjunath B; Datta, Anirbit; Sandya, S; Vishnumurthy, Vasudha; Chandra, Subhash; Nayak, Subramanya G; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Mahato, Krishna K

    2018-03-14

    In the present study, we have designed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) based instrumentation and developed a sensitive methodology for the effective separation, visualization, identification and analysis of proteins on a single platform. In this method, intrinsic fluorescence spectra of proteins were detected after separation on 1 or 2 dimensional Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (SDS-TCEP) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the data were analyzed. The MATLAB assisted software was designed for the development of PAGE fingerprint for the visualization of protein after 1- and 2-dimensional protein separation. These provided objective parameters of intrinsic fluorescence intensity, emission peak, molecular weight and isoelectric point using a single platform. Further, the current architecture could differentiate the overlapping proteins in the PAGE gels which otherwise were not identifiable by conventional staining, imaging and tagging methods. Categorization of the proteins based on the presence or absence of tyrosine or tryptophan residues and assigning the corresponding emission peaks (309-356 nm) with pseudo colors allowed the detection of proportion of proteins within the given spectrum. The present methodology doesn't use stains or tags, hence amenable to couple with mass spectroscopic measurements. This technique may have relevance in the field of proteomics that is used for innumerable applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. FPRandom: Randomizing core browser objects to break advanced device fingerprinting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Laperdrix , Pierre; Baudry , Benoit; Mishra , Vikas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The rich programming interfaces (APIs) provided by web browsers can be diverted to collect a browser fingerprint. A small number of queries on these interfaces are sufficient to build a fingerprint that is statistically unique and very stable over time. Consequently, the fingerprint can be used to track users. Our work aims at mitigating the risk of browser fingerprinting for users privacy by 'breaking' the stability of a fingerprint over time. We add randomness in the...

  6. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic fingerprints of isoflavonoids for distinguishing between Radix Puerariae Lobate and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Liu, He-Ping; Tian, Run-Tao; Yang, Da-Jian; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi; Chan, Albert S C; Xie, Pei-Shan

    2006-07-14

    The roots of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth have been officially recorded in all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia under the same monograph 'Gegen' (Radix Puerariae, RP). However, in its 2005 edition, the two species were separated into both individual monographs, namely 'Gegen' (Radix Puerariae Lobatae, RPL) and 'Fenge' (Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, RPT), respectively, due to their obvious content discrepancy of puerarin, the major active constituent. In present paper, the fingerprint of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combining digital scanning profiling was developed to identify and distinguish the both species in detail. The unique properties of the HPTLC fingerprints were validated by analyzing ten batches of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii samples, respectively. The common pattern of the HPTLC images of the roots of Pueraria spp. and the respective different ratios of the chemical distribution can directly discern the two species. The corresponding digital scanning profiles provided an easy way for quantifiable comparison among the samples. Obvious difference in ingredient content and HPTLC patterns of the two species questioned their bio-equivalence and explained that recording both species separately in the current edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005 edition) is reasonable due to not only the content of major constituent, puerarin, but also the peak-to-peak distribution in the fingerprint and integration value of the total components. Furthermore, the HPTLC fingerprint is also suitable for rapid and simple authentication and comparison of the subtle difference among samples with identical plant resource but different geographic locations.

  7. Eu2+,Dy3+ codoped SrAl2O4 nanocrystalline phosphor for latent fingerprint detection in forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Das, Amrita; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    In this work, europium and dysprosium doped strontium aluminate (SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ ) nanophosphor is synthesized and its novel application for the detection of latent fingerprints on various contact surfaces is reported. The SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ is synthesized using a combustion method and shows long-lasting afterglow luminescence. The powder particles are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), SEM–energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectrophotometry. The FE-SEM image analysis reveals that the nanoparticles are mostly 8–15 nm in size with an irregular spherical shape. This nano-structured powder was applied to fresh and aged fingerprints deposited on porous, semi-porous and non-porous contact surfaces, such as ordinary colored paper, glossy paper, glass, aluminum foil, a yellow foil chocolate wrapper, a soft drink can, a PET bottle, a compact disc and a computer mouse. The results are reproducible and show great sensitivity and high contrast in the developed fingermark regions on these surfaces. These nanophosphor particles also show a strong and long-lasting afterglow property, making them a suitable candidate for use as a fingerprint developing agent on luminescent and highly patterned surfaces. These kinds of powders have shown that they can remove the interference from background luminescence, which is not possible using ordinary luminescent fingerprinting powders. (paper)

  8. Development of Well-Preserved, Substrate-Versatile Latent Fingerprints by Aggregation-Induced Enhanced Emission-Active Conjugated Polyelectrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Akhtar Hussain; Kalita, Anamika; Iyer, Parameswar Krishnan

    2017-10-25

    The development of highly efficient latent fingerprint (LFP) technology remains extremely vital for forensic and criminal investigations. In this contribution, a straightforward, rapid, and cost-effective method has been established for the quick development of well-preserved latent fingerprint on multiple substrates, including plastic, glass, aluminum foil, metallic surfaces, and so forth, without any additional treatment, based on aggregation-induced enhanced emission-active conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) 3,3'-((2-(4-(1,2-diphenyl-2-(p-tolyl)vinyl)phenyl)-7-(7-methylbenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl))bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium) bromide, revealing clearly the third-level details (ridges, bifurcations, and pores) with high selectivity, high contrast, and no background interference even by blood stains, confirming the ability of the proposed technique for LFP detection with high resolution. The LFP development process was accomplished simply by immersing fingerprint-loaded substrate into the CPE solution for ∼1 min, followed by shaking off the residual polymer solution and then air drying. The CPE was readily transferred to the LFPs because of the strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction between the CPE molecules and the fingerprint components revealing distinct fluorescent images on various smooth nonporous surfaces.

  9. Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, H; Segal, M R; Ponce de Leon, A; Small, P M

    1998-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases rely on pathogen genotype comparisons, which usually yield patterns comprising sets of DNA fragments (DNA fingerprints). We use a highly developed genotyping system, IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to develop a computational method that automates comparison of large numbers of fingerprints. Because error in fragment length measurements is proportional to fragment length and is positively correlated for fragments within a lane, an align-and-count method that compensates for relative scaling of lanes reliably counts matching fragments between lanes. Results of a two-step method we developed to cluster identical fingerprints agree closely with 5 years of computer-assisted visual matching among 1,335 M. tuberculosis fingerprints. Fully documented and validated methods of automated comparison and clustering will greatly expand the scope of molecular epidemiology.

  10. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  11. An improved Hough transform-based fingerprint alignment approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved Hough Transform based fingerprint alignment approach is presented, which improves computing time and memory usage with accurate alignment parameter (rotation and translation) results. This is achieved by studying the strengths...

  12. Chemical characterization of fingerprints from adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohanon, A. [Knoxville Police Dept., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Observation that children`s fingerprints disappear from surfaces more quickly than adults`, initiated a study to characterize the chemical components in fingerprints. Samples were obtained from about 50 individuals ranging in age from 3 to 64 by extracting chemicals from the fingertips using rubbing alcohol. Using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, a wide range of compounds were identified. Samples from children contained higher levels of relatively volatile free fatty acids, while those from adults had higher levels of less volatile long chain esters of fatty acids. These esters are thought to originate from sebaceous glands located on the face and levels of these compounds increase substantially after puberty. Also, other compounds were observed that could be used to develop improved methods for fingerprint detection at a crime scene. Further, observation of specific compounds raises the possibility of being able to identify personal traits (gender, habits, diseases, etc. ) via analysis of components in fingerprints and/or skin.

  13. Development of quality control system for fingerprint comparison processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint evidence played an important role in investigation, prosecution, and trial process due to the belief of its uniqueness and unchanged characteristics. However, in recent years, the science behind the process of fingerprint comparisons has been questioned. Main research questions have been focusing on the opaqueness within the comparison processes, subjective judgments, lack of universal standards, no error rate expression on final conclusions, and poor scientific fundamental research data. Facing the above-mentioned questions, this paper aims to suggest a quality control system (QCS for fingerprint comparison processes. This QCS is based on the use of software (PiAnoS and its technological features, being able to provide a data management model to increase the transparency and quality of fingerprint comparison processes.

  14. SwyftTapp: An NFC based attendance system using fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we discuss the use of NFC technology coupled with fingerprint ... The Department of Computer Engineering, KNUST was used as the scope .... The software design of the project, as shown in Figure 3, involved three main ...

  15. Multi-frequency interpolation in spiral magnetic resonance fingerprinting for correction of off-resonance blurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jason; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Welch, E Brian

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) pulse sequences often employ spiral trajectories for data readout. Spiral k-space acquisitions are vulnerable to blurring in the spatial domain in the presence of static field off-resonance. This work describes a blurring correction algorithm for use in spiral MRF and demonstrates its effectiveness in phantom and in vivo experiments. Results show that image quality of T1 and T2 parametric maps is improved by application of this correction. This MRF correction has negligible effect on the concordance correlation coefficient and improves coefficient of variation in regions of off-resonance relative to uncorrected measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-01-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they d...

  17. Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Salamon, H.; Segal, M. R.; Ponce de Leon, A.; Small, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases rely on pathogen genotype comparisons, which usually yield patterns comprising sets of DNA fragments (DNA fingerprints). We use a highly developed genotyping system, IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to develop a computational method that automates comparison of large numbers of fingerprints. Because error in fragment length measurements is proportional to fragment length and is ...

  18. Algorithm comparison for schedule optimization in MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ouri; Rosen, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    In MR Fingerprinting, the flip angles and repetition times are chosen according to a pseudorandom schedule. In previous work, we have shown that maximizing the discrimination between different tissue types by optimizing the acquisition schedule allows reductions in the number of measurements required. The ideal optimization algorithm for this application remains unknown, however. In this work we examine several different optimization algorithms to determine the one best suited for optimizing MR Fingerprinting acquisition schedules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human matching performance of genuine crime scene latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2014-02-01

    There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in

  20. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  1. Robust sliding-window reconstruction for Accelerating the acquisition of MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaozhi; Liao, Congyu; Wang, Zhixing; Chen, Ying; Ye, Huihui; He, Hongjian; Zhong, Jianhui

    2017-10-01

    To develop a method for accelerated and robust MR fingerprinting (MRF) with improved image reconstruction and parameter matching processes. A sliding-window (SW) strategy was applied to MRF, in which signal and dictionary matching was conducted between fingerprints consisting of mixed-contrast image series reconstructed from consecutive data frames segmented by a sliding window, and a precalculated mixed-contrast dictionary. The effectiveness and performance of this new method, dubbed SW-MRF, was evaluated in both phantom and in vivo. Error quantifications were conducted on results obtained with various settings of SW reconstruction parameters. Compared with the original MRF strategy, the results of both phantom and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed SW-MRF strategy either provided similar accuracy with reduced acquisition time, or improved accuracy with equal acquisition time. Parametric maps of T 1 , T 2 , and proton density of comparable quality could be achieved with a two-fold or more reduction in acquisition time. The effect of sliding-window width on dictionary sensitivity was also estimated. The novel SW-MRF recovers high quality image frames from highly undersampled MRF data, which enables more robust dictionary matching with reduced numbers of data frames. This time efficiency may facilitate MRF applications in time-critical clinical settings. Magn Reson Med 78:1579-1588, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH 2 PO 4 -Na 2 HPO 4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards reconstruction of overlapping fingerprints using plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    Chemical analysis is commonly used in the field of forensic science where the precise discrimination of primary evidence is of significant importance. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) exceeds other spectroscopic methods in terms of the time required for pre- and post-sample preparation, the insensitivity to sample phase state be it solid, liquid, or gas, and the detection of two-dimensional spectral mapping from real time point measurements. In this research, fingerprint samples on various surface materials are considered in the chemical detection and reconstruction of fingerprints using the two-dimensional LIBS technique. Strong and distinct intensities of specific wavelengths represent visible ink, natural secretion of sweat, and contaminants from the environment, all of which can be present in latent fingerprints. The particular aim of the work presented here is to enhance the precision of the two-dimensional recreation of the fingerprints present on metal, plastic, and artificially prepared soil surface using LIBS with principal component analysis. By applying a distinct wavelength discrimination for two overlapping fingerprint samples, separation into two non-identical chemical fingerprints was successfully performed.

  4. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  5. DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Philip L; Reinhold, William C; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J; Weinstein, John N

    2009-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes.

  6. Practical Fingerprinting Localization for Indoor Positioning System by Using Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the fields of smartphones and wireless communication technologies such as beacons, Wi-Fi, and ultra-wideband have made it possible to realize indoor positioning system (IPS with a few meters of accuracy. In this paper, an improvement over traditional fingerprinting localization is proposed by combining it with weighted centroid localization (WCL. The proposed localization method reduces the total number of fingerprint reference points over the localization space, thus minimizing both the time required for reading radio frequency signals and the number of reference points needed during the fingerprinting learning process, which eventually makes the process less time-consuming. The proposed positioning has two major steps of operation. In the first step, we have realized fingerprinting that utilizes lightly populated reference points (RPs and WCL individually. Using the location estimated at the first step, WCL is run again for the final location estimation. The proposed localization technique reduces the number of required fingerprint RPs by more than 40% compared to normal fingerprinting localization method with a similar localization estimation error.

  7. Fingerprint: A Unique and Reliable Method for Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Kumar Bose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. It is still universal in spite of discovery of DNA fingerprint. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific evidence in courts of law throughout the world. The science of fingerprints, dactylography or dermatoglyphics, had long been widely accepted, and well acclaimed and reputed as panacea for individualization, particularly in forensic investigations. Human fingerprints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as lifelong markers of human identity. Fingerprints can be readily used by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster

  8. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Tang, K.; Taranenko, N.I.; Allman, S.L.; Chang, L.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual`s DNA structure is identical within all tissues of their body. DNA fingerprinting was initiated by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). In 1987, Nakamura et al. found that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) often occurred in the alleles. The probability of different individuals having the same number of tandem repeats in several different alleles is very low. Thus, the identification of VNTR from genomic DNA became a very reliable method for identification of individuals. DNA fingerprinting is a reliable tool for forensic analysis. In DNA fingerprinting, knowledge of the sequence of tandem repeats and restriction endonuclease sites can provide the basis for identification. The major steps for conventional DNA fingerprinting include (1) specimen processing (2) amplification of selected DNA segments by PCR, and (3) gel electrophoresis to do the final DNA analysis. In this work we propose to use laser desorption mass spectrometry for fast DNA fingerprinting. The process and advantages are discussed.

  9. Development of a Combined MR Fingerprinting and Diffusion Examination for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alice C; Badve, Chaitra; Ponsky, Lee E; Pahwa, Shivani; Dastmalchian, Sara; Rogers, Matthew; Jiang, Yun; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Tabayoyong, William; Abouassaly, Robert; McGivney, Debra; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate an examination consisting of magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting-based T1, T2, and standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping for multiparametric characterization of prostate disease. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of prospectively collected data included 140 patients suspected of having prostate cancer. T1 and T2 mapping was performed with fast imaging with steady-state precession-based MR fingerprinting with ADC mapping. Regions of interest were drawn by two independent readers in peripheral zone lesions and normal-appearing peripheral zone (NPZ) tissue identified on clinical images. T1, T2, and ADC were recorded for each region. Histopathologic correlation was based on systematic transrectal biopsy or cognitively targeted biopsy results, if available. Generalized estimating equations logistic regression was used to assess T1, T2, and ADC in the differentiation of (a) cancer versus NPZ, (b) cancer versus prostatitis, (c) prostatitis versus NPZ, and (d) high- or intermediate-grade tumors versus low-grade tumors. Analysis was performed for all lesions and repeated in a targeted biopsy subset. Discriminating ability was evaluated by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results In this study, 109 lesions were analyzed, including 39 with cognitively targeted sampling. T1, T2, and ADC from cancer (mean, 1628 msec ± 344, 73 msec ± 27, and 0.773 × 10 -3 mm 2 /sec ± 0.331, respectively) were significantly lower than those from NPZ (mean, 2247 msec ± 450, 169 msec ± 61, and 1.711 × 10 -3 mm 2 /sec ± 0.269) (P fingerprinting- and diffusion-based examination for quantitative characterization of prostatic tissue. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. Website Fingerprinting Defenses at the Application Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubin Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Website Fingerprinting (WF allows a passive network adversary to learn the websites that a client visits by analyzing traffic patterns that are unique to each website. It has been recently shown that these attacks are particularly effective against .onion sites, anonymous web servers hosted within the Tor network. Given the sensitive nature of the content of these services, the implications of WF on the Tor network are alarming. Prior work has only considered defenses at the client-side arguing that web servers lack of incentives to adopt countermeasures. Furthermore, most of these defenses have been designed to operate on the stream of network packets, making practical deployment difficult. In this paper, we propose two application-level defenses including the first server-side defense against WF, as .onion services have incentives to support it. The other defense is a lightweight client-side defense implemented as a browser add-on, improving ease of deployment over previous approaches. In our evaluations, the server-side defense is able to reduce WF accuracy on Tor .onion sites from 69.6% to 10% and the client-side defense reduces accuracy from 64% to 31.5%.

  11. DNA fingerprinting in zoology: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Geoffrey K; Curtis, Caitlin; Millar, Craig D; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2014-02-03

    In 1962, Thomas Kuhn famously argued that the progress of scientific knowledge results from periodic 'paradigm shifts' during a period of crisis in which new ideas dramatically change the status quo. Although this is generally true, Alec Jeffreys' identification of hypervariable repeat motifs in the human beta-globin gene, and the subsequent development of a technology known now as 'DNA fingerprinting', also resulted in a dramatic shift in the life sciences, particularly in ecology, evolutionary biology, and forensics. The variation Jeffreys recognized has been used to identify individuals from tissue samples of not just humans, but also of many animal species. In addition, the technology has been used to determine the sex of individuals, as well as paternity/maternity and close kinship. We review a broad range of such studies involving a wide diversity of animal species. For individual researchers, Jeffreys' invention resulted in many ecologists and evolutionary biologists being given the opportunity to develop skills in molecular biology to augment their whole organism focus. Few developments in science, even among the subsequent genome discoveries of the 21st century, have the same wide-reaching significance. Even the later development of PCR-based genotyping of individuals using microsatellite repeats sequences, and their use in determining multiple paternity, is conceptually rooted in Alec Jeffreys' pioneering work.

  12. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Imperatriz-MA 65919-050 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G., E-mail: cbezerra@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J{sub A} and J{sub B} and spin quantum numbers S{sub A} and S{sub B}, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J{sub C} and spin quantum number S{sub C}. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: > We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. > We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. > Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. > Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. > Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  13. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J A and J B and spin quantum numbers S A and S B , respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J C and spin quantum number S C . For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: → We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. → We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. → Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. → Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. → Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  14. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-09-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they differ. The average percent difference (APD) among pairwise combinations from the population of 33 unrelated cell lines was 76.9%, compared with the APD in band sharing among cell lines derived from the same individual (less than or equal to 1.2%). Included in this survey were nine additional cell lines previously implicated as HeLa cell derivatives, and these lines were clearly confirmed as such by DNA fingerprints (APD less than or equal to 0.6%). On the basis of fragment frequencies in the tested cell line population, a simple genetic model was developed to estimate the frequencies of each DNA fingerprint in the population. The median incidence was 2.9 X 10(-17), and the range was 2.4 X 10(-21) to 6.6 X 10(-15). This value approximates the probability that a second cell line selected at random from unrelated individuals will match a given DNA fingerprint. Related calculations address the chance that any two DNA fingerprints would be identical among a large group of cell lines. This estimate is still very slight; for example, the chance of two or more common DNA fingerprints among 1 million distinct individuals is less than .001. The procedure provides a straightforward, easily interpreted, and statistically robust method for identification and individualization of human cells.

  15. Improvement of an algorithm for recognition of liveness using perspiration in fingerprint devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasaradhi, Sujan T.; Derakhshani, Reza; Hornak, Lawrence A.; Schuckers, Stephanie C.

    2004-08-01

    Previous work in our laboratory and others have demonstrated that spoof fingers made of a variety of materials including silicon, Play-Doh, clay, and gelatin (gummy finger) can be scanned and verified when compared to a live enrolled finger. Liveness, i.e. to determine whether the introduced biometric is coming from a live source, has been suggested as a means to circumvent attacks using spoof fingers. We developed a new liveness method based on perspiration changes in the fingerprint image. Recent results showed approximately 90% classification rate using different classification methods for various technologies including optical, electro-optical, and capacitive DC, a shorter time window and a diverse dataset. This paper focuses on improvement of the live classification rate by using a weight decay method during the training phase in order to improve the generalization and reduce the variance of the neural network based classifier. The dataset included fingerprint images from 33 live subjects, 33 spoofs created with dental impression material and Play-Doh, and fourteen cadaver fingers. 100% live classification was achieved with 81.8 to 100% spoof classification, depending on the device technology. The weight-decay method improves upon past reports by increasing the live and spoof classification rate.

  16. Improved magnetic resonance fingerprinting reconstruction with low-rank and subspace modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Gagoski, Borjan; Ye, Huihui; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ellen Grant, P; Griswold, Mark A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2018-02-01

    This article introduces a constrained imaging method based on low-rank and subspace modeling to improve the accuracy and speed of MR fingerprinting (MRF). A new model-based imaging method is developed for MRF to reconstruct high-quality time-series images and accurate tissue parameter maps (e.g., T 1 , T 2 , and spin density maps). Specifically, the proposed method exploits low-rank approximations of MRF time-series images, and further enforces temporal subspace constraints to capture magnetization dynamics. This allows the time-series image reconstruction problem to be formulated as a simple linear least-squares problem, which enables efficient computation. After image reconstruction, tissue parameter maps are estimated via dictionary-based pattern matching, as in the conventional approach. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated with in vivo experiments. Compared with the conventional MRF reconstruction, the proposed method reconstructs time-series images with significantly reduced aliasing artifacts and noise contamination. Although the conventional approach exhibits some robustness to these corruptions, the improved time-series image reconstruction in turn provides more accurate tissue parameter maps. The improvement is pronounced especially when the acquisition time becomes short. The proposed method significantly improves the accuracy of MRF, and also reduces data acquisition time. Magn Reson Med 79:933-942, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. MR fingerprinting Deep RecOnstruction NEtwork (DRONE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ouri; Zhu, Bo; Rosen, Matthew S

    2018-09-01

    Demonstrate a novel fast method for reconstruction of multi-dimensional MR fingerprinting (MRF) data using deep learning methods. A neural network (NN) is defined using the TensorFlow framework and trained on simulated MRF data computed with the extended phase graph formalism. The NN reconstruction accuracy for noiseless and noisy data is compared to conventional MRF template matching as a function of training data size and is quantified in simulated numerical brain phantom data and International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine/National Institute of Standards and Technology phantom data measured on 1.5T and 3T scanners with an optimized MRF EPI and MRF fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP) sequences with spiral readout. The utility of the method is demonstrated in a healthy subject in vivo at 1.5T. Network training required 10 to 74 minutes; once trained, data reconstruction required approximately 10 ms for the MRF EPI and 76 ms for the MRF FISP sequence. Reconstruction of simulated, noiseless brain data using the NN resulted in a RMS error (RMSE) of 2.6 ms for T 1 and 1.9 ms for T 2 . The reconstruction error in the presence of noise was less than 10% for both T 1 and T 2 for SNR greater than 25 dB. Phantom measurements yielded good agreement (R 2  = 0.99/0.99 for MRF EPI T 1 /T 2 and 0.94/0.98 for MRF FISP T 1 /T 2 ) between the T 1 and T 2 estimated by the NN and reference values from the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine/National Institute of Standards and Technology phantom. Reconstruction of MRF data with a NN is accurate, 300- to 5000-fold faster, and more robust to noise and dictionary undersampling than conventional MRF dictionary-matching. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. The mechanical fingerprint of murine excisional wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensalfini, Marco; Haertel, Eric; Hopf, Raoul; Wietecha, Mateusz; Werner, Sabine; Mazza, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    A multiscale mechanics approach to the characterization of murine excisional wounds subjected to uniaxial tensile loading is presented. Local strain analysis at a physiological level of tension uncovers the presence of two distinct regions within the wound: i) a very compliant peripheral cushion and ii) a core area undergoing modest deformation. Microstructural visualizations of stretched wound specimens show negligible engagement of the collagen located in the center of a 7-day old wound; fibers remain coiled despite the applied tension, confirming the existence of a mechanically isolated wound core. The compliant cushion located at the wound periphery appears to protect the newly-formed tissue from excessive deformation during the phase of new tissue formation. The early remodeling phase (day 14) is characterized by a restored mechanical connection between far field and wound center. The latter remains less deformable, a characteristic possibly required for cell activities during tissue remodeling. The distribution of fibrillary collagens at these two time points corresponds well to the identified heterogeneity of mechanical properties of the wound region. This novel approach provides new insight into the mechanical properties of wounded skin and will be applicable to the analysis of compound-treated wounds or wounds in genetically modified tissue. Biophysical characterization of healing wounds is crucial to assess the recovery of the skin barrier function and the associated mechanobiological processes. For the first time, we performed highly resolved local deformation analysis to identify mechanical characteristics of the wound and its periphery. Our results reveal the presence of a compliant cushion surrounding a stiffer wound core; we refer to this heterogeneous mechanical behavior as "mechanical fingerprint" of the wound. The mechanical response is shown to progress towards that of the intact skin as healing takes place. Histology and multiphoton microscopy

  19. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Chemical Fingerprinting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool in the chemical fingerprinting of materials. Any sample material that will interact with infrared light produces a spectrum and, although normally associated with organic materials, inorganic compounds may also be infrared active. The technique is rapid, reproducible and usually non-invasive to the sample. That it is non-invasive allows for additional characterization of the original material using other analytical techniques including thermal analysis and RAMAN spectroscopic techniques. With the appropriate accessories, the technique can be used to examine samples in liquid, solid or gas phase. Both aqueous and non-aqueous free-flowing solutions can be analyzed, as can viscous liquids such as heavy oils and greases. Solid samples of varying sizes and shapes may also be examined and with the addition of microscopic IR (microspectroscopy) capabilities, minute materials such as single fibers and threads may be analyzed. With the addition of appropriate software, microspectroscopy can be used for automated discrete point or compositional surface area mapping, with the latter providing a means to record changes in the chemical composition of a material surface over a defined area. Due to the ability to characterize gaseous samples, IR spectroscopy can also be coupled with thermal processes such as thermogravimetric (TG) analyses to provide both thermal and chemical data in a single run. In this configuration, solids (or liquids) heated in a TG analyzer undergo decomposition, with the evolving gases directed into the IR spectrometer. Thus, information is provided on the thermal properties of a material and the order in which its chemical constituents are broken down during incremental heating. Specific examples of these varied applications will be cited, with data interpretation and method limitations further discussed.

  1. Iron-Tolerant Cyanobacteria: Ecophysiology and Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Lindsey, J.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Although the iron-dependent physiology of marine and freshwater cyanobacterial strains has been the focus of extensive study, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs have been conducted. One of the few studies that have been conducted [B. Pierson, 1999] found that cyanobacterial members of iron depositing bacterial mat communities might increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ and that ferrous iron concentrations up to 1 mM significantly stimulated light dependent consumption of bicarbonate, suggesting a specific role for elevated iron in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs. Our recent studies pertaining to the diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria populating iron-depositing hot springs in Great Yellowstone area (Western USA) indicated a number of different isolates exhibiting elevated tolerance to Fe(3+) (up to 1 mM). Moreover, stimulation of growth was observed with increased Fe(3+) (0.02-0.4 mM). Molecular fingerprinting of unialgal isolates revealed a new cyanobacterial genus and species Chroogloeocystis siderophila, an unicellular cyanobacterium with significant EPS sheath harboring colloidal Fe(3+) from iron enriched media. Our preliminary data suggest that some filamentous species of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria are capable of exocytosis of iron precipitated in cytoplasm. Prior to 2.4 Ga global oceans were likely significantly enriched in soluble iron [Lindsay et al, 2003], conditions which are not conducive to growth of most contemporary oxygenic cyanobacteria. Thus, iron-tolerant CB may have played important physiological and evolutionary roles in Earths history.

  2. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  3. Semantically transparent fingerprinting for right protection of digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2003-06-01

    Digital cinema, a new frontier and crown jewel of digital multimedia, has the potential of revolutionizing the science, engineering and business of movie production and distribution. The advantages of digital cinema technology over traditional analog technology are numerous and profound. But without effective and enforceable copyright protection measures, digital cinema can be more susceptible to widespread piracy, which can dampen or even prevent the commercial deployment of digital cinema. In this paper we propose a novel approach of fingerprinting each individual distribution copy of a digital movie for the purpose of tracing pirated copies back to their source. The proposed fingerprinting technique presents a fundamental departure from the traditional digital watermarking/fingerprinting techniques. Its novelty and uniqueness lie in a so-called semantic or subjective transparency property. The fingerprints are created by editing those visual and audio attributes that can be modified with semantic and subjective transparency to the audience. Semantically-transparent fingerprinting or watermarking is the most robust kind among all existing watermarking techniques, because it is content-based not sample-based, and semantically-recoverable not statistically-recoverable.

  4. Efficient and Secure Fingerprint Verification for Embedded Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiyama Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a secure and memory-efficient embedded fingerprint verification system. It shows how a fingerprint verification module originally developed to run on a workstation can be transformed and optimized in a systematic way to run real-time on an embedded device with limited memory and computation power. A complete fingerprint recognition module is a complex application that requires in the order of 1000 M unoptimized floating-point instruction cycles. The goal is to run both the minutiae extraction and the matching engines on a small embedded processor, in our case a 50 MHz LEON-2 softcore. It does require optimization and acceleration techniques at each design step. In order to speed up the fingerprint signal processing phase, we propose acceleration techniques at the algorithm level, at the software level to reduce the execution cycle number, and at the hardware level to distribute the system work load. Thirdly, a memory trace map-based memory reduction strategy is used for lowering the system memory requirement. Lastly, at the hardware level, it requires the development of specialized coprocessors. As results of these optimizations, we achieve a 65% reduction on the execution time and a 67% reduction on the memory storage requirement for the minutiae extraction process, compared against the reference implementation. The complete operation, that is, fingerprint capture, feature extraction, and matching, can be done in real-time of less than 4 seconds

  5. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Storch, H. von; Hasselmann, K.; Santer, B.D.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the 'signal') is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the 'fingerprint') to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate's response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  6. Ridge Width Correlations between Inked Prints and Powdered Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot-Feixat, Carme; Zapico, Sara C; Mancenido, Michelle; Broatch, Jennifer; Roberts, Katherine A; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Tasker, Jack

    2017-10-03

    A methodology to estimate the time of latent fingerprint deposition would be of great value to law enforcement and courts. It has been observed that ridge topography changes as latent prints age, including the widths of ridges that could be measured as a function of time. Crime suspects are commonly identified using fingerprint databases that contain reference inked tenprints (flat and rolled impressions). These can be of interest in aging studies as they provide baseline information relating to the original (nonaged) ridges' widths. In practice, the age of latent fingerprints could be estimated following a comparison process between the evidentiary aged print and the corresponding reference inked print. The present article explores possible correlations between inked and fresh latent fingerprints deposited on different substrates and visualized with TiO 2 . The results indicate that the ridge width of flat inked prints is most similar to fresh latent fingerprints , and these should be used as the comparison standard for future aging studies. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  8. Fingerprint classification using a simplified rule-set based on directional patterns and singularity features

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dorasamy, K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of directional patterns has recently received more attention in fingerprint classification. It provides a global representation of a fingerprint, by dividing it into homogeneous orientation partitions. With this technique, the challenge...

  9. Damage invariant and high security acquisition of the internal fingerprint using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available representation they offer. Using an emerging fingerprint acquisition technology – optical coherence tomography – to access an internal fingerprint under the skin surface, this paper serves to address two limitations of conventional scanners: fingertip skin damage...

  10. Distortion analysis on binary representation of minutiae based fingerprint matching for match-on-card

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint matching on the smart card has long been developed and recognized faster method than fingerprint matching on a computer or large capacity systems. There has been much research and activities concerned with improving the accuracy...

  11. Evaluating the change of directional patterns for fingerprints with missing singular points under rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dorasamy, Kribashnee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming small inter-class variation when fingerprints have missing singular points (SPs) is one of the current challenges faced in fingerprint classification, since class information is scarce. Grouping the orientation fields to form Directional...

  12. Fast 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting for a whole-brain coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Yong; McGivney, Debra; Mehta, Bhairav; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate the acquisition and reconstruction time of 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scans. A 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scan was accelerated by using a single-shot spiral trajectory with an undersampling factor of 48 in the x-y plane, and an interleaved sampling pattern with an undersampling factor of 3 through plane. Further acceleration came from reducing the waiting time between neighboring partitions. The reconstruction time was accelerated by applying singular value decomposition compression in k-space. Finally, a 3D premeasured B 1 map was used to correct for the B 1 inhomogeneity. The T 1 and T 2 values of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine/National Institute of Standards and Technology MRI phantom showed a good agreement with the standard values, with an average concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99, and coefficient of variation of 7% in the repeatability scans. The results from in vivo scans also showed high image quality in both transverse and coronal views. This study applied a fast acquisition scheme for a fully quantitative 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scan with a total acceleration factor of 144 as compared with the Nyquist rate, such that 3D T 1 , T 2 , and proton density maps can be acquired with whole-brain coverage at clinical resolution in less than 5 min. Magn Reson Med 79:2190-2197, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. AIR-MRF: Accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher C; Chen, Xiao; Mailhe, Boris; Wang, Qiu; Pfeuffer, Josef; Nittka, Mathias; Griswold, Mark A; Speier, Peter; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2017-09-01

    Existing approaches for reconstruction of multiparametric maps with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are currently limited by their estimation accuracy and reconstruction time. We aimed to address these issues with a novel combination of iterative reconstruction, fingerprint compression, additional regularization, and accelerated dictionary search methods. The pipeline described here, accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting (AIR-MRF), was evaluated with simulations as well as phantom and in vivo scans. We found that the AIR-MRF pipeline provided reduced parameter estimation errors compared to non-iterative and other iterative methods, particularly at shorter sequence lengths. Accelerated dictionary search methods incorporated into the iterative pipeline reduced the reconstruction time at little cost of quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beware of the possibility of fingerprinting techniques transferring DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Roland A H; Treadwell, Sally; Beaurepaire, James; Holding, Nicole L; Mitchell, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    Fingerprinting brushes have the potential to collect and transfer DNA during powdering. Squirrel-hair fingerprint brushes exposed to specific sets of saliva stains and brushes used in routine casework were tested for their ability to collect and transfer DNA containing material using standard DNA extraction procedures and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus amplification and typing procedures. The tests found that the risk of transferring DNA during powdering and having a detrimental impact on the analysis increases if the examiner powders over either biological stains (such as blood or saliva) or very fresh prints and uses more sensitive PCR amplification and typing procedures. We advocate caution when powdering prints from which DNA may also be collected and provide options for consideration to limit the risk of transferred DNA contamination while fingerprinting.

  15. Enhancement of plant metabolite fingerprinting by machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Vermeer, Cornelia P; Liakata, Maria; Corol, Delia I; Ward, Jane L; Lin, Wanchang; Johnson, Helen E; Whitehead, Lynne; Kular, Baldeep; Baker, John M; Walsh, Sean; Dave, Anuja; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A; Wang, Trevor L; King, Ross D; Draper, John; Beale, Michael H

    2010-08-01

    Metabolite fingerprinting of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with known or predicted metabolic lesions was performed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and flow injection electrospray-mass spectrometry. Fingerprinting enabled processing of five times more plants than conventional chromatographic profiling and was competitive for discriminating mutants, other than those affected in only low-abundance metabolites. Despite their rapidity and complexity, fingerprints yielded metabolomic insights (e.g. that effects of single lesions were usually not confined to individual pathways). Among fingerprint techniques, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance discriminated the most mutant phenotypes from the wild type and Fourier transform infrared discriminated the fewest. To maximize information from fingerprints, data analysis was crucial. One-third of distinctive phenotypes might have been overlooked had data models been confined to principal component analysis score plots. Among several methods tested, machine learning (ML) algorithms, namely support vector machine or random forest (RF) classifiers, were unsurpassed for phenotype discrimination. Support vector machines were often the best performing classifiers, but RFs yielded some particularly informative measures. First, RFs estimated margins between mutant phenotypes, whose relations could then be visualized by Sammon mapping or hierarchical clustering. Second, RFs provided importance scores for the features within fingerprints that discriminated mutants. These scores correlated with analysis of variance F values (as did Kruskal-Wallis tests, true- and false-positive measures, mutual information, and the Relief feature selection algorithm). ML classifiers, as models trained on one data set to predict another, were ideal for focused metabolomic queries, such as the distinctiveness and consistency of mutant phenotypes. Accessible software for use of ML in plant physiology is highlighted.

  16. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  17. Analysis of cellular and extracellular DNA in fingerprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    It has been previously shown that DNA can be recovered from latent fingerprints left on various surfaces [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. However, the source of the DNA, extracellular versus cellular origin, is difficult to determine. If the DNA is cellular, it is believed to belong to skin cells while extracellular DNA is believed to originate from body fluids such as sweat [D. J. Daly et. al, Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 6, 41-46 (2012); V. V. Vlassov et. al, BioEssays 29, 654-667 (2007)]. The origin of the DNA in fingerprints has implications for processing and interpretation of forensic evidence. The determination of the origin of DNA in fingerprints is further complicated by the fact that the DNA in fingerprints tends to be at a very low quantity [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. This study examined fingerprints from five volunteers left on sterilized glass slides and plastic pens. Three fingerprints were left on each glass slide (thumb, index, and middle fingers) while the pens were held as if one was writing with them. The DNA was collected from the objects using the wet swabbing technique (TE buffer). Following collection, the cellular and extracellular components of each sample were separated using centrifugation and an acoustofluidics system. Centrifugation is still the primary separation technique utilized in forensics laboratories, while acoustic focusing uses sound waves to focus large particles (cells) into low pressure nodes, separating them from the rest of the sample matrix. After separation, all samples were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The overall trend is that there is more DNA in the extracellular fractions than cellular fractions for both centrifugation and acoustofluidic processing. Additionally, more DNA was generally collected from the pen samples than the samples left on glass slides.

  18. Zone-based RSS Reporting for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Linnhoff–Popien, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    In typical location fingerprinting systems a tracked terminal reports sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) values to a location server, which estimates its position based on a database of pre-recorded RSS fingerprints. So far, poll-based and periodic RSS reporting has been proposed. However......, for supporting proactive Location-based Services (LBSs), triggered by pre-defined spatial events, the periodic protocol is inefficient. Hence, this paper introduces zone-based RSS reporting: the location server translates geographical zones defined by the LBS into RSS-based representations, which are dynamically...

  19. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  20. Fingerprint-based structure retrieval using electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangye; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2011-03-01

    We present a computational approach that can quickly search a large protein structural database to identify structures that fit a given electron density, such as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We use geometric invariants (fingerprints) constructed using 3D Zernike moments to describe the electron density, and reduce the problem of fitting of the structure to the electron density to simple fingerprint comparison. Using this approach, we are able to screen the entire Protein Data Bank and identify structures that fit two experimental electron densities determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Towards a complete rule-based classification approach for flat fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Webb, L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available fingerprints. This work implements an algorithm which includes new rules to account for more instances of flat fingerprints with missing singular points, specifically when the delta of a Right Loop or Left Loop fingerprint is not captured, when one of the loops...

  2. Hyperbolic Location Fingerprinting: A Calibration-Free Solution for Handling Differences in Signal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Munk, Carsten Valdemar

    2008-01-01

    records fingerprints as signal-strength ratios between pairs of base stations instead of absolute signal-strength values. The proposed solution has been evaluated by extending two well-known location fingerprinting techniques to hyperbolic location fingerprinting. The extended techniques have been tested...

  3. Novel fingerprint re-alignment solution that uses the TFCP as a reference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available , independent, and efficient for all types of fingerprints. It, in particular, is useful when dealing with the type of fingerprints that belong to the Plain Arch (PA) fingerprint class. The credibility of this proposed solution is interrogated through its...

  4. Performance analysis of a hybrid fingerprint extracted from optical coherence tomography fingertip scans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hybrid fingerprint is a local-quality-specific blend of the surface and internal fingerprints, extracted from optical coherence tomography scans. Owing to its origin, and the manner in which it is obtained, the Hybrid fingerprint is a high...

  5. Complexity and distortion analysis on methods for unrolling 3D to 2D fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and studies involve the application of three-dimensional (3D) fingerprint systems, where the details of the finger are captured using 3D technologies and the captured 3D fingerprints are converted into two-dimensional (2D) fingerprints. This paper presents a...

  6. Comparison of Powder Dusting and Cyanoacrylate Fuming Techniques in Retrieving Latent Fingerprint Exposed to Environment Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayalvanan, Y.; Sri Pawita Albakri Amir Hamzah; Chuan, L.L.; Muhamad Hilmi Baba; Amidon Anan

    2014-01-01

    Latent fingerprints are one of the best evidence to prove the presence of an individuals presence at the crime scene. There are many techniques available for a successful fingerprint lifting. Two of the most common ones are fingerprint powder dusting and cyanoacrylate fuming. This research aims to compare both techniques and determine which has a higher success rate in retrieving fingerprints exposed to local environmental conditions for three days. Fingerprint samples were collected from 18 subjects on glass, perspex and aluminium slides. These samples were then exposed to local environmental conditions for three days. The fingerprints were then developed using the aforementioned techniques. Based on the results, it can be safely said that, fuming results in clearer fingerprints and more minutiae can be found from the retrieved fingerprints even with exposure to less than optimum local conditions. This proves that fuming is a better fingerprint lifting method to resolve latent fingerprint compared to powder dusting. Surface on which the fingerprint is retrieved from influences the quality of clarity of a latent fingerprint. (author)

  7. Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC-MRF): A Platform for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple MRI Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian E; Donnola, Shannon B; Jiang, Yun; Batesole, Joshua; Darrah, Rebecca; Drumm, Mitchell L; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Yu, Xin; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A

    2017-08-16

    Injectable Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents have been widely used to provide critical assessments of disease for both clinical and basic science imaging research studies. The scope of available MRI contrast agents has expanded over the years with the emergence of molecular imaging contrast agents specifically targeted to biological markers. Unfortunately, synergistic application of more than a single molecular contrast agent has been limited by MRI's ability to only dynamically measure a single agent at a time. In this study, a new Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC - MRF) methodology is described that can detect and independently quantify the local concentration of multiple MRI contrast agents following simultaneous administration. This "multi-color" MRI methodology provides the opportunity to monitor multiple molecular species simultaneously and provides a practical, quantitative imaging framework for the eventual clinical translation of molecular imaging contrast agents.

  8. Simultaneous multislice magnetic resonance fingerprinting with low-rank and subspace modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Zhao; Bilgic, Berkin; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Griswold, Mark A; Wald, Lawrence L; Setsompop, Kawin

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) is a new quantitative imaging paradigm that enables simultaneous acquisition of multiple magnetic resonance tissue parameters (e.g., T 1 , T 2 , and spin density). Recently, MRF has been integrated with simultaneous multislice (SMS) acquisitions to enable volumetric imaging with faster scan time. In this paper, we present a new image reconstruction method based on low-rank and subspace modeling for improved SMS-MRF. Here the low-rank model exploits strong spatiotemporal correlation among contrast-weighted images, while the subspace model captures the temporal evolution of magnetization dynamics. With the proposed model, the image reconstruction problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem, for which we develop an algorithm based on variable splitting and the alternating direction method of multipliers. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated by numerical experiments, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method leads to improved accuracy over the conventional approach. Practically, the proposed method has a potential to allow for a 3× speedup with minimal reconstruction error, resulting in less than 5 sec imaging time per slice.

  9. Phase unwinding for dictionary compression with multiple channel transmission in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Riccardo; Zhang, Bei; Knoll, Florian; Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting reconstructions can become computationally intractable with multiple transmit channels, if the B 1 + phases are included in the dictionary. We describe a general method that allows to omit the transmit phases. We show that this enables straightforward implementation of dictionary compression to further reduce the problem dimensionality. We merged the raw data of each RF source into a single k-space dataset, extracted the transceiver phases from the corresponding reconstructed images and used them to unwind the phase in each time frame. All phase-unwound time frames were combined in a single set before performing SVD-based compression. We conducted synthetic, phantom and in-vivo experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of SVD-based compression in the case of two-channel transmission. Unwinding the phases before SVD-based compression yielded artifact-free parameter maps. For fully sampled acquisitions, parameters were accurate with as few as 6 compressed time frames. SVD-based compression performed well in-vivo with highly under-sampled acquisitions using 16 compressed time frames, which reduced reconstruction time from 750 to 25min. Our method reduces the dimensions of the dictionary atoms and enables to implement any fingerprint compression strategy in the case of multiple transmit channels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast magnetic resonance fingerprinting for dynamic contrast-enhanced studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuning; Wang, Charlie Y; Anderson, Christian E; Liu, Yuchi; Hu, He; Johansen, Mette L; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Brady-Kalnay, Susann; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A; Yu, Xin

    2018-05-09

    The goal of this study was to develop a fast MR fingerprinting (MRF) method for simultaneous T 1 and T 2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies in mice. The MRF sequences based on balanced SSFP and fast imaging with steady-state precession were implemented and evaluated on a 7T preclinical scanner. The readout used a zeroth-moment-compensated variable-density spiral trajectory that fully sampled the entire k-space and the inner 10 × 10 k-space with 48 and 4 interleaves, respectively. In vitro and in vivo studies of mouse brain were performed to evaluate the accuracy of MRF measurements with both fully sampled and undersampled data. The application of MRF to dynamic T 1 and T 2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies were demonstrated in a mouse model of heterotopic glioblastoma using gadolinium-based and dysprosium-based contrast agents. The T 1 and T 2 measurements in phantom showed strong agreement between the MRF and the conventional methods. The MRF with spiral encoding allowed up to 8-fold undersampling without loss of measurement accuracy. This enabled simultaneous T 1 and T 2 mapping with 2-minute temporal resolution in DCE-MRI studies. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting provides the opportunity for dynamic quantification of contrast agent distribution in preclinical tumor models on high-field MRI scanners. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Fingerprinting of Peptides with a Large Channel of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhouxiang; Wang, Shaoying; Zhao, Zhengyi; Zhou, Zhi; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-09-01

    Nanopore technology has become a highly sensitive and powerful tool for single molecule sensing of chemicals and biopolymers. Protein pores have the advantages of size amenability, channel homogeneity, and fabrication reproducibility. But most well-studied protein pores for sensing are too small for passage of peptide analytes that are typically a few nanometers in dimension. The funnel-shaped channel of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has previously been inserted into a lipid membrane to serve as a larger pore with a narrowest N-terminal constriction of 3.6 nm and a wider C-terminal end of 6 nm. Here, the utility of phi29 motor channel for fingerprinting of various peptides using single molecule electrophysiological assays is reported. The translocation of peptides is proved unequivocally by single molecule fluorescence imaging. Current blockage percentage and distinctive current signatures are used to distinguish peptides with high confidence. Each peptide generated one or two distinct current blockage peaks, serving as typical fingerprint for each peptide. The oligomeric states of peptides can also be studied in real time at single molecule level. The results demonstrate the potential for further development of phi29 motor channel for detection of disease-associated peptide biomarkers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nano-scale analysis of titanium dioxide fingerprint-development powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A J; Jones, B J; Sears, V; Bowman, V

    2008-01-01

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide is suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a small particle reagent (SPR). Analysis of commercially available products shows varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of prints developed with different powders show a range of levels of aggregation of particles. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the fingerprint powder shows TiO 2 particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the composition and chemical state of the surface of the powders; with a penetration depth of approximately 10nm, this technique demonstrates differing Ti: Al: Si ratios and oxidation states between the surfaces of different powders. Levels of titanium detected with this technique demonstrate variation in the integrity of the surface coating. The thickness, integrity and composition of the Al/Si-based coating is related to the level of aggregation of TiO 2 particles and efficacy of print development.

  13. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization. When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170 were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.

  14. Estimates of population genetic diversity in brown bullhead catfish by DNA fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, A.C.; Wessendarp, T.K.; Gordon, D.A.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lattier, D.L. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hertzberg, V.; Leonard, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1994-12-31

    Estimates of population genetic diversity may be a sensitive indicator of environmental impact, since limiting the effective breeding population by any means will result in loss of some variant genotypes, as has been demonstrated by allozyme analysis. DNA fingerprinting techniques are also coming into use for population analyses, and the authors chose to apply fingerprinting analysis three populations of brown bullhead catfish collected in Northern Ohio. DNA was isolated from the red blood cells of individual fish. Purified DNAs were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme; the digests were then sized on a 1% agarose gel, transferred to nylon membranes and probed with a radiolabeled M13 probe using the Westneat hybridization protocol (Southern blotting). This method effects fragments containing VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) sequences complementary to the M13, which are highly variable among individual catfish. Hybridized bands were visualized by a Molecular Dynamics phosphorimager and recorded and analyzed with its proprietary Imagequant image analysis program, Excel and SAS. A total of 10 variable bands were identified and their presence or absence scored in each individual. These data were analyzed to determine between and within-population similarity indices as well as population heterozygosity and genetic diversity measures.

  15. Nano-scale analysis of titanium dioxide fingerprint-development powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A J; Jones, B J [Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunei University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Sears, V; Bowman, V [Fingerprint and Footwear Forensics, Home Office Scientific Development Branch, Sandridge, St Albans, Hertfordshire, AL4 9HQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.j.jones@physics.org

    2008-08-15

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide is suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a small particle reagent (SPR). Analysis of commercially available products shows varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of prints developed with different powders show a range of levels of aggregation of particles. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the fingerprint powder shows TiO{sub 2} particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the composition and chemical state of the surface of the powders; with a penetration depth of approximately 10nm, this technique demonstrates differing Ti: Al: Si ratios and oxidation states between the surfaces of different powders. Levels of titanium detected with this technique demonstrate variation in the integrity of the surface coating. The thickness, integrity and composition of the Al/Si-based coating is related to the level of aggregation of TiO{sub 2} particles and efficacy of print development.

  16. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  17. [HPTLC fingerprint analysis of andrographolides from Andrographis paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jian-Gang; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Ding, Ping

    2014-02-01

    To establish the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of andrographolides from Andrographis paniculata, and to valuate the fingerprint similarity of samples from different habitats, markets, used parts and so on. Chromatographic conditions were as follows: stationary phase: precoated HPTLC GF254 silica-gel plate (20 cm x 10 cm); developing solvent system: chloroform-toluene-methanol (80:10:15); Relative humidity: 42%; Color development reagent: 5% H2SO4 ethanolic solution, heating at 105 degrees C and observing the fluorescent chromatogram in a UV cabinet at 366 nm. The common patterns of HPTLC fingerprint were obtained through CHROMAP 1.5 solution software. The HPTLC fingerprint of andrographolides was consisted of 9 characteristic peaks (fluorescent bands) including andrographolide, neoandrographolide and dehydroandrographolide which were chemical reference substances. The investigation and analysis of 51 batches of Andrographis paniculata showed that there were remarkable differences among different samples, so was the content of andrographolide and total lactones. This method is simple and rapid, which can serve as an effective identification and quality assessment method for Andrographis paniculata.

  18. Pemanfaatan Biometric Fingerprint sebagai Media Pembayaran Transjakarta Berbasis Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Muhajir, Ahmad; Ristiyanti, Lia; Harsono, Shabrina Utami

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan lain dari sidik jari sebagaialternative media pembayaran berbasis uang elektronik pada Transjakarta. Penggunaan sidik jaridipilih karena sidik jari merupakan identitas manusia yang tidak dapat diganti atau dirubah. Padapenelitian ini menggunakan Deskriptif Studies karena bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaransecara sistematis dan akurat mengenai Pemanfaatan Biometric Fingerprint sebagai mediapemabayaran Transjakarta berbasis E-Money. Dalam me...

  19. Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Presence of Capable Intruders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana F.; Cardoso, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint liveness detection methods have been developed as an attempt to overcome the vulnerability of fingerprint biometric systems to spoofing attacks. Traditional approaches have been quite optimistic about the behavior of the intruder assuming the use of a previously known material. This assumption has led to the use of supervised techniques to estimate the performance of the methods, using both live and spoof samples to train the predictive models and evaluate each type of fake samples individually. Additionally, the background was often included in the sample representation, completely distorting the decision process. Therefore, we propose that an automatic segmentation step should be performed to isolate the fingerprint from the background and truly decide on the liveness of the fingerprint and not on the characteristics of the background. Also, we argue that one cannot aim to model the fake samples completely since the material used by the intruder is unknown beforehand. We approach the design by modeling the distribution of the live samples and predicting as fake the samples very unlikely according to that model. Our experiments compare the performance of the supervised approaches with the semi-supervised ones that rely solely on the live samples. The results obtained differ from the ones obtained by the more standard approaches which reinforces our conviction that the results in the literature are misleadingly estimating the true vulnerability of the biometric system. PMID:26102491

  20. Generating One Biometric Feature from Another: Faces from Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seref Sagiroglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces from another (only fingerprints. An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces.

  1. Bayesian estimation of multicomponent relaxation parameters in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Debra; Deshmane, Anagha; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-07-01

    To estimate multiple components within a single voxel in magnetic resonance fingerprinting when the number and types of tissues comprising the voxel are not known a priori. Multiple tissue components within a single voxel are potentially separable with magnetic resonance fingerprinting as a result of differences in signal evolutions of each component. The Bayesian framework for inverse problems provides a natural and flexible setting for solving this problem when the tissue composition per voxel is unknown. Assuming that only a few entries from the dictionary contribute to a mixed signal, sparsity-promoting priors can be placed upon the solution. An iterative algorithm is applied to compute the maximum a posteriori estimator of the posterior probability density to determine the magnetic resonance fingerprinting dictionary entries that contribute most significantly to mixed or pure voxels. Simulation results show that the algorithm is robust in finding the component tissues of mixed voxels. Preliminary in vivo data confirm this result, and show good agreement in voxels containing pure tissue. The Bayesian framework and algorithm shown provide accurate solutions for the partial-volume problem in magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The flexibility of the method will allow further study into different priors and hyperpriors that can be applied in the model. Magn Reson Med 80:159-170, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    1994-01-01

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  3. Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since no information about the genome of C. pendulus is available, the current study deals with molecular investigation of C. pendulus expressed by DNA fingerprinting of the young leaves of this plant using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique with four primer combinations. The obtained results ...

  4. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  5. Combining smart lighting and radio fingerprinting for improved indoor localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaris, Loizos; Kokkinis, Akis; Liotta, Antonio; Stavrou, Stavros

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a hybrid indoor positioning system, which combines a minimal smart lighting deployment for Visible Light Positioning (VPL) purposes, with an IEEE 802.11 RSS Fingerprint-based Indoor Positioning System. Such a hybrid deployment improves the localization performance by utilizing the

  6. Similarity score computation for minutiae-based fingerprint recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses the factors that contribute to the similarity between two sets of minutiae points as well as the probability that two sets of minutiae points were extracted from fingerprints of the same finger. Minutiae...

  7. On the feasibility of device fingerprinting in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Kargl, Frank; Luiijf, Eric; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2013-01-01

    As Industrial Control Systems (ICS) and standard IT networks are becoming one heterogeneous entity, there has been an increasing effort in adjusting common security tools and methodologies to fit the industrial environment. Fingerprinting of industrial devices is still an unexplored research field.

  8. An investigation of face and fingerprint feature-fusion guidelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are a lack of multi-modal biometric fusion guidelines at the feature-level. This paper investigates face and fingerprint features in the form of their strengths and weaknesses. This serves as a set of guidelines to authors that are planning...

  9. Cleaning and Processing RSS measurements for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Handling variations in sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) is neassary for achieving robust location fingerprinting (LF). Current research has only proposed limited system-specific models for how to handle the cleaning of RSS variations. However, this paper propose a novel model for both...

  10. cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Online resources. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers. S. K. Jaiswal Shree P. Pandey S. Sharma R. Prasad L. C. Prasad R. P. S. Verma Arun K. Joshi. Volume 89 Online ...

  11. Development and Validation of Improved Method for Fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an improved method by capillary zone electrophoresis with photodiode array detection for the fingerprint analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Rhizoma Chuanxiong). Methods: The optimum high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) conditions were 30 mM borax containing 5 ...

  12. Chemical fingerprint technique and its application in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gastrodia tuber and its active component, gastrodin, have many pharmacological effects. In this study, optimized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) parameters were employed to determine the chemical fingerprints and gastrodin content of nine Gastrodia tuber populations. Based on the degree of ...

  13. Atomistic fingerprint of hyaluronan-CD44 binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorio, Joni; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    that hyaluronan can bind CD44 with three topographically different binding modes that in unison define an interaction fingerprint, thus providing a plausible explanation for the disagreement between the earlier studies. Our results confirm that the known crystallographic mode is the strongest of the three binding...

  14. Serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer by SELDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer and to screen for protein molecules closely related to gastric cancer during the onset and progression of the disease using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Serum samples from 80 gastric ...

  15. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1973-06-22

    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  16. Verification of Organic Feed Identity by Fatty Acid Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and authenticity of feed for laying hens is an important and fraud-susceptible aspect in the production of organic eggs. Chemical fingerprinting in combination with chemometric methods is increasingly used in conjunction with administrative controls to verify and safeguard the

  17. DNA fingerprinting based on simple sequence repeat (SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New varieties of sugarcane are protected using morphological descriptors, which have limitations in identifying morphologically similar cultivars. Development of a reliable DNA fingerprint system for identification of new varieties would contribute greatly to the breeding of these species. Microsatellite markers are tools with ...

  18. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Tang, Kai; Taranenko, N. I.; Allman, S. L.; Ch'ang, L. Y.

    1994-10-01

    The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual's DNA structure is identical within all tissues oftheir body. DNA fingerprinting was initiated by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). In 1987, Nakamura et aL2 found that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) often occurred in the alleles. The probability of different individuals having the same number of tandem repeats in several different alleles is very low. Thus, the identification of VNTR from genomic DNA became a very reliable method for identification of individuals. Take the Huntington gene as an example, there are CAG trinucleotide repeats. For normal people, the number of CAG repeats is usually between 10 and 40. Since people have chromosomes in pairs, the possibility oftwo individuals having the same VNTR in the Huntington gene is less than one percent, ifwe assume equal distribution for various repeats. When several allels containing VNTR are analyzed for the number of repeats, the possibility of two individuals being exactly identical becomes very unlikely. Thus, DNA fingerprinting is a reliable tool for forensic analysis. In DNA fingerprinting, knowledge of the sequence of tandem repeats and restriction endornuclease sites can provide the basis for identification.

  19. CSI Frequency Domain Fingerprint-Based Passive Indoor Human Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive indoor personnel detection technology is now a hot topic. Existing methods have been greatly influenced by environmental changes, and there are problems with the accuracy and robustness of detection. Passive personnel detection based on Wi-Fi not only solves the above problems, but also has the advantages of being low cost and easy to implement, and can be better applied to elderly care and safety monitoring. In this paper, we propose a passive indoor personnel detection method based on Wi-Fi, which we call FDF-PIHD (Frequency Domain Fingerprint-based Passive Indoor Human Detection. Through this method, fine-grained physical layer Channel State Information (CSI can be extracted to generate feature fingerprints so as to help determine the state in the scene by matching online fingerprints with offline fingerprints. In order to improve accuracy, we combine the detection results of three receiving antennas to obtain the final test result. The experimental results show that the detection rates of our proposed scheme all reach above 90%, no matter whether the scene is human-free, stationary or a moving human presence. In addition, it can not only detect whether there is a target indoors, but also determine the current state of the target.

  20. PCR-DGGE fingerprints of microbial successional changes during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR-DGGE fingerprints of microbial successional changes during fermentation of cereal-legume weaning foods. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Phenotypic identification and monitoring of the dynamics of naturally occurring microbial community responsible for the spontaneous fermentation of different cereal-legume ...

  1. 78 FR 33436 - 2013 Final Fee Rate and Fingerprint Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 2013 Final Fee Rate and Fingerprint Fees AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.072% (.00072) for tier 2. These rates shall apply to all...

  2. Minutia-pair spectral representations for fingerprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanko, T.; Skoric, B.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new fixed-length representation of fingerprint minutiae, for use in template protection. It is similar to the `spectral minutiae' representation of Xu et al. but is based on coordinate differences between pairs of minutiae. Our technique has the advantage that it does not discard the

  3. Generating One Biometric Feature from Another: Faces from Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Necla; Sagiroglu, Seref

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces) from another (only fingerprints). An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces. PMID:22399877

  4. Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Presence of Capable Intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Sequeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint liveness detection methods have been developed as an attempt to overcome the vulnerability of fingerprint biometric systems to spoofing attacks. Traditional approaches have been quite optimistic about the behavior of the intruder assuming the use of a previously known material. This assumption has led to the use of supervised techniques to estimate the performance of the methods, using both live and spoof samples to train the predictive models and evaluate each type of fake samples individually. Additionally, the background was often included in the sample representation, completely distorting the decision process. Therefore, we propose that an automatic segmentation step should be performed to isolate the fingerprint from the background and truly decide on the liveness of the fingerprint and not on the characteristics of the background. Also, we argue that one cannot aim to model the fake samples completely since the material used by the intruder is unknown beforehand. We approach the design by modeling the distribution of the live samples and predicting as fake the samples very unlikely according to that model. Our experiments compare the performance of the supervised approaches with the semi-supervised ones that rely solely on the live samples. The results obtained differ from the ones obtained by the more standard approaches which reinforces our conviction that the results in the literature are misleadingly estimating the true vulnerability of the biometric system.

  5. Fingerprint motifs of phytases | Fan | African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the total of potential 173 phytases gained in 11 plant genomes through MAST, PAPhys are the major phytases, and HAPhys are the minor, and other phytase groups are not found in planta. Keywords: Phytase, fingerprint motif, multiple EM for motif elicitation (MEME), MAST African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  6. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers using time warping and PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Hansen, Asger B.

    2005-01-01

    A new method for chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers is described. The method consists of GC-MS analysis, preprocessing of GC-MS chromatograms, and principal component analysis (PCA) of selected regions. The preprocessing consists of baseline removal by derivatization, normalization...

  7. SSR marker based DNA fingerprinting and diversity study in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and DNA fingerprinting of 15 elite rice genotypes using 30 SSR primers on chromosome numbers 7-12 was investigated. The results revealed that all the primers showed distinct polymorphism among the cultivars studied indicating the robust nature of microsatellites in revealing polymorphism. Cluster ...

  8. A Crowd-Sourcing Indoor Localization Algorithm via Optical Camera on a Smartphone Assisted by Wi-Fi Fingerprint RSSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Weiping; Li, Qun; Chang, Qiang; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-03-19

    Indoor positioning based on existing Wi-Fi fingerprints is becoming more and more common. Unfortunately, the Wi-Fi fingerprint is susceptible to multiple path interferences, signal attenuation, and environmental changes, which leads to low accuracy. Meanwhile, with the recent advances in charge-coupled device (CCD) technologies and the processing speed of smartphones, indoor positioning using the optical camera on a smartphone has become an attractive research topic; however, the major challenge is its high computational complexity; as a result, real-time positioning cannot be achieved. In this paper we introduce a crowd-sourcing indoor localization algorithm via an optical camera and orientation sensor on a smartphone to address these issues. First, we use Wi-Fi fingerprint based on the K Weighted Nearest Neighbor (KWNN) algorithm to make a coarse estimation. Second, we adopt a mean-weighted exponent algorithm to fuse optical image features and orientation sensor data as well as KWNN in the smartphone to refine the result. Furthermore, a crowd-sourcing approach is utilized to update and supplement the positioning database. We perform several experiments comparing our approach with other positioning algorithms on a common smartphone to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor-calibrated algorithm, and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm could significantly improve accuracy, stability, and applicability of positioning.

  9. Flow cytometric fingerprinting for microbial strain discrimination and physiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Benjamin; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Baets, Bernard; Boon, Nico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of microbial populations is fundamental, not only for developing a deeper understanding of microbial communities but also for their engineering in biotechnological applications. Many methods have been developed to study their characteristics and over the last few decades, molecular analysis tools, such as DNA sequencing, have been used with considerable success to identify the composition of microbial populations. Recently, flow cytometric fingerprinting is emerging as a promising and powerful method to analyze bacterial populations. So far, these methods have primarily been used to observe shifts in the composition of microbial communities of natural samples. In this article, we apply a flow cytometric fingerprinting method to discriminate among 29 Lactobacillus strains. Our results indicate that it is possible to discriminate among 27 Lactobacillus strains by staining with SYBR green I and that the discriminatory power can be increased by combined SYBR green I and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, we illustrate the impact of physiological changes on the fingerprinting method by demonstrating how flow cytometric fingerprinting is able to discriminate the different growth phases of a microbial culture. The sensitivity of the method is assessed by its ability to detect changes in the relative abundance of a mix of polystyrene beads down to 1.2%. When a mix of bacteria was used, the sensitivity was as between 1.2% and 5%. The presented data demonstrate that flow cytometric fingerprinting is a sensitive and reproducible technique with the potential to be applied as a method for the dereplication of bacterial isolates. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  11. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Generation of DNA profiles from fingerprints developed with columnar thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazibat, Stephanie L; Roy, Reena; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-12-01

    Partial-bloody fingerprints and partial fingerprints with saliva are often encountered at crime scenes, potentially enabling the combination of fingerprint and DNA analyses for absolute identification, provided that the development technique for fingerprint analysis does not inhibit DNA analysis. 36 partial-bloody fingerprints and 30 fingerprints wetted with saliva, all deposited on brass, were first developed using the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique and then subjected to short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis. Equal numbers of samples were subjected to the same DNA analysis without development. Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum, or Alq3, was evaporated to deposit CTFs for development of the prints. DNA was extracted from all 132 samples, quantified, and amplified with AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler Plus Amplification Kit. Additionally, DNA analyses were conducted on four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had been subjected to CTF deposition and four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had not been subjected to CTF deposition. Complete and concordant autosomal STR profiles of the same quality were obtained from both undeveloped and CTF-developed fingerprints, indicating that CTF development of fingerprints preserves DNA and does not inhibit subsequent DNA analysis. Even when there were no fingerprints, CTF deposition did not lead to inhibition of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction using Deep Learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available components, such as image enhancement. We pose minutiae extraction as a machine learning problem and propose a deep neural network – MENet, for Minutiae Extraction Network – to learn a data-driven representation of minutiae points. By using the existing...

  14. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tims (Sebastian); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHuman fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically

  15. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaohui [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Yiyu [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: chengyy@zju.edu.cn; Ye Zhengliang [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin Ruichao [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing 100050 (China); Qian Zhongzhi [Committee of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Beijing 100061 (China)

    2006-01-12

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines.

  16. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaohui; Cheng Yiyu; Ye Zhengliang; Lin Ruichao; Qian Zhongzhi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines

  17. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  18. Spiral MR fingerprinting at 7T with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Schulte, Rolf F; Cosottini, Mirco; Tosetti, Michela

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting is an efficient, new approach for quantitative imaging with MR. We aimed to extend this technique to cases with B1+ inhomogeneities within the imaging volume. Previous approaches have used abrupt changes in flip angles to estimate the B1+ field simultaneously with T1 and T2, using a Cartesian approach in a small-animal scanner at 4.7T. Here, we evaluated whether a similar approach would be suitable for imaging human brains using spiral readouts with a 7T scanner. We found that our modified scheme could significantly reduce the adverse effects of B1+ inhomogeneities even in extreme cases, reducing both the bias and the variance in T2 estimations by an order of magnitude when compared to literature methods. Acquisitions used less than 1.5W/kg SAR and could be performed in 12s per slice. In conclusion, our approach can be used to perform quantitative imaging of the brain at 7T in a short time, simultaneously estimating the B1+ profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  20. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  1. 'Fingerprints' of vertebral trauma - a unifying concept based on mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Deeb, Z.L.; Rothfus, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Vertebral fractures, like fractures in the peripheral skeleton, occur in predictable and reproducible patterns that are related to the kind of force applied to the affected bone. The same force applied to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar column will result in injuries which appear quite similar. A review of 621 injuries to the vertebral column revealed that there are basically four mechanisms of injury: flexion, extension, shearing, and torque (rotation). These injuries may occur by themselves or in combination with one another. The severity and extent of damage produced by any mechanism is dependent upon the incident force, the position of the patient at the time of injury, and the velocity of the patient. Thus, there is a pattern of recognizable signs which span the spectrum from mild soft tissue damage to severe skeletal and ligamentous disruption. These patterns are termed the 'fingerprints' of the injury, and this presentation illustrates the four basic types of vertebral injury producing those 'fingerprints'. (orig.)

  2. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  3. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  4. Identification of Tilletia species using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Župunski Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing 167 non-processed seed samples of wheat, it was found that 145 samples (86.8 % were contaminated with Tilletia species, while 22 (13.2 % samples were not contaminated. By using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique, it was found that DNA isolates of T. tritici originated from Serbian wheat samples had 80 % similarity with positive control for T. tritici. One isolate shared similarity of 60% with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. It was supposed that this isolate belongs to T. bromi. Isolate of T. laevis shared a similarity of 70 % with isolates of T. tritici and T. controversa, while T. walkeri was more than 10 % similar with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. Although T. controversa and T. tritici had high percent of genetic similarity, they were clustered separately. Our results suggest that rep-PCR fingerprinting could be a useful tool for monitoring presence of morphologically similar Tilletia species in wheat production areas.

  5. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Zhu, Y.F.; Chung, C.N.; Allman, S.L.

    1997-03-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, the authors recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Snager`s enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. The preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possibly be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, the authors applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  6. Integral criteria for large-scale multiple fingerprint solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushmaev, Oleg S.; Novikov, Sergey O.

    2004-08-01

    We propose the definition and analysis of the optimal integral similarity score criterion for large scale multmodal civil ID systems. Firstly, the general properties of score distributions for genuine and impostor matches for different systems and input devices are investigated. The empirical statistics was taken from the real biometric tests. Then we carry out the analysis of simultaneous score distributions for a number of combined biometric tests and primary for ultiple fingerprint solutions. The explicit and approximate relations for optimal integral score, which provides the least value of the FRR while the FAR is predefined, have been obtained. The results of real multiple fingerprint test show good correspondence with the theoretical results in the wide range of the False Acceptance and the False Rejection Rates.

  7. Recovery of DNA and fingerprints from touched documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Jonathan; Quinones, Ignacio; Ames, Carole; Multaney, Bryan; Curtis, Stuart; Seeboruth, Haj; Moore, Stephen; Daniel, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the various factors affecting DNA profiling from DNA recovered from fingerprints deposited on paper before and after fingerprint enhancement treatments. The DNeasy plant mini kit (QIAGEN) was found to improve DNA recovery from paper by over 150% compared with the QIAamp mini kit. A significant decrease in the amount of DNA recovered was observed following treatment with DFO and/or Ninhydrin. This decrease in yield did not have a comparably significant effect on the quality of the SGM Plus profiles. Furthermore, this study found that whilst certain paper types, such as newspaper, magazine and filter paper allowed for the good recovery of DNA, common office paper and white card, strongly interfered with the recovery of DNA resulting in poor quality profiles.

  8. A novel interaction fingerprint derived from per atom score contributions: exhaustive evaluation of interaction fingerprint performance in docking based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Julia B; Humbeck, Lina; Brinkjost, Tobias; Koch, Oliver

    2018-03-16

    Protein ligand interaction fingerprints are a powerful approach for the analysis and assessment of docking poses to improve docking performance in virtual screening. In this study, a novel interaction fingerprint approach (PADIF, protein per atom score contributions derived interaction fingerprint) is presented which was specifically designed for utilising the GOLD scoring functions' atom contributions together with a specific scoring scheme. This allows the incorporation of known protein-ligand complex structures for a target-specific scoring. Unlike many other methods, this approach uses weighting factors reflecting the relative frequency of a specific interaction in the references and penalizes destabilizing interactions. In addition, and for the first time, an exhaustive validation study was performed that assesses the performance of PADIF and two other interaction fingerprints in virtual screening. Here, PADIF shows superior results, and some rules of thumb for a successful use of interaction fingerprints could be identified.

  9. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-12-04

    Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being "natural" and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order to help determining substantial equivalence using fingerprint approaches, a quantitative measurement of similarity is required. In this paper, different (dis)similarity approaches, such as (dis)similarity metrics or exploratory analysis approaches applied on herbal medicinal fingerprints, are discussed and illustrated with several case studies. Copyright © 2013

  10. Structural Fingerprints of Transcription Factor Binding Site Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transforms are a powerful tool in the prediction of DNA sequence properties, such as the presence/absence of codons. We have previously compiled a database of the structural properties of all 32,896 unique DNA octamers. In this work we apply Fourier techniques to the analysis of the structural properties of human chromosomes 21 and 22 and also to three sets of transcription factor binding sites within these chromosomes. We find that, for a given structural property, the structural property power spectra of chromosomes 21 and 22 are strikingly similar. We find common peaks in their power spectra for both Sp1 and p53 transcription factor binding sites. We use the power spectra as a structural fingerprint and perform similarity searching in order to find transcription factor binding site regions. This approach provides a new strategy for searching the genome data for information. Although it is difficult to understand the relationship between specific functional properties and the set of structural parameters in our database, our structural fingerprints nevertheless provide a useful tool for searching for function information in sequence data. The power spectrum fingerprints provide a simple, fast method for comparing a set of functional sequences, in this case transcription factor binding site regions, with the sequences of whole chromosomes. On its own, the power spectrum fingerprint does not find all transcription factor binding sites in a chromosome, but the results presented here show that in combination with other approaches, this technique will improve the chances of identifying functional sequences hidden in genomic data.

  11. Utility Validation of a New Fingerprint Quality Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Yao , Zhigang; Charrier , Christophe; Rosenberger , Christophe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Fingerprint somehow can be regarded as a relatively fullfledged application in biometrics. The use of this biometric modality is not limited to traditional public security area, but spread into the daily life, smart phone authentication control and e-payment, for instance. However, quality control of biometric sample is still a necessary task due in order to optimize the operational performance. Research works had shown that biometric systems performance could be great...

  12. Metabolomic NMR fingerprinting: an exploratory and predictive tool

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive assessment of low molecular weight organic metabolites within biological system. The identification and characterization of several chemical species, or metabolic fingerprinting, is an emergent approach in metabolomics field that provides a valuable “snapshot” of metabolic profiles. This approach is finding an increasing number of applications in many areas including cancer research, drug discovery and food science. The combined use of NMR spectroscopy, data ...

  13. A Compressed Sensing Framework for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Mike; Puy, Gilles; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Wiaux, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the recently proposed Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) technique, we develop a principled compressed sensing framework for quantitative MRI. The three key components are: a random pulse excitation sequence following the MRF technique; a random EPI subsampling strategy and an iterative projection algorithm that imposes consistency with the Bloch equations. We show that theoretically, as long as the excitation sequence possesses an appropriate form of persistent excitation, w...

  14. Multilocus DNA fingerprints in gallinaceous birds: general approach and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Bruford, M W; Burke, T

    1992-06-01

    Multilocus profiles were investigated in five different species of Galliformes (ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, domestic chicken Gallus gallus, and red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus) using two human multilocus probes (33.6 and 33.15) in combination with each of four restriction enzymes (AluI, DdeI, HaeIII or HinfI). All the species show a DNA fingerprint-like pattern using at least one restriction enzyme in combination with each multilocus probe. The number of bands detected and the value of the index of similarity for each species differ significantly between the profiles obtained with each multilocus probe. Some enzyme/probe combinations reveal strong cross-hybridization of the multilocus probes with satellite or satellite-like DNA sequences in pheasant, peacock, quail and chicken, which partially or completely prevented scoring of the profile. The choice of restriction enzyme was found to influence the number of bands, the value of the index of similarity and the probability of obtaining an identical fingerprint between unrelated individuals. The Mendelian inheritance and independent segregation of the fragments detected using AluI was investigated in three species (ring-necked pheasant, Indian peafowl and red grouse). Some bands were shown to be tightly linked. An extreme case was encountered in the red grouse, where 12 of the 15 bands scored in one parent represented only two, apparently allelic, haplotypes and so derived from a single locus. However, fingerprint patterns will often be adequate for use in paternity analyses, such as in behavioural studies, despite the occurrence of haplotypic sets of bands. Identical DNA multilocus profiles were sometimes observed between captive-bred siblings in one species. These results emphasize the desirability of determining, in each new species, the optimal experimental conditions as a preliminary to any behavioural or population

  15. Microorganism Identification Based On MALDI-TOF-MS Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elssner, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus; Maier, Thomas; Kruppa, Gary

    Advances in MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry have enabled the ­development of a rapid, accurate and specific method for the identification of bacteria directly from colonies picked from culture plates, which we have named the MALDI Biotyper. The picked colonies are placed on a target plate, a drop of matrix solution is added, and a pattern of protein molecular weights and intensities, "the protein fingerprint" of the bacteria, is produced by the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The obtained protein mass fingerprint representing a molecular signature of the microorganism is then matched against a database containing a library of previously measured protein mass fingerprints, and scores for the match to every library entry are produced. An ID is obtained if a score is returned over a pre-set threshold. The sensitivity of the techniques is such that only approximately 104 bacterial cells are needed, meaning that an overnight culture is sufficient, and the results are obtained in minutes after culture. The improvement in time to result over biochemical methods, and the capability to perform a non-targeted identification of bacteria and spores, potentially makes this method suitable for use in the detect-to-treat timeframe in a bioterrorism event. In the case of white-powder samples, the infectious spore is present in sufficient quantity in the powder so that the MALDI Biotyper result can be obtained directly from the white powder, without the need for culture. While spores produce very different patterns from the vegetative colonies of the corresponding bacteria, this problem is overcome by simply including protein fingerprints of the spores in the library. Results on spores can be returned within minutes, making the method suitable for use in the "detect-to-protect" timeframe.

  16. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Zwiers, Francis; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  17. Composite fingerprinting of suspended-sediments in Sorsogon , Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.D.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Madrid, J.F.; Asa, A.D.D.; Aniago, R.J.; Bulos, A.D.; Zombrito, E.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment-related environmental problems pose a threat not only in land management sustainability but also in management of aquatic ecosystem. Sediments often serve as sinks of nutrients and contaminants that regularly recharge overlying waters and could trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB) together with unfavorable environment conditions. One HAB affected area in the southernmost tip of Luzon, Philippines is Sorsogon Bay. In Sorsogon Bay, the harvest and consumption ban was declared for several years due to the level of toxins in shellfish which exceeded the regulatory limit. Identification of sediment sources is useful tool in planning effective sediment management strategies. A method to determine possible sources of sediment-associated nutrients is sediment fingerprinting. It characterizes land-based sediment sources to derive estimates of the portions of suspended sediment originating from discrete upstream source areas. There are wide ranges of diagnostic properties which can be possible fingerprints such as mineralogic, mineral-magnetic, geochemical, organic, isotopic, physical and radiometric parameters. This study investigates on potential source of sediments from Sampaloc River using different chemical, radiometric and isotopic parameters, Range test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were employed and indicated that the calcium, titanium, δ”1”3C signal, and to tal carbon content are possible fingerprint parameters that will identify the sources of sediments. Results of a mathematical mixing model showed that channel banks (81.0%) are the largest sediment load contributors in Sampaloc River, followed by cultivated areas (15.5%) and woodlands (3.5%). (author)

  18. Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Chemical Compositions, Chromatographic Fingerprints and Antioxidant Activities of Andrographis Herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an HPLC-UV-MS method for quantitative determination of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in Andrographis Herba and establishment of its chromatographic fingerprint. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precisions, repeatability, stability and recovery. All the validation results of quantitative determination and fingerprinting methods were satisfactory. The developed method was then applied to assay the contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide and to acquire the fingerprints of all the collected Andrographis Herba samples. Furthermore, similarity analysis and principal component analysis were used to reveal the similarities and differences between the samples on the basis of the characteristic peaks. More importantly, the DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric reducing capacities of the Andrographis Herba samples were assayed. By bivariate correlation analysis, we found that six compounds are positively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities, and four compounds are negatively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities.

  20. Provenancing Flower Bulbs by Analytical Fingerprinting: Convallaria Majalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. van Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of agricultural products is gaining in appreciation while often hard to determine for various reasons. Geographical origin may be resolved using a combination of chemical and physical analytical technologies. In the present case of Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis rhizomes, we investigated an exploratory set of material from The Netherlands, three other European (EU countries and China. We show that the geographical origin is correlated to patterns of stable isotope ratios (isotope fingerprints and volatile organic carbon (VOC compounds (chemical fingerprints. These fingerprints allowed clear distinction using exploratory and supervised statistics. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry of 12C/13C, 14N/15N and 16O/18O isotopes separated materials from Europe and China successfully. The VOC patterns measured by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS allowed distinction of three groups: material from The Netherlands, the other EU countries and China. This knowledge is expected to help developing a systematic and efficient analytical tool for authenticating the origin of flower bulbs.

  1. Sediment sources in the Upper Severn catchment: a fingerprinting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Collins

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment sources in the Upper Severn catchment are quantified using a composite fingerprinting technique combining statistically-verified signatures with a multivariate mixing model. Composite fingerprints are developed from a suite of diagnostic properties comprising trace metal (Fe, Mn, AI, heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, base cation (Na, Mg, Ca, K, organic (C, N, radiometric (137Cs, 210Pb, and other (total P determinands. A numerical mixing model, to compare the fingerprints of contemporary catchment source materials with those of fluvial suspended sediment in transit and those of recent overbank floodplain deposits, provides a means of quantifying present and past sediment sources respectively. Sources are classified in terms of eroding surface soils under different land uses and channel banks. Eroding surface soils are the most important source of the contemporary suspended sediment loads sampled at the Institute of Hydrology flow gauging stations at Plynlimon and at Abermule. The erosion of forest soils, associated with the autumn and winter commercial activities of the Forestry Commission, is particularly evident. Reconstruction of sediment provenance over the recent past using a sediment core from the active river floodpiain at Abermule, in conjunction with a 137Cs chronology, demonstrates the significance of recent phases of afforestation and deforestation for accelerated catchment soil erosion.

  2. [Study on the fingerprint of anthraquinone components of Morinda officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Feng

    2012-07-01

    To establish HPLC fingerprint analysis methods of anthraquinone components of Morinda officinalis and provide experimental method for quality standard of processed Morinda officinalis. HPLC method was employed and Sinergi 4u fusion-RP (Phenomenex, 250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 4 microm) was used at column temperature of 25 degrees C. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile--0.4% phosphoric acid solution by gradient elution. The experiment data was analyzed by computer aided similarity evaluation software and statistic methods to draw total pattern of anthraquinone components of Morinda officinalis from different places. At the same time, under the same experimental condition, the qualities and quantities of different processed Morinda officinalis was analyzed and compared. And the total pattern of anthraquinones of different processed Morinda officinalis was drew. There were 20 common characteristic peaks which were demonstrated by using fingerprints similarity evaluating software both in Morinda officinalis from different places and different processed samples from Gaoliang, Guangdong. The data showed that anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis processed by different ways were similar but their relative contents were significantly different. And the 12th peaks was 1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone. The contents of anthraquinones are influenced by different processed ways. The materials and temperature in the concocted procedure are the main influential factors. The fingerprints shows that the content of anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis processed by Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. change much more obviously than that by alcohol and by salt. In addition, the fried processing method affects more obviously than the steamed one.

  3. [GPC Fingerprint Chromatograms of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Polysaccharides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-e; Xie, Dan; Qian, Jie; Dong, Yin-mao

    2015-10-01

    To establish the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) fingerprint chromatograms of polysaccharides in Aloe vera leaf gel from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats for evaluating the quality of Aloe vera leaf gel products commercially available and testing common adulterated substances. The samples were prepared by water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method. GPC separation was performed on a Shodex SUGAR KS-805 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 7 μm) column and a Shodex SUGAR KS-803 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 6 μm) column at the temperature of 60 degrees C by eluting with 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 (containing 0.2 per thousand NaN) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the chromatographic effluent was detected by refractive index detector (RID) at the temperature of 50 degrees C. The common pattern of GPC fingerprint chromatograms was established and four common peaks were demarcated. The similarities of samples from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats were over 0.9. Taking the GPC fingerprint chromatograms for the qualified model, three commercially available aloe products were evaluated to be made of Aloe vera by the different manufacturing processes and four common adulterated substances of aloe polysaccharides were identified effectively. The method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility, and it can be used for the identification and quality evaluation of Aloe vera leaf gel products.

  4. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  5. Investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Su Ping; Gu Dang Chang; Gong-Jian; Hao Fan Hua; Hu Guang Chun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fingerprints sometimes can be used to label and identify the radiation resources. For instance, in a future nuclear reduction treaty that requires verification of irreversible dismantling of reduced nuclear warheads, the radiation fingerprints of nuclear warheads are expected to play a key role in labelling and identifying the reduced warheads. It would promote the development of nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification technologies if authors start right now some investigations on the issues related to the radiation fingerprints. The author dedicated to the investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation resources. The purpose of the identifying mechanism investigation is to find a credible way to tell whether any two gamma-ray spectral fingerprints that are under comparison are radiated from the same resource. The authors created the spectrum pattern comparison (SPC) to study the comparability of the two radiation fingerprints. Guided by the principle of SPC,...

  6. A Modified Electrostatic Adsorption Apparatus for Latent Fingerprint Development on Unfired Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyang; Zhang, Ziyuan; Zheng, Xiaochun; Bond, John W

    2017-05-01

    Visualization of latent fingerprints on metallic surfaces by the method of applying electrostatic charging and adsorption is considered as a promising chemical-free method, which has the merit of nondestruction, and is considered to be effective for some difficult situations such as aged fingerprint deposits or those exposed to environmental extremes. In fact, a portable electrostatic generator can be easily accessible in a local forensic technology laboratory, which is already widely used in the visualization of footwear impressions. In this study, a modified version of this electrostatic apparatus is proposed for latent fingerprint development and has shown great potential in visualizing fingerprints on metallic surfaces such as cartridge cases. Results indicate that this experimental arrangement can successfully develop aged latent fingerprints on metal surfaces, and we demonstrate its effectiveness compared with existing conventional fingerprint recovery methods. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. A New Technique in saving Fingerprint with low volume by using Chaos Game and Fractal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashourzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the simplest and most reliable biometric features of human for identification. In this study by using fractal theory and by the assistance of Chaos Game a new fractal is made from fingerprint. While making the new fractal by using Chaos Game mechanism some parameters, which can be used in identification process, can be deciphered. For this purpose, a fractal is made for each fingerprint, we save 10 parameters for every fingerprint, which have necessary information for identity, as said before. So we save 10 decimal parameters with 0.02 accuracy instead of saving the picture of a fingerprint or some parts of it. Now we improve the great volume of fingerprint pictures by using this model which employs fractal for knowing the personality

  8. Perancangan Aplikasi Presensi Dosen Realtime Dengan Metode Rapid Application Development (RAD Menggunakan Fingerprint Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Setiawan Putra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint is one of the biometric methods which is can be used in the education field. Attendance monitoring system using fingerprint will make the leaders easily to monitor the attendance of the lecturer and to make decisions. The fingerprint attendance is used to easy students detecting quickly and accurately the lecturer in the classroom. This system aims to provide the lecturer status information, entry or exit for teaching when every lecturer performs a fingerprint scanning. This study uses rapid application development (RAD method to develop attendance system and involves the lecturer who have a teaching schedule in the current semester. To test the system, the lecturer was required to record the fingerprint in fingerprint machine. The result shows that the application of lecturer attendance in real time web-based can be a system provides the lecturers attendance information effectively and efficiently.

  9. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J.; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  10. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Russell, Paul J. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Vander Heyden, Yvan, E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  11. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FINGERPRINT PATTERNS AND CRIME TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    DELİCE, Murat; DUMAN, Ali; ÖZEL, Şaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    The exclusivity of prints at the tip of each individuals fingers is known for thousands of years and these prints are used for security purposes for a long time. Recent developments have pointed out that fingerprint patterns are related to gender, heredity, diseases, blood types and even character. However, the relationship between fingerprint patterns and crime types has not been explored. In order to meet this need, this research study examines the fingerprint patterns of suspects who are i...

  12. A BAC clone fingerprinting approach to the detection of human genome rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, Martin; Bosdet, Ian; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Brebner, Jay; Chiu, Readman; Corbett, Richard; Field, Matthew; Lee, Darlene; Pugh, Trevor; Volik, Stas; Siddiqui, Asim; Jones, Steven; Schein, Jacquie; Collins, Collin; Marra, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method, called fingerprint profiling (FPP), that uses restriction digest fingerprints of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to detect and classify rearrangements in the human genome. The approach uses alignment of experimental fingerprint patterns to in silico digests of the sequence assembly and is capable of detecting micro-deletions (1-5 kb) and balanced rearrangements. Our method has compelling potential for use as a whole-genome method for the identification and characterization of human genome rearrangements. PMID:17953769

  13. Feature hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingyu; Fu, Jiarun; Zhang, Hongxin; Yuan, Lu; Xu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Currently, researches on content based image retrieval mainly focus on robust feature extraction. However, due to the exponential growth of online images, it is necessary to consider searching among large scale images, which is very timeconsuming and unscalable. Hence, we need to pay much attention to the efficiency of image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a feature hashing method for image retrieval which not only generates compact fingerprint for image representation, but also prevents huge semantic loss during the process of hashing. To generate the fingerprint, an objective function of semantic loss is constructed and minimized, which combine the influence of both the neighborhood structure of feature data and mapping error. Since the machine learning based hashing effectively preserves neighborhood structure of data, it yields visual words with strong discriminability. Furthermore, the generated binary codes leads image representation building to be of low-complexity, making it efficient and scalable to large scale databases. Experimental results show good performance of our approach.

  14. Diversity of DNA fingerprints of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Barnes, P F; Chaves, F; Eisenach, K D; Weis, S E; Bates, J H; Cave, M D

    1998-04-01

    To investigate the diversity of IS6110 fingerprints of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the United States and to determine if matching IS6110 fingerprints represent recent interstate tuberculosis transmission, we performed restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,326 patients in three geographically separated states. Seven hundred ninety-five different IS6110 fingerprint patterns were generated, and pattern diversity was similar in each state. Ninety-six percent of the fingerprint patterns were observed in only one state, demonstrating that most IS6110 fingerprint patterns are confined to a single geographic location. Of the IS6110 fingerprint patterns that were shared by isolates from more than one state, most isolates with 1 to 5 IS6110 copies were separable by pTBN12 fingerprinting whereas those with > 15 copies were not. One high-copy-number M. tuberculosis strain had identical IS6110 and pTBN12 fingerprints and included 57 isolates from three states. Epidemiological data demonstrated significant recent transmission of tuberculosis within each city but not among the states. This suggests that identical fingerprints of isolates from geographically separate locations most likely reflect interstate tuberculosis transmission in the past, with subsequent intrastate spread of disease. Further evaluation of M. tuberculosis strains that cause outbreaks in different geographic locations will provide insight into the epidemiological and bacteriological factors that facilitate the spread of tuberculosis.

  15. A tree based method for the rapid screening of chemical fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2009-01-01

    The fingerprint of a molecule is a bitstring based on its structure, constructed such that structurally similar molecules will have similar fingerprints. Molecular fingerprints can be used in an initial phase for identifying novel drug candidates by screening large databases for molecules......: the kD grid and the Multibit tree. The kD grid is based on splitting the fingerprints into k shorter bitstrings and utilising these to compute bounds on the similarity of the complete bitstrings. The Multibit tree uses hierarchical clustering and similarity within each cluster to compute similar bounds...

  16. [Baking method of Platycladi Cacumen Carbonisatum based on similarity of UPLC fingerprints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Chen, Chao; Yao, Xiaodong; Ding, Anwei

    2010-09-01

    To establish a baking method of Platycladi Cacumen Carbonisatum for providing a new idea to Carbonic Herbs' research. Samples were prepared in an oven for different time at different temperatures separately. Then the fingerprints of the samples were determined by UPLC. According to the standard fingerprint, the similarities of the samples' fingerprints were compared. The similarities of 3 samples, which were baked at 230 degrees C for 20 min, 30 min and at 240 degrees C for 20 min, were above 0.96. According to the similarities of the fingerprints and in view of the appearances, Platycladi Cacumen Carbonizing should be baked at 230 degrees C for 20 min.

  17. Use of pattern recognition for unaliasing simultaneously acquired slices in simultaneous multislice MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Bhat, Himanshu; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L; Setsompop, Kawin; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to accelerate an MR fingerprinting (MRF) acquisition by using a simultaneous multislice method. A multiband radiofrequency (RF) pulse was designed to excite two slices with different flip angles and phases. The signals of two slices were driven to be as orthogonal as possible. The mixed and undersampled MRF signal was matched to two dictionaries to retrieve T 1 and T 2 maps of each slice. Quantitative results from the proposed method were validated with the gold-standard spin echo methods in a phantom. T 1 and T 2 maps of in vivo human brain from two simultaneously acquired slices were also compared to the results of fast imaging with steady-state precession based MRF method (MRF-FISP) with a single-band RF excitation. The phantom results showed that the simultaneous multislice imaging MRF-FISP method quantified the relaxation properties accurately compared to the gold-standard spin echo methods. T 1 and T 2 values of in vivo brain from the proposed method also matched the results from the normal MRF-FISP acquisition. T 1 and T 2 values can be quantified at a multiband acceleration factor of two using our proposed acquisition even in a single-channel receive coil. Further acceleration could be achieved by combining this method with parallel imaging or iterative reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 78:1870-1876, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the remote detection of explosives at level of fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Palucci, A.; Lazic, V.; Menicucci, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Pistilli, M.; De Dominicis, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of some common military explosives and theirs precursors deposited on white varnished car's external and black car's internal or external plastic. The residues were deposited by an artificial silicon finger, to simulate material manipulation by terrorists when preparing a car bomb, leaving traces of explosives on the parts of a car. LIBS spectra were acquired by using a first prototype laboratory stand-off device, developed in the framework of the EU FP7 313077 project EDEN (End-user driven DEmo for CBRNe). The system operates at working distances 8-30 m and collects the LIBS in the spectral range 240-840 nm. In this configuration, the target was moved precisely in X-Y direction to simulate the scanning system, to be implemented successively. The system is equipped with two colour cameras, one for wide scene view and another for imaging with a very high magnification, capable to discern fingerprints on a target. The spectral features of each examined substance were identified and compared to those belonging to the substrate and the surrounding air, and those belonging to possible common interferents. These spectral differences are discussed and interpreted. The obtained results show that the detection and discrimination of nitro-based compounds like RDX, PETN, ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea nitrate (UN) from organic interfering substances like diesel, greasy lubricants, greasy adhesives or oils in fingerprint concentration, at stand-off distance of some meters or tenths of meters is feasible.

  19. Connectivity-based parcellation reveals distinct cortico-striatal connectivity fingerprints in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2018-04-15

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints. Here we apply this novel approach to investigating the organization and connectivity strength of the cortico-striatal system in a large sample of ASD individuals and typically developed (TD) controls (N=130 per group). Our results showed differences in the parcellation of the striatum in ASD. Specifically, the putamen was found to be one single structure in ASD, whereas this was split into anterior and posterior segments in an age, IQ, and head movement matched TD group. An analysis of the connectivity fingerprints revealed that the group differences in clustering were driven by differential connectivity between striatum and the supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate cortex, and posterior insula. Our approach for analysing RS-fMRI in clinical populations has provided clear evidence that cortico-striatal circuits are organized differently in ASD. Based on previous task-based segmentations of the striatum, we believe that the anterior putamen cluster present in TD, but not in ASD, likely contributes to social and language processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the feasibility of security technologies in teleradiology as biometric fingerprint scanners for data exchange over a satellite WAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soegner, Peter I.; Helweg, Gernot; Holzer, Heimo; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of fingerprint-scanners in combination with smart cards for personal identification and transmission of encrypted TCP/IP-data-packages via satellite between the university-hospital of Innsbruck and the rural hospital of Reutte. The aim of our study was the proof of the userfriendliness of the SkymedTM technology for security purpose in teleradiology. We examined the time of the personal identification process, the time for the necessary training and the personal satisfaction. The images were sent from the local PACS in Reutte via a Data-Encryption-and-Transmission- Box via satellite from Reutte to Innsbruck. We used an asymmetric bandwidth of 512 kbit/s from Reutte to Innsbruck and 128 kbit/s in the opposite direction. Window NT 4.0- operating PCs were used for the electronical patient record, the medical inquiry of the referring physician and the final report of the radiologist. The images were reported on an UNIX-PACS viewing station. After identification through fingerprint-scanners in combination with the smart card the radiologist was able to open the electronic patient record (EPR) from Reutte and sign with his digital signature his confirmed final report before it was send back to Reutte. The used security technology enables encrypted communication over a WAN, which fulfill data-protection.