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Sample records for favourability studies chile

  1. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  2. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  3. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  4. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  5. Area Handbook Series: Chile: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Source: Based on information from Chile, Instituto Nacionrd de Estadisticas , Cornpendio Estadifstico, 1,981, Santiago, 1981, p. 68. Figure 6 Population by... Estadisticas . The journal Colecci6n Estu- dios CIEPLAN, from Santiago, offers well-researched articles that are often critical of government policies. (For...Source: Based on information from Chile, Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas , Compendio Estad istico, 1981, Santiago, 1981, pp. 38-39. Table 3. Labor

  6. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  7. Peasant Politics in Chile: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, James; Zemelman, Hugo

    The major purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the formation of a new structure of authority and the process of change from capitalist oligarchy to pluralistic collectivism--an aspect of political development. A case study is based upon interviews with 12 informants who were involved in the seizure of a large farm from its owner. The…

  8. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement.

  9. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  10. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  11. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de... panamericana .’ Santiago, Chile. 12. Morris JG Jr., Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Lobcs H, Black RE, Rodriguez H, Levine MM. (1984) TypAhoid fever in Santiago

  12. Favourable outcome after peripartum cardiomyopathy: a ten-year study on peripartum cardiomyopathy in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Han

    2013-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an uncommon form of congestive heart failure, affecting obstetric patients around the time of delivery. The epidemiology of PPCM is infrequently reported. This study was undertaken to define the prevalence, presentation and outcome of PPCM among women giving birth in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. A retrospective case record analysis was conducted on all patients admitted and diagnosed with PPCM at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. All deliveries were undertaken in the same hospital. A total of 12 patients were diagnosed with PPCM during the ten-year study period. The prevalence of PPCM was 2.48 in 100,000 (1 in 40,322) live births. Nine women were diagnosed with PPCM within five months of delivery. Three women had twin pregnancies. There was one death in the group (mortality rate 8.3%). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of diagnosis was 28.9% ± 8.5% (range 15%-40%). Following the index event, left ventricular function normalised in six of the nine patients (66.7%) who underwent subsequent echocardiography one year later. All patients were treated with standard heart failure therapy. Two patients with normalised left ventricular function had subsequent pregnancies - one pregnancy was terminated at seven weeks and the other patient delivered uneventfully at full term. PPCM is uncommon. The outcome in our series was favourable, with 66.7% of patients with PPCM recovering their left ventricular function. The mortality rate was 8.3%.

  13. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Enfermedades Infecciosas (the Infectious Disease Hospital) of Santiago. She has been collecting the names and addresses of women admitted with typhoid fever at...Santiago, Chile 3. Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas , Santiago, Chile 4. Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201...PRESUNTIVO: 7-7 FIEBRE TIFOIDEA III. ANTECEDENTES PR.EVIOS AL EXAMEN: FIEBRE SI r7 NO P1 DURACION . CONSTIPACION’ SI T-7 NO P1 DIARREA S I P_7 NO r7

  14. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, I.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Berkelaar, E.; Schut, E.; Penders, R.; Hoenderdos, K.; Jong, de M.C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a

  15. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome : a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J.; Jong, Miek C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a

  16. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome : a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J.; Jong, Miek C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolit

  17. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, I.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Berkelaar, E.; Schut, E.; Penders, R.; Hoenderdos, K.; Jong, de M.C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolith

  18. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctezuma Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  19. Sustainable energy system. A case study from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A.; Karlsson, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bjoernfot, K. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Torslandavaegen, Box 8889, SE-402 72 (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents some of the results of a power system analysis for Chile. The two major Chilean electric systems are roughly modelled and optimized using a linear programming method with the option to integrate renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, mini-hydropower and biomass-fired power and also 'municipal waste'. A total of four different scenarios are outlined: reference system, new production units, gas and coal price variations and a policy measure to encourage power production based on renewable energy. The objective of the scenarios was to illustrate under what conditions integration of the different energy sources in the existing production system is possible. The study shows that even under current conditions, mini-hydro and waste to energy plants are economically viable. Wind power might be interesting alternatives if policy instrument measures are applied. On the other hand, it is hard for the other energy sources to enter the system even when higher price levels of gas and coal are applied. The system is more sensitive to coal price increases than to gas price increases and this mainly encourages CO{sub 2} emission reduction. (author)

  20. Favourability: concept, distinctive characteristics and potential usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Real, Raimundo

    2012-07-01

    The idea of analysing the general favourability for the occurrence of an event was presented in 2006 through a mathematical function. However, even when favourability has been used in species distribution modelling, the conceptual framework of this function is not yet well perceived among many researchers. The present paper is conceived for providing a wider and more in-depth presentation of the idea of favourability; concretely, we aimed to clarify both the concept and the main distinctive characteristics of the favourability function, especially in relation to probability and suitability, the most common outputs in species distribution modelling. As the capabilities of the favourability function go beyond species distribution modelling, we also illustrate its usefulness for different research disciplines for which this function remains unknown. In particular, we stressed that the favourability function has potential to be applied in all the cases where the probability of occurrence of an event is analysed, such as, for example, habitat selection or epidemiological studies.

  1. Species Favourability Shift in Europe due to Climate Change: A Case Study for Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L. Karst. Based on an Ensemble of Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Falk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the main environmental driver determining the spatial distribution of most tree species at the continental scale. We investigated the distribution change of European beech and Norway spruce due to climate change. We applied a species distribution model (SDM, driven by an ensemble of 21 regional climate models in order to study the shift of the favourability distribution of these species. SDMs were parameterized for 1971–2000, as well as 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 using the SRES scenario A1B and three physiological meaningful climate variables. Growing degree sum and precipitation sum were calculated for the growing season on a basis of daily data. Results show a general north-eastern and altitudinal shift in climatological favourability for both species, although the shift is more marked for spruce. The gain of new favourable sites in the north or in the Alps is stronger for beech compared to spruce. Uncertainty is expressed as the variance of the averaged maps and with a density function. Uncertainty in species distribution increases over time. This study demonstrates the importance of data ensembles and shows how to deal with different outcomes in order to improve impact studies by showing uncertainty of the resulting maps.

  2. Preserving Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    2010-01-01

    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  3. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking pro

  4. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking pro

  5. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking

  6. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  7. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of…

  8. The Needs of Educators in Intercultural and Bilingual Preschools in Chile: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Lubies, Rukmini; Fones, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have examined the lack of or the insufficient preparation of K-12 educators to work in intercultural and bilingual (IBE) schools in Chile, but little is known about the preparation of educators to teach in IBE preschools. Even less is known about teachers' perceptions of their own preparation. This work contributes to a growing…

  9. The AURA Observatory in Chile - part of the IAU/UNESCO Extended Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This talk discusses the Extended Case Study for AURA-O as a “Window to the Universe”http://www2.astronomicalheritage.net/index.php/show-entity=59&idsubentity=5That study was prepared in the context of supporting the desire to preserve humanity’s scientific/cultural heritage of outstanding, high-mountain, ground-based, observatory sites developed over the period 1870-2000. AURA-O includes the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), established in 1962 as the first of the major international observatories to be installed in Chile. The future of AURA-O now includes the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).This Extended Case Study has provided the context for the development of possible initiatives to protect a variety of sites in Chile for their historical and scientific value to humanity. The dark skies and ideal weather patterns of northern Chile, along with its location in the southern hemisphere, have made this area of the world a major centre for astronomical facilities.While this talk will touch on the importance of dark skies as part of the Windows to the Universe concept, it is anticipated that others will be discussing (in FM2 and/or FM21) the current status and future plans (of the Chilean Government and the observatories) for protecting the dark skies of northern Chile.

  10. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  11. Excessive alcohol consumption favours high risk polyp or colorectal cancer occurrence among patients with adenomas: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bardou, M; Montembault, S; Giraud, V.; Balian, A; Borotto, E; Houdayer, C.; Capron, F.; Chaput, J-C; Naveau, S

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor for developing colorectal adenomas. This study aimed to investigate the influence of excessive alcohol consumption on the occurrence of high risk polyps (adenoma ≥10 mm, villous component, high grade dysplasia) or colorectal cancer among patients with at least one colonic adenoma.

  12. The Roles and Attributes of the Clinical Teacher that Contribute to Favourable Learning Environments: A Case Study from Physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DV Ernstzen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of clinical education is dependenton learning experiences. The clinical teacher plays a key role insuccessful clinical education.The aims of the study were to determine which roles and attributesof physiotherapy clinical teachers contribute to a supportiveclinical learning environment according to physiotherapy studentsand their clinical teachers.The study protocol was approved by the Committee for HumanResearch at Stellenbosch University. A qualitative research designwas used. An interview schedule was developed based on existing literature. Data was analyzed using contentanalysis. Data was coded, categorized and conceptualized into key themes and patterns.All third year (n=40 and fourth year (n=40 undergraduate physiotherapy students and their clinical teachers(n=37 were eligible to participate. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a purposivesample consisting of six third-year students, six fourth-year students and six clinical teachers (n=18. Written informedconsent was obtained from all participants prior to the interviews.The teacher as role model and facilitator of learning was emphasised. The attributes of the clinical teacher thatcreated a supportive learning environment were approachability, recognising student abilities and good communicationskills. The value of active involvement and individualism in learning was highlighted.The study confirmed that the clinical teacher is pivotal in the success of a physiotherapy clinical education program.The findings agree with the large body of international literature about supportive clinical learning environments.

  13. Estudio serológico preliminar de hepatitis E en cerdos en Chile Swine hepatitis E preliminary serological study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis E (VHE en el hombre puede provocar epidemias masivas de hepatitis aguda. Se transmite vía oro-fecal, especialmente por agua contaminada. Se ha demostrado que el cerdo puede ser infectado con el VHE humano. Se han detectado anticuerpos y ARN del VHE en cerdos y otras especies animales, lo que sugiere un reservorio animal. Por otro lado, se identificó un agente nuevo denominado VHE porcino, distinto del VHE humano. En Chile, en seres humanos se ha encontrado prevalencia de anti- HEV de hasta 7%, pero no se ha determinado su estudio por RT-PCR ni tampoco se ha investigado su significado en especies animales. Mediante ELISA se determinaron anti-VHE (IgG, en 200 sueros de cerdos de planteles de la zona central de Chile y en 175 de la provincia de Valdivia, de diferentes edades y ambos sexos. De estos se seleccionaron 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos para estudios de VHE por RT-PCR, usando secuencias de VHE humano. Por ELISA se detectaron 9.5% anti-VHE positivos (19/200 en planteles de la zona central y 0.6% (1/175 de la provincia de Valdivia, Chile. El estudio por RT-PCR de los 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos no visualizó las bandas de precipitación esperadas. Estos resultados preliminares indican, por primera vez en Chile, que el virus E está presente en poblaciones de cerdos. Sin embargo, se necesitan de estudios más acabados para evaluar la magnitud del problema, usando secuencias de VHE porcinos y lograr la determinación del genoma viralThe hepatitis E virus (HEV can cause acute epidemic hepatitis outbreak in humans. The path of transmission is oro-fecal, especially through contaminated water.It has been demonstrated that pigs can be infected with the human form of HEV. HEV antibodies and RNA from HEV have been found in pigs and other animals. Recently a new strain, called porcine HEV, was identified which differs from the human HEV. In Chile prevalence of anti-HEV in human general population reach 7%. However no studies

  14. Maternal-child nutrition practices and pediatric overweight/obesity in the United States and Chile: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Pawloski, Lisa R; Jaimovich, Sonia P; Campos, Maria C

    2012-10-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is now epidemic in both developed countries and those undergoing economic transition. This study compared maternal and school-age child nutrition practices and body mass index in the United States and in Chile. Children (125 in the United States, 121 in Chile) and their mothers (116 in the United States, 101 in Chile) participated. Findings indicated that child nutrition practices were comparable, but mothers in the U.S. group demonstrated fewer healthy nutrition practices on behalf of their children. Significant associations were found between maternal and child nutrition practices. Substantially more children in the U.S. sample were overweight/obese. Implications for practice are presented.

  15. [Undergraduate and postgraduate studies in the biological sciences in Chile (1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, H

    1986-01-01

    A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in

  16. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

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    Lopez Paulina O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (% of preterm births ( Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend  The overall rate of low birth weight infants ( Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

  17. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala, Cecilia

    2016-12-03

    Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN); Optimized physical activity (AFSO); Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN) + optimized physical activity (AFSO); Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of allocating resources to programmes. This is the first study

  18. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits Aj; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J; Jong, Miek C

    2014-10-11

    The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolithic-type diet and may provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome. In addition, more information on feasibility and designing an innovative dietary research program on the basis of a Palaeolithic-type diet was obtained. Thirty-four subjects, with at least two characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, were randomized to a two weeks Palaeolithic-type diet (n = 18) or an isoenergetic healthy reference diet, based on the guidelines of the Dutch Health Council (n = 14). Thirty-two subjects completed the study. Measures were taken to keep bodyweight stable. As primary outcomes oral glucose tolerance and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal circumference, blood pressure, glucose, lipids) were measured. Secondary outcomes were intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Data were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects were 53.5 (SD9.7) year old men (n = 9) and women (n = 25) with mean BMI of 31.8 (SD5.7) kg/m2. The Palaeolithic-type diet resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (-9.1 mmHg; P = 0.015), diastolic blood pressure (-5.2 mmHg; P = 0.038), total cholesterol (-0.52 mmol/l; P = 0.037), triglycerides (-0.89 mmol/l; P = 0.001) and higher HDL-cholesterol (+0.15 mmol/l; P = 0.013), compared to reference. The number of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome decreased with 1.07 (P = 0.010) upon the Palaeolithic-type diet, compared to reference. Despite efforts to keep bodyweight stable, it decreased in the Palaeolithic group compared to reference (-1.32 kg; P = 0.012). However, favourable effects remained after post-hoc adjustments for this

  19. SYSTEM OF ACTIONS TO FAVOUR THE INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN THE CAREER OF SOCIOCULTURAL STUDIES / SISTEMA DE ACCIONES PARA FAVORECER LA INTERDISCIPLINARIEDAD EN LA CARRERA DE ESTUDIOS SOCIOCULTURALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marañón Rodríguez

    Full Text Available To form a more and more integral personality and with a wide vision of the world in that today one is living it is an unavoidable task to have the Cuban educators before yes, in a time characterized by a deep integration of the sciences. The achievement of this implies the elaboration of actions guided to reach a bigger integration among the contents of the subjects that today in day is imparted in the curriculum of the university students and its utility in the practice. For this aim it has decided to conceive the present work, with more emphasis in the interdisciplinarity among the subjects that are imparted in the disciplines History and Cultural Thought and Cuban Culture, corresponding to the Plan D of the career of Degree in Sociocultural Studies, being the main objective of the same one to favour the integration of the contents of this matters through the elaboration of a system of actions, demand of the current Cuban education without which we cannot perfect the teaching process - learning forming a man with a bigger preparation for the life, demand of the current Cuban society. The practical experiences applied in the University of The Tunas and the obtained results justify this proposal.

  20. Delineation of structures favourable to groundwater occurrence employing seismic refraction method — A case study from Tiruvuru, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sundararajan; Y Srinivas; M Narasimha Chary; G Nandakumar; A Hanmantha Chary

    2004-09-01

    The contacts associated with an outlier in biotite gneiss and sandstones near Tiruvuru, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh which are generally favourable for groundwater occurrence were investigated employing refraction seismic method. Results were examined by correlating the signals with local geology, bore well data and other available information in order to improve the reliability of interpretation.

  1. Ecological factors and adolescent marijuana use: results of a prospective study in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-03-21

    Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16-1.66), even after controlling for the study's covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. The findings suggest that "poverty", "crime", and "drug problems" may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the "substance abuse environment".

  2. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations.

  3. Modeling study of biomass burning plumes and their impact on urban air quality; a case study of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Rappenglück, B.; Rubio, M. A.; Lissi, E.; Gramsch, E.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    On January 4, 2014, during the summer period in South America, an intense forest and dry pasture wildfire occurred nearby the city of Santiago de Chile. On that day the biomass-burning plume was transported by low-intensity winds towards the metropolitan area of Santiago and impacted the concentration of pollutants in this region. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) is implemented to investigate the biomass-burning plume associated with these wildfires nearby Santiago, which impacted the ground-level ozone concentration and exacerbated Santiago's air quality. Meteorological variables simulated by WRF/Chem are compared against surface and radiosonde observations, and the results show that the model reproduces fairly well the observed wind speed, wind direction air temperature and relative humidity for the case studied. Based on an analysis of the transport of an inert tracer released over the locations, and at the time the wildfires were captured by the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the model reproduced reasonably well the transport of biomass burning plume towards the city of Santiago de Chile within a time delay of two hours as observed in ceilometer data. A six day air quality simulation was performed: the first three days were used to validate the anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and the last three days (during and after the wildfire event) to analyze the performance of WRF/Chem plume-rise model within FINNv1 fire emission estimations. The model presented a satisfactory performance on the first days of the simulation when contrasted against data from the well-established air quality network over the city of Santiago de Chile. These days represent the urban air quality base case for Santiago de Chile unimpacted by fire emissions. However, for the last three simulation days, which were impacted by the fire emissions, the statistical indices showed a decrease in

  4. Case−Control Study of Risk Factors for Meningococcal Disease in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Isabel; González, Claudia; Delgado, Iris; Poffald, Lucy; Pedroni, Elena; Alfaro, Tania; Hirmas, Macarena; Nájera, Manuel; Gormaz, Ana; López, Darío; Loayza, Sergio; Ferreccio, Catterina; Gallegos, Doris; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vial, Pablo; Aguilera, Ximena

    2017-01-01

    An outbreak of meningococcal disease with a case-fatality rate of 30% and caused by predominantly serogroup W of Neisseria meningitidis began in Chile in 2012. This outbreak required a case−control study to assess determinants and risk factors for infection. We identified confirmed cases during January 2012−March 2013 and selected controls by random sampling of the population, matched for age and sex, resulting in 135 case-patients and 618 controls. Sociodemographic variables, habits, and previous illnesses were studied. Analyses yielded adjusted odds ratios as estimators of the probability of disease development. Results indicated that conditions of social vulnerability, such as low income and overcrowding, as well as familial history of this disease and clinical histories, especially chronic diseases and hospitalization for respiratory conditions, increased the probability of illness. Findings should contribute to direction of intersectoral public policies toward a highly vulnerable social group to enable them to improve their living conditions and health. PMID:28628448

  5. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  6. Acceptability Study of "Ascenso": An Online Program for Monitoring and Supporting Patients with Depression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, H Daniel; Carrasco, Álvaro; Moessner, Markus; Cáceres, Cristian; Gloger, Sergio; Rojas, Graciela; Perez, J Carola; Vanegas, Jorge; Bauer, Stephanie; Krause, Mariane

    2016-07-01

    Major depression is a highly prevalent and severe mental disease. Despite the effective treatment options available, the risk of relapse is high. Interventions based on information and communication technologies generate innovative opportunities to provide support to patients after they completed treatment for depression. This acceptability study evaluated the Internet-based program Apoyo, Seguimiento y Cuidado de Enfermedades a partir de Sistemas Operativos (ASCENSO) in terms of its feasibility and acceptability in a sample of 35 patients in Chile. The study reveals high rates of acceptance and satisfaction among patients who actively used the program. As obstacles, patients mentioned technical problems, a lack of contact with other participants, and an insufficient connection between the program and the health service professionals. ASCENSO appears to be a promising complement to regular care for depression. Following improvements of the program based on participants' feedback, future research should evaluate its efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

  7. From Seismic Scenarios to Earthquake Risk Assessment: A Case Study for Iquique, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, P.; Fortuno, C.; Martin, J. C. D. L. L.; Vasquez, J.

    2015-12-01

    Iquique is a strategic city and economic center in northern Chile, and is located in a large seismic gap where a megathrust earthquake and tsunami is expected. Although it was hit by a Mw 8.2 earthquake on April 1st 2014, which caused moderate damage, geophysical evidence still suggests that there is potential for a larger event, so a thorough risk assessment is key to understand the physical, social, and economic effects of such potential event, and devise appropriate mitigation plans. Hence, Iquique has been selected as a prime study case for the implementation of a risk assessment platform in Chile. Our study integrates research on three main elements of risk calculations: hazard evaluation, exposure model, and physical vulnerabilities. To characterize the hazard field, a set of synthetic seismic scenarios have been developed based on plate interlocking and the residual slip potential that results from subtracting the slip occurred during the April 1st 2014 rupture fault mechanism, obtained using InSAR+GPS inversion. Additional scenarios were developed based of the fault rupture model of the Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake and on the local plate locking models in northern Chile. These rupture models define a collection of possible realizations of earthquake geometries parameterized in terms of critical variables like slip magnitude, rise time, mean propagation velocity, directivity, and other, which are propagated to obtain a hazard map for Iquique (e.g. PGA, PGV, PDG). Furthermore, a large body of public and local data was used to construct a detailed exposure model for Iquique, including aggregated building count, demographics, essential facilities, and lifelines. This model together with the PGA maps for the April 1st 2014 earthquake are used to calibrate HAZUS outputs against observed damage, and adjust the fragility curves of physical systems according to more detailed analyses of typical Chilean building types and their structural properties, plus historical

  8. Assessment of urban vulnerability towards floods using an indicator-based approach – a case study for Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularly occurring flood events do have a history in Santiago de Chile, the capital city of Chile and study area for this research. The analysis of flood events, the resulting damage and its causes are crucial prerequisites for the development of risk prevention measures. The goal of this research is to empirically investigate the vulnerability towards floods in Santiago de Chile as one component of flood risk. The analysis and assessment of vulnerability is based on the application of a multi-scale (individual, household, municipal level set of indicators and the use of a broad range of data. The case-specific set of indicators developed in this study shows the relevant variables and their interrelations influencing the flood vulnerability in the study area. It provides a decision support tool for stakeholders and allows for monitoring and evaluating changes over time. The paper outlines how GIS, census, and remote sensing data as well as household surveys and expert interviews are used as an information base for the derivation of a vulnerability map for two municipalities located in the eastern part of Santiago de Chile. The generation of vulnerability maps representing the two different perspectives of local decision makers (experts and affected households is exemplified and discussed using the developed methodology.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: Results of a qualitative study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Poffald

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Materials and methods. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results. The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the “delayed access group”. This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. Conclusion. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  10. [Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: results of a qualitative study in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Aguilera, Ximena; Vega, Jeanette; González, María José; Sanhueza, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. . The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the "delayed access group". This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  11. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  12. Bias adjustment of satellite-based precipitation estimation using gauge observations: A case study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongwen; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Xu, Xinyi; Braithwaite, Dan; Verbist, Koen M. J.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates (SPEs) are promising alternative precipitation data for climatic and hydrological applications, especially for regions where ground-based observations are limited. However, existing satellite-based rainfall estimations are subject to systematic biases. This study aims to adjust the biases in the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) rainfall data over Chile, using gauge observations as reference. A novel bias adjustment framework, termed QM-GW, is proposed based on the nonparametric quantile mapping approach and a Gaussian weighting interpolation scheme. The PERSIANN-CCS precipitation estimates (daily, 0.04°×0.04°) over Chile are adjusted for the period of 2009-2014. The historical data (satellite and gauge) for 2009-2013 are used to calibrate the methodology; nonparametric cumulative distribution functions of satellite and gauge observations are estimated at every 1°×1° box region. One year (2014) of gauge data was used for validation. The results show that the biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data are effectively reduced. The spatial patterns of adjusted satellite rainfall show high consistency to the gauge observations, with reduced root-mean-square errors and mean biases. The systematic biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation time series, at both monthly and daily scales, are removed. The extended validation also verifies that the proposed approach can be applied to adjust SPEs into the future, without further need for ground-based measurements. This study serves as a valuable reference for the bias adjustment of existing SPEs using gauge observations worldwide.

  13. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melak, Dawit [Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Kalman, David [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parra, Roxana [Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 μg/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 μg/L (median = 60 μg/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 μg/L.

  14. Clinical management of the first ASCUS report in Chile. Prospective single-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny López-Alegría

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, there is no single strategy for optimal management of patients with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology reports. The objective of this study was to determine the kind of clinical management conducted among women with a first ASCUS Pap smear report. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective single cohort study at a cervical pathology unit in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, observational and quantitative follow-up study on a cohort of women with ASCUS cytological reports. RESULTS: In the screening phase, 92,001 cervical cytological smears were collected in primary healthcare clinics. In the diagnostic phase, all women with a first ASCUS report were selected (n = 446. These women were asked to undergo the Pap test again and it was found that 301 women had normal results, 62 women had abnormal results and 83 did not repeat the test. In the diagnostic confirmation phase, the 62 women with abnormal results underwent colposcopy and, from these results, 58 of them underwent a biopsy. The results from the biopsies showed that 16 women had negative histological reports, 13 had CIN 1 and 29 had CIN 2+. In the treatment phase, the 42 women with lesions underwent a variety of treatments, according to the type of lesion. In the post-treatment phase, cytological and colposcopic monitoring was instituted. CONCLUSION: The clinical management consisted of traditional management of screening, diagnosis, diagnostic confirmation, treatment and post-treatment monitoring.

  15. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents.

  16. Estimation of fault parameters using GRACE observations and analytical model. Case study: The 2010 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatolazadeh, Farzam; Naeeni, Mehdi Raoofian; Voosoghi, Behzad; Rahimi, Armin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, an inversion method is used to constrain the fault parameters of the 2010 Chile Earthquake using gravimetric observations. The formulation consists of using monthly Geopotential coefficients of GRACE observations in a conjunction with the analytical model of Okubo 1992 which accounts for the gravity changes resulting from Earthquake. At first, it is necessary to eliminate the hydrological and oceanic effects from GRACE monthly coefficients and then a spatio-spectral localization analysis, based on wavelet local analysis, should be used to filter the GRACE observations and to better refine the tectonic signal. Finally, the corrected GRACE observations are compared with the analytical model using a nonlinear inversion algorithm. Our results show discernible differences between the computed average slip using gravity observations and those predicted from other co-seismic models. In this study, fault parameters such as length, width, depth, dip, strike and slip are computed using the changes in gravity and gravity gradient components. By using the variations of gravity gradient components the above mentioned parameters are determined as 428 ± 6 Km, 203 ± 5 Km, 5 Km, 10°, 13° and 8 ± 1.2 m respectively. Moreover, the values of the seismic moment and moment magnitude are 2. 09 × 1022 N m and 8.88 Mw respectively which show the small differences with the values reported from USGS (1. 8 × 1022N m and 8.83 Mw).

  17. Retrospective study of histological types of esophageal cancer prevalent in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Torrealba Bustos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to determine the statistical relation between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal carcinoma in the Metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For it there were obtained clinical samples of different laboratories of Pathological Anatomy of the Metropolitan region corresponding to the south and east sector of Santiago, gathering a total of 348 cases, which were diagnosed by means of endoscopic biopsy, using as parameters the morphologic characteristics of neoplastic tissue evaluated by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin dye. The obtained information was submitted to a model of logistic multiple regression, in order to determine the associations between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, topographic location compromised to the moment of the diagnosis, age and sex of the patients in study. The proportion between the histological types of cancer of esophagus did not present significant differences, which contrasts with the results of international publications. The analyses demonstrated that the low third is the only parameter that is subject to variation, which relates to the metaplasia of Barrett and the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  18. An entomological and seroepidemiological study of the vectorial-transmission risk of Chagas disease in the coast of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C R; Reyes, C; Canals, A; Parra, A; Muñoz, X; Rodríguez, K

    2015-12-01

    Four species of triatomines are known from Chile: Triatoma infestans Klug, Mepraia spinolai Porter, M. gajardoi Frías, Henry & González, and M. parapatrica Frías (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the last three are endemic. The geographical distribution of M. gajardoi includes the coastal areas in the north of Chile between 18° and 21°S, an area with both a resident workforce and summer-season visitors. A study was developed to assess the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by M. gajardoi in hut settlements on the coast of the Tarapacá Region, in particular in Caleta San Marcos and Caleta Río Seco. The study comprised fingerstick sampling of 95 persons, venous samples from 29 domestic dogs and capture of 52 triatomines, from both fishing coves. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The results show that, of the total number of persons studied, 100% were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) antibodies, 10.34% of canids were positive for the antibody and 5.8% of M. gajardoi were infected to the PCR technique. The presence of this species in areas close to human settlements constitutes a risk to human populations established on the coast of northern Chile.

  19. A comparative study of interlocking directorates at the end of the import-substituting industrialization period in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Salvaj, Andrea Lluch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on interlocking directorates has been conducted primarily in the United States and European countries. Little work of either theoretical or empirical nature has been done to study the characteristics and the factors that affect this important business network in peripheral and turbulent economies. In this comparative and historical study, we focus on the effect of the political and economic turbulence and the ownership composition of the largest firms on shaping the structure of interlocking directorates in Argentina and Chile by the end of the sixties. Four main findings result from this analysis: 1 the interlocking directorate in Argentina is more fragmented than in Chile; 2 most relevant actors in the directorship interlock in Argentina are firms in industries considered strategic by the government; 3 multinational subsidiaries occupy a central position in Argentina; 4 banks and firms owned by local business groups played a central role in the interlocking directorates in Chile. This study shows how the institutional and economic factors shape the structure of relations between companies.

  20. Ichneumon wasp back in favour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Ramakers, P.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Aphidius matricariae wasp of the Ichneumon family was widely used to get rid of plant lice in greenhouse agriculture up to fifteen years ago. Since then, it has given way to its American cousin, Aphidius colemani. A comparative study by the Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture group has led to

  1. Assessment of Market Efficiency in Argentina, Brazil and Chile: an Event Study of Mergers and Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Domingues Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the relationship between the announcement of mergers and acquisitions, the existence of positive abnormal returns for shares of these firms, and market efficiency in Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Statistically significant Standardized Abnormal Returns were present in the event announcement and the following days in Argentina and Chile and on the event day in Brazil, confirming value creation signaling. Furthermore, the significance of abnormal returns in the event window, namely in the 5 days following the event in Argentina and Chile and the absence of such in Brazil suggests a more efficient market exists in Brazil, in keeping with the semi-strong market efficiency hypothesis. The absence of semi-strong efficient market behavior could prove valuable to investors who could use a window of a few days after the event announcement to accumulate abnormal returns, provided the appropriate research into news of possible mergers or acquisitions has been made.

  2. Human papillomavirus-16 is integrated in lung carcinomas: a study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, F; Castillo, A; Koriyama, C; Higashi, M; Itoh, T; Capetillo, M; Shuyama, K; Corvalan, A; Eizuru, Y; Akiba, S

    2007-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected in 20 (29%) out of 69 lung carcinomas (LCs) in Chile, by PCR and Southern blot, and was more frequently detected in squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) than in adenocarcinomas (46 vs 9%, P=0.001). HPV-16, positive in 11 cases, was the most frequently detected HPV genotype determined by DNA sequencing. HPV-16 E2/E6 ratio, estimated from real-time PCR analysis, was much lower than the unity, suggesting that at least a partial HPV-16 genome was integrated in all but one HPV-16-positive SQCs. The remaining one case was suspected to have only episomal HPV-16. Although the viral load was low in most of the LCs, a case showed the HPV-16 copy number as high as 8479 per nanogram DNA, which was even a few times higher than the minimum viral load of seven cervical carcinomas (observed viral load: 3356–609 392 per nanogram DNA). The expression of the HPV-16/18 E6 protein was found in only two HPV-16-positive SQCs (13%) but not in the case with the highest viral load. Although the viral load was in general very low and HPV E6 expression is none or weak, further studies seem warranted to examine aetiological involvement of high-risk HPV in lung carcinogenesis. PMID:17579626

  3. [An exploratory study of functional literacy on health care behaviors in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Moisés

    2015-07-01

    Health Literacy is the set of skills that constitute the ability to perform reading and numerical tasks to function in the health care environment. People with functional illiteracy are unable to understand written documents and therefore sanitary information. To explore the effects of functional illiteracy on personal health care behaviors in Chile. Using the Chilean Social Characterization Survey of 2006, respondents were separated into those that had read a book in the last year and those that had not as a proxy variable for functional literacy. Using econometric models, the impact of this variable on having a Papanicolaou (PAP) smear done and consulting in primary health clinics rather than in emergency services, was explored. The survey is nationally representative, and 76% interviewees declared not having read a book in the last year. Probability of having a PAP smear done during the last three years was higher among women who had read a book with an OR of 1.19 (1.15-1.25). Likewise, the probability of consulting in emergency services rather than in primary health clinics was lower among those who had read a book with an OR of 0.85 (0.80-0.91). This study provides evidence of possible impacts of low functional literacy in health care behaviors in the Chilean population.

  4. Use of Evidence in the Implementation of Social Programs: A Qualitative Study from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rodrigo; Naranjo, Carola; Hein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Through this qualitative, empirical study the authors aim to explore and describe the sources of knowledge that are used to guide intervention practice by social workers in Chile. Particular attention was paid to factors that may facilitate or hinder the use of research-based evidence to guide social interventions design, implementation, and outcome evaluation. In order to explore these issues, 25 semi-structured interviews with social workers from Chilean social service non-profit organizations were conducted. The main findings suggest that social workers do not use research-based evidence to support their social interventions due to various personal organizational constraints (e.g., lack of time, lack of access to resources for disseminating evidence, lack of English command). In addition, no evaluation processes of social programs which will support evidence-based effectiveness could be found. One key barrier to support use of evidence and evidence production may be related to the fact that most non-governmental organizations maintain a hierarchical and vertical relationship with state agencies (program design, oversight, and funding) for social program development.

  5. Arsenic Methylation and Lung and Bladder Cancer in a Case-control Study in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melak, Dawit; Ferreccio, Catterina; Kalman, David; Parra, Roxana; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Steinmaus, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend arsenic water concentrations arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. PMID:24296302

  6. Creating Three New Bike Tours in Santiago de Chile Case Study: Huaso Tours & Bike Rental

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor´s thesis was to create new bike tour services for the thesis case company Huaso Tours & Bike Rental, based in Santiago de Chile. The idea for the thesis was perceived from a free time activity of mountain biking in Santiago de Chile´s popular tourist attraction San Cristobal hill. This park draws thousands of bikers monthly to enjoy the green areas of the city, however, there is no mountain bike service offered to visit this hill. By conducting a small pre-researc...

  7. Microtextural analysis of quartz grains of tsunami and non-tsunami deposits - A case study from Tirúa (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanova, Piero; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Nentwig, Vanessa; Spiske, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    In order to estimate the tsunami hazard it is essential to reliably identify and differentiate tsunami deposits from other high-energy events like storms. Recently, the microtextural analysis of quartz grain surfaces was introduced as a method to differentiate between tsunami and other deposits. Using tsunami deposits sampled from a bank profile of the Tirúa river (central Chile), an area that was significantly affected by the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis, we tested the microtextural analysis method for its capability to identify tsunami deposits. A total of 815 quartz grain surfaces of two tsunami layers, two non-tsunami marsh sediment samples, and three reference samples from nearby beach, dune and river were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We grouped the detected microtexture features into five microtextural families: angularity, fresh surfaces, percussion marks, adhering particles and dissolution features. Both the tsunami deposits and reference samples reveal high numbers of fresh surfaces and percussion marks. Thus, there are no statistically significant differences between tsunami, beach, dune and river deposits in characteristics and abundances in all microtextural families. Our study indicates that the microtextural analysis of quartz grains may not be a suitable method to identify tsunami deposits in Tirúa (Chile), due to local factors such as high numbers of inherited microtextures and the possible effects of the high amount of heavy minerals.

  8. Loxoscelismo en Chile: estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales Loxoscelism in Chile: epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Schenone

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un enfoque panorámico de estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales referentes a Loxosceles laeta y loxoscelismo efectuados en 1955-1988 en Santiago, Chile. Se estudiaron 216 casos de loxoscelismo. Los hechos más relevantes fueron: 52,8% correspondió a mujeres; edad entre 7 meses y 78 años; 84,3% fué loxoscelismo cutáneo (LO y 15,7% loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral (LCV; 73,6% sucedió en época calurosa; en 86,6% el accidente ocurrió en la vivienda, especialmente en dormitorios, mientras la persona dormía o se vestía. La araña fué vista en 60,2% de los casos e identificada en laboratorio como L. laeta en 17,7% (10,6% de los 216 casos. Los sitios más frecuen temente afectados fueron las extremidades con 67,6%, lancetazo urente fué el síntoma inicial más frecuente. Dolor, edema y placa livedoide, la cual posteriormente se transformaría en escara necrótica, fueron las manifestaciones locales predominantes. En LCV hematuria y hemoglobinuria fueron constantes, ictericia, fiebre y compromiso de conciencia se presentaron en la mayoría de los casos. Tratamiento: LC con antihistamínicos o corticoides inyectables, LCV con corti-coides inyectables. La condición de los pacientes en el último control fué: curación completa en 75,5%, curación con secuela cicatrizal en 8,3%, muerte en 3,7% (todos con LCV y abandono en 12,5%. Adicionalmente, se ha efectuado una serie de estudios experimentales, tanto in vivo como in vitro para esclarecer aspectos básicos sobre el veneno de L. laeta y el tratamiento del loxoscelismo.A panoramic sight of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, referring to Loxosceles laeta and loxoscelism, carried out in 1955-1988, in Santiago, Chile is presented. Two-hundred and sixteen cases of loxosce lism were studied. The most relevant features were: 84.3% corresponded to cutaneous loxosce lism (CD and 15.7% to viscerocutaneous loxos celism (VCD; 73.6% ocurred in hot season; in 86

  9. Population study of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. off the Bay of Concepcion, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Strotmann, B.; Gallardo, VA

    2000-01-01

    A population of filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. living in the Bay of Concepcion, Chile, and the adjoining shelf area was sampled for 14 mo at 4 to 6 wk intervals to investigate the influence of seasonal variations in upwelling intensity and oxygen concentrations on the population...

  10. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  11. Equality of Opportunity in Education: A Case Study of Chile and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pedro GARCES-VOISENAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One of the most important determinants of the distribution of income and life opportunities is education. Increasing levels of formal schooling have contributed to raise standards of living and eradicate extreme poverty worldwide in recent decades. However, inequality in the distribution of income –which is the single most important indicator of relative access to material well-being- remains stubbornly high in most regions of the world. In this paper, I focus on two countries, Chile and Norway, which have very different educational systems, and follow the same analytical methodology of Schütz et al (2008 to detect differences in equality of opportunity between the two countries. In a slight variation, the family-background effect here is represented by a larger number of variables –including household income-, in order to pinpoint the specific characteristics that it comprises in each country. Surprisingly, I find that the family-background effect is stronger in Norway than in Chile, which would denote a potential higher inequality. However the higher achievement inequality in Chile is determined by other factors, which need urgent reform.Keywords. Chile, Norway, education, inequality, equality of opportunity.JEL. O15, I24, I25.

  12. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ninive; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. Methods Data were taken from the first wave of the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008–November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male) from municipalities of low-to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist’s Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. Results Seventy (9.14%) youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74) for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40) for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–0.97), but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04–1.38) and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08–1.36), after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80%) of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. Conclusions Findings highlight the role that mental health problems—some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity—may play in a youth’s decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems. PMID:21152714

  13. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  14. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies.

  15. Iodixanol Has a Favourable Fibrinolytic Profile Compared to Iohexol in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Elective Angiography: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Treweeke

    Full Text Available There is no consensus and a limited evidence base for choice of contrast agents (CA in angiography. This study evaluated the impact of iohexol and iodixanol CA on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], as well as platelet-monocyte conjugates in cardiac patients undergoing elective angiography in a double-blind, randomised parallel group study.Patients (men, 50-70 years old; n = 12 were randomised to receive either iohexol (Omnipaque; n = 6 or iodixanol (Visipaque; n = 6 during elective angiography at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK. Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn prior to CA delivery and following angiography. Assessment of platelet-monocyte conjugation, t-PA and PAI-1 antigen and activity was conducted in samples pre- and post-angiography.Plasma t-PA antigen was depressed equally in the study groups after angiography, but there was a greater reduction in PAI-1 antigen in the group receiving iodixanol. These findings corresponded to a substantial reduction in t-PA activity in patients receiving iohexol, with no change in those receiving iodixanol (P = 0.023 between the CA groups. Both CAs caused a reduction in platelet-monocyte conjugation, with no difference between the groups. No adverse events were reported during the trial.Avoiding reduced plasma t-PA activity might be an important consideration in choosing iodixanol over iohexol in patients at risk of thrombosis following angiography. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN51509735 and funded by the Coronary Thrombosis Trust and National Health Service (Highland R&D Endowments. The funders had no influence over study design or reporting.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51509735.

  16. Challenges for energy efficiency under programmatic CDM: case study of a CFL project in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakosta, Charikleia; Askounis, Dimitris [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Management & Decision Support Systems Lab (NTUA-EPU), 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Energy Efficiency (ENEF) is one of the most promising sectors for reducing emissions of sustained growth and increasing energy security in developing countries. ENEF is, however, severely under-represented in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), due in large part to its dispersed nature, which cannot be easily accommodated into traditional CDM modalities. Furthermore, in the present context, uncertainty prevails to whether the CDM is actually procuring its aims in terms of achieving Sustainable Development (SD) as well as to what extent. On the other hand, programmatic CDM (pCDM) could become an important tool to both bundle small-scale projects and organise similar (not necessarily small-scale) projects carried out at different locations and scales. In this respect, pCDM could offer a promising framework to maximize SD benefits through the inclusion of ENEF activities in developing countries. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) technology has a significant technical potential within Chile, but 'somehow' do not receive sufficient attention from relevant stakeholders and key market players. This paper presents an analysis that explores for Chile, the potential of CFLs to deliver key energy services for the country. In the above framework, a simulation will be presented on the potential of large-scale CFL deployment in Chile in CDM emissions trading, energy and environmental terms.

  17. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.

    2008-06-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting

  18. A Partnership for a Community College in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Carmen L.; Whitford, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the results of case study research on a partnership between a community college in the United States and a university in Chile that attempted to develop the first community college system in Chile.

  19. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  20. Evidence in Favour of IMF Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhauer, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) determines the relative number of stars born at a given mass. Despite the tremendous effort to establish a universal IMF, the astronomical literature offers a wealth of diverse evidence for IMF variations. This review was prepared for a controversial debate at the conference ``Starbursts -- Near and Far'' at Ringberg Castle, 2000, and gives a one-sided portrayal in favour of IMF variations. I will summarise the empirical evidence that the IMF varies wit...

  1. Teachers' Professional Development through University-School Partnerships: Theoretical Standpoints and Evidence from Two Pilot Studies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Valeska; Calcagni, Elisa; Preiss, David D.; Ortiz, Dominga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a teacher professional development programme, based on a university-schools partnership and a collective reflection model, addressing the needs of in-service teacher education in Chile. First, the main challenges faced by both teachers and teacher education in Chile are summarised. Then, the foundations of this model are…

  2. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

  3. Magmatic processes under Quizapu volcano, Chile, identified from geochemical and textural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael D.; Voos, Stéphanie; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    Quizapu is part of a linear system of active volcanos in central Chile. The volcanic petrology and geology have been used to infer the plumbing system beneath the volcano. The 1846-1847 eruption (~5 km3) started with small flows of dacite, then changed to a range of andesite-dacite compositions and finally terminated with large flows of dacite. Andesitic enclaves (feed the system—first mixed magmas, then back to dacites. The eruption then terminated until 1932 when renewed injection of andesite into the system created a conduit that tapped an undegassed dacite chamber and resulted in a strong explosive eruption. The whole story is one of continual andesite magmatism, modulated by storage, degassing and mixing.

  4. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  5. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.

  6. Numerical investigation of topographic effects in seismic wave amplification: Northern Chile Coastal Cliff as study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, T.; Ferreira, A. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Cembrano, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Coastal Cliff (CC) of Northern Chile is a first-order Andean geomorphological feature running parallel to trench. With an average elevation of 1 km and a length of 800 km, it represents the western limit of the Coastal Range. Several cities and industrial facilities are located in the vicinity of the CC. Site effects were documented in Alto Hospicio, Huara and Pozo Almonte towns during the Mw 8.2 Pisagua earthquake on the 1st April of 2014, all of which are located close or at the CC. These site effects were not predicted by the Vs30 seismic microzonation previously carried out in the area. Topographic effects arising from the CC topography could be responsible for these site effects. To understand the role of the topography on seismic amplification during an earthquake, we will simulate seismic wave propagation in an elastic media with complex topography using the spectral element method (SPECFEM3D Cartesian package). Preliminary results obtained from simple 2D models, show amplifications related to the topography in the three seismic components, but with more significant amplifications in the vertical component, for high frequencies. To assess the possible topographic amplification in the Coastal Cliff in Northern Chile, improvements to the simple models considered will be discussed. Through the inclusion of a more detailed mesh including relevant geological observations and geophysically-derived petrophysical and depth-projected features, we shall analyses high frequency waveform (up to 1.5 Hz), to more accurately represent the complexity of the effects of topography and distinguish it from those of subsurface structure.

  7. Representation of ecosystem services by terrestrial protected areas: Chile as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, América P; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species' distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system.

  8. The Women's Studies Center--A Women's-Led NGO Deepening Democracy in Chile: Educating Women through Personal Empowerment and Political Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline

    This paper explores how the Women's Studies Center (Centro de Estudios de la Mujer, CEM), a feminist, women-led nongovernmental organization (NGO), is contributing to socio-cultural change in Chile 11 years after the country's democratic transition. CEM merges the theoretical and the practical, and the personal and the political through education…

  9. The Women's Studies Center--A Women's-Led NGO Deepening Democracy in Chile: Educating Women through Personal Empowerment and Political Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline

    This paper explores how the Women's Studies Center (Centro de Estudios de la Mujer, CEM), a feminist, women-led nongovernmental organization (NGO), is contributing to socio-cultural change in Chile 11 years after the country's democratic transition. CEM merges the theoretical and the practical, and the personal and the political through education…

  10. A comparative study of institutional adaptive capacity : South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada, and Elqui River Basin, Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauchyn, D.; Diaz, P.; Gauthier, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed the strategies and materials developed for a five-year study of the capacity of institutions in two dryland regions (the South Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada and the Elqui River Basin of north-central Chile) to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The purpose of the project was to obtain a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the capacities of regional institutions to formulate and implement strategies of adaptation to climate change risks and the forecasted impacts of climate change on the supply and management of water resources in dryland environments. Both regions are at different stages of social and environmental vulnerability and yet have a dry climate adjacent to a major mountain system and landscapes at risk of desertification, as well as an agricultural economy dependent on irrigation water derived from mountain snow and glaciers. tabs., figs.

  11. Objective Structures and Symbolic Violence in the Immigrant Family and School Relationships: Study of Two Cases in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen Cornejo Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical trend of migration processes in Chile faces a challenge given the incremental growth of immigration during recent years. This study focuses on the relationship between family and school, distinguishing within it the particular relationship between immigrant families and school agents. The qualitative approach applied here enabled a focus on the effect of the cultural diversity that immigration produces, including the configuration of conflicts between immigrant families and the school institution. The main issues discussed in this article concern the approach and the nature of interaction between schools and immigrant families. This approach is articulated with the observed emergence of symbolic violence. The characterization of the conflict of expectations among immigrant families and schools is also described, suggesting the need to rethink the practices associated with an inclusive education that allows the integration of immigrant families.

  12. Observational evidence favours a static universe

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, David F

    2010-01-01

    The common attribute of all Big Bang cosmologies is that they are based on the assumption that the universe is expanding. However examination of the evidence for this expansion clearly favours a static universe. The major topics considered are: Tolman surface brightness, angular size, type 1a supernovae, gamma ray bursts, galaxy distributions, quasar distributions, X-ray background radiation, cosmic microwave background radiation, radio source counts, quasar variability and the Butcher--Oemler effect. An analysis of the best raw data for these topics shows that they are consistent with expansion only if there is evolution that cancels the effects of expansion. An alternate cosmology, curvature cosmology, is in full agreement with the raw data. This tired-light cosmology predicts a well defined static and stable universe and is fully described. It not only predicts accurate values for the Hubble constant and the temperature of cosmic microwave background radiation but shows excellent agreement with most of the...

  13. University Support in the Development of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity: An Exploratory Study from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura teórica ha estudiado los potenciales beneficios de la interacción entre universidades y emprendedores y existe cierta evidencia empírica que soporta la influencia positiva de la educación para el emprendimiento en la posterior propensión a emprender. El propósito de este artículo es estudiar si la educación específica para la creación de empresas brindada por las universidades se refleja en la actividad emprendedora a nivel regional. Replicando la metodología utilizada por Coduras, Urban, Rojas y Martínez (2008 en España, comparamos de forma exploratoria el caso en Chile usando la base de datos del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM. Los principales resultados indican que hay baja interacción entre emprendedores y universidades, y no hay impacto suficiente para afectar significativamente la actividad emprendedora. Así como contar con educación para el emprendimiento en la universidad no aumentaría la probabilidad de tener intenciones de emprender.

  14. Applications of TsunAWI: Operational scenario database in Indonesia, case studies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowsky, Natalja; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Androsov, Alexey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The Numerical simulation of prototypic tsunami scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priori risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is suited for both tasks. It is based on a finite element discretisation, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution presents two fields of applications. In the Indonesian tsunami early warning system, the existing TsunAWI scenario database covers the Sunda subduction zone from Sumatra to the Lesser Sunda Islands with 715 epicenters and 4500 scenarios. In a collaboration with Geoscience Australia, we support the scientific staff at the Indonesian warning center to extend the data base to the remaining tectonic zones in the Indonesian Archipelago. The extentension started for North Sulawesi, West and East Maluku Islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). The earthquake and tsunami events on 1 April 2014 and 16 November 2016 showed the practical use of this approach in comparison to hind casts of these events.

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mortality rates in Chile: A population based study (1994-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Daniel; Zitko, Pedro; Lillo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to describe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality rates in the Chilean population over a 17-year period. Chilean death records (1994-2010) were reviewed for the ICD-10 diagnosis G.12.2 (including motor neuron disease and similar conditions), and weighted with population data. Crude and standardized mortality rates by ALS were calculated at the nationwide level and by geographic zone. A risk analysis was performed in successive cohorts from 1910-1919 to 1960-1969, comparing mortality slopes. One thousand six hundred and seventy-one deaths were recorded during 1994-2010, with an average of 1.13 per 100,000, a 1.2:1 male/female ratio, and a statistically significant increase in mortality rate. According to geographical distribution, the Austral area, with a larger population of European origin, showed higher mortality rates compared to the national average. The cohort analysis showed an increasing risk of dying from ALS for all cohorts, and highest above 64 years of age, becoming a competitive cause of death in older ages. In conclusion, as expected, the mortality rate in Chile by ALS is higher than that reported previously in our country, and similar to other Latin American countries. ALS mortality rate has increased over time probably due to the aging of the population and decline in rates for competing causes of death.

  16. Modeling transient and long-term postseismic deformation: A case study of 1995 Mw9.5 Chile earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Zhi-gang; FU Rong-shan; XUE Ting-xiao; ZHA Xian-jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly use finite element method (FEM) with Burgers model to simulate the postseismic viscoe- lastic relaxation taking 1960 Chile earthquake as an example. The postseismic deformation modeled with Burgers model includes co-seismic deformation, transient postseismic deformation and long-term postseismic deformation. So if we apply Burgers model to calculate postseismic deformation of 1960 Chile earthquake, there is no discrep- ancy phenomenon due to different durations of postseismic deformations that happens in Maxwell model.

  17. Finite Element Stress Model of a Strike-Slip Duplex: A Case Study from Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrieta, P. C.; Hurtado, D.; Cembrano, J. M.; Valderrama, C.; Stanton-Yonge, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) is spatially and genetically related to seismic activity, volcanic hazard and hydrothermal resources in southern Chile. The LOFS is a regional-scale shear zone, which accommodates part of the oblique component of the convergence vector. In the LOFS southern end, an extensional strike-slip duplex arises from the connection between two NNE-striking master faults, where two damaging earthquakes (6.1-6.2 Mw) occurred in 2007. In order to understand the nature and origin of the stress field within the duplex area, we calculate the ellipticity of the stress tensor field by means of a 3D finite element model. The model represents the brittle-plastic transition in the mid crust, within which the fault zone is mechanically distinguished from the host rock in a continuum fashion. The fault zone is modeled by using an elastic-plastic constitutive relation, which is built on the basis of a range of width and orientation of mylonitic bands, representing the fault zone as seen in the field. Boundary conditions reproduce the convergence velocity between Nazca and South-America plates. Results are broadly consistent with structural data and seismicity recorded in the region. Extensional-to-transtensional stress regimes match spatially with a seismic swarm recorded in the region in 2007, and with the spatial distribution of quaternary volcanic centers. The model also shows a transpressive state of stress in the western branch of the LOFS, whereas in the eastern branch, pure strike-slip is obtained. We propose that the current duplex kinematics can be explained by convergence obliquity, duplex geometry and the occurrence of plastic deformation, which are sufficient enough to deliver the current stress configuration. Sources of discrepancy between structural data and model results might be explained by other factors not considered by the model, such as the timing of deformation or the current activity of blind faults.

  18. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    constructed at that site. It was only seven years later, in 1984, that ESO initiated the search for a future VLT site that ultimately led to the recommendation in favour of Paranal, the subsequent donation by the Chilean Government and the beginning of the construction, as described above. ESO has never had any doubt on the legality of this donation by the Chilean Government. The Organisation started the work at Paranal in full confidence that this generous act was correct and respected its condition, i.e. to start construction of the VLT observatory within a given time frame. However, in April 1993, when the work at Paranal was already quite advanced, a Chilean family brought a lawsuit against the Chilean State and ESO, claiming that a small part of the land (about 22 sq. km, including the very peak of Paranal) that was inscribed by the state in 1977, had been property of this family. The lawsuit is presently pending with the competent Chilean courts and it is not known when a final judgement will be given. In keeping with its status as an International Organisation and conforming to the international practice of such organisations, ESO decided not to become a party in this lawsuit. The Organisation, therefore, has restricted its involvement to merely invoking the immunity from lawsuit and jurisdiction to which it is entitled (see below). ESO believes that the issue of past ownership is an internal Chilean matter. Nevertheless, it has been widely reported that on January 30, 1995, in response to an appeal by the claimants, a Chambre of the Chilean Supreme Court issued a preliminary decision that may be interpreted as ordering to stop the construction of the VLT during an undetermined period of time. This would seriously delay the entire project and necessarily entail additional, substantial costs. ESO'S IMMUNITIES ESO's relations with its host state, the Republic of Chile, is governed by an international Convention ("Convenio"), signed in 1963 and ratified by the Chilean

  19. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  20. Magnetotelluric Studies of the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, D. R.; Unsworth, M. J.; Diaz, D.; Pavez, M.; Blanco, B.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic data has shown that the surface of the Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field in central Chile has been moving upwards at rates >20 cm/yr since 2007 over a 200 km2 area. It has been hypothesized that this ground deformation is due to the inflation of a magma body at ~5 km depth beneath the lake (2.8 km b.s.l.). This magma body is a likely source for the large number of rhyolitic eruptions at this location over the last 25 ka. A dense broadband magnetotelluric (MT) array was collected from 2009 to 2015 and included data from a geothermal exploration project. MT phase tensor analysis indicates that the resistivity structure of the region is largely three-dimensional for signals with periods longer than 1 s, which corresponds to depths >5 km. The MT data were inverted using the ModEM inversion algorithm to produce a three-dimensional electrical resistivity model which included topography. Four primary features were identified in the model: 1) A north-south striking, 10 km by 5 km, low-resistivity zone (inflation centre at a depth of ~5 km (2.8 km b.s.l.) is interpreted as a zone of partial melt which may be supplying material via conduits to account for the observed ground deformation; 2) A shallow low-resistivity feature ~400 m beneath the lake surface (1.8 km a.s.l.) and spatially coincident with the inflation centre is interpreted to be a zone of hydrothermal alteration; 3) A thin, low-resistivity feature to the west of LdM at a depth of ~250 m (2.2 km a.s.l.) is interpreted to be the clay cap of a potential geothermal prospect; 4) A large, low-resistivity zone beneath the San Pedro-Tatara Volcanic Complex to the west of LdM at a depth of ~10 km (8 km b.s.l.) is interpreted to be a zone of partial melt. Further MT data collection is planned for 2016 which will expand the current grid of MT stations to better constrain the lateral extent of the observed features and give greater insight into the dynamics of this restless magma system.

  1. Study of the Levels of Human-Human and Human-Animal Empathy in Veterinary Medical Students from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Amor, Javiera; Luna-Fernández, Daniela; Tadich, Tamara

    Social relationships are based on our ability to put ourselves in the place of others, and from there to react appropriately and logically. This empathic ability can be extended to other species, based on the human ability to develop techniques to understand and communicate with animals. In education, the benefits of training professionals with ethical and empathic tools are known. Gender, diet, past experiences, and other factors can modify a person's levels of empathy toward humans and animals, and a relationship exists between both types of empathy. The aims of this study were to investigate some determinants of the level of empathy and to gain insight into the possible correlation between human-animal and human-human empathy. For this, the Animal Empathy Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis were applied through an electronic survey system to freshmen and final-year students (n=452) from five schools of veterinary medicine in Chile. The correlation between the empathy scores of both instruments and their association with individual factors were studied using Spearman's correlation, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results suggest that both instruments correlate significantly, and that gender, year of study, diet, and area of interest have a significant association with the score for empathy toward animals. This research shows that individual characteristics and changes that occur during veterinary training can affect students' attitudes toward animals.

  2. Main natural hazards and vulnerability studies for some historical constructions and urban sectors of Valparaiso City (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Project "MAR VASTO" ("Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso, Servicios Técnicos", 2007) started in March 2007, with coordination of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), participation of several partners (Italy: University of Ferrara, Faculties of Architecture and Engineering; University of Padua, Faculty of Engineering; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics of Trieste; Chile: Valparaíso Technical University Federico Santa Maria, Civil Works Department; Santiago University of Chile, Division Structures Constructions Geotechnics), and support of local stakeholders. Being Valparaíso included since 2003 in the UNESCO Word Heritage List of protected sites, the project main goals are the following: to collect, analyze and elaborate the existing information, with a satisfying evaluation of main hazards; to develop a GIS digital archive, well organized, user-friendly and easy to be implemented in the future, providing maps and scenarios of specific and multiple risk; to provide a vulnerability analysis for three historical churches (San Francisco del Baron, Las Hermanitas de la Providencia, La Matríz, made by various materials - masonry, concrete, wood and adobe - and located in different city sites) and for a building stock in the Cerro Cordillera (partially inside the UNESCO area), analyzing more than 200 constructions; to suggest guidelines for future urban planning and strengthening interventions. In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project, the most important hazards have been investigated carried out. With regard to seismic hazard, "state-of-the-art" information has been provided by Chilean partners and stakeholders, using materials of several studies and stored in original earthquake reports, local newspapers and magazines. The activities performed by the Italian team regarded the definition, for the city of Valparaiso, of earthquake scenarios and maps based on the neo

  3. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala,Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region on...

  4. The role of environmental variables on the efficiency of water and sewerage companies: a case study of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Lafuente, Matilde

    2015-07-01

    This paper evaluates the efficiency of water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) by introducing the lack of service quality as undesirable outputs. It also investigates whether the production frontier of WaSCs is overall constant returns to scale (CRS) or variable returns to scale (VRS) by using two different data envelopment analysis models. In a second-stage analysis, we study the influence of exogenous and endogenous variables on WaSC performance by applying non-parametric hypothesis tests. In a pioneering approach, the analysis covers 18 WaSCs from Chile, representing about 90% of the Chilean urban population. The results evidence that the technology of the sample studied is characterized overall by CRS. Peak water demand, the percentage of external workers, and the percentage of unbilled water are the factors affecting the efficiency of WaSCs. From a policy perspective, the integration of undesirable outputs into the assessment of WaSC performance is crucial not to penalize companies that provide high service quality to customers.

  5. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at...tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres

  6. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and kidney cancer in uniquely exposed Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007-2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of 1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer.

  7. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A cross-sectional study in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Claudio; Droppelmann, Andrea; Erazo, Marcia; Aceituno, Paulina; Orellana, Cecilia; Parro, Javiera; Mesias, Sthepanie; Marchetti, Nella; Navas-Acien, Ana; Iglesias, Verónica

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in bars and restaurants and identify the main determinants of airborne PAH concentrations. This study included 57 bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile. PAH concentrations (ng/m(3) ) were measured using photoelectric aerosol sensor equipment (PAS 2000CE model). Nicotine concentrations (μg/m(3) ) were measured using active sampling pumps followed by gas-chromatography. Linear regression models were used to identify determinants of PAH concentrations. PAH concentrations were higher in venues that allowed smoking compared to smoke-free venues. After adjusting, the air PAH concentrations were 1.40 (0.64-3.10) and 3.34 (1.43-7.83) ng/m(3) higher for tertiles 2 and 3 of air nicotine compared to the lowest tertile. In hospitality venues where smoking is allowed, secondhand smoke exposure is a major source of PAHs in the environment. This research further supports the importance of implementing complete smoking bans to protect service industry workers from PAH exposure. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:887-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subjective well-being and satisfaction with food-related life in university students in southern Chile: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the experience of subjective well-being and self-assessment of dietary practices in university students in southern Chile. The sample was made up of 40 students of both genders, enrolled in undergraduate programs at a Chilean state university. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview. The results show that these university students are mostly satisfied with life, and spending time with family and friends, maintaining a good academic performance, having time for themselves and achieving their goals and objectives are reported as elements that make them happy. As to the assessment made by the participants about their current food-related life, more than half of the respondents reported dissatisfaction, while their degree of happiness when they eat is in relation to pleasurable sensations, social contact during the meal and meeting basic needs. This study explores issues on eating habits and well-being rarely addressed in Latin American university population so far, suggesting that interventions and strategies on healthful eating for this population must transcend nutrition information and take into account motivation and social factors that influence students’ food choices.

  9. [Socioeconomic and educational inequities as independent predictors for mortality in a developing country: A cohort study in San Francisco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Romero, Tomás; Manríquez, Leopoldo; Paredes, Mario; Ortúzar, Esteban; Taylor, Alan; Román, Carolinne; Kirschbaum, Aída; Díaz, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The socioeconomic position (SEP) and educational level of individuals have an inverse correlation with mortality in developed societies. To assess in a society undergoing a socioeconomic transition, the mortality risk associated to a low SEP (combination of education and income, scale 0-25 points, reference > 10 points) and low education (education years, reference > 8 years), adjusting for other known risk factors. In this prospective cohort study, a random sample of 920 subjects, living in San Francisco de Mostazal, Chile, aged more than 20 years (395 males) was examined for the first time in 1997-1999 and re-examined in 2005-2006. All had information about economic household income and level of education. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between mortality and socioeconomic measures. The crude mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 3.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.88-3.87) and 6.05 (95% CI 5.04-7.26) for low SEP and low educational level, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, smoking, alcohol intake and family history of cardiovascular disease, the figures were 1.23 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) and 1.54 (95% CI 1.23-1.85) for low SEP and low educational level, respectively. In a society in socioeconomic transition, low SEP and especially low educational level are risk factors for mortality even after adjusting for known mortality risk factors.

  10. Características de manejo y conducta en caballos estabulados en el sur de Chile: Estudio preliminar Husbandry and behaviour characteristics in stabled horses in the south of Chile: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Márquez

    2010-01-01

    . In Chile the conditions under which horses are kept in stables in relation to welfare have not been described. This is why the main objective of this study was to describe the housing systems for horses used in the south of Chile and determine if they have the conditions required to maintain an adequate welfare status. Fourteen stud farms, including 283 horses of different breeds located in Valdivia, Ranco, Osorno and Chiloé provinces were visited. Direct and indirect methods were used for the evaluation; these included aspects of health, behaviour, handling of the horses and training of the personnel. According to our results most horses had a good body condition score (88%, 2.5% presented lesions and only 0.7% were lame. All stud farms had deworming schedules and the majority a vaccination programme. The main problems were related with the presence of behavioural disorders (18.4%, low number of food rations per day, size of the stables and lack of training of the personnel, especially in relation to animal welfare concepts. All stud farms had a high level of concern about the care of their horses. However, the lack of knowledge in some aspects related to horse management need to be addressed through training in order to improve horses welfare.

  11. Studies on the moss flora of the Bío-Bío Region of Chile: Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Ireland

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the final report on the moss flora of the Bío-Bío Region (Región VIII in south-central Chile where collections were made in 2001–2003. Reported in this paper are one species new to South America, four species new to Chile and 16 species new to the Region. With these new additions the total number of taxa in the Bío-Bío Region is 343, corresponding to 331 species and 12 infraspecific taxa. A complete checklist of the mosses for all the provinces in the Region is presented.

  12. Determinants of favourable opinions about euthanasia in a sample of French physicians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dany, Lionel; Baumstarck, Karine; Dudoit, Eric; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Salas, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this study in a sample of French physicians was to establish the potential determinants of a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and when faced with a specific situation...

  13. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean

  14. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status, healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none, and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity. Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared

  15. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  16. Preliminary Study of Favourable Formations for CO{sub 2} Subsurface Storage in Spain; Estudio Preliminar de las Formaciones Favorables para el Almacenamiento Subterraneo de CO{sub 2} en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatero, M. A.; Reyes, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.; Perucha, M. A.

    2009-10-12

    This report is a synthesis of the possibilities of CO{sub 2} storage in the Spanish subsurface. Compilation and analysis of geological information has been carried out, looking at surface and subsurface, in order to make a pre-selection of potential favourable units for CO{sub 2} storage, taking in account that each of this storages needs a confining formation to seal the storage. Before the storage selection, a general description of the great geological units of the Iberian Peninsula is done. Afterwards, borehole logging from petroleum exploration is analysed in these units, formations and areas of interest. The aim is to finally obtain a description of selected units and their possibilities of CO{sub 2} storage. (Author) 17 refs.

  17. Should Marketers Try to Change Consumers Unfavourable Attitude for their Product into Favourable?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh

    2014-01-01

    This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.

  18. Stronger Ties With Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chile was the first South American country to establish diplomatic relations with China. It was also the first Latin American country to support China’s entry into the WTO,recognize China’s full market

  19. Arbitrage with ADRs: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile Arbitraje con ADRs: un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Mora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de casosectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organizedin two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow investors to obtain a risk free return.El presente artículo es la continuación del artículo “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile” y al igual que este, es un subproducto de la investigación “Arbitraje con ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile”. El artículo se divide en dos partes, en la primera se trata la teoría sobre la ley del precio único y la hipótesis de los mercados eficientes, y en la segunda parte se abarca el tema de arbitraje con activos financieros desde la práctica, haciendo un ejercicio econométrico de arbitraje con ADRs. El objetivo de esta investigación es comprobar la existencia de diferenciales de precio entre las acciones y sus respectivos ADRs, lo que permitiría a los inversionistas obtener una ganancia libre de riesgo.Abstract This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organized in two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow

  20. Metrología de la incertidumbre: un estudio de las estadísticas vitales en Chile y Brasil The metrology of uncertainty: a study of vital statistics from Chile and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Carvajal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la incertidumbre presente en una de las mediciones más usada para análisis y toma de decisiones en salud pública. Adapta la medida de entropía de Shannon-Wiener para expresar la incertidumbre contenida en el conteo de las causas de muertes en las estadísticas vitales oficiales de Chile. A partir de los hallazgos, discute los requerimientos metrológicos en salud pública, tan importantes como las mediciones mismas. Considera y argumenta la existencia de una incertidumbre adicional, asociada con las propiedades performativas de las estadísticas. Tanto por la forma de estructurar los datos a la manera de una cierta sintaxis de lo real, como por las exclusiones de aquello que queda más allá de la modelación cuantitativa usada en cada caso. Mediante una aproximación a la herencia del pensamiento pragmático, y usando herramientas conceptuales de la sociología de la traducción, destaca que la incertidumbre puede contribuir en salud pública a un debate acerca de la vinculación entre técnica, democracia y la formación de un público.This paper addresses the issue of uncertainty in the measurements used in public health analysis and decision-making. The Shannon-Wiener entropy measure was adapted to express the uncertainty contained in counting causes of death in official vital statistics from Chile. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that metrological requirements in public health are as important as the measurements themselves. The study also considers and argues for the existence of uncertainty associated with the statistics' performative properties, both by the way the data are structured as a sort of syntax of reality and by exclusion of what remains beyond the quantitative modeling used in each case. Following the legacy of pragmatic thinking and using conceptual tools from the sociology of translation, the authors emphasize that by taking uncertainty into account, public health can contribute to a

  1. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-05-27

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups.

  2. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Silva

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2 distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC, building density (BD, impervious surface (IS,municipal green space (MG,non-municipal green space (NG, domestic garden space (DG, distance to the periphery (DP, social welfare index (SW, and vegetation diversity (RV. Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat

  3. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E; Estay, Sergio A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  4. Study of a system of wind power generation for remote locations in Southern Chile; Estudio de un sistema de generacion de energia eolica para lugares aislados en el Sur de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfos, R. [Academia Politecnica Naval, Vina del Mar (Chile)], E-mail: rob@olfos.cl; Fernandez, G.; Lopez, M. [Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica], E-mail: mlopez@ucv.cl

    2009-07-01

    A study is carried out as a first draft to evaluate the technical feasibility of wind energy as a supplement of the existing power supply system available in isolated locations in Southern Chile, such as, Sea Mayors and Lighthouses. At present, most of these places are accessible only by sea and are supplied by diesel generators. This project aims to reduce the oil consumption which is transported in these remote zones by Chilean Navy ships. The responsible department of the Chilean Navy purchased a small Savonius type vertical 1000 Watts wind turbine to assess the feasibility of this project. This aims to encourage the use of wind, which is strong and permanent in these extreme latitudes of the southern zone. Evaluations of main parameters are conducted to obtain the generator rate and maximum operating range, e.g. the main variables that determine a wind generation system to match electricity demand, the types of wind generators and its power. Wind potential in the region is determined and an autonomous hybrid wind-diesel.

  5. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  6. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  7. The AURA Observatory in Chile-part of the IAU/UNESCO Extended Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Brief report. The Extended Case Study for AURA-O as a ``Window to the Universe'' (http://www2.astronomicalheritage.net/index.php/show-entity?identity=000059&idsub-entity=005) was prepared in the context of supporting the desire to preserve humanity's scientific/cultural heritage of outstanding, high-mountain, ground-based, observatory sites developed over the period 1870-2000.

  8. Geographic variation of gallbladder cancer mortality and risk factors in Chile: a population-based ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andia, Marcelo E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-01-01

    Chile’s gallbladder cancer rates are among the highest in the world, being the first cancer killer among Chilean women. To provide insights into the etiology of gallbladder cancer, we conducted an ecologic study examining the geographical variation of gallbladder cancer and several putative risk factors. The relative risk of dying from gallbladder cancer (relative to the national average mortality rate) between 1985 and 2003 was estimated for each of the 333 Chilean counties, using a hierarchical Poisson regression model, adjusting for age, sex, and geographical location. The risk of gallbladder cancer mortality was analyzed in relation to region (costal, inland, northern, and southern), poverty, Amerindian (Mapuche) population, typhoid fever, and access to cholecystectomy, using logistic regression analysis. There were 27,183 gallbladder cancer deaths, age-sex-adjusted county mortality rates ranging from 8.2 to 12.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, being higher in inland and southern regions; compare to the north-coastal, the northern-inland region had a 10-fold risk odds ratio (OR) (95% of confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–42.2) and the southern-inland region had a 26-fold risk (OR 95%CI: 6.0–114.2). Independent risk factors for gallbladder cancer were: ethnicity (Mapuche) OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.8–8.7), typhoid fever OR:2.9 (95%CI 1.2–6.9), poverty OR:5.1 (95%CI 1.6–15.9), low access to cholecystectomy OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.5–10.1), low access to hospital care OR:14.2 (95%CI 4.2–48.7) and high urbanization OR:8.0 (95%CI 3.4–18.7). Our results suggest that gallbladder cancer in Chile may be related to both genetic factors and poor living conditions. Future analytic studies are needed to further clarify the role of these factors in gallbladder cancer etiology. PMID:18566990

  9. Natural selection can favour 'irrational' behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, J. M.; Trimmer, P. C.; Houston, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory....

  10. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  11. Paleomagnetic study of an historical lava flow from the Llaima volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, A.; Moncinhatto, T.; Hernandez Moreno, C.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Trindade, R. I. F.

    2017-08-01

    The understanding of the paleosecular variations (PSV) of the geomagnetic field in South America is still biased by the scarcity of data. Especially, the recent geomagnetic PSV is characterized by the large growth of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) during the last centuries, first documented by the geomagnetic model gufm1 (Jackson et al., 2000). A large amount of data is required to understand the time and geographic distribution of this primary feature, and the Andean Pleistocene and Holocene volcanoes are an excellent recorder of instant local changes in SV. Here we present a preliminary study from 18 paleomagnetic samples collected during 2015 on what it was supposed to be the 1750 or the 1957-58 AD lava flow on the Llaima Volcano (38.692° S; 71.729° W), one of the most active centers of the Chilean Andes, in the Southern Volcanic Zone. A detailed paleomagnetic study was performed in order to recover the Declination and Inclination of the geomagnetic field, obtain the paleointensity and define the magnetic mineralogy. AF demagnetization until 1 T yielded an average vector at Dec/Inc 2.3°/-33.1° with α95 of 2.4°. This direction is carried by titanomagnetite grains with 40-45% ulvospinel as revealed by thermomagnetic curves. Paleointensity estimates were obtained following the IZZI-Thellier protocol. Seven specimens from 5 samples provided reliable results (success rate of 35%), giving an average paleointensity for these specimens of 30.88 ± 2.39 μT. The full magnetic vector obtained here was compared to archaeomagnetic reference curves and the IGRF suggest that the lava flow has the age of 1957-58 AD.

  12. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural selection can favour 'irrational' behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J M; Trimmer, P C; Houston, A I

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory. However, we show that an individual that is maximizing its rate of food gain can exhibit failure of transitivity and IIA. We show that such violations can be caused because a current option may disappear in the near future or a better option may reappear soon. Current food options can be indicative of food availability in the near future, and this key feature can result in apparently irrational behaviour.

  14. PM trend study for the 1998 - 2012 period: Impact of Transport and Petroleum-based Fuels in Santiago Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M. A.; Jhun, I.; Moreno, F.; Oyola, P.; Koutrakis, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago is the capital city of Chile and the combination of adverse climatic and geographical conditions, a continuously growing vehicle fleet, and an increasing number of industries, has made Santiago one of the most polluted cities in South America, and has been declared saturated zone for PM10 since 1996. Although there have been important reductions in the PM emissions due the implementation of the "Atmospheric Prevention and Decontamination Plan for the Metropolitan Region" (PPDA) however the efforts have not been enough to meet the actual standards. Currently is approved a standard for PM2.5, where the annual average is 20 μg/m3 and daily average 24 hr is 50 μg/m3. One of the PM2.5 sources are the traffic emission and one of the measures targeted in PPDA has been to regulate this source. In the last 20 years two of the main interventions have been the elimination of Lead in gasoline (2001) and the steadily reduced diesel sulfur content from 5,000 to 50 ppm. In this study we analyzed 14 years of PM2.5 mass and species concentration time's series, from April 1998 to August 2012, elemental chemical analysis was made for approximately 60% of samples using XRF technique at DRI Lab (USA). One of the objectives is evaluate the impact of fuel-related interventions and petroleum-based fuels (PBFs) sales. When was analyzed de lead concentration we found that is present in the environment despite of that was eliminated of gasoline 20 years ago. We analyzed the impact of diesel sulfur on ambient sulfur content, and was constructed a model to verify the relationship between ambient sulfur and diesel sulfur content after controlling for other covariates. The relation between ambient concentration and diesel content sulfur is linear, when the reduction of sulfur in diesel was from 1500 to 50 ppm the concentration decreased from 1.59 to 1.08 μg/m3. To determinate the impact of PBFs sales (gasoline, kerosene, petroleum) on PM2.5 concentration, we estimated PM2

  15. Comparative study of lahars generated by the 1961 and 1971 eruptions of Calbuco and Villarrica volcanoes, Southern Andes of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, Angelo; Clavero, Jorge; Rivera, Andrés

    2010-02-01

    The Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, are two of the most active volcanoes in Chile and have erupted several times in the XX century. The 1961 eruption at Calbuco volcano generated lahars on the North, East and Southern flanks, while the 1971 eruption at Villarrica volcano generated lahars in almost all the drainages towards the north, west and south of the volcano. The deposits from these eruptions in the Voipir and Chaillupén River (Villarrica) and the Tepú River (Calbuco) are studied. The 1971 lahar deposits on Villarrica volcano show a great number of internal structures such as lamination, lenses, grading of larger clasts and a great abundance of large floating blocks on top of the deposits. The granulometry can be unimodal or bimodal with less than 5% by weight of silt + clay material. SEM images reveal a great variety of forms and compositions of clasts. The 1961 lahar deposits on Calbuco volcano have a scarce number of internal structures, steeper margins and features of hot emplacement such as semi-carbonized vegetal rests, segregation pipes and a more consolidated matrix. The granulometry usually is bimodal with great quantities of silt + clay material (> 10% by weight). SEM images show a uniformity of composition and forms of clasts. Differences on deposits reveal different dynamics on both lahars. The Villarrica lahar was generated by sudden melt of ice and snow during the paroxysmal phase of the 1971 eruption, when a high fountain of lava was formed. The melted water flowed down on the flanks of the volcano and incorporated sediments to become transition flows, highly energetic and were emplaced incrementally. Dilution of the flows occurs when the lahars reached unconfined and flatter areas. In cases where the lahar flow found large water streams, dilution is enhanced. The Calbuco lahars were generated by the dilution of block and ash pyroclastic flows by flowing over the ice or snow or by entering active rivers

  16. Experimental study of ghost fishing by gillnets in Laguna Verde Valparaíso, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, two experiments were carried out in order to study ghost fishing generated by lost or abandoned gillnets. The first experiment was aimed to identify and quantify the number of captured specimens in intentionally abandoned gillnet between 45 and 86 m depth, which were periodically checked up to 156 days after being abandoned. In this experiment, 912 specimens of 12 taxa were caught, mostly invertebrates such as Cancer porteri (81.6% and Platymera gaudichaudii (9%. After the abandonment, the fish caught were only registered until day 63, while benthic species were captured during all the experiment. The second experiment consisted of checking and registering periodically the loss of height of an abandoned gillnet at 34 m depth in order to determine the reduction of the fishing capacity of the net. After 19 days of abandonment, the functional area of the net was reduced to 40% of the original area, reaching nearly zero after 155 days of abandonment. In order to estimate the potential effect of lost or abandoned gillnets in Chilean hake fisheries (Merluccius gayi gayi, an additional information-collecting process must be carried out, mainly in terms of frequency of gillnets losses.

  17. Synergies of solar energy use in the desalination of seawater: A case study in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Edward L.

    2016-05-01

    The mining industry is a great consumer of water for hydrometallurgical processes. Despite the efforts in minimizing the use of fresh water through reuse, recycling and process intensification, water demand for mining is expected to rise a 40% from 2013 to 2020. For seawater to be an alternative to groundwater, it must be pumped up to the mine (thousands of meters uphill) and desalinated. These processes require intensive energy and investment in desalination and piping/pumping facilities. A conventional solution for this process would be desalination by reverse osmosis at sea level, powered by electricity from the grid, and further pumping of the desalinated water uphill. This paper compares the feasibility of two solar technologies versus the "conventional" option. LCOW (Levelized Cost of Water) was used as a comparative indicator among the studied solutions, with values for a lifetime of 10, 15, 20 and 25 years, calculated using a real discount rate equal to 12%. The LCOW is lower in all cases for the RO + grid solution. The cost of desalination, ignoring the contribution of pumping, is similar for the three technologies from twenty years of operation. The use of solar energy to desalinate sea water for consumption in the mines of the Atacama region is technically feasible. However, due to the extra costs from pumping whole seawater, and not just the desalinated water, solar solutions are less competitive than the conventional process.

  18. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  19. Mental health and associated factors among young offenders in Chile: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Labbé, Nicolas; Del Villar, Paloma; Allende, Catalina; Araya, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2017-04-12

    Few studies in Latin America have explored mental disorder among young offenders, or variables associated with it. Our aim was to test for associations between childhood adversity or substance misuse and psychiatric disorders among young offenders. Sentenced adolescent offenders were recruited from young offenders' institutions or community centres provided by the Chilean National Service for Minors. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, conducted by trained psychologists. A trained sociologist used an ad hoc interview to collect information about childhood experiences, including parenting, trauma, education and substance misuse. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyse data. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders among the 935 participants were marijuana dependence disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. Substance use disorders were less frequent among young offenders who were serving their sentence in young offenders' institutions than among those serving in community centres and more frequent among those who started to use marijuana at an earlier age. Among other variables, childhood maltreatment was related to major depressive disorder, and maternal death to anxiety disorders. Higher educational status was related to a lower frequency of depressive and anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that greater efforts must be made to identify vulnerable young people much earlier. Few of these young offenders with mental health problems had been well adjusted in health, education or socially before this period of detention. © 2017 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    indicated by wide confidence intervals, prevented the identification of other significantly associated covariates. Conclusion This is the first study to look at the living conditions and health of those that preferred not to respond their migration status in Chile. Respondents that do not report their migration status are vulnerable to poor health and may represent undocumented immigrants. Surveys that fail to identify these people are likely to misrepresent the experiences of immigrants and further quantitative and qualitative research is urgently required.

  1. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  2. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  3. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  4. Searching development strategies for less-favoured areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Kuiper, M.H.; Pender, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rural households in less-favoured areas (LFAs) face multiple constraints for overcoming chronic poverty and resource degradation. Strategic development options can be assessed through interdisciplinary research based on coupling of human and natural systems approaches. Simulation modelling enables t

  5. Estudio del comportamiento serológico de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App en planteles porcinos comerciales de la zona central de Chile Serological behaviour study of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App in commercial swine herds from the central region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile se ha realizado sólo un estudio en Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App. Este trabajo pretende determinar la duración de la inmunidad materna, la edad de seroconversión y la prevalencia aparente y verdadera en 7 planteles de cerdos comerciales. Se obtuvieron 60 muestras por plantel, divididas en 10 muestras de suero, de animales de 4, 6, 10, 14,18 y 21 semanas de edad, y analizadas a través de un kit ELISA® comercial. De las 420 muestras se detectaron 134 positivas, de las cuales 112 correspondían a cerdos menores de 10 semanas y sólo 22 provenían de animales mayores de 10 semanas, que seroconvirtieron probablemente debido a una infección de campo. La caída de la inmunidad materna fue alrededor de la 10ª semana de edad. En cuanto a la seroconversión, se observó que a partir de la 18* semana comenzaron a aparecer los animales con anticuerpos circulantes propios. Dos de los siete planteles no seroconvirtieron. Además, dos presentaron una seroconversión igual o superior al 50% a las 18 semanas. La seroprevalencia aparente de App fue de 10,48%, mientras que prevalencia verdadera, mediante dos métodos estadísticos, fue de 9,6% (IC: 7,6% y 11,7% y 10,67% respectivamente. En este trabajo se encontró que la prevalencia es similar a la observada en EE.UU., debido presumiblemente al sistema de producción y a los serotipos que están presentes en ambos países. Por otro lado, si bien la mayoría de los planteles seroconvierten luego de la caída de la inmunidad materna, se observaron diferentes patrones serológicos entre ellos.In Chile, there was only one existing study on App. This study was designed to determine the maternal immunity duration, the age of seroconversion and the apparent and true prevalence in animals from 7 swine commercial herds. 60 samples were taken per herd and divided into 10 serum samples from animals of 4, 6,10,14,18and21 weeks of age, which were analyzed by ELISA®. Out of the 420 samples, 134 were

  6. Representación de la infancia en el discurso publicitario. Un análisis de caso de la publicidad en Chile Representation of Childhood in Advertising Discourse. A Case Study of the Advertising Industry in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vergara del Solar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales características que presenta el discurso de la publicidad respecto de la infancia, y su relación con la perspectiva que los niños tienen de esta etapa de la vida, tomado como referencia los «nuevos estudios sociales» y el análisis crítico de discursos. Con esto, se busca complementar la perspectiva funcionalista de los estudios de comunicación en el ámbito del análisis de contenido, incorporando un enfoque discursivo que considere los aspectos contextuales, que puedan condicionar la interpretación de los mensajes publicitarios. El método utilizado, en una primera etapa, fue el análisis de discurso aplicado a la publicidad infantil, donde se establecieron las funciones posibles del mensaje, con el objetivo de explorar las representaciones sociales e identificar los estereotipos utilizados para generar estos espots publicitarios. En una segunda etapa, y para contrastar los hallazgos obtenidos, se realizaron entrevistas grupales a niños y niñas de estrato socio-económico medio de 10 y 11 años, de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Al confrontar ambos resultados, se destaca una noción compleja y relacional de infancia. Una visión de sí mismos como niños agobiados por los adultos y de la adultez como ausencia de libertad efectiva, y donde los arquetipos identificados, hablan de una imagen del mundo adulto como condición de pérdida respecto del ejercicio de la creatividad, la imaginación y la libertad. Estos arquetipos tienen su correlato en la oferta televisiva infantil, donde en buena parte de sus series, la imagen del adulto es ridiculizada a través de la ironía y la parodia, mostrándolos como poco competentes en sus roles de padres y en su autoridad moral.This paper discusses the main characteristics of advertising discourse in relation to childhood and its engagement with children's view of this stage of life, in line with «new social studies» and critical discourse analysis. This

  7. A study of the relationship between degree of ethnocentrism and typologies of food purchase in supermarkets in central-southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish different types of consumers according to their level of ethnocentrism in relation to the consumption of foodstuffs in central-southern Chile. To do this a modification of the CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale) was applied through direct survey of 800 habitual supermarket shoppers in two cities in central-southern Chile. The modified CETSCALE presented a sufficient level of internal consistency and there were three factors which included the 17 items of the scale. Five typologies of consumer with different degrees of ethnocentrism were distinguished by cluster analysis, based on the values of the factors and items in the CETSCALE. The composition of the typologies of consumers were related to the city and zone of residence, age, socioeconomic level, self-declared life-style, ethnic origin, knowledge of the origin of the foodstuffs purchased, frequency of purchase of imported foodstuffs and reasons for rejection in the case of a low purchase frequency. It may therefore be concluded that different levels of ethnocentrism exist in the consumption of foodstuffs, related with some socio-demographic characteristics of consumers and their attitudes to imported foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes of insect vectors and patients with Chagas of Chile studied by means of cytochrome b gene sequencing, minicircle hybridization, and nuclear gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Marco; Campos, Ricardo; Coronado, Ximena; Ortiz, Sylvia; Solari, Aldo

    2012-03-01

    Fifty-six Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from Chile and neighboring countries and different hosts, humans, and Triatoma infestans and Mepraia sp., vectors of domiciliary and natural environments were characterized by using three molecular markers. These were cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequencing, minicircle DNA blotting, and hybridization with five genotype-specific DNA probes and nuclear analysis of 1f8 and gp72 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results with all three molecular markers are concordant, with minor limitations, grouping T. cruzi stocks into four discrete typing units (DTUs) (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI). TcI and TcII stocks were heterogeneous. TcI and TcII stocks were clustered in two main subgroups determined by Cyt b gene sequencing and minicircle hybridization. However, TcV and TcVI stocks were homogeneous and not differentiated by Cyt b gene sequencing or minicircle DNA hybridization. The discriminatory power and limitations of the molecular markers are discussed, as well as the distribution of the four DTUs in the domiciliary and sylvatic transmission cycles of Chile and the limitations of each marker for molecular epidemiological studies performed with T. cruzi stocks rather than the analysis of direct T. cruzi samples from natural hosts.

  9. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  12. Intercultural health practices: towards an equal recognition between indigenous medicine and biomedicine? A case study from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-03-01

    Over the past few years, intercultural health has become an emerging issue in health policy. Intercultural health is an approach in health that aims at reducing the gap between indigenous and western health systems, on the basis of mutual respect and equal recognition of these knowledge systems. This article questions the applicability of such a concept in the context of Chile. Here, conflicting interests between the Mapuche and the Chilean state are related to aspects of economic development, modernity processes, integration, intercultural relations, and indigenous rights and are deeply reflected also in projects for an intercultural health system. By analysing the experience of the intercultural practice of Makewe Hospital, this article argues that effective and equitable intercultural health practices will not take place unless there will be an integral valorisation of the Mapuche culture from a broader perspective.

  13. Relation between private health insurance and high rates of caesarean section in Chile: qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S F

    2000-12-16

    To explore the circumstances and factors that explain the association between private health insurance cover and a high rate of caesarean sections in Chile. Qualitative analysis of audiotaped in-depth interviews with obstetricians and pregnant women; quantitative analysis of data from face to face semistructured interview survey conducted postnatally (with women who had given birth in the previous 24-72 hours), and of a review of medical notes at a public hospital, a university hospital, and a private clinic. Santiago, Chile. Qualitative arm: 22 obstetricians, 21 pregnant women; quantitative arm: 540 postnatal women. Rates of caesarean section in different types of institutions; consultants' views on private practice; work patterns in private practice; women's reasons for choosing private care; women's preferences on method of delivery. Private health insurance cover requires the primary maternity care provider to be an obstetrician. In the postnatal survey, women with private obstetricians showed consistently higher rates of caesarean section (range 57-83%) than those cared for by midwives or doctors on duty in public or university hospitals (range 27-28%). Only a minority of women receiving private care reported that they had wanted this method of delivery (range 6-32%). With the diversification in the healthcare market, most obstetricians now have demanding peripatetic work schedules. Private maternity patients are a lucrative source of income. The obstetrician is committed to attend these private births in person, and the "programming" (or scheduling) of births is a common time management strategy. The rate of elective caesarean sections was 30-68% in women with private obstetricians and 12-14% in women not attended by private obstetricians. Policies on healthcare financing can influence maternity care management and outcomes in unforeseen ways. The prevailing business ethos in health care encourages such pragmatism among those doctors who do not have a moral

  14. La prueba de la eficiencia: un estudio de casos de las relaciones de colaboración que mantienen empresas con organizaciones sin fin de lucro en Chile The proof of efficiency: a case study on cooperative relations between firms and nonprofits in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rodríguez M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es describir la relación de colaboración que mantienen cuatro empresas de capital español, con OSFL en Chile, en el marco de las acciones de Responsabilidad Social que desarrollan. Interesó observar el origen de la relación, la asignación de valor que las empresas atribuían a la relación y las posibles acciones o consecuencias, lecciones o aprendizajes que surgían de ellas.The purpose of this paper is to describe the collaborative relationship established, within the framework of social responsibility initiatives, between four Spanish companies based in Chile and nonprofit Chilean organizations. The study focused on the origin of the relations, as well as the value assigned by the companies to such relationship and the possible consequences, lessons or learning they may produce.

  15. [Euthanasia in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco M, Víctor Hugo; Crispi, Francisca

    2016-12-01

    Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation. In order to have an open discussion in our population about the issue, the debate has to be opened to the citizens, accompanied by clear medical information about the procedure.

  16. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  17. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism.

  18. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  19. Investigación sobre el diseño curricular de la carrera de biblioteconomía y documentación en la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción (Concepción, Chile The Planning Project of the Library Science and Documentation Studies at the Catholic University of the Holy Conception (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Fernández Bajón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto de planificación de la carrera de Bibliotecología y Documentación en la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción (Chile que aquí abordamos revisa los aspectos fundamentales que incurren en la formulación de los diseños curriculares universitarios, a saber: políticas de información, de educación, institucionales, académicas y laborales de la sociedad de la información chilena. El análisis realizado ha detectado problemas reales relacionados con el ámbito académico-científico y político de la República de Chile.The planning project of the Library Science and Documentation studies at the Catholic University of the Holy Conception (Chile that we board revises the fundamental aspects that are involved in the formulation of the university's curricular designs, that is to say: information policy, education policy, institutional policy, academic and working policy of the society of information of Chile. From the analysis carried out we have detected real problems related with the academic, scientific and government areas of the Republic of Chile which it is our aim to develop here.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of biodiesel blends on Benzo[a]pyrene and main emissions using MOVES: A case study in Temuco, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Cortés, Ernesto; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Cubillos, Francisco; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-12-15

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, the diesel mobile sources are growing very fast in the past 10 years and so far very few studies have been done. The main goal of this research was to develop a 2013 emission inventory of criteria pollutants and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to evaluate the use of six biodiesel blends of 0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 20% by volume of fuel in diesel motors from the vehicle fleet within the mentioned areas using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). Input parameters for the base year 2005 were estimated to implement and adapt the model in Chile, while results of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2 equivalent and SO2 were compared with the Chilean Emission Inventory estimated by the model "Methodology for the Calculation of Vehicle Emissions." The 2013 emissions reduced with respect to 2005, in the majority of the contaminants analyzed, despite the 47% increase in the annual miles traveled. Using biodiesel blends, an emission reduction was estimated at up to 15% in particulate matter, BaP, and CO for the year 2013, as well as an increment of 2% in NOx emissions, attributed to low sulfur content (50 ppm) in the diesel and the antiquity of the vehicle fleet. The results obtained gave evidence of the influence of the biodiesel use in the pollutant emissions to improve the Chilean air quality, as well as providing a strategy for this air quality management.

  1. What are people thinking about floods? A study in two Mediterranean areas: Costa Brava, Spain and Talcahuano City, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, A.; Ribas, A.; Cifuentes, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Mediterranean areas are not immune to flood problems. The Spanish Mediterranean coast is a reflection of this, where flooding continues to be the greatest natural hazard with negative effects on the territory. The urbanization of coastal watersheds, very pronounced in the last 15 years, has led to the creation of authentic urban continuums in the seafront and the appearance of residential developments therein. The municipalities of Costa Brava, in the province of Girona, are an example of this dynamic of the increasing risk, exposure, and impact of floods. In Chile, floods are considered one of the main natural hazards, especially in the province of Concepcion. One of the most important cities of this area is Talcahuano, which has suffered continual flood episodes during recent years. Flood episodes could yet increase in the future due to the high frequency of extraordinary atmospheric events and a higher exposure to flood risk created by the development of intensive urbanization processes. However, after the February 27th 8.8 degrees earthquake (Richter scale) that affected the center-south of Chile and originated the tsunami which flooded a large percentage of the residential area and military base of the city of Talcahuano, the risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concepts changed. This research looks at the social perception and social knowledge of Mediterranean residents affected and unaffected by floods, emphasizing which is their risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concept and what kind of measures they proposed to reduce their flood vulnerability. The end objective of this research is to become a framework for future local flood policies and a tool that could be reviewed by specialists in other regions that might be affected by this hazard. This social assessment has been carried out through surveys of residents in Costa Brava and Talcahuano whose endogenous and exogenous characteristics have been significant in explaining their

  2. Estudio del comportamiento serológico de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) en planteles porcinos comerciales de la zona central de Chile Serological behaviour study of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) in commercial swine herds from the central region of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, D.; M. QUEZADA; Ruiz, A

    2008-01-01

    En Chile se ha realizado sólo un estudio en Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Este trabajo pretende determinar la duración de la inmunidad materna, la edad de seroconversión y la prevalencia aparente y verdadera en 7 planteles de cerdos comerciales. Se obtuvieron 60 muestras por plantel, divididas en 10 muestras de suero, de animales de 4, 6, 10, 14,18 y 21 semanas de edad, y analizadas a través de un kit ELISA® comercial. De las 420 muestras se detectaron 134 positivas, de las cuales 11...

  3. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

  4. A study of SO2 emissions and ground surface displacements at Lastarria volcano, Antofagasta Region, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewcun, Lucie G.

    Lastarria volcano (Chile) is located at the North-West margin of the 'Lazufre' ground inflation signal (37x45 km2), constantly uplifting at a rate of ˜2.5 cm/year since 1996 (Pritchard and Simons 2002; Froger et al. 2007). The Lastarria volcano has the double interest to be superimposed on a second, smaller-scale inflation signal and to be the only degassing area of the Lazufre signal. In this project, we compared daily SO2 burdens recorded by AURA's OMI mission for 2005-2010 with Ground Surface Displacements (GSD) calculated from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images for 2003-2010. We found a constant maximum displacement rate of 2.44 cm/year for the period 2003-2007 and 0.80- 0.95 cm/year for the period 2007-2010. Total SO 2 emitted is 67.0 kT for the period 2005-2010, but detection of weak SO2 degassing signals in the Andes remains challenging owing to increased noise in the South Atlantic radiation Anomaly region.

  5. Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Toro, Claudia; Cáceres, Jorge; López, Gianni; Oyola, Pedro; Koutrakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    The impact of outdoor and indoor pollution sources on indoor air quality in Santiago, Chile was investigated. Toward this end, 16 homes were sampled in four sessions. Each session included an outdoor site and four homes using different unvented space heaters (electric or central heating, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene). Average outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were very high (55.9 microg x m(-3)), and a large fraction of these particles penetrated indoors. PM2.5 and several PM2.5 components (including sulfate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were elevated in homes using kerosene heaters. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were higher in homes with combustion heaters as compared with those with electric heaters or central heating. A regression model was used to assess the effect of heater use on continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations when windows were closed. The model found an impact only for kerosene heaters (45.8 microg m(-3)).

  6. Chile: segundo tiempo Chile: Half-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT L FUNK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el año político chileno, ofreciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de 'segundo tiempo' autoimpuesto por la presidenta Michelle Bachelet a comienzos del 2008. Resumiendo algunas de las políticas implementadas, el trabajo cuestiona si se logró marcar una linea y dejar atrás los dos primeros y difíciles años del cuarto gobierno de la Concertación. Analizando las medidas tomadas y las encuestas de opinión pública, se encuentra que el reenfoque de las prioridades del gobierno y una complicada coyuntura externa ayudó a levantar los niveles de apoyo de la presidenta y su gobierno.The article examines the political year in Chile, offering a critical analysis of the concept of 'Second Period' which President Michelle Bachelet defined at the beginning of 2008. Summarising some of the policies implemented, the piece asks whether the government was able to draw a line, leaving behind the first, difficult two years of the Concertación s fourth government. Analyzing the measures taken and public opinion polls, the paper finds that a re-focussing of the government's priorities together with a complicated external environment helped to raise support for the president as well as her government.

  7. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  8. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  9. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  10. Mountaintops phylogeography: A case study using small mammals from the Andes and the coast of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan F.; Boric-Bargetto, Dusan; Torres-Pérez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated if two sigmodontine rodent taxa (Abrothrix olivacea and Phyllotis darwini) from the Andes and Coastal mountaintops of central Chile, experienced distributional shifts due to altitudinal movements of habitat and climate change during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We tested the hypothesis that during LGM populations of both species experienced altitudinal shifts from the Andes to the lowlands and the coastal Cordillera, and then range retractions during interglacial towards higher elevations in the Andes. These distributional shifts may have left remnants populations on the mountaintops. We evaluated the occurrence of intraspecific lineages for each species, to construct distribution models at LGM and at present, as extreme climatic conditions for each lineage. Differences in distribution between extreme climatic conditions were interpreted as post-glacial distributional shifts. Abrothrix olivacea displayed a lineage with shared sequences between both mountain systems, whereas a second lineage was restricted to the Andes. A similar scenario of panmictic unit in the past was recovered for A. olivacea in the Andes, along with an additional unit that included localities from the rest of its distribution. For P. darwini, both lineages recovered were distributed in coastal and Andean mountain ranges at present as well, and structuring analyses for this species recovered coastal and Andean localities as panmictic units in the past. Niche modeling depicted differential postglacial expansions in the recovered lineages. Results suggest that historical events such as LGM triggered the descending of populations to Andean refuge areas (one of the A. olivacea’s lineages), to the lowlands, and to the coastal Cordillera. Backward movements of populations after glacial retreats may have left isolates on mountaintops of the coastal Cordillera, suggesting that current species distribution would be the outcome of climate change and habitat reconfiguration

  11. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  12. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  13. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  14. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  15. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Deborah A. Cohen; Davis, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...

  16. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  17. ¿POR QUÉ AUMENTA LA POBLACIÓN PENAL EN CHILE?: UN ESTUDIO CRIMINOLÓGICO LONGITUDINAL ¿Why is criminal population increasing in Chile?: a longitudinal criminology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Salinero Echeverría

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los factores y las respectivas causas del incremento de la población carcelaria en Chile entre el período 2000-2009. Se consigna que los factores que producirían la inflación penitenciaria son atribuibles al mayor ingreso de personas al sistema penal; al mayor tiempo de privación de libertad de los penados, y a la falta de mecanismos reales de descompresión carcelaria. A su vez, se analizan las causas que probablemente originarían estos factores, tales como la Reforma Procesal Penal y todo lo que ella introdujo desde la perspectiva de un nuevo sistema de administración de justicia penal; el punitivismo penal, con leyes que favorecerían la prisionización, y un marcado reduccionismo en los denominados beneficios legales alternativos a la prisión.In this paper the author analyzes the factors and causes of the increase in prison population in Chile between 2000 and 2009. It is stated that the factors that cause a rise in prison population are attributable to an increased inflow of people into the criminal system, to a longer incarceration of prisoners, and, to a lack of real mechanisms of prison reduction. In turn, the causes that are likely to originate these factors are analyzed, such as the Criminal Procedure Reform and everything it brought from the perspective of a new system of criminal justice, the punitive criminal justice that favor incarceration, and a marked reduction in legal benefits known as alternatives to prison.

  18. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  19. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  20. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  1. School-based intervention to improve the mental health of low-income, secondary school students in Santiago, Chile (YPSA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cova Felix

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common and can have devastating effects on the life of adolescents. Psychological interventions are the first-line for treating or preventing depression among adolescents. This proposal aims to evaluate a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among student's aged 13-14 attending municipal state secondary schools in Santiago, Chile. Study design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the main clusters. We compared this intervention with a control group in a study involving 22 schools, 66 classes and approximately 2,600 students. Students in the active schools attended 11 weekly and 3 booster sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioural models. The control schools received their usual but enhanced counselling sessions currently included in their curriculum. Mean depression scores and indicators of levels of functioning were assessed at 3 and 12 months after the completion of the intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Direct and indirect costs were measured in both groups to assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Discussion As far as we are aware this is the first cluster randomised controlled trial of a school intervention for depression among adolescents outside the Western world. Trial Registration ISRCTN19466209

  2. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  3. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zunyou

    2013-02-01

    Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual's liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned.

  4. The flat to normal subduction transition study to obtain the Nazca plate morphology using high resolution seismicity data from the Nazca plate in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacif, Silvina; Triep, Enrique G.; Spagnotto, Silvana L.; Aragon, Eugenio; Furlani, Renzo; Álvarez, Orlando

    2015-08-01

    Data from 45 seismological stations mostly temporary were used to obtain an accurate data set of intraslab seismicity of the Nazca subducted plate between 33°S and 35°S. The interest zone located in the transition section where the Nazca plate changes from flat slab north of ~ 33° to normal slab south of that latitude. In addition, the study region is located where the active volcanic arc appears. From a set of earthquakes which were relocated using a grid-search multiple events algorithm we obtained the plate geometry from latitudes of 33°S to 34.5°S and from 60 km to 120 km in depth. The obtained morphology shows notable similarity in its structure to Maipo Orocline revealing some possible strong connection between the overriding plate and the subducting plate. We suggest that the subducted plate at the trench has been deformed in its shape consistently with the Maipo Orocline pattern and its deformation is observed below the interface zone. Our results are consistent with van Keken et al., 2011 models, and based on this the seismicity located between 70 and 120 km is probably related with dehydration processes rather than mechanical processes. From our precise earthquake locations we observed a complete lack of intraslab seismicity below 120 km depth. This valuable finding can be used to better constrain thermal models for the subduction region of Central Chile.

  5. Valuing biodiversity attributes and water supply using choice experiments: a case study of La Campana Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess public economic preferences for biodiversity conservation and water supply and to analyse the factors influencing those preferences. A survey based on the choice experiment method was carried out at Peñuelas National Reserve, Chile, an area that is threatened by both occasional forest fires and the growing housing market. The input of local administrators was used to define environmental attributes of the area related to biodiversity conservation and water supply. Attributes were selected for analysis by the choice experiment. The selected attributes were the following: existence of endemic orchid species, chances of observing animals with scenic attraction, additional protection for an endemic amphibian, and availability of drinkable water in the future. A monetary variable consisting of an increase in the rate for entry to the area was also incorporated to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for additional protection for the selected attributes. Three hundred four Chilean visitors to the reserve were randomly selected for interviews. Econometric analysis based on the Theory of Utility Maximization shows that visitors are willing to pay to protect the selected attributes. WTP values for the attributes range from CHP $2,600 ($5.4) to $6,600 ($14) per person per visit. The results of this research provide reserve managers information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximise the social benefits of nature conservation management programmes.

  6. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  7. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Sexual violence in college students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Oyarzun, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Young women's experiences of sexual victimization can have far-reaching consequences, including unwanted pregnancy and increased risk of psychological, sexual, and reproductive health difficulties; these experiences can also limit young women's ability to achieve their educational potential. To date, no quantitative studies have examined sexual violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, an anonymous survey was administered to students enrolled in General Education courses ...

  9. Tackling Social Exclusion: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies an innovative welfare program in Chile that combines a period of frequent home visits to households in extreme poverty, with guaranteed access to social services. Program impacts are identified using a regression discontinuity design, exploring the fact that program eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. The analysis finds strong and lasting impacts of the program on the take-up of subsidies and employment services. These impacts ar...

  10. Cryptic female choice via sperm dumping favours male copulatory courtship in a spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, A V; Eberhard, W G

    2010-02-01

    Males of many animals perform 'copulatory courtship' during copulation, but the possible reproductive significance of this behaviour has seldom been investigated. In some animals, including the spider Physocyclus globosus (Pholcidae), the female discards sperm during or immediately following some copulations. In this study, we determined which of several variables associated with copulation correlated with paternity success in P. globosus when two males mate with a single female. Then, by determining which of these variables also correlated with sperm dumping, we inferred which variables may affect paternity via the mechanism of sperm dumping. Male abdomen vibration (a copulatory courtship behaviour) and male genitalic squeezing both correlated with both paternity and sperm dumping; so, these traits may be favoured by biased sperm dumping. Biased sperm dumping may also be the mechanism by which possible cryptic female choice favours another male trait that was the subject of a previous study, responsiveness to female stridulation.

  11. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: gkitis@auth.gr; Cruz Zaragoza, E. [Institute of Nuclear Science, UNAM, PO Box 70-753, Mexico DF (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Physics Department, University La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2. 00187 Rome (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika.

  12. Employee participation in the private sector in Malaysia: The Applicability of Favourable Conjunctures Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Parasuraman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available EP is one crucial aspect of the employment relationship in both private and public organisations in many countries. In 2001, Poole, Lansbury and Wiles developed a model for comparative EP, which they named the Favourable Conjunctures Model. So far, this model has only been applied in developed countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia and Europe. There it was applied in order to examine worker participation from the national perspective. No extensive study has been conducted using this model to explain worker participation practices at the company level. In parallel with this aspect, this model also has never been used to explain the nature of EP in the Asian developing countries. This current research will use the Favourable Conjunctures Model to examine the nature of EP in private enterprises based on empirical study carried out in Malaysia. The argument of this paper is that the Favourable Conjunctures Model of Industrial Democracy (Poole et al. 2001 is inadequate to elucidate the characteristics of EP in Malaysia. Based on empirical findings from three private companies in Malaysia, the paper argues that there are many contextual factors that influence the nature of EP in Malaysian private companies that are not taken into account by the model. They are:multi-ethnic (cultural influences, the repressive role of state in the Malaysian industrial relations, the New Economic Policy and industrialisation plan, Islamic working ethics, the influence of a British colonial history, lack of training among non-managerial employees in EP, the impact of foreign direct investment on industrial relations, to identify a few. Based on this study, it is proposed that the present Favourable Conjunctures Model of Industrial Democracy (Poole et al. 2001 be modified based on the contextual factors discussed above. The paper concludes that the western model of EP could not be directly applied in Malaysia without some adjustment of

  13. Determinants of favourable opinions about euthanasia in a sample of French physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Lionel; Baumstarck, Karine; Dudoit, Eric; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Salas, Sébastien

    2015-11-05

    The question whether euthanasia should be legalised has led to substantial public debate in France. The objective of this study in a sample of French physicians was to establish the potential determinants of a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and when faced with a specific situation as embodied in the Humbert affair. The study was a cross-sectional survey investigating two different samples of medical doctors: (1) those specialised in palliative care and affiliated to the French Society for Patient Accompaniment and Palliative Care; (2) medical interns (medical doctors in training course) in a French medical university (Marseille). A questionnaire was sent (email) to each voluntary participant including sociodemographics, professional status, mention of believing in God, and opinion about euthanasia (the question was designed to assess the general opinion about euthanasia and the opinion about a specific case, the Vincent Humbert' case (a man who was rendered quadriplegic, blind, and mute after an accident and has requested euthanasia). A total of 413 physicians participated in the research (participation rate: 48.5%). Less than half of the population were favourable to euthanasia in general and almost two-thirds of the population were favourable to Vincent Humbert's request for euthanasia. Based on the multivariate analysis, individuals believing in God and being a medical intern were significant independent factors linked to having a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and about the Vincent Humbert's request. There is still no study in France on the development of opinion about euthanasia and its impact. The issue goes beyond the strictly professional sphere and involves broader socio-political stakes. These stakes do not necessarily take into account medical practices and experiences or the desires of end-of-life patients. The professional upheaval that the future French legal framework will doubtlessly trigger will require further

  14. Will Hydrogen be Competitive in Europe without Tax-Favours?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the alternative transport fuels expected to replace conventional oil based fuels. The paper finds that it is possible for non-fossil-based hydrogen to become the lowest cost fuel without favourable tax treatment. The order of per kilometre cost depends on performance in hydrogen...... production, the international oil price, and fuel taxes. At low oil prices, the highest per kilometre costs were found for non-fossil power-based hydrogen, the second highest for natural gas-based hydrogen, and the lowest for conventional fuels. At high oil prices, this ranking is reversed and non......-fossil power-based hydrogen becomes the most cost competitive fuel. General fuel taxes lower the threshold at which the international oil price reverses this competitiveness order. The highest fuel tax rates applied in Europe lowers this threshold oil price considerably, whereas the lowest fuel taxes may...

  15. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  16. ESTILOS DE LIDERAZGO Y RESULTADOS DEL SISTEMA DE MEDICIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE LA EDUCACIÓN: UN ESTUDIO EMPÍRICO EN LOS COLEGIOS BÁSICOS DE LA CIUDAD DE ARICA-CHILE LEADERSHIP STYLES AND RESULTS OF EDUCATION QUALITY MEASURING SYSTEM: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN ARICA-CHILE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Pedraja-Rejas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación pretende estudiar si existe o no una relación estadísticamente significativa entre los estilos de liderazgo y los resultados que los estudiantes obtienen en la prueba nacional del sistema de medición de la calidad de la educación. Para este efecto se trabaja con una muestra de 21 escuelas de enseñanza básica de la ciudad de Arica, Chile. Los resultados sugieren que el estilo de liderazgo transformacional influye positivamente sobre la calidad de los colegios, el estilo transaccional no tiene efecto estadísticamente significativo, en tanto que el estilo "laissez faire" afecta negativamente los resultados en el sistema de medición de la calidad de la educación.This study aims to explore whether there is a statistically significant relationship between leadership styles and the results that students get in the national testing system for measuring the quality of education. To this end, working with a sample of 21 elementary schools in the city of Arica, Chile. The results suggest that transformational leadership style has a positive influence on the quality of schools, style transactional not have statistically significant influence, while the style "laissez faire" has a negative influence on the results in the system for measuring the quality of education.

  17. The impact of rapid recharge events on the evolution of magma chambers: Case studies of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruyter, Wim; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Cooper, Kari; Kent, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Magma reservoirs in the crust are thought to be dominantly formed by episodic recharge events at rates that are much larger than the long-term average magma inflow rates. Hence, a better understanding of the evolution of a magma reservoir requires elucidating the mass change, pressurization, heating, deformation and the potential for an eruption associated with different recharge scenarios. Most importantly, the bifurcation in behavior between a recharge event that leads to eruption and one that will grow the chamber requires quantification for better volcanic hazard assessment. We use a numerical model to determine the change in pressure, temperature and volume of a magma chamber as it is exposed to a recharge event. The model is applied to the well-studied volcanic systems of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile). We establish the rates and the duration of magma recharge events that will lead to an eruption. In doing so, we demonstrate the importance of the state of the magma chamber prior to the recharge event, i.e. its size and exsolved volatile content, on the subsequent evolution of the reservoir. In the case of Santorini, the model successfully reproduces the main features of the Minoan eruption and Nea Kameni activity, providing volume estimates for the active part of the current subvolcanic reservoir as well as information regarding the presence of exsolved volatiles. For Quizapu, we suggest that the change in eruptive style, from an effusive outpouring of lava in 1846-1847 to an explosive Plinian eruption in 1932, was controlled by a shift in the state of the magma chamber induced by the first eruption. These case studies show that thermo-mechanical models offer a new framework to integrate the historic eruption record with geodetic measurements and provide a context to understand the past, present and future of active volcanic centers.

  18. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: -40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): -59.2, -16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25-0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  19. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Correa-Burrows

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA, the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: −40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI: −59.2, −16.9, d = 0.41, significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25–0.88, and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31–0.88. Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  20. [Chile: Standing up again].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  1. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  2. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  3. Enhanced mesoscale climate projections in TAR and AR5 IPCC scenarios: a case study in a Mediterranean climate (Araucanía Region, south central Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, R; Abarca-Del-Río, R; Ávila, A; Morales, L

    2016-01-01

    Climate change scenarios are computed on a large scale, not accounting for local variations presented in historical data and related to human scale. Based on historical records, we validate a baseline (1962-1990) and correct the bias of A2 and B2 regional projections for the end of twenty-first century (2070-2100) issued from a high resolution dynamical downscaled (using PRECIS mesoscale model, hereinafter DGF-PRECIS) of Hadley GCM from the IPCC 3rd Assessment Report (TAR). This is performed for the Araucanía Region (Chile; 37°-40°S and 71°-74°W) using two different bias correction methodologies. Next, we study high-resolution precipitations to find monthly patterns such as seasonal variations, rainfall months, and the geographical effect on these two scenarios. Finally, we compare the TAR projections with those from the recent Assessment Report 5 (AR5) to find regional precipitation patterns and update the Chilean `projection. To show the effects of climate change projections, we compute the rainfall climatology for the Araucanía Region, including the impact of ENSO cycles (El Niño and La Niña events). The corrected climate projection from the high-resolution dynamical downscaled model of the TAR database (DGF-PRECIS) show annual precipitation decreases: B2 (-19.19 %, -287 ± 42 mm) and A2 (-43.38 %, -655 ± 27.4 mm per year. Furthermore, both projections increase the probability of lower rainfall months (lower than 100 mm per month) to 64.2 and 72.5 % for B2 and A2, respectively.

  4. It Pays to Invest in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chile is the first country to establish coopera-tive relations with China in South America, and also the first one to support China's ac-cession to the World Trade Organization.In 2005, Chile and China signed a free trade agreement.After that, China has become Chile's largest trad-ing partner, and Chile become China's second largest partner in South America.

  5. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  6. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  7. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  8. Partner switching can favour cooperation in a biological market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwagmeyer, P L

    2014-09-01

    Intraspecific cooperation and interspecific mutualisms can be promoted by mechanisms that reduce the frequency with which cooperative organisms are exploited by unhelpful partners. One such mechanism consists of changing partners after interacting with an uncooperative individual. I used McNamara et al.'s (Nature, 451, 2008, 189) partner switching model as a framework to examine whether this mechanism can select for increased cooperative investment by house sparrows (Passer domesticus) collaborating to rear offspring; previous research on this species has shown that substantial cooperative investments by both pair members are required to achieve high pay-offs from collaborating. I found that the poorer the outcome of a breeding attempt relative to the number of eggs the female invested, the greater the likelihood of partner switching. The incidence of partner switching changed seasonally, with peak switching coinciding with an increase in the number of alternative partners available to females. After females switched partners, their breeding outcomes rose to match those of females that remained with the same partner; this was not the case for males that switched partners. Consistent with the model's prediction, males in stable partnerships achieved over 25% higher than average reproductive success, which was attributable to both persistently good breeding outcomes and their older partners' high fecundity. These results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that partner switching favours increased cooperative investment levels, and they demonstrate that variation in the relative value of by-product benefits can enhance that process.

  9. Evolution of trust and trustworthiness: social awareness favours personality differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Stephens, Philip A; Dall, Sasha R X; Houston, Alasdair I

    2009-02-22

    Interest in the evolution and maintenance of personality is burgeoning. Individuals of diverse animal species differ in their aggressiveness, fearfulness, sociability and activity. Strong trade-offs, mutation-selection balance, spatio-temporal fluctuations in selection, frequency dependence and good-genes mate choice are invoked to explain heritable personality variation, yet for continuous behavioural traits, it remains unclear which selective force is likely to maintain distinct polymorphisms. Using a model of trust and cooperation, we show how allowing individuals to monitor each other's cooperative tendencies, at a cost, can select for heritable polymorphisms in trustworthiness. This variation, in turn, favours costly 'social awareness' in some individuals. Feedback of this sort can explain the individual differences in trust and trustworthiness so often documented by economists in experimental public goods games across a range of cultures. Our work adds to growing evidence that evolutionary game theorists can no longer afford to ignore the importance of real world inter-individual variation in their models.

  10. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  11. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  12. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  13. Aspectos cualitativos del aprendizaje en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile Aspectos qualitativos da aprendizagem no Programa de Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial do Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Bioética da Universidade do Chile Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario.O presente trabalho reflete a experiência de 10 anos em processos de aprendizagem em grupo e aquisição de competências dos participantes no Programa de Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial do Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Bioética da Universidade do Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera o papel da bioética na formação de seu caráter transdisciplinar.This article reflects on the ten years experience of group learning processes and skills acquisition by trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research international training program from the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics of the University of Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. It takes into consideration the role of bioethics in training in its transdisciplinary character.

  14. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  15. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  16. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Favourable Health Behaviours in Women from a Selected Urban Region in Kayseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sonmezer,Fevziye Cetinkaya,Melis Nacar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it was aimed to establish the favourable health behaviours in the life style of women, who also are in charge, and carry the responsibility of the whole family’s health. Material and Method: A questionnaire, inquiring about some favourable health behaviours, was applied to 421 women aged 18-64, living in an urban region in Kayseri. Results: The mean age of the study group was 36.2±11.1, 57.1% were housewives, 74.3% were married, and the educational level of 62.7% was high school and above. The rate of obtaining information from health personnel was 9.7%, and most women(31.1% stated media as their source of information. 67.0% did not smoke. 44.4% of the study group were with in normal weight, and 66.3% stated that they had breakfast. 32.3% of the women stated that they restricted salt in food, and 18.8% restricted sugar, 20.4% tried not to consume tea following a meal and 32.1% stated that they were always careful about not using saturated fat while cooking. 16.2% of the women stated that they self-examined their breats on a regular basis, 54.0% that they did so sometimes, 41.6% had had a clinical breast examination. The rate of mammograhpic evaluation above the age of 40 was 78.0%. Conclusion: The awareness about and the applications for favourable health behaviours as a life style were found to be insufficient in women. It is the duty and responsibility of health personnel to establish healthy life style behaviours in women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 521-528

  18. From disease to desire, pleasure to the pill: A qualitative study of adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela Rosa; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-09-23

    Sexual and reproductive rights include access to accurate and appropriate information in order to make informed decisions. In the current age of media globalization and Internet, adolescents are exposed to information about sexual health and sexuality from a myriad of sources. The objective of this study was to explore sources of information and adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Santiago, Chile. Data collection included four focus group discussions with a total of 24 adolescents 18-19 years old, 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents 16-19 years old, and seven interviews with key informants working with adolescents. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The primary sources of sexual health and sexuality information were parents, teachers and friends, whilst secondary sources included health professionals for females and Internet for males. Information provided by the trusted sources of parents, teachers and health professionals tended to focus on biological aspects of sexuality, particularly pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Limited emphasis was placed on topics such as love, attraction, pleasure, relationships, abstinence and sexual violence. Information focused primarily on heterosexual relations and reproduction. Adolescents learnt about relationships and sexual acts through friends, partners and, for many males, pornography. Findings indicate a lack of available information on partner communication, setting personal limits, and contraception, including morally neutral and medically correct information about emergency contraception. This study highlights numerous gaps between adolescent information needs and information provided by parents, teachers and health professionals. The priority these trusted sources place on providing biological information overshadows learning about emotional and relational aspects of sexuality. This biological rationalization of adolescent sexual

  19. Evaluation of the Favourable Ecological Impact of the Railway on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway has advantages over other branches of longdistancetransportation from the ecological, economic, safety,and technological point of view.The paper gives an evaluation of the favourable influenceof railway traffic on the environment reflected in the rationalenergy consumption, significantly reduced need of physicalspace, and reduced air pollution.Having these data in mind, the railway is considered tohave a negligible influence on environmental pollution. However,studying even such small amounts plays a significant rolein the traffic safety and in the lives of people and nature itself

  20. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  1. The biomethane potential in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, M.; Miranda, J.A. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  2. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  3. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  4. Distribución de foraminíferos bentónicos (Protozoa: Foraminiferida en la ensenada Quillaipe (41°32' S; 72°44' O, Chile: Implicaciones para el estudio del nivel del mar Distribution of benthic foraminifera (Protozoa: Foraminiferida in the Quillaipe Inlet (41°32' S; 72°44' W, Chile: Implications for sea level studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO D FERNÁNDEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los foraminíferos de las marismas salobres son utilizados como indicadores del cambio producido en el nivel del mar durante el Holoceno. No obstante, los foraminíferos de las marismas de Chile han sido escasamente estudiados por lo que se desconoce la factibilidad de utilizarlos para este fin. Para subsanar esto se desarrolló una investigación en el intermareal de la ensenada de Quillaipe, Chile, con los objetivos de determinar los foraminíferos y su distribución vertical; analizar los parámetros que explican su distribución y determinar las especies que son útiles como indicadoras del nivel del mar. Los resultados revelaron 18 especies (nueve aglutinadas y nueve calcáreas distribuidas en dos grandes Zonas (I y II. La Zona I se restringió a la parte más alta y vegetada del intermareal (marisma y estuvo habitada solo por taxa aglutinados. Aquí se registraron bajos valores de diversidad (H' = 0.567, pH (6.6 y salinidad (18.7 y un dominio de la especie aglutinada Haplophragmoides manilaensis. En cambio, la Zona II se limitó a la zona menos elevada y sin vegetación del intermareal (llanura de marea y estuvo habitada por una comunidad calcárea-aglutinada. Contrariamente, los valores de diversidad (H' = 0.909, pH (7.7 y salinidad (32.8 fueron más altos, y la especie dominante fue la calcárea Ammonia beccarii. Por otro lado, la asociación aglutinada Trochamminita salsa-Jadammina macrescens se restringió a la parte más alta de la marisma y a los valores más bajos de salinidad y pH. Estos antecedentes permiten concluir que la distribución de los foraminíferos está controlada por la salinidad, el pH y la elevación del intermareal y que la asociación Trochamminita salsa-Jadammina macrescens son indicadoras del máximo nivel del mar en la ensenada de Quillaipe.Saltmarsh foraminifera are used as indicators of sea-level change which occurs during the Holocene. In Chile however, the saltmarsh foraminifera have been poorly studied, so

  5. Where will the flow go after the snow? Case study of the Diguillín Watershed, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, K. H.; Arumi, J. L.; Fogg, G. E.; Dahlke, H. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    There is broad consensus that mountains are a key vulnerability for water resources security in a changing climate. Advances in telemetry and remote sensing have allowed us to further our understanding of surface processes, such as precipitation variability, forest evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes, and snow cover and real-time snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. However, we are far less advanced in our understanding of surface water-groundwater interactions and deep subsurface flow in the mountains, owing to the assumption that mountain bedrock is impermeable. This limits our ability to project the holistic hydrologic response to a warming climate. We present a case study in which the mountain, and the alpine watershed that drains it, is by no means impermeable. The Diguillín watershed, comprised of the Alto Diguillín and Renegado subwatersheds, is a highly permeable volcanic basin typical of the Andes Mountain range, but also analogous to the California and Oregon Cascades, which experiences a Mediterrenean climate and significant interannual variability in precipitation related to ENSO. The abundance of springs indicative of a large volume of subsurface storage in both subwatersheds compensate for the seasonally dry summers and the interannually dry years, which is a key source of irrigation and drinking water in the summer for the communities in the Chilean Central Valley. We develop a 3-D integrated hydrologic model of the system, perform successive warming scenarios, and track the cascading response of snowpack, recharge, runoff, and groundwater storage. We also present a forest management scenario as a potential climate change mitigation strategy for augmenting recharge in headwaters systems. These results represent initial steps towards better understanding where the flow will go after the snow in permeable alpine systems.

  6. Recent IBA setup improvements in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile)]. E-mail: pmiranda@fisica.ciencias.uchile.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Wachter, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Tenreiro, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Campus Curico, Universidad de Talca (Chile)

    2006-07-15

    This paper describes the main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator model KN3750 of HVE at University of Chile. Recent setup improvements on three beam lines available, one dedicated for PIXE analyzes, one designed for RBS-PESA analyzes and a multipurpose vacuum chamber, as well as beam energy calibration experiments of the accelerator will be summarized. Current research activities are focused on the application of the different IBA techniques for the material, biological and environmental analysis. In addition, nuclear activation analysis and the study of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest has begun to be developed as basic research.

  7. Apropiación privada de renta de recursos naturales? El caso del cobre en Chile /Private Appropriation of Natural Resource Rent? The case of Cooper in Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamín Leiva Crispi

    2016-01-01

    ... a sustainable trajectory. As a case study about private appropriation of natural resource rent, this work explores the case of copper in Chile since 1990, empirically analyzing if the 12 main private mining companies...

  8. Urban entrepreneurialism and creative destruction: a case-study of the urban renewal strategy in the peri-centre of Santiago de Chile, 1990-2005

    OpenAIRE

    López Morales, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, urban renewal in the peri-centre (inner city) of Santiago de Chile – a metropolis where urban development is part of a strategic national economic agenda – has produced high-density blocks and large-scale redevelopments in decayed neighbourhoods. However, as the rent gap theory suggests, urban decay may be not a ‘natural’ process but a form of market regulation that seeks to devalue both the building value (BV) and the capitalised ground rent (CGR), incre...

  9. Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario. PMID:22833694

  10. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  11. A Competition Law Assessment of Platform Most-Favoured-Customer Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Akman, P

    2016-01-01

    Most-favoured-customer (MFC) clauses adopted by online platforms in their relevant contractual relationships guarantee to an online platform that a supplier will treat the platform as favourably as the supplier’s most-favoured-customer concerning price, availability and similar terms of a given transaction. These clauses are a fundamental aspect of the business models of some of the world’s leading companies such as Apple, Amazon, Expedia, etc. The competition law implications of these clause...

  12. Experimental evidence for mutual inter- and intrasexual selection favouring a crested auklet ornament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones; Hunter

    1999-03-01

    During the breeding season, female and male crested auklets Aethia cristatella (Alcidae), display similar conspicuous crest ornaments composed of elongated forward-curving feathers on their foreheads. Based on quantifications of brief agonistic interactions at a large breeding colony, we found that crest length was strongly correlated with dominance within both sexes. Across the full range of crest length, individuals with longer crests were dominant over shorter-crested individuals in agonistic interactions involving same-sex adults. Within subadults (2-year-olds of unknown sex), there was a similar trend towards longer-crested individuals being dominant. In agonistic interactions involving individuals of different sex and age, adult males were dominant over adult females and adults were dominant over subadults, regardless of crest length. In an experiment in which we manipulated crest length using life-size realistic models, male auklets that responded were less aggressive to male models with longer crests than to models with normal or shorter crests, confirming that crest length by itself signals dominance status. In a related experiment in which we controlled intrasexual competition, both males and females responded to opposite-sex models with more frequent sexual displays when the models had long crests compared with those having short crests, suggesting that crested auklets also have mating preferences that favour long crest ornaments. Taken together, these results support the idea that the crest ornament is favoured by both intra- and intersexual selection. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  13. Health risks caused by short term exposure to ultrafine particles generated by residential wood combustion: a case study of Temuco, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto; Etcharren, Pablo; Schiappacasse, Luis N; Reed, Gregory D; Silva, María P

    2014-05-01

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, there is scarce evidence of respiratory morbidity due to fine particulate matter. We aimed to estimate the relationship between daily concentration of ultrafine particles (UFP), with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 0.1 μm, and outpatient visits for respiratory illness at medical care centers of Temuco, Chile, from August the 20th, 2009 to June the 30th, 2011. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate semi-parametric Poisson regression model was fitted with GAM techniques using R-Project statistical package; controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders. The daily UFP were measured by a MOUDI NR-110 sampler. We found that results of the statistical analyses show significant associations between UFP and respiratory outpatient visits, with the elderly (population ≥ 65 years), being the group that presented the greatest risk. An interquartile increase of 4.73 μg/m(3) in UFP (lag 5 days) was associated with respiratory outpatient visits with a relative risk (RR) of 1.1458 [95% CI (1.0497-1.2507)] for the elderly. These results show novel findings regarding the relevance of daily UFP concentrations and health risk, especially for susceptible population in a wood smoke polluted city.

  14. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique...

  15. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and inves...

  16. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  17. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  18. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  19. The Credit Constraints of Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Alvaro; Lensink, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys conducted in 2006 and 2008 with 177 farmers, this article determines whether market-oriented farmers in central Chile are credit constrained, and it identifies the main factors that influence formal credit provision. In so doing, this study explicitly tests whether social

  20. The Credit Constraints of Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys conducted in 2006 and 2008 with 177 farmers, this article determines whether market-oriented farmers in central Chile are credit constrained, and it identifies the main factors that influence formal credit provision. In so doing, this study explicitly tests whether social

  1. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  2. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  3. [Chile: social protection in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  4. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

  5. Meso-level comparison of mental health service availability and use in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Saldivia, Sandra; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Vicente, Benjamin; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos; Grandon, Pamela; Haro, Josep Maria

    2008-04-01

    There is a demand for international comparisons of mental health care in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to describe mental health care in catchment health areas in Chile and Spain in order to complement information reported at the macro-level (countries or regions). Availability and utilization of services for the adult population were assessed in two urban areas in Chile and in three urban areas in Spain by using the European Service Mapping Schedule (meso-level data). Indicators from a previous data envelopment analysis (DEA) model of basic community care were applied to this analysis. For the two countries, local data on beds and staff differed from data provided at the national level. In Chile meso-level data indicated more available beds and more psychologists per capita than did macro-level data. Quantitative indicators of community care were described, and the main gaps in Chile's urban areas were identified, particularly in day care and nonhospital residential care. There was nearly a tenfold difference in use of residential and day care between the benchmark area in Spain and the areas explored in Chile. In Chile's catchment areas there was no availability of nonacute hospital services, any work-related services for persons with mental disorders, or 24-hour mobile or nonmobile emergency psychiatric care. The meso-level data indicated that delivery and use of care in Chile was more similar to the pattern found in the poorer area in southern Spain than macro-level data would indicate. The European Service Mapping Schedule was useful for describing mental health care outside of Europe and allowed for an international comparison between Chile and Spain. The meso-level description gathered in this study adds to the macro-level information on the mental health care system that has been provided in other reports. The gap between mental health treatment needed and mental health treatment received in Chile may be lower than expected.

  6. [Residues of tetracycline and quinolones in wild fish living around a salmon aquaculture center in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics.

  7. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hugo; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Castillo, José Luis; Verdugo, Renato; Lavados, Manuel; Hertrampf, Eva; Brito, Alex; Allen, Lindsay; Uauy, Ricardo

    2011-09-27

    Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill.The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile. ISRCTN: ISRCTN02694183.

  8. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA. The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers involving 300 people (20 per cluster. Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older

  9. Participation in Organizations, Technical Efficiency and Territorial Differences: A Study of Small Wheat Farmers in Chile Participación en Organizaciones, Eficiencia Técnica y Diferencias Territoriales: El Caso de la Pequeña Agricultura de Trigo en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M Jaime

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient individual solutions for small farmers either in the market or through the State has resulted in a search for collective spaces to strengthen their productive capacities, where participation in organizations emerges as a relevant factor to obtain higher efficiency levels. The aims of this study were to analyze the determinants of technical efficiency of wheat small farmers in Bío-Bío Region (Chile and to evaluate its relation to a variety of variables, including farmer participation in organizations, for several territories with different agro-climatic conditions. Using information from the VII Agricultural and Forestry Survey, a stochastic frontier production function was estimated. The results show that age, education, farm size, degree of specialization and dependence of activity explain individual technical efficiency levels. Participation in cooperatives and gremial associations is also related to higher technical efficiency levels, especially in territories characterized for a lower wheat productive vocation.La incapacidad del mercado y del Estado para generar soluciones eficientes desde una perspectiva individual, ha llevado a la búsqueda de espacios colectivos que conduzcan a un fortalecimiento de las capacidades productivas, en donde la asociatividad aparece como un factor relevante en la consecución de mayores niveles de eficiencia. El propósito de este estudio es analizar los determinantes de la eficiencia técnica de los pequeños agricultores de trigo de a Región del Bío-Bío (Chile, e indagar si existe una relación entre participación en organizaciones y eficiencia técnica para un conjunto de territorios que presentan diferencias en sus condiciones agro-climáticas. Utilizando información del VII Censo Agropecuario y Forestal, se estimó un modelo de fronteras estocásticas que incorpora factores específicos para cada productor. Los resultados sugieren que la edad, nivel de educación, tamaño del

  10. Regional metallogenic structure based on aeromagnetic data in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-San; Lu, Min-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Chile is a very important country that forms part of the Andean metallogenic belts. The Atacama and Domeyko fault systems in northern Chile control the tectonic-magmatic activities that migrate eastward and the types of mineral resources. In this paper, we processed and interpreted aeromagnetic data from northern Chile using reduction to pole, upward field continuation, the second derivative calculation in the vertical direction, inclination angle calculation, and analytical signal amplitude analysis. We revealed the locations and planar distribution characteristics of the regional deep faults along the NNE and NS directions. Furthermore, we observed that the major reasons for the formation of the tectonic-magmatic rocks belts were the nearly parallel deep faults distributed from west to east and multiple magmatic activities along these faults. We ascertained the locations of volcanic mechanisms and the relationships between them using these regional deep faults. We deduced the spatial distributions of the basic-intermediate, basic, and acidic igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, and sedimentary sequences. We showed the linear positive magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomaly gradient zones by slowly varying the background, negative magnetic anomaly field, which indicated the presence of strong magmatic activities in these regional deep faults; it also revealed the favorable areas of copper and polymetallic mineralization. This study provides some basic information for further research on the geology, structural characteristics, and mineral resource prospecting in northern Chile.

  11. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  12. Why increasing longevity may favour a PAYG pension system over a funded system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediev, Dalkhat M

    2014-03-01

    When pension systems are contrasted it is common to use simplified demographic models, such as overlapping generation models with time-invariant mortality. Breaking with this tradition, we show that for a population with increasing longevity, the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system may be more advantageous than a funded system (FS). Increasing longevity favours the PAYG system because for the workers living longer at retirement than current retirees, it is less costly to fund others' current pensions than their own. At present, the effect amounts to around 15 per cent in terms of the dependency ratio, or six more years at work in the FS, or 1 per cent per annum in terms of the real interest rate. In most developed countries the effect substantially exceeds that of the usually studied biological interest rate.

  13. Phosphorylation controls the functioning of Staphylococcus aureus isocitrate dehydrogenase--favours biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, U Venkateswara; Vasu, D; Yeswanth, S; Swarupa, V; Sunitha, M M; Choudhary, A; Sarma, P V G K

    2015-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 was cloned, sequenced and characterized (HM067707). PknB site was observed in the active site of IDH; thus, it was predicted as IDH may be regulated by phosphorylation. Therefore, in this study, PknB, alkaline phosphatase III (SAOV 2675) and IDH genes (JN695616, JN645811 and HM067707) of S. aureus ATCC12600 were over expressed from clones PV 1, UVPALP-3 and UVIDH 1. On passing the cytosloic fractions through nickel metal chelate column, pure enzymes were obtained. Phosphorylation of pure IDH by PknB resulted in the complete loss of activity and was restored upon dephosphorylation with SAOV 2675 which indicated that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate IDH activity in S. aureus. Further, when S. aureus ATCC12600 was grown in BHI broth, decreased IDH activity and increased biofilm units were observed; therefore, this regulation of IDH alters redox status in this pathogen favouring biofilm formation.

  14. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  15. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  16. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  17. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only marginal or…

  18. Sleep to the beat : A nap favours consolidation of timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial

  19. Sleep to the beat : A nap favours consolidation of timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial intercept

  20. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  1. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.

  2. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Animales silvestres como reservorios de leptospirosis en Chile: Una revisión de los estudios efectuados en el país Wild animals as reservoirs of leptospirosis in Chile.: Revision of studies in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ZAMORA

    1999-01-01

    wildlife animals is also given. This communication is an attempt toalert people about eventual reservoirs present in our country which canact as a source of infection for human and domestic animals. Finally, it is concluded that it is highly convenient and necessarythat the corresponding authorities play an active role in incentivatingand supporting studies, not only on leptospirosis but also on other infectiousdiseases and on general sanitary status of the wild fauna of the countrygiving financial support for the research projects. This information wouldbe of great value for the conservation of the ecological balance, in preventiveveterinary medicine and in public health

  4. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  5. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM. The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Methods and design The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. Discussion The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. Trial registration ISRCTN48153354

  6. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Damian G; Aedo, Cristian; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D; Elbourne, Diana; Grundy, Emily; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-05-27

    In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM). The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. ISRCTN48153354.

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  8. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Firn

    Full Text Available In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4 perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P, assimilation rates (Amax and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE. In the control treatment (grazed only, trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to

  9. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis: can we expect a favourable outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Naresh K; Simhadri, Sridhar; Sridhara, Suryanarayana Rao

    2004-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is an uncommon, progressive, destructive soft tissue infection of mixed aerobic and anaerobic organisms, having high mortality if left untreated (22 to 100 per cent). This study makes an attempt to analyse various factors and management methods determining the overall prognosis. A retrospective analysis of all cases of necrotizing fasciitis involving the head and neck, with exclusion of those involving the eyelid and the scalp, was undertaken. Various parameters such as demography, aetiology, complications, management and outcome were studied. Males outnumbered the females with the latter having a greater risk of involvement after 60 years. Odontogenic infection was the primary source of infection. Anaerobes were cultured in seven out of 17 cases, with six others showing mixed Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Anaemia was the most commonly associated illness, with diabetes affecting four out of 17 cases. Aggressive surgical debridement with triple antibiotic therapy was used in the management of necrotizing fasciitis with an overall mortality of 11.8 per cent. Patients having late referral, anaemia and one or other complication had increased duration of total hospital stay. Better results can be obtained with proper control of infection by early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement and triple antibiotic therapy, along with timely control of complications and associated illnesses.

  10. Natural selection can favour ‘irrational’ behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. M.; Trimmer, P. C.; Houston, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory. However, we show that an individual that is maximizing its rate of food gain can exhibit failure of transitivity and IIA. We show that such violations can be caused because a current option may disappear in the near future or a better option may reappear soon. Current food options can be indicative of food availability in the near future, and this key feature can result in apparently irrational behaviour. PMID:24429682

  11. HPV status and favourable outcome in vulvar squamous cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Katie; Kavanagh, Kim; Cuschieri, Kate; Millan, David; Pollock, Kevin G; Bell, Sarah; Burton, Kevin; Reed, Nicholas S; Graham, Sheila V

    2017-03-01

    It is universally accepted that high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer. More recently, it has been shown that HPV is also a marker of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer. However, contemporary information is lacking on both the prevalence of HPV infection in vulvar cancer (VSCC), its precursor lesion, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and the influence of HPV-status on the prognosis of this malignancy. We have conducted a detailed population-based study to examine rates of progression of VIN to VSCC, type-specific HPV prevalence in vulvar disease and the influence of HPV status on clinical outcome in VSCC. We observed that the age at which women are diagnosed with VSCC is falling and there is a significant time gap between first diagnosis of VIN and progression to invasive disease. HR-HPV infection was detected in 87% (97/112) cases of VIN and 52% cases (32/62) of VSCC. The presence of HR-HPV in squamous intraepithelial lesion was associated with lower rates of progression to invasive cancer (hazard ratio, 0.22, p = 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, HR-HPV was associated with improved progression-free survival of VSCC compared to those with HPV negative tumours (hazard ratio, 0.32, p = 0.02).

  12. Protist predation can favour cooperation within bacterial species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Diggle, Stephen P.; Buckling, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Here, we studied how protist predation affects cooperation in the opportunistic pathogen bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which uses quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling to regulate the production of public goods. By competing wild-type bacteria with QS mutants (cheats), we show that a functioning QS system confers an elevated resistance to predation. Surprisingly, cheats were unable to exploit this resistance in the presence of cooperators, which suggests that resistance does not appear to result from activation of QS-regulated public goods. Instead, elevated resistance of wild-type bacteria was related to the ability to form more predation-resistant biofilms. This could be explained by the expression of QS-regulated resistance traits in densely populated biofilms and floating cell aggregations, or alternatively, by a pleiotropic cost of cheating where less resistant cheats are selectively removed from biofilms. These results show that trophic interactions among species can maintain cooperation within species, and have further implications for P. aeruginosa virulence in environmental reservoirs by potentially enriching the cooperative and highly infective strains with functional QS system. PMID:23945212

  13. Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittebolle, Lieven; Marzorati, Massimo; Clement, Lieven; Balloi, Annalisa; Daffonchio, Daniele; Heylen, Kim; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-04-01

    Owing to the present global biodiversity crisis, the biodiversity-stability relationship and the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning have become major topics in ecology. Biodiversity is a complex term that includes taxonomic, functional, spatial and temporal aspects of organismic diversity, with species richness (the number of species) and evenness (the relative abundance of species) considered among the most important measures. With few exceptions (see, for example, ref. 6), the majority of studies of biodiversity-functioning and biodiversity-stability theory have predominantly examined richness. Here we show, using microbial microcosms, that initial community evenness is a key factor in preserving the functional stability of an ecosystem. Using experimental manipulations of both richness and initial evenness in microcosms with denitrifying bacterial communities, we found that the stability of the net ecosystem denitrification in the face of salinity stress was strongly influenced by the initial evenness of the community. Therefore, when communities are highly uneven, or there is extreme dominance by one or a few species, their functioning is less resistant to environmental stress. Further unravelling how evenness influences ecosystem processes in natural and humanized environments constitutes a major future conceptual challenge.

  14. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  15. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  16. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  17. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3

  18. Depression and Psychological Trauma: An Overview Integrating Current Research and Specific Evidence of Studies in the Treatment of Depression in Public Mental Health Services in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vitriol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mental health service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas.

  19. Are participants in markets for water rights more efficient in the use of water than non-participants? A case study for Limarí Valley (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Donoso, Guillermo; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-06-01

    The need to increase water productivity in agriculture has been stressed as one of the most important factors to achieve greater agricultural productivity and sustainability. The main aim of this paper is to investigate whether there are differences in water use efficiency (WUE) between farmers who participate in water markets and farmers who do not participate in them. Moreover, the use of a non-radial data envelopment analysis model allows to compute global efficiency (GE), WUE as well the efficiency in the use of other inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, energy, and labor. In a second stage, external factors that may affect GE and WUE are explored. The empirical application focuses on a sample of farmers located in Limarí Valley (Chile) where regulated permanent water rights (WR) markets for surface water have a long tradition. Results illustrate that WR sellers are the most efficient in the use of water while non-traders are the farmers that present the lowest WUE. From a policy perspective, significant conclusions are drawn from the assessment of agricultural water productivity in the framework of water markets.

  20. Does adolescent motherhood affect education and labor market outcomes of mothers? A study on young adult women in Chile during 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Matias; Kruger, Diana I

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the impact of adolescent motherhood on several education and labor market outcomes in Chile over the 1990-2013 period. We explore whether effects are different across income levels, timing of adolescent births, and three sub-periods. Using the CASEN national household survey, we applied propensity score-matching methods on two samples of women aged 24: one for women in the 2009-2013 period and another sample of 24-year-old women living with their mother between 1990-2013. In both samples, adolescent motherhood has negative effects on educational outcomes (high school completion, enrollment in technical institutes and universities, and years of education) and on labor outcomes of non-poor women. Childbearing in early adolescence is associated with worse outcomes, and the adverse effects of adolescent motherhood on education and labor outcomes have diminished over the period. Similar to results in developed countries, adolescent motherhood has negative consequences on women's education and labor outcomes, particularly on women that become mothers early in adolescence. Public policies aimed at reducing teen motherhood will have important effects on young women's education and employment.

  1. Chile. A model mining country?; Chile. Ein Bergbau-Musterland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Sven [Projektbuero der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) und des chilenischen Geologie und Bergbaudienstes SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Projekt ' Grundlagen der Sanierung von Bergbaualtlasten in Chile' ; Dalheimer, Manfred [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Abt. Internationale Zusammenarbeit Amerika

    2009-03-19

    Chile is characterised economically and culturally by mining. The copper industry is highly important. In 2007 two thirds of export proceeds were generated solely by copper, copper concentrate and other minerals. With the increase in the price of raw materials since 2004 the state income rose considerably with the result that the national debt was offset. However, this increase was barely noticeable among the wider public. Further reasons for doubt with regards to the mining industry are that a new mining project generally not only creates jobs, but also changes local structures, competes with water utilisation and usually leaves contaminated sites. The responsible politicians and mining authorities are aware of these relationships and are drawing up corresponding laws and decrees. These include the Environmental Act, the bills for mine closures and the systematic redevelopment of old mining sites. At least voluntary commitments for current large-scale mining are in force until the bills are passed. (orig.)

  2. Is Mining Still the Wage of Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valenzuela

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available – Historia de la minería del hierro en Chile, by Augusto Millán. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1999. – Capital transnacional y trabajo. El desarrollo minero en Chile, by Rafael Agacino, Cristián González and Jorge Rojas. Santiago: Lom Ediciones, 1998. – Dilemas y debates en torno al cobre, by Patricio Meller. Santiago: Dolmen, 2002. – Royalty. Regalía o renta minera. Lo que solo Chile no cobra, by Jorge Lavandero Illanes. Santiago: Ediciones Lafken, 2003.

  3. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  4. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America.

  5. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  6. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  7. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  8. Evolution of clay mineral assemblages in the Tinguiririca geothermal field, Andean Cordillera of central Chile: an XRD and HRTEM-AEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.; Nieto, F.; Morata, D.; Droguett, B.; Carrillo-Rosua, F. J.; Morales, S.

    2014-08-01

    HRTEM textural evidence shows that clay minerals in the Tinguiririca geothermal field (Andean Cordillera, central Chile) are the result of direct alteration of former volcanic glass and minerals by hydrothermal fluids at similar temperatures to the present day. They show the classical pattern of diagenetic transformation from smectite at the top to illite at the bottom, with the progressive formation of corrensite and chlorite. The high fluid/rock ratio, disposability of necessary cations and absence of previous detrital phyllosilicates allow the consideration of this area as a natural laboratory to establish the extreme ideal conditions for very low-T reactions. Transformations from smectite to R1 illite-smectite (I-S) and from these to R3 mixed-layers occur respectively at 80-120 °C and 125-180 °C. In spite of ideal genetic conditions, the new-formed minerals show all the defective character and lack of textural and chemical equilibrium previously described in the literature for diagenetic and hydrothermal low-temperature assemblages. Chemistry of smectite-illite phases evolves basically through a diminution of the pyrophyllitic component toward a theoretical muscovite (Si4 + + □ -> Al3 ++ K+). However, a second chemical vector (Si4 ++ Mg2 + → Al3 ++ Al3 +), that is, decreasing of the tschermack component, also contributes to the evolution toward the less Si-more Al rich muscovite in relation to the original smectite. Residual Mg (and Fe) from the latter reaction is consumed in the genesis of chloritic phases. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the lack of chemical equilibrium (probably because of the short time-scale of the geothermal alteration processes), the composition of clay minerals is highly heterogeneous at the level of a single sample. Consequently, the respective fields of smectite, R1 I-S and R3 I-S overlap each other, making the distinction among these three phases impossible based exclusively on chemical data.

  9. Crecimiento pro pobre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de panel para el periodo 1996-2001 y datos de corte transversal para 1990 y 2003, este artículo evalúa si el crecimiento en Chile ha sido “pro pobre”. Se emplean dos metodos: i se estima la “curva de incidencia del crecimiento” y luego se estima paramétrica y no paramétricamente la relación entre el ingreso per capita de los hogares en 1996 y el cambio en el ingreso de 1996-2001. Los resultados indican que el crecimiento ha incidido significativamente en la reducción de pobreza. Por otra parte, existe evidencia de convergencia para la mitad más pobre de la distribución de ingresos.

  10. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  11. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1994-10-01

    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.

  12. Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.; Carrasco, J.C. (Unidad de Desarrollo Tecnologico, Univ. de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)); Neugebauer, J. (Polysius AG (ThyssenKrupp Technologies AG), 59269 Beckum (Germany)). e-mail: aberg@udt.cl

    2008-10-15

    MSW amount, along with its disposition cost and environmental impacts have been significantly increasing in Chile. Therefore, goal of current study is to evaluate viable technological solutions for the energetic recovery of MSW. Experimental work in the city Concepcion has been performed on pre-treatment processes. Results show that an appropriate physical separation leads to fractions with specific characteristics, therefore applicable for different energetic uses. Keywords: Municipal solid waste (MSW), combustion, biogas, developing countries.

  13. Annuity Markets in Chile : Competition, Regulation - and Myopia?

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The author studies annuity rates in Chile and relates them with industry competition. He finds (1) that annuity insurance companies paying higher broker commissions paid lower annuity rates; and (2) a structural break of the long-run elasticity of annuity rates to the risk-free rate in 2001. Moreover, this structural break coincided with the submission of a new draft pension law proposing greater transparency in annuity markets and a generalized drop in broker commissions. The high commission...

  14. Strategic Challenges in the Regional Environment Facing Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    relationship between criminal groups and drug dealers. Carabineros (Uniformed Police Force) and Investigaciones de Chile (Investigation Police) have...2004; available from <http://www.latercera.cl/ articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html>; Internet; accessed 02 Feb 2004. 21 Military Studies and... articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html> Internet. Accessed 02 February 2004. Williams, Phil. “New Contexts, Smart Enemies” in Non-State Threats and Future Wars, ed. Robert Bunker, Portland: Frank Cass & Co., 2003

  15. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  17. Barriers restricting postpartum depression treatment in Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas, Graciela; Santelices, María Pía; Martínez, Pablo; Tomicic, Alemka; Reinel, Mahaira; Olhaberry, Marcia; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    In Chile, postpartum depression is a prevalent and disabling condition. Universal screening is available but has not been translated into better treatment rates, suggesting the existence of access barriers...

  18. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  19. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M F

    1977-01-01

    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  20. Simbolic boundaries and middle classes. Social mobility in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayarí Castillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.

  1. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  2. Geological Conditions Favourable for High-Wax Oil Enrichment in Damintun Depression,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fangbing

    2009-01-01

    The Damintun (大民屯) depression,a small (about 800 km2 in area) subunit in the Bohai (渤海) Bay basin,hosts nearly 2×108t of high-wax oils with wax contents up to 60%. The high-wax oils have high consolidation temperatures and viscosities.The high-wax oils were generated from the fourth member of the Shahejie Formation (Es4),which is also important source rocks for oils in other subunits of the Bohai Bay basin.Yet high-wax oils have not been found in significant volumes elsewhere in the Bohai Bay basin.Geological conditions favourable for high-wax oil enrichment were studied.This study shows that the unusual concentrations of high-wax oils in the depression seem to result from at least three different factors: (1) the presence of organic-matter rich source rocks which were prone to generate wax-rich hydrocarbons; (2) the formation of early overpressures which increased the expulsion efficiency of waxy hydrocarbons; and (3) reductions in subsidence rate and basal heat flows,which minimized the thermal cracking of high molecular-weight (waxy) hydrocarbons,and therefore prevented the high-wax oils from being transformed into less waxy equivalents.

  3. Evaluación del estudio de contactos de tuberculosis: Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Occidente. 1994-2008 Evaluation of the study of tuberculosis contacts in Western Public Health Service of Santiago de Chile: 1994-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pickett S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evaluación de 15 anos del estudio de contactos de tuberculosis (TBC del Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Occidente de la Región Metropolitana, correspondiente alperíodo 1994-2008, en el que se observa una mejoría creciente de la cobertura de estos estudios, la que incluso superó la meta propuesta por el Ministerio de Salud. El método utilizado para esta investigación consistió en el análisis retrospectivo de los casos ingresados en el período. Para la definición de contacto sano o enfermo se tomó como referencia el Manual de Organización y Normas Técnicas y el Manual de Procedimientos para la Atención Primaria del Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis de Chile. Se analizó 9.344 contactos intra-domiciliarios y habituales extra-domiciliarios, que correspondieron a 2.129 casos indices de adultos con TBC pulmonar con bacteriología positiva y casos indices infantiles de TBC en todas sus formas. Se evaluó la cobertura, morbilidad, diagnóstico de casos TBC y quimioprofilaxis efectuadas. El estudio de contactos es probablemente la actividad de pesquisa tuberculosa focalizada de mayor rendimiento del Programa de Control. En el menor de 15 anos de edad, este estudio permite pesquisar infecciones recientes, que tratadas adecuadamente con quimioprofilaxis, evitan la aparición de nuevos enfermos y la mantención de la cadena de transmisión de la enfermedad.The evaluation of 15 years of study of TB contacts done in the western area of the Public Health Service of Santiago de Chile, 1994-2008, is presented. During this period an improvement on the coverage of this studies -even beyond the Ministry of Health aims- was observed. For this purpose the retrospective analysis of cases incorporated during the period was used. For definitions of healthy or diseased contact we followed the Manual of Tuberculosis of the National Tuberculosis Control Program of Chile. 9,344 intra-domicilliary and extra-domicilliary contacts

  4. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  5. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  6. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  7. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence.

  8. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  9. The Progenitors of the Milky Way Stellar Halo: Big Bricks Favoured over Little Bricks

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, A J; Weisz, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of blue horizontal branch (BHB) and blue straggler (BS) stars belonging to dwarf galaxies and globular clusters, and compare these counts to that of the Milky Way stellar halo. We find, in agreement with earlier studies, that the ratio of BS-to-BHB stars in these satellite populations is dependent on stellar mass. Dwarf galaxies show an increasing BS-to-BHB ratio with luminosity. In contrast, globular clusters display the reverse trend, with N_BS/N_BHB (< 1) decreasing with luminosity. The faintest (L < 10^5 L_Sun) dwarfs have similar numbers of BS and BHB stars (N_BS/N_BHB ~ 1), whereas more massive dwarfs tend to be dominated by BS stars (N_BS/N_BHB ~ 2-40). We find that the BS-to-BHB ratio in the stellar halo is relatively high (N_BS/N_BHB ~ 5-6), and thus inconsistent with the low ratios found in both ultra-faint dwarfs and globular clusters. Our results favour more massive dwarfs as the dominant "building blocks" of the stellar halo, in good agreement with current predictions fr...

  10. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.

  11. Living with strangers: direct benefits favour non-kin cooperation in a communally nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina

    2011-06-07

    The greater ani (Crotophaga major), a Neotropical cuckoo, exhibits an unusual breeding system in which several socially monogamous pairs lay eggs in a single nest and contribute care to the communal clutch. Cooperative nesting is costly-females compete for reproduction by ejecting each other's eggs-but the potential direct or indirect fitness benefits that might accrue to group members have not been identified. In this study, I used molecular genotyping to quantify patterns of genetic relatedness and individual reproductive success within social groups in a single colour-banded population. Microsatellite analysis of 122 individuals in 49 groups revealed that group members are not genetic relatives. Group size was strongly correlated with individual reproductive success: solitary pairs were extremely rare and never successful, and nests attended by two pairs were significantly more likely to be depredated than were nests attended by three pairs. Egg loss, a consequence of reproductive competition, was greater in large groups and disproportionately affected females that initiated laying. However, early-laying females compensated for egg losses by laying larger clutches, and female group members switched positions in the laying order across nesting attempts. The greater ani, therefore, appears to be one of the few species in which cooperative breeding among unrelated individuals is favoured by direct, shared benefits that outweigh the substantial costs of reproductive competition.

  12. Prevalencia de fisura labiopalatina e indicadores de riesgo: Estudio de la población atendida en el Hospital Clínico Félix Bulnes de Santiago de Chile Prevalence of cleft lip and palate and risk indicators: Study of the reference population of Felix Bulnes University Hospital, Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sepúlveda Troncoso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El estudio de la prevalencia de fisuras labiopalatinas y la determinación de indicadores de riesgo ayuda a prevenir su ocurrencia mejorando las condiciones durante la concepción o gestación. También favorece diagnósticos precoces que atenúan el impacto emocional favoreciendo el apego madre-hijo y mejorando la respuesta materna al tratamiento. Ambas situaciones permiten optimizar y focalizar los recursos sanitarios disponibles. Material y Método. Se determinó la incidencia de fisuras labiopalatinas y la asociación a factores de riesgo en los RNV beneficiarios del Hospital Clínico Félix Bulnes de Santiago de Chile entre enero del año 1998 y junio del 2005. Se estudió además condiciones y exposición maternas a agentes ambientales asociados a fisura labial y/o palatina. Resultados. Sobre un total de 36.041 RNV consecutivos, se registraron 51 casos de fisurados, obteniéndose una tasa de 1,42 x 1000 RNV. Conclusiones. Los indicadores de riesgo identificados correspondieron a edad materna menor a veinte años asociado al primer embarazo; alto grado de etnicidad amerindia e historia familiar positiva para este tipo de malformación. Nuestro estudio apoya la teoría de herencia multifactorial de la susceptibilidad a las fisuras labiopalatinas.Introduction. The study of the prevalence of cleft lip and palate and the identification of risk groups helps to improve the treatment of this condition. Occurrence may be prevented by improving environmental conditions during pregnancy and ensuring early diagnosis, thus lessening the emotional impact on the family and reinforcing the early mother-child bond. The aim of this study was to improve prevention levels and thus enhance health resources. Material and Method. The frequency of cleft lip and palate and its association with risk factors was studied in live births of the Felix Bulnes University Hospital in Santiago between January 1998 and June 2005. Maternal conditions and

  13. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean universities teaching dental careers and updated during 2014 were analyzed. Results: The dental curriculum for twenty Chilean universities was analyzed. On average, each university has 4.05±2.06 research courses (semesterly from which 1±0.92 are thesis courses. In the private universities, these numbers were 4.64±1.91 and 1.18±0.87 respectively. Meanwhile, these numbers were 3.33±2.12 and 0.78±0.97 respectively in the traditional universities. Sixty percent of universities have thesis or research project courses. Conclusion: There is a disparate presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile, with a higher presence in private institutions. However, this does not actualize a greater scientific production by them.

  14. Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Robinson; Soza, Alejandro; Hernández, Verónica; Pérez, Rosa M; Alvarez, Manuel; Morales, Arturo; Arellano, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Viviani, Paola; Covarrubias, Carmen; Arrese, Marco; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data regarding this infection in developing countries is scanty. Prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection was investigated in a random sample of Chilean general adult population older than 20 years of age. Additionally, frequency of HCV infection was assessed in group of native Chilean Amerindians (Mapuche Indians) living in an isolated locality of the Southern Chile. Incidence of HCV infection was estimated using serum samples separated by 7 years (1993-2000). Among 959 subjects, prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.15% (95% CI 0.48-1.82%) and 0.83% when only RIBA-confirmed cases were considered. Among these subjects, 62.5% had detectable HCV RNA in serum and 40% of them had a history of blood transfusion. Age distribution of cases showed a steadily increasing prevalence with age. Estimated incidence of new HCV infections was 15 per 100,000 subjects per year in the period 1993-2000. No cases were detected among the 145 Mapuche subjects studied. HCV infection is a prevalent disease in the Hispanic population of Chile with a low incidence in the last decade, whereas it was not detected in an isolated Mapuche Indian community. Age distribution of prevalence suggests that the peak of infection in Chile occurred 30 to 50 years ago.

  15. [Teenage fecundity rates in Chile: a serious public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra

    2007-01-01

    Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.

  16. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    ámica de distribución de biotas en la costa chilena, con énfasis en la identificación y naturaleza biogeográfica de las principales unidades espaciales. A partir de la información anterior, se propone una hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica al nivel de biotas, no necesariamente concordante con estudios previos al nivel de fauna o flora. Esta clasificación identifica tres unidades espaciales mayores: un área sur que incluye a una biota austral (Provincia Magallánica, un área norte que incluye una biota templada-cálida (Provincia Peruana, y un área Intermedia extensa (no transicional que incluye componentes mixtos de biota sin carácter ni rango biogeográfico definido. Se discute además la diferente naturaleza de dos zonas transicionales situadas en los límites del área Intermedia, una transición de contacto hacia el norte y una transición inducida hacia el sur, que se habrían generado por migraciones de biota y eventos glacio-tectónicos respectivamenteFor almost a century, a number of authors have analyzed the distribution patterns of the marine fauna and flora in the South American Pacific and particularly along the coast of Chile, with the purpose of determining the number of existing biogeographical units. Although the general, present day patterns are relatively well known, most studies have focused on distributional breaks and classification proposals rather than on the factors and dynamic processes that formed the identified spatial units. Even in the case of biogeographical classifications, published conclusions are based mainly on the analysis of one or few selected groups, exhibiting important differences in their criteria for selecting groups, the number of species involved, and their methodology. On the other hand, diverging conclusions among particular studies tend to obscure the more relevant, large-scale phenomenon of biota dynamics, one of the less known biogeographic aspects in Chile. Within that context, this paper presents a

  17. Cadenas operativas en la manufactura de arte rupestre: un estudio de caso en El Mauro, valle cordillerano del Norte Semiárido de Chile Rock Art Chaînes Opératoires: A Case Study From El Mauro, A Mountainous Valley In Semiarid Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Méndez Melgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los contextos de producción son temas marginales en las discusiones relativas al arte rupestre. Independiente de los factores que hayan producido este sesgo en la comprensión del tema, se plantea que un examen a los procesos de manufactura es central para dar cuenta cabal del fenómeno rupestre. Se sugiere que el acto mismo de elaborar motivos es un acto comunicativo, tan cargado de contenidos sociales como podría pensarse que es la imagen misma, la cual ha recibido mayor atención en los estudios especializados. Se presenta un trabajo que expone una serie de procedimientos metodológicos destinados a entender la manufactura de petroglifos a través de sus instrumentos de trabajo y sus contextos de hallazgo. El área seleccionada fue El Mauro, valle cordillerano del Norte Semiárido, en donde se observa una profusión de estas manifestaciones para fechas del Holoceno tardío. Se discute una estrategia metodológica implementada a la luz de la noción que todo acto tecnológico es un acto social, se definen los instrumentos usados y se exponen una visión sintética del proceso a modo de una cadena operativa.Rock art production is a marginal issue in specialized discussions. Independently of the reasons for this bias in the current understanding of the subject, it is argued that an examination of production processes is crucial in order to fully account for the phenomenon. It is suggested that the elaboration of motifs is itself a communicative act, as loaded with social content as the images themselves, which have received more attention in specialized studies. This paper proposes a series of methodological procedures aimed at understanding rock art production through its production tools and recovery contexts. The study area comprises El Mauro mountain basin in semiarid northern Chile, where there is a high density of these manifestations from the late Holocene. A methodological strategy is discussed in light of the idea that every

  18. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  19. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  20. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  1. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  2. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  3. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  4. Does disturbance favour weak competitors? Mechanisms of changing plant abundance after flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, J.P.M.; Steeg, A. van der; Kroon, J.C.J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Question: Does disturbance reduce competition intensity and thus favour weak competitors that are presumably less affected by disturbance than strong competitors? Methods: We used a single flooding event with increasing duration to simulate disturbance with increasing intensity. Six flood-plain gras

  5. Sequential use of human-derived medium supplements favours cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Paul W. Riem; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Soekhradj-Soechit, R. Sarita; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Kluin, Jolanda; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2012-01-01

    For clinical application of tissue engineering strategies, the use of animal-derived serum in culture medium is not recommended, because it can evoke immune responses in patients. We previously observed that human platelet-lysate (PL) is favourable for cell expansion, but generates weaker tissue as

  6. Sequential use of human-derived medium supplements favours cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Paul W. Riem; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Soekhradj-Soechit, R. Sarita; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Kluin, Jolanda; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2012-01-01

    For clinical application of tissue engineering strategies, the use of animal-derived serum in culture medium is not recommended, because it can evoke immune responses in patients. We previously observed that human platelet-lysate (PL) is favourable for cell expansion, but generates weaker tissue as

  7. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  8. Trade policies and development of less-favoured areas: evidence from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, A.J.; Komen, M.H.C.; Wobst, P.; Yalew, A.

    2004-01-01

    The links between international markets and production and consumption decisions in less-favoured areas (LFAs) often appear rather loose. Hence, it may be questioned whether international trade and economic growth effects trickle down to LFAs. This paper explores the evidence in the literature in wh

  9. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  10. Reformas estructurales y Re-reformas de pensiones, y sus efectos en el bienestar social: El caso de Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmelo Mesa-Lago

    2015-01-01

    .... Second, chooses Chile as a case study, as a world pioneer in both types of reforms; describes their characteristics and effects on social welfare of the structural reform of 1981 and the re-reform of 2008...

  11. Does the energy expenditure status in obstructive sleep apnea favour a positive energy balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Geneviève C; Sériès, Frédéric; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on energy expenditure is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between 24-hr energy expenditure or sleeping metabolic rate and features of the obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four apneic men took part in this cross-sectional study and were classified in quartiles of nocturnal desaturation severity, i.e. of percentage total sleep time with SaO2 hydrodensitometry. During the stay in the respiratory chamber, urine was collected to assess catecholamine concentration and percentage recording time with SaO2 < 90% (%TRT SaO2 < 90%) was measured with nocturnal oximetry. Mean fat free mass and fat mass were greater in quartile 4 than in quartile 1 (P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was higher in quartile 4 than in other quartiles (P < 0.0001). 24-hr energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate were similar among quartiles. However, when expressed on a per kg body weight basis (kcal/kg), these variables were negatively correlated with the %TRT SaO2 < 90% in the whole group (r = -0.46 and -0.48, respectively, P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was found to be a predictor of sleeping metabolic rate which explained, together with fat mass and fat free mass, 86% of this variance (P < 0.05). In apneic men energy expenditure relative to body weight decreases with increasing severity of oxygen desaturation which could favour a positive energy balance.

  12. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  13. Macroeconomic fluctuations and bank behavior in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze bank behavior in Chile over time, looking at how their balance sheets and performance move both in the short and long run, and how they react to macroeconomic shocks. The evolution of banking aggregates over an 18 year period (1989-2006, using quarterly data is examined. Techniques common in the real business cycle literature are applied to establish empirical patterns. Robustness tests using several filters are performed. The effects of macro shocks on banking variables are analyzed, both by means of an event study, and by estimating impulse responses with VARs. The results show that credit lags the cycle, demand deposits lead it, both being procyclical, while the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is countercyclical. In addition, a shock to interest rates reduces loans (total, commercial, consumption, and increases non performing loans (NPL and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR. A shock to GDP growth has a positive effect on loans, return over equity (ROE, and a negative impact on NPL and CAR.

  14. Rupture features of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake extracted from surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Jhuang, Yi-Shan; Lin, Cai-Yi

    2017-03-01

    This study used the rupture directivity theory to derive the fault parameters of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on the basis of the azimuth-dependent source duration obtained from the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity. Results revealed that the 2010 Chile earthquake featured asymmetric bilateral faulting. The two rupture directions were N171°E (northward) and N17°E (southward), with rupture lengths of approximately 313 and 118 km, respectively, and were related to the locking degree in the source region. The entire source duration was approximately 187 s. After excluding the rise time from the source duration, the northward rupture velocity was approximately 2.02 km/s, faster than the southward rupture velocity (1.74 km/s). On average, the rupture velocity derived from this study was slower than that estimated from finite-fault inversion; however, several historical earthquakes in the Chile region also showed slow rupture velocity when using low-frequency signals, as surface waves do. Two earlier studies through global-positioning-system data analysis showed that the static stress drop of 50-70 bars for the 2010 Chile earthquake was higher than that for subduction-zone earthquakes. Hence, a remarkable feature was that the 2010 Chile earthquake had a slow rupture velocity and a high static stress drop, which suggested an inverse relationship between rupture velocity and static stress drop.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. [Mortality in Chile 1955-1975: trends and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E

    1978-12-01

    Sources for data on mortality in Chile are available from the Instituto National de Estadistica, and from the Servicio National de Salud. For the purpose of this study every possible effort was made to get valid data, relying on the national death register, and on medical certificates of death. Between 1953 and 1963 the mortality rate was 12-13/1000; it abruptly descended in 1973, and rose again, to reach the level of 7.2/1000 in 1975. Male mortality is higher than female mortality. In the years 1974-1975 the mortality rate descended considerably for infants and for children 1-4. If one compares mortality rates in Chile and Sweden for 1975, it is obvious that modern medical technology and different sanitary conditions are responsible for the low mortality rate in Sweden. As to the causes of mortality, 9 diseases are responsible for more than 90% of deaths. During the past 15 years death from cancer was about 110/1000, while violent deaths and deaths by accidents augmented. The death rate for respiratory diseases decreased significantly in 1974-1975. In comparing causes of death in Chile and in the U.S. one notices that respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and circulatory diseases account for a great number of deaths in Chile, while in the U.S. accidents account for 73.4% of deaths in the 15-24 year old group. Tuberculosis, which has almost disappeared in the U.S., accounts for 5% of deaths in Chile in the 15-44 year old group. Such differences are due to cultural, social and economic diversity in the structure of the 2 countries. Pneumonia still accounts for 50% of infant mortality, and malnutrition for about 39% of mortality of children under 5. Still, most causes of death, like diarrhea in children, could be avoided with proper diagnosis and treatment. Nutrition, sanitary conditions, medical attention, and socioeconomic conditions are finally responsible if Chilean mortality rates still are much higher than those of developed countries.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  17. Vaccenic acid favourably alters immune function in obese JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Heather J; Gerdung, Christopher A; Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-08-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA) is a ruminant-derived trans-fat and precursor of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of VA on immune function in a model of the metabolic syndrome, JCR:LA-cp rats. Lean (2:1 mix of +/cp and +/+) and obese (cp/cp) rats, aged 8 weeks, were fed a control (0% VA) or a VA diet (1.5% (w/w) VA) for 3 weeks (twenty rats per group). Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) immune cell phenotypes (flow cytometry), ex vivo cytokine production (ELISA) and phospholipid fatty acid concentrations were measured. Obese rats had higher proportions of splenic macrophages, total T-cells, helper T-cells (total and percentage CD25+), cytotoxic T-cells (total and percentage CD25+) and produced higher concentrations of IL-6 to concanavalin A (ConA) compared with lean rats. Obese rats had lower proportions of MLN T-cells, new T-cells (CD3+CD90+) and cytotoxic T-cells, but higher proportions of helper cells that were CD45RC+, CD25+ and CD4lo, and produced higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-10, interferon gamma and TNFalpha in response to ConA compared with lean rats. VA was higher in plasma phospholipids and both VA and CLA (cis-9, trans-11) were higher in MLN phospholipids compared with control-fed rats. Lean VA-fed rats had lower proportions of MLN and splenocyte CD45RC+ helper cells, and helper T-cells. Splenocytes from VA-fed rats produced 16-23% less IL-2, IL-10 and TNFalpha compared with controls. VA normalised production of MLN IL-2 and TNFalpha in obese rats to levels similar to those seen in lean rats. These results indicate that dietary VA favourably alters the pro-inflammatory tendency of mesenteric lymphocytes from JCR:LA-cp rats.

  18. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  19. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  20. Circadian rhythm of a Silene species favours nocturnal pollination and constrains diurnal visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Benítez, Samuel; Dötterl, Stefan; Giménez-Benavides, Luis

    2016-07-24

    Traits related to flower advertisement and reward sometimes vary in a circadian way, reflecting phenotypic specialization. However, specialized flowers are not necessarily restricted to specialized pollinators. This is the case of most Silene species, typically associated with diurnal or nocturnal syndromes of pollination but usually showing complex suites of pollinators. A Silene species with mixed floral features between diurnal and nocturnal syndromes was used to test how petal opening, nectar production, scent emission and pollination success correlate in a circadian rhythm, and whether this is influenced by environmental conditions. The effect of diurnal and nocturnal visitation rates on plant reproductive success is also explored in three populations, including the effect of the pollinating seed predator Hadena sancta KEY RESULTS: The result showed that repeated petal opening at dusk was correlated with nectar secretion and higher scent production during the night. However, depending on environmental conditions, petals remain opened for a while in the morning, when nectar and pollen still were available. Pollen deposition was similarly effective at night and in the morning, but less effective in the afternoon. These results were consistent with field studies. The circadian rhythm regulating floral attractiveness and reward in S. colorata is predominantly adapted to nocturnal flower visitors. However, favourable environmental conditions lengthen the optimal daily period of flower attraction and pollination towards morning. This allows the complementarity of day and night pollination. Diurnal pollination may help to compensate the plant reproductive success when nocturnal pollinators are scarce and when the net outcome of H. sancta shifts from mutualism to parasitism. These results suggest a functional mechanism explaining why the supposed nocturnal syndrome of many Silene species does not successfully predict their pollinator guilds. © The Author 2016

  1. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  2. Chile: the Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right political wing chilean political parties. During the last 20 years the Goverment of Chile was in the hands of the center left coalition, after the dictatorship period of Gral Augusto Pinochet end in 1990. During two decades the state aplied social policies in order two develop the indigenous comunities, specially the mapuche comunities of the south of Chile. During 2010 the research proyect named “Conmemoraciones y memorias subalternas” tried to understand the current situation of the comunities, the conflict and others aspects of the indigenous situation. This paper is part of those research.

  3. A typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Julieta; Stuardo, Valeria; Folch, Cinta; Carvajal, Bielka; Clunes, Maria José; Montoliu, Alexandra; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-11

    In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile. These venues and locations include: cafés con piernas (coffee with legs); nightclubs, topless bars and cabarets; brothels; hotels; street and highway soliciting; massage parlours; and private residences. Formative research methods were helpful in identifying and characterising the venues and locations in which sex work occurred. Barriers to accessing and mapping specific locations were also identified. Recommendations for addressing these barriers include working with non-governmental organisations to map venues and initiate contact with the populations of interest. A comprehensive typology of sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, is an essential element for future time-location sampling and bio-behavioural research in the context of second-generation surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Chile.

  4. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  5. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  6. Estudio de la relación polen-vegetación actual en el Norte de Chile, en el transecto Pozo Almonte-Salar de Huasco (20°15'S/69°06'O)/Study of the current relationship between pollen and vegetation in the North of Chile, in the Pozo Almonte - Salar de Huasco transect (20°15'S/69°06'W)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathy Collao-Alvarado; Antonio Maldonado; Leticia González; Ana Sandoval; María Eugenia De Porras; Andrés Zamora; Gina Arancio

    2015-01-01

    ... the main pollen types present here. This research shows the relationship between pollen rain and current vegetation in the Pozo Almonte and Salar de Huasco altitudinal transect in the north of Chile, together with pictures and...

  7. DETERMINANTES DE LA LECTURA EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Los lectores se forman principalmente leyendo libros. Numerosa evidencia muestra que en Chile los niveles de lectura son bajos, tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Existe, además, un consenso respecto de la importancia de la habilidad y el hábito de lectura tanto para el individuo como para la sociedad y la economía. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los factores que afectan el nivel de lectura de libros en Chile. Para ello, se revisa el rol que desempeña la l...

  8. Chile: corrupción y poder

    OpenAIRE

    Gumucio, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Todo poder conlleva elementos de corrupción. Este artículo pretende establecer comparaciones históricas respecto de la perversión de las instituciones, en distintos períodos de nuestro pasado republicano. Si bien la tiranía de Pinochet va a ser recordada como la más criminal y  expoliadora de la historia de Chile, en menor grado y brutalidad,  la carencia de probidad existió a lo largo de nuestra historia. Este estudio pretende desmitificar la visión de un Chile republicano probo, es decir, c...

  9. DETERMINANTES DE LA LECTURA EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    COCIÑA VARAS, MATIAS PABLO

    2007-01-01

    Los lectores se forman principalmente leyendo libros. Numerosa evidencia muestra que en Chile los niveles de lectura son bajos, tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Existe, además, un consenso respecto de la importancia de la habilidad y el hábito de lectura tanto para el individuo como para la sociedad y la economía. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los factores que afectan el nivel de lectura de libros en Chile. Para ello, se revisa el rol que desempeña la l...

  10. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile Cáncer de pulmón y exposición a arsénico en el agua potable: un estudio de casos y controles en el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.En algunas ciudades de Chile, entre 1950 y 1970, los niveles de arsénico (As en el agua potable alcanzaron los 800 µg/l, estando hoy en 40 µg/l; para evaluar el rol de esta exposición, se llevó a cabo este estudio de casos de cáncer de pulmón y controles en las Regiones I, II y III. Entre 1994 y 1996, se ingresaron casos de cáncer de pulmón y dos controles hospitalarios: un control, un paciente con cáncer y el otro, un paciente sin cáncer, ambos diagnósticos no relacionados con arsénico. Los controles fueron pareados grupalmente por edad y sexo con los casos. A cada sujeto, se le aplicó una encuesta estandarizada sobre residencia, empleo y salud. La informaci

  11. AFLP analysis reveals a clonal population of Phytophthora pinifolia in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Alvaro; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Drenth, André; Slippers, Bernard; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Phytophthora pinifolia is the causal agent of the recently discovered needle disease of Pinus radiata in Chile, referred to as "Daño Foliar del Pino" (DFP). The genetic structure of the pathogen population is unknown, which hinders our understanding of its appearance and spread in Chile since 2004. In this study, a population of 88 cultures of P. pinifolia isolated from P. radiata at several localities in Chile was evaluated for genotypic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Results of the AFLP analyses showed that the P. pinifolia population in Chile consists of two near identical genotypes but with no genetic differentiation based on geography, year of isolation or the part of the tree from which the isolates were obtained. Mating experiments did not lead to the production of gametangia suggesting that the organism is sterile. The fact that a single clonal genotype dominates the population of P. pinifolia in Chile supports the hypothesis that P. pinifolia was recently introduced into this country and that its impact is due to a new and susceptible host encounter.

  12. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile; Dosis de radiacion en neuroangiografia para un hospital clinico de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E., E-mail: franciscovergara@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Terapia Endovascular; Ubeda, C.A.; Nocetti, D., E-mail: carlos.ubeda.uta@gmail.com [Universidade de Tarapaca (Chile). Centro de Estudos en Ciencias Radiologicas (CECRad). Dept. de Tecnologic Medica. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud (FACSAL)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients.

  13. [Sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to the National Burn Center of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Claudia R; Villegas, Jorge; Peña, Verónica; Whittle, Sandra

    2013-02-01

    Approximately 150 subjects per year suffer severe burns in Chile. To analyze sociodemographic/clinical features and outcomes of severely burned patients. Retrospective cohort study of 936 patients aged 47 ± 20 years (66% males), admitted to the National Burn Center of Chile between 2006 and 2010. Sociodemographic/clinical and burn variables and outcomes were studied. Mean total percentage of body surface area burned was 27 + 20%. A quarter of the patients had social features that could jeopardize rehabilitation. Fire was the burning agent in 73%, which along with electricity presented greater lethality (p Chile are mainly males at working age. Fire is the main agent and 28% had impaired consciousness, which was associated with an increase in the severity of burns. Knowledge of the characteristics and outcomes of the patients is important to implement prevention and treatment strategies adjusted to the national reality.

  14. Sport Sciences scientific journals in Chile (1929-2014: bibliography, characteristics, quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Pérez-Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, several studies about sport sciences in Chile have been developed, but any of them has been focused on its scientific journals. Thus, the aim of the present study was to prepare a bibliography of the sport sciences scientific journals published in Chile until 2014 and describe their characteristics and quality. All journals dedicated to sport sciences and published in Chile until 2014 were included, registering their bibliographic information, characteristics and quality. Twelve journals published from 1912 to 2014 were discovered, six of them currently edited. Most of them were published by universities in the metropolitan region with a biannual frequency, did not include address information of editorial committee's members, used a non blind review process for submitted articles and were not indexed in any database. In conclusion, these journals should improve their formal aspects and characteristics for increasing their visibility and quality.

  15. The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account: Evidence for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Salas Landeau

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence of "excess" current-account imbalances in Chile in the 1960-1999 period. This phenomenon is modelled using present value tests that allow for variable interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations. Despite its simplicity, most of the observed imbalances in the current account are accounted for by the model. Results suggest that using models where agents behave as forward-looking rational agents, is a valid framework. Moreover, the analysis highlights the rel-evance of variable interest rates and exchange rates. Results also imply that capital controls, that were widely used in the period under study, were not effective.

  16. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males

    OpenAIRE

    Lovlie, H.; Gillingham, M. A. F.; WORLEY K; Pizzari, T.; Richardson, David

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired i...

  17. Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma Associated with Long Standing Onychomycosis: Aggressive Surgical Approach with a Favourable Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavor Grigorov

    2017-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Although there are no available data in the literature to confirm or reject the contribution of the chronic nail infection to the malignant process, we emphasise the importance of this co-existence regarding the possible disguising of the malignant process. An early biopsy of a chronic persistent nail lesion may be preventive and beneficial regarding avoiding more aggressive treatments and achieving a favourable prognosis.

  18. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Marcantonio, Matteo; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth Anna; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote s...

  19. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  20. Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, David [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, WI-53706 (United States); Jara, Danilo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-05-15

    Bearing in mind the current and pressing need for an update of the existing Chilean power supply system - which has been remarkably influenced by new requirements - the search for new energy supply sources has become a top priority. The wind resource, vis-a-vis its associated mature technology features and its apparent availability throughout Chile, comes forward as a feasible option likely to play a more important role in any future national energy generation matrix. With a view to understanding the local wind resource, this document surveys a sample set of wind profiles available in the northern Chile area, thus becoming the first public survey of this kind. It also tackles theoretical energy production and capacity factors. Those became the basis of the wind modelling we undertook for Chile's participation in COP15. This paper shows wind generation is a suitable option for curbing down Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) in Chile. (author)

  1. Upward trend for Chile; Andenstaat im Aufwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneffel, Peter

    2010-03-15

    After an economic boom of 20 years, Chile may soon experience a change of paradigm in an economy based on renewable energy sources. Wind power is booming, and hydroelectric power is going strong as well. It will depend on the new government to see that the process of change continues. (orig.)

  2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L; Vergara, Juan A; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

  3. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004

    OpenAIRE

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

  4. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  5. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  6. Teacher-child interactions in Chile and their associations with prekindergarten outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Weiland, Christina; Barata, M; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine; Treviño, Ernesto; Rolla, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Quality of teacher-child interactions is central to prekindergarten children's learning. In the United States, the quality of teacher-child interactions is commonly assessed using the teaching through interactions conceptual framework and an associ/ated observational tool, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). This study examined: (a) whether there was evidence supporting three distinctive domains of teacher-child interactions in Chile (construct validity) and (b) whether these domains predicted end-of-prekindergarten language, academic, and executive function skills in Chile (predictive validity). The sample consisted of 91 Chilean prekindergarten classrooms (1,868 four-year-old children). The findings support both construct and predictive validity of the teaching through interactions conceptual framework as assessed by the CLASS in Chile. Implications for cross-country comparison of quality of teacher-child interactions in prekindergarten classrooms are discussed.

  7. Territory and knowledge in conflict. The border dispute of Chile and Argentina in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sagredo Baeza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the study of the border dispute between Argentina and Chile in Patagonia, the article offers a reflection and an example of the use of geographical knowledge in claiming territorial sovereignty. Based on the social history of science and cultural history, it presents the conditionings that influenced the arguments of both countries, and the political resolution of a territorial quarrel that over a hundred years ago, and also nowadays, forced Chile to resort to international bodies to determine its limits and ensure its rights. This situation implied a decision on the geographical knowledge of the disputed nature. This argument, however, did not bolster the Chilean position, since the referee called upon to decide the dispute, after revised several sources and not only the geographical knowledge claimed by Chile.

  8. Relation between aftershock parameters and geodetic slip models: Case study of the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule (Chile) and the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki (Japan) earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Olga; Hainzl, Sebastian; Lange, Dietrich; Enescu, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of local stresses, which represents as well crustal heterogeneity, is the main factor for aftershock triggering. Though neither local stresses nor crustal heterogeneity are known in detail, some information of their distribution is implicitly represented by slip and coupling values on the mainshock fault interface. Taking these two concepts as the main assumptions, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the relation between aftershock characteristics and geodetic measurements on the mainshock fault interface. As a case study we select two megathrust events, the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule (Chile) and the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki (Japan), due to the availability of rich aftershock data as well as of geodetic inversion models. To investigate the dependency between these data sets we firstly estimated the aftershock parameter distribution, using a modified ETAS model, which allows to take into account the mainshock rupture extension. Secondly we calculate the correlation between aftershock parameters and coseismic/postseismic slip and interseismic coupling. We find: (1) aftershocks tend to occur in the areas of high coseismic slip gradient, afterslip and interseismic coupling; (2) aftershock seismic moment is released preferentially in regions of large coseismic slip, coseismic slip gradient and interseismically locked areas; (3) anomalous aftershock parameters occur in the areas of reactivated fault systems. Moreover, we show that modified ETAS model outperforms the classical one in the cases when the mainshock rupture extension cannot be neglected and represented as a point source. One of the main restriction in the presented analysis is related to the large uncertainties of the inversion models, which limit the significance of our results.

  9. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  10. Party Change in Chile in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article looks at the changes in party systems generally in modern democracies, and argues that many trends observed internationally - growing mistrust of parties, growing electoral de-alignment - are also observed in Chile. Hence any analysis of party change in Chile has to take into account what is happening in other countries with well-established party systems. The article argues that the comparison with the past tends to be limited to the exceptional 1964-1973 period and that a more extended analysis points to many continuities in the Chilean party system. Competing arguments over whether there is new party cleavage in Chile based on the opposition between support for authoritarianism or support for democracy are also examined*.Resumen Este artículo estudia los cambios generales en los sistemas de partidos en las democracias modernas y argumenta que muchas de las tendencias que se observan internacionalmente -como el aumento en la desconfianza en los partidos, o desalineaciones electorales cada vez mayores- también se observan en Chile. De esta forma, cualquier análisis de cambios en el sistema de partidos de Chile tiene que considerar lo que está sucediendo en otros países con sistemas de partidos bien establecidos. El artículo postula que la comparación del sistema de partidos chileno con el pasado reciente tiende a estar limitado al período excepcional 1964-1973 y que un análisis más extendido implicaría muchas más continuidades de las esperadas. También se cuestiona las nuevas discusiones sobre si existe o no una nueva fisura partidaria, basada en la oposición entre el apoyo y rechazo al sistema autoritario, o el apoyo a la democracia.

  11. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein

    2015-01-01

    isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were...... compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide...

  12. Tracking the 2011 Student-led Collective Movement in Chile through Social Media Use

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Cristobal; Parraguez, Pedro; Barahona, Matias; Gloor, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using social media archives of the 2011 Chilean student unrest and dynamic social network analysis, we study how leaders and participants use social media such as Twitter, and the Web to self-organize and communicate with each other, and thus generate one of the biggest "smart movements" in the history of Chile. In this paper we i) describe the basic network topology of the 2011 student-led social movement in Chile; ii) explore how the student leaders are connected to, and how are they seen b...

  13. AMS measurement of 10Be concentrations in marine sediments from Chile Trench at the TANDAR laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D.; Arazi, A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Martí, G. V.; Negri, A. E.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; de Barbará, E.; Gollan, F.; Hojman, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Samsolo, N.; Togneri, M.; Villanueva, D.

    2017-03-01

    The 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sediments samples from the Southern Chile Trench have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The samples were measured at the TANDAR accelerator, where the discrimination of the 10Be radionuclides was achieved by means of a passive absorber in front of an ionization chamber. This setup along with the high voltage available, provided a complete suppression of the 10B isobar interference. The obtained values for the 10Be concentrations, of the order of 109 atoms/g, are the first 10Be measurements from the Southern Chile Trench and offer an excellent tracer to quantitatively study the recycling of sediments in Andean magmas.

  14. Formación bruta de capital en bienes de equipo en chile, 1856-1930: Fuentes nacionales y extranjeras Gross Capital Formation in Equipment in Chile, 1856-1930: National and Foreign Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Ducoing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pese a contar con unas de las mejores estadísticas de los países en desarrollo, existen lagunas en las series económicas de Chile, las cuales se han corregido a lo largo de los años. El trabajo conjunto de los autores ha permitido conocer las similitudes y diferencias entre una evaluación basada en las estadísticas chilenas y otra elaborada con las estadísticas del comercio exterior del G-3 (Alemania, Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña. El objetivo del artículo es contrastar las series de inversión en maquinaria para Chile desde 1856 hasta 1930 y servir de base para otros estudios que quieran aportar nuevas series que permitan entender el desarrollo de Chile en el largo plazo.Despite having the best statistics in developing countries, there are a number of gaps in Chile's economic series, which have been being corrected over the years. Our joint work has allowed knowing the similarities and differences between series made from the Chilean statistical yearbooks and official trade statistics of G-3 (Germany, USA and Great Britain. The article aims to contrast both machinery investment series for Chile from 1856 to 1930 and provide a basis for other studies that want to make new series for understanding the development of Chile in the long term.

  15. Socioeconomic School Segregation in a Market-Oriented Educational System. The Case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Pablo; Bellei, Cristian; de los Ríos, Danae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between…

  16. Socioeconomic School Segregation in a Market-Oriented Educational System. The Case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Pablo; Bellei, Cristian; de los Ríos, Danae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between…

  17. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188D, Santiago (Chile); Loewe, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Carlos [Universidad de Conception, Departamento de Fisica, Esteban Iturra S/N, Barrio Universitario, Conception (Chile); Haberle, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, {approx}160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only {approx}40 to experimental physicists; {approx}178 are men and only {approx}22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that {approx}160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not

  18. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient

  19. [AIDS in Chile: a problem with multiple facets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormazabal, B

    1991-03-01

    Chile's 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1984. Some 250 AIDS cases and 1600 HIV positive persons have since been reported, although the actual number by some estimates may reach 5000. Chile, although in the initial stages of the epidemic, already has a serious problem which at present can only be combatted through education. It will be necessary to convince the population that significant modifications of sexual behavior are needed to control the spread of the disease. Education for AIDS prevention is a priority of the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), which is basing its program on the premise that stable monogamy is the most natural form of expression of a couple. Manuals for prevention are under development, and the 1st, for health workers and the general population, is in process of publication. A series of pamphlets and educational videos for workers in sexually transmitted disease clinics are under development. Educational materials are also being created for specific groups such as university students and agricultural workers and for groups at high risk. A social communications campaign has been prepared and approved by the authorities, and is awaiting funding for dissemination. Education of the population is also a concern for the Catholic Church, which views reinforcement of the family and its mission of providing sex education as a primary means of preventing AIDS. CONASIDA is also responsible for epidemiological study of AIDS in Chile through surveillance of sentinel groups and in quality control of the blood supply. Condoms are to be distributed in sexually transmitted disease clinics for the purpose of AIDS prevention.

  20. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  1. Women's education level, maternal health facilities, abortion legislation and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elard Koch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. METHODS: Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957-2007 along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR, birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA. Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. RESULTS: During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (-13.29/100,000 live births each year and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (-1.59/100,000 live births each year were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (-69.2%. The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. CONCLUSION: Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal

  2. Women's education level, maternal health facilities, abortion legislation and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957-2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (-13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (-1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (-69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion.

  3. Chile Confronts its Environmental Health Future After 25 Years of Accelerated Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper-middle-income country to a high-income country. There has been great progress in the last 20 to 30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth, there remain clear challenges posed by air and water pollution, as well as climate change. The aim of this study was to review environmental health in Chile. In late 2013, a 3-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, Chile, bringing together researchers and government policymakers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20 to 30 years and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including changes in vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Although great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Núñez, Sara; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Cid-Henríquez, Patricia

    2017-04-06

    determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1cdesafio e oportunidade em saúde. determinar la prevalencia de la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Chile y su relación con las variables: Cobertura de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, Promedio de diabéticos con control metabólico en 2011-2013, Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y Porcentaje de participación de enfermeros en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular. estudio descriptivo transversal con componentes ecológicos, utilizando fuentes documentales del Ministerio de Salud. Se estableció que existe correlación entre la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 y las variables independientes, aplicando el Coeficiente de Pearson, siendo significativa al nivel 0,05. en Chile la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (HbA1c<7% en población estimada) es menor que 20%; esta se relaciona con la Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y con el Porcentaje de participación de enfermeras en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular, que es significativa al nivel 0,01. la prevalencia de Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 es baja; sin embargo algunas regiones se destacan en la cobertura y en el control metabólico de pacientes que

  5. [Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic zoonoses prevalent in Chile: count and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica, Francisco; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Torres, Marisa; Padilla, Oslando

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis, cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis often found in humans, is transmitted mainly by food and water, and is considered a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, newborns and immunocompromised patients. To identify the information about this zoonosis and its first reports in Chile. Review of publications in Pubmed, Mesh search of systematic reviews, case studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and specialty publications. In addition, other publications in parasitology journals were analyzed. There are reports of the presence of this disease in Chile for 60 years. During this time several differences in prevalence depending on geographic location, age and education level of the population have been detected. There is low epidemiological vigilance and lack of specific official preventive measures for this disease, despite the possible introduction of new parasite genotypes of an increased virulence and pathogenicity in the country through the importation of meat. New enigmas have arisen in relation to this disease associating it with Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, autism, learning disabilities, among others.

  6. Christian Education in Chile: Is the Seventh-Day Adventist System at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya

    2010-01-01

    Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…

  7. Antipathetic relationships among adolescents : Exploring prevalence, gender differences, and stability in the United States and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present study approaches antipathetic relationships among adolescents in two distinct cultural contexts: Chile and United States. Antipathetic relationships have been shown to be common among adolescents; however, little is known about patterns of antipathy in this population, and its developmen

  8. The Effects of Classroom Socioeconomic Composition on Student's Civic Knowledge in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Diego; Lomos, Catalina; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    In Chile, the influence of the socioeconomic make-up of classrooms on achievement has been extensively studied in mathematics and language, but less in currently important non-traditional subjects such as civic knowledge. This paper analyses the effects of the socioeconomic composition of classrooms on students' civic knowledge achievement in…

  9. Parent's Defense of Their Children's Right to Education: Resistance Experiences against Public School Closings in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Yancovic, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This is a semi-ethnographic study of three schools that were closed in a marginal community in Santiago, Chile. The school closing process was violent with many social and psychological negative consequences for guardians and students. The guardians of the students of these schools decided to take over the schools and fight against the local…

  10. Antipathetic relationships among adolescents : Exploring prevalence, gender differences, and stability in the United States and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present study approaches antipathetic relationships among adolescents in two distinct cultural contexts: Chile and United States. Antipathetic relationships have been shown to be common among adolescents; however, little is known about patterns of antipathy in this population, and its developmen

  11. Measuring Spanish Orthographic Development in Private, Public and Subsidised Schools in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Lori; Delbridge, Anne; Parker, David; Arnal, Martina; Jara Mödinger, Luz

    2016-01-01

    The current study has a twofold purpose: first, to determine the reliability of a tool for assessing orthographic development in Spanish; second, to assess differences in students' performance on the measure across multiple types of primary schools in a large city in Chile. A Spanish developmental spelling inventory that contained words of…

  12. Richness, systematics, and distribution of molluscs associated with the macroalga Gigartina skottsbergii in the Strait of Magellan, Chile: A biogeographic affinity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Aldea, Cristian; Mansilla, Andrés; Marambio, Johanna; Ojeda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the marine malacofauna in the Magellan Region has been gained from many scientific expeditions that were carried out during the 19th century. However, despite the information that exists about molluscs in the Magellan Region, there is a lack of studies about assemblages of molluscs co-occurring with macroalgae, especially commercially exploitable algae such as Gigartina skottsbergii, a species that currently represents the largest portion of carrageenans within the Chilean industry. The objective of this study is to inform about the richness, systematics, and distribution of the species of molluscs associated with natural beds in the Strait of Magellan. A total of 120 samples from quadrates of 0.25 m(2) were obtained by SCUBA diving at two sites within the Strait of Magellan. Sampling occurred seasonally between autumn 2010 and summer 2011: 15 quadrates were collected at each site and season. A total of 852 individuals, corresponding to 42 species of molluscs belonging to Polyplacophora (9 species), Gastropoda (24), and Bivalvia (9), were identified. The species richness recorded represents a value above the average richness of those reported in studies carried out in the last 40 years in sublittoral bottoms of the Strait of Magellan. The biogeographic affinity indicates that the majority of those species (38%) present an endemic Magellanic distribution, while the rest have a wide distribution in the Magellanic-Pacific, Magellanic-Atlantic, and Magellanic-Southern Ocean. The molluscs from the Magellan Region serve as study models for biogeographic relationships that can explain long-reaching patterns and are meaningful in evaluating possible ecosystemic changes generated by natural causes or related to human activities.

  13. Postavenie Chile v medzinárodnom cestovnom ruchu

    OpenAIRE

    Beňadiková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis analyses the position of Chile in international tourism. The main purpose is to evaluate Chile´s status in international tourism based on the competitiveness of the country. At the begining of the thesis, the theory is defined. Then, the economy and political backgroud of Chile is specified, followed by the description of the preconditions for tourism development and its competitiveness in the tourism industry. Moreover, inbound, outbound and domestic tourism are analysed ...

  14. Weak recognition: Indigenous rights in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After seventeen years of debate, the Chilean Congress approved the ilo 169 Convention on indigenous rights that compels the State to consult indigenous communities on issues that directly affect them. As the political and economic conditions were unfavourable, this political outcome is surprising. Indeed, the legal status of the indigenous people in Chile is weaker than in the rest of Latin America. This article explains this outcome through a detailed description of institutional changes as well as social pressures from the indigenous movement. These factors made right-wing sectors to adapt their discourses in order to accept Chile as a multicultural society. Moreover, a relevant part of the story is related to territorial differences among legislators. Discourse adaptation toward a soft recognition of indigenous rights is a likely outcome in a very conservative environmental setting.

  15. A factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial investigating the cost-effectiveness of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is currently undergoing a period of rapid demographic transition which has led to an increase in the proportion of older people in the population; the proportion aged 60 years and over, for example, increased from 8% of the population in 1980 to 12% in 2005. In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM which has been providing a nutritional supplement to older people since 1998. PACAM distributes micronutrient fortified foods to individuals aged 70 years and over registered at Primary Health Centres and enrolled in the programme. The recommended serving size (50 g/day of these supplements provides 50% of daily micronutrient requirements and 20% of daily energy requirements of older people. No information is currently available on the cost-effectiveness of the supplementation programme. Aim The aim of the CENEX cluster randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing nutrition supplementation programme, and a specially designed physical exercise intervention for older people of low to medium socio-economic status living in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study has been conceptualised as a public health programme effectiveness study and has been designed as a 24-month factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted among 2800 individuals aged 65.0–67.9 years at baseline attending 28 health centres in Santiago. The main outcomes are incidence of pneumonia, walking capacity and change in body mass index over 24 months of intervention. Costing data (user and provider, collected at all levels, will enable the determination of the cost-effectiveness of the two interventions individually and in combination. The study is supported by the Ministry of Health in Chile, which is keen to expand and improve its national programme of nutrition for

  16. Women favour dyadic relationships, but men prefer clubs: cross-cultural evidence from social networking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas David-Barrett

    Full Text Available The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes.

  17. Women favour dyadic relationships, but men prefer clubs: cross-cultural evidence from social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes.

  18. SIMPROVING THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE LESS FAVOURED AREAS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tileaga Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with finding solutions for improving the economic activities in Romania’s undeveloped areas, which still represent a major problem for this country’s economy. During 1999 and 2009, these areas were considered tax havens, due to some facilities accorded by the Government and the EU (headage compensatory allowances*, tax deductions, non-refundable funds. Many had the opportunity to invest in those regions, but no positive effect was to be seen. Tulcea County (Danube Delta area, coal mine regions, rural areas and the North-East area (Suceava and Botosani county are considered to be Romania’s less favoured areas. * The objective of these schemes is to provide a reasonable level of income for farmers where natural production conditions are least favourable so as to conserve the countryside by the prevention of further depopulation of rural areas. Compensatory allowances are payable to farmers for the keeping of cattle, sheep and goats. (www.europa.eu

  19. Volby v Chile 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years has passed from dissolution of authoritarian regime of Augusto Pinochet and in the presidential election 2009/2010 in Chile the right-wing candidate won. The era of continuous government of centre-leftist coalition, that administrated country from the period of transition, was ended off. The thesis focuses on the analysis of presidential and parliamentary elections, in the first place on the question what was the matter of triumph of the opposite candidate in the presidential ele...

  20. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    document dated June 30, 1973, instructing all Communist Party members in Santiago to secure arms and to evacuate the upper class barrio alto in case of...loans. (Other reports indicated a figure of $100 million.) It was also announced in Santiago that the Soviet Union had granted $108 million for long-term...Chile at Rojo, Santiago : Universidad Tecnica del Estado, 1971. See also Luis Corvalan, El Camino de Victoria, Santiago : Impresova Horizonte, 1971, pp

  1. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

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    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  2. Reflections on a study of Intercultural Education and Participation in Mapuche Communities in the IX Region of La Araucania, Chile Reflexiones a partir de un estudio sobre Educación Intercultural y Participación en Comunidades Mapuche en la Novena Región de La Araucanía, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Williamson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis focuses on a specific dimension of the "indigenous question" in Chile: that of social participation in educational processes, specifically within the context of the current national education reform. Beginning with new understandings based on the work of the Proyecto de Investigación & Desarrollo, Gestión Participativa en Educación-Kelluwün, this paper analyzes the possibilities and limits of participation, considering the particular framework of institutional structures inherited from the Military Regime, characteristics of the education reform, and the context of current indigenous conflicts for territorial and political rights. The Proyecto Kelluwün, using methods of action research and based on the principles of Paulo Freire, developed diverse experiences oriented to the augmentation of action, dialogue, critical reflection and elevating the social power of the community as an actor able to confront the local government, the aim being the integration of Mapuche culture, language and cosmovision into the curriculum, pedagogy, organization and culture of local schools. Through the understandings generated in the process of engaged research, we interrogate the real possibilities of increasing effective participation in actual contexts--participation, social engagement aimed at attaining the objectives of the quality and equity sought by the current educational reform as well as the expansion of community rights sought by the Mapuche in Chile. El artículo analiza una dimensión particular de la "cuestión indígena" en Chile: la de la Participación Social en los procesos educacionales, particularmente en el contexto de la Reforma Educacional. A partir de los aprendizajes y descubrimientos del Proyecto de Investigación & Desarrollo, Gestión Participativa en Educación-Kelluwün, analiza las posibilidades y límites a la participación, en el marco de la institucionalidad heredada del régimen militar, de las caracter

  3. Multi-approach study (preliminary essays) to understand the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions related to the genesis of exotic Cu-deposits, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Mort, A.; Riquelme, R.; Cabezas, A.; Muñoz, S.; Pizarro, H.

    2013-12-01

    Late Cenozoic (10 Ma) secondary Cu-sulfides and, eventually, exotic Cu-deposits are considerably common within the Atacama Desert. These deposits are supposed to have a strong relationship with the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions from that time. A study of the Tesoro Basin attempts to understand these connections using two proxies: clay mineral analysis and magnetic properties. Results obtained from both techniques are compared and related to the stratigraphic record previously determined in this area. Three main geological units are distinguished: Zanja perimetral gravels, Quebrada Los Arrieros gravels and Quebrada Los Arrieros fine-grained deposits. Clay mineral analysis results (fig. 1) help to confirm the paleoenvironmental meaning of the different facies associations located in the Quebrada Los Arrieros gravels. Variations in smectite, kaosmectite and illite contents can be explained as changes in the ability of being transported and selected in the sedimentary system. A priori, smectite crystals are smaller and form low-density agglomerates. They are probably able to be in suspension for a relatively longer time than the other clay minerals. Thus, some kind of preferential selection is expected during transportation of (detrital) clays. The magnetic properties (fig. 2) are the key to understanding the hydrologic variations through time in the Quebrada Los Arrieros fine-grained deposits. Correlation between magnetic properties and facies associations suggest that the hydrologic regime controls the amount of detrital minerals vs. neoformed ferromagnetic minerals. Higher values of magnetic susceptibility are correlated to strata with finer particles, which are interpreted as the result of higher water table periods. These results, combined with the stratigraphic record and the different paleosols observed, suggest a trend of formation commencing with a relatively humid period that progressively changes to a period of dessication. It remains

  4. Comparing source inversion techniques for GPS-based local tsunami forecasting: A case study for the April 2014 M8.1 Iquique, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejie; Babeyko, Andrey; Hoechner, Andreas; Ge, Maorong

    2016-04-01

    Real-time GPS is nowadays considered as a valuable component of next generation near-field tsunami early warning systems able to provide fast and reliable source parameters. Looking for optimal methodologies and assessing corresponding uncertainties becomes an important task. We take the opportunity and consider the 2014 Pisagua event as a case study to explore tsunami forecast uncertainty related to the GPS-based source inversion. We intentionally neglect all other sources of uncertainty (observation set, signal processing, wave simulation, etc.) and exclusively assess the effect of inversion technique. In particular, we compare three end-member methods: (1) point-source fastCMT (centroid moment tensor), (2) distributed slip along predefined plate interface, and (3) unconstrained inversion into a single uniform slip finite fault. The three methods provide significantly different far-field tsunami forecast but show surprisingly similar tsunami predictions in the near field.

  5. Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-10) in Children in Chile: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Nationwide Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cristiana M.; Alencar, Gizelton P.; Alvarez, Andrés; Valenzuela, Maria T.; Andrus, Jon; del Aguila, Roberto; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Araya, Pamela; Pidal, Paola; Matus, Cuauhtemoc R.; de Oliveira, Lucia H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Chilean National Immunization Program (NIP) in January 2011 with a 3+1 schedule (2, 4, 6 and 12 months) without catch-up vaccination. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCV10 on pneumonia morbidity and mortality among infants during the first two years after vaccine introduction. Methods This is a population-based nested case-control study using four merged nationwide case-based electronic health data registries: live birth, vaccination, hospitalization and mortality. Children born in 2010 and 2011 were followed from two moths of age for a period of two years. Using four different case definitions of pneumonia hospitalization and/or mortality (all-cause and pneumonia related deaths), all cases and four randomly selected matched controls per case were selected. Controls were matched to cases on analysis time. Vaccination status was then assessed. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There were a total of 497,996 children in the 2010 and 2011 Chilean live-birth cohorts. PCV10 VE was 11.2% (95%CI 8.5–13.6) when all pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths were used to define cases. VE increased to 20.7 (95%CI 17.3–23.8) when ICD10 codes used to denote viral pneumonia were excluded from the case definition. VE estimates on pneumonia deaths and all-cause deaths were 71.5 (95%CI 9.0–91.8) and 34.8 (95% CI 23.7–44.4), respectively. Conclusion PCV10 vaccination substantially reduced the number of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and deaths due to pneumonia and to all-causes over this study period. Our findings also reinforce the importance of having quality health information systems for measuring VE. PMID:27058873

  6. Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-10) in Children in Chile: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Nationwide Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Janepsy; Terrazas, Solana; Bierrenbach, Ana L; Toscano, Cristiana M; Alencar, Gizelton P; Alvarez, Andrés; Valenzuela, Maria T; Andrus, Jon; del Aguila, Roberto; Hormazábal, Juan C; Araya, Pamela; Pidal, Paola; Matus, Cuauhtemoc R; de Oliveira, Lucia H

    2016-01-01

    The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Chilean National Immunization Program (NIP) in January 2011 with a 3+1 schedule (2, 4, 6 and 12 months) without catch-up vaccination. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCV10 on pneumonia morbidity and mortality among infants during the first two years after vaccine introduction. This is a population-based nested case-control study using four merged nationwide case-based electronic health data registries: live birth, vaccination, hospitalization and mortality. Children born in 2010 and 2011 were followed from two moths of age for a period of two years. Using four different case definitions of pneumonia hospitalization and/or mortality (all-cause and pneumonia related deaths), all cases and four randomly selected matched controls per case were selected. Controls were matched to cases on analysis time. Vaccination status was then assessed. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using conditional logistic regression. There were a total of 497,996 children in the 2010 and 2011 Chilean live-birth cohorts. PCV10 VE was 11.2% (95%CI 8.5-13.6) when all pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths were used to define cases. VE increased to 20.7 (95%CI 17.3-23.8) when ICD10 codes used to denote viral pneumonia were excluded from the case definition. VE estimates on pneumonia deaths and all-cause deaths were 71.5 (95%CI 9.0-91.8) and 34.8 (95% CI 23.7-44.4), respectively. PCV10 vaccination substantially reduced the number of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and deaths due to pneumonia and to all-causes over this study period. Our findings also reinforce the importance of having quality health information systems for measuring VE.

  7. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Chile's tuberculosis morbidity notification statistics suggest that there has been a 3% average annual decrease in tuberculosis cases in the last 5 years (1978-82). In addition, over the period 1974-83, there was a 50% decline in the number of deaths from tuberculosis. In 1982, there were 6941 recorded cases of tuberculosis in Chile, only 6.5% of which involved children under 15 years of age; in that same year, there were 984 deaths from tuberculosis, 14.4% of which occurred in children. The majority of cases reported (78%) involve pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 90% of children under 15 years of age are covered by Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. This was achieved by immunizing 91% of all newborns, 83% of children in their first year of school, and 98% of those in their final year. Laboratories capable of case-finding now cover 95% of Chile's total area. Since 1975, an average of 47 bacilloscopies have been performed per 1000 consultations. Abandonment of treatment has been reduced to 12% and fewer than 20% of cases require hospitalization. Finally, the introduction of shortened rifampicin treatment has reduced the case-fatality rate from 6% to 3%.

  8. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  9. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  10. [Obesity and cancer in Chile: estimation of population attributable fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, María Luisa; Ruiz, Pablo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer. To estimate the proportion of cancers potentially attributable to obesity in men and women in Chile based on the calculation of population attributable fractions (PAF %). Cancer sites studied were those where obesity is a known risk factor based on the updated World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) analysis. Namely, colorectal, endometrium, esophagus, breast, pancreas, kidney and gallbladder cancers were analyzed. Overall and specific PAFs% were calculated for cancer sites and sex from known estimates of relative risk and national prevalence of overweight and obesity. The overall estimates of cancer PAF% for obesity were approximately 20%, without differences between men and women. Highest cancer PAFs% were for endometrial (47%) in women, and esophageal (35%) and pancreatic (31%) in men. The largest sex differences in PAFs% were for gallbladder (higher in women) and colorectal (higher in men). Results are closer to those reported from developed countries (USA and United Kingdom) than those from developing countries (Brasil, China). In Chile about 20% of all cancers could be prevented by obesity prevention and control strategies.

  11. Total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Carola A; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Muñoz-Sandoval, Cecilia; Cury, Jaime A

    2012-12-01

    Regardless of the total amount of fluoride (F) in a dentifrice, only the soluble fraction presents anti-caries activity and its concentration must be above 1000 ppm. No information regarding the quality of F in Chilean toothpastes is available. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the F concentration present in commercially-available toothpastes in Chile. Eighteen toothpastes of five different brands were tested, each purchased from three different chain drugstores in Chile. For each toothpaste, total, total soluble and ionic F concentrations were assessed and expressed as ppm of F (μg F/g). Among the dentifrices evaluated, 77.8% contained NaF (sodium fluoride), 16.7% MFP (monofluorphosphate) and 5.6% both types of F salts; 77.2% of the dentifrices showed similar total F content to that declared by the manufacturer in the labeling with only five with lower concentration than expected, beyond a 5% disagreement tolerance range. Total soluble F ranged from 958.8-1496.3 ppm (mean ± SD: 1270.5 ± 183.7). Five toothpastes showed lower total soluble F than total F. Only one toothpaste showed soluble salt levels below the recommended dose for this type of dentifrice. Most Chilean dentifrices evaluated contained soluble F within the range of 1000-1500 ppm and, therefore, may have anti-caries activity.

  12. Alterations in energy homeostasis to favour adipose tissue gain: A longitudinal study in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Minoli V; Morris, Jack A; Davis, Gregory K; O'Sullivan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy is associated with an increase in body fat; however, excessive gestational weight gain predisposes to significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether alterations in energy homeostasis have a major influence on fat storage. To evaluate longitudinal changes in body composition and energy metabolism in healthy pregnant women. Body composition, energy expenditure and energy intake were measured longitudinally in 26 women with singleton pregnancies at 12-14 weeks, 24-26 weeks and 34-36 weeks of gestation. Fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) were measured using bio-impedance analysis, total energy expenditure (TEE) using the Sensewear Armband and energy intake through a 3-day food recall diary. Throughout pregnancy, all women remained healthy. Body weight increased by 10.8 ± 3.9 kg, from 67.3 ± 14.1 kg to 78.1 ± 13.8 kg from the first to the third trimester (P Body fat percentage increased by 4.5 ± 4.2% (P change significantly throughout pregnancy. Healthy women increase FM during pregnancy despite slight increases in TEE and no change in energy intake. This suggests that energy storage efficiency improves during pregnancy, which may be related to alterations in gut microbiota and activation of anabolic pathways during pregnancy. Clarifying factors leading to this more efficient fat and energy storing state, and the role of the pregnancy-related changes in gut microbiota, may be important for managing gestational weight gain. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  14. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

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    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  15. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    en el tiempo.Forested freshwater wetlands are naturally flooded or saturated areas with hydrophilic forest vegetation which is worldwide distributed and is known as "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues" in Chile. This paper gives to know the state of art of these wetlands in Chile, through a description of its biological, physical-chemical and hydro-dynamic characteristics, identifying the main threats to its conservation and the main research needs. These environments can be permanently or temporarily flooded, depending on microclimatic, biological and edaphical processes. Its vegetation is dominated by species of the family Myrtaceae. Both hydric behavior and vegetation structure are major aspects that directly determine the water physical-chemical characteristics and the distribution patterns of biological communities. Chile's forested wetlands have been studied broadly from a vegetation and floristic point of view, but basic studies on limnology, hydrology or fauna are lacking, which results on a total lack of knowledge about its functioning at the ecosystem level and the effects that human activities on basins (e.g., agricultural, stockbreeding, forest could have on its hydric and biological components. In spite of being ecosystems of great cultural and ecological significance, important weakness can be identified on its state of conservation, as they are not protected by conservation tools that exist in Chile nowadays. Therefore, forested wetlands emerge as unique ecosystems of global importance, nearly unknown in Chile and of great interest on developing an important number of research lines, even though their high susceptibility facing anthropic disturbances threaten their continuance.

  16. [Fertility Survey, Metropolitana region, Chile 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A fertility study was carried out by the Chilean Association for Protection of the Family (APROFA) in metropolitan Chile in 1989 to update data from the most recent fertility study in 1974. A random and self-weighted sample of 600 women aged 15-44 in 32 urban communes of the metropolitan region were interviewed in November 1989. 55% were married or in stable consensual unions, 39.1% were single, and 5.9% were separated, divorced, or widowed. 24.1% had primary educations, 15.5% had some form of higher education, and .2% were illiterate. 64.2% of the women had children, of whom 63.8% had 1 or 2. Only 2.1% had 6 or more children. 46.2% felt that the ideal family size was 1-2 children and 30.7% that it was 3 children. 40.4% of women with children wanted another child and 59.6% did not. 25.1% of the sample had never had sexual relations, 7.3% had not had sexual relations in the 12 months prior to the interview, and the remaining 67.6% were sexually active. At the time of the survey 6.1% were pregnant and 11.1% had had a birth in the preceding 12 months. 28.3% of these pregnancies were considered unwanted, usually for economic reasons or because the family was considered complete. 55.6% of the sample reported using contraceptives. 48.6% used IUDs, 26.0% used oral contraceptives, 6.9% periodic abstinence methods, and 1.8% barrier methods. Only 7.5% of women aged 15-19 used contraception. Rates of use stabilized after age 25 at about 72%. 80.9% of women married or in union used a method, as did 20.2% of single and 59.3% of separated or divorced women. The data for the survey are still under analysis and all statistics are provisional.

  17. RUPTURA CON EL EJE Y ALINEAMIENTO CON ESTADOS UNIDOS: CHILE DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nocera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se avanza más allá en la investigación de un tema que ya ha sido objeto de otros estudios. Se entrega un análisis pormenorizado de la posición de Chile ante el origen y primer desarrollo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Aunque se destacan las relaciones con EE.UU., en base principalmente a un amplio estudio de archivos chilenos y norteamericanos, se analiza la situación tanto política como económica del país en relación a la guerra. El artículo vincula las relaciones de Chile con Estados Unidos a la luz de sus propias relaciones con el conflicto europeo, y particularmente con la Alemania naziThis study advances the research of a field, which already has been subyect of other works. There is a detailed analysis on Chile's position in front of the origins and in the first stage of the Second World War. There is an emphasis on relations with the U.S., based on Chilean and American archives, on the economic and political attitudes on the war. The article links the relations between Chile and the U.S. under the light of Chilean relations with the European conflict and, specially, Nazi Germany

  18. Social Well-Being Among Colombian and Peruvian Immigrants in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa Morales, Alfonso; Delgado-Valencia, Eric; Rojas-Ballesteros, Mariela; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2016-04-02

    In recent years, northern Chile has received a large number of immigrants attracted mainly by mining and related services. The last population census revealed that 70.5 % of foreigners in Chile came from South America, and were mainly Peruvians (30.5 %), Argentines (16.8 %), and Colombians (8.1 %). The aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe the social well-being levels reported by Colombian and Peruvian immigrants in northern Chile, as well as their connection to socio-demographic and relational factors. The Spanish version of the Scale of Social Well-being (Keyes in Soc Psychol Q 61:121-140, 1998) was administered to 431 men and women over 18 years old, with a minimum residence of 6 months in the city of Antofagasta. The highest-rated aspect was Social Contribution, and the lowest-rated aspect was Social Acceptance. The relational variables that show statistically significant differences in both populations relate to who the subject lives with, the degree of contact that the subject has with people from Chile, and the subject's relationship status. There are no differences that indicate a higher level of social well-being in one population more than the other; however, it appears that the Peruvian population has a greater perception of Social Coherence, while Colombians show a greater perception of Social Contribution.

  19. Soft Gamma-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panessa, Francesca; Bassani, Loredana

    2016-07-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample consists of known and candidate radio galaxies. The sample extraction criteria will be presented and its general properties outlined. In particular we provide strong evidence that this soft gamma-ray selection favours the discovery of large size radio objects, otherwise known as Giant Radio Galaxies or GRG. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these sources are still unclear and this result suggests that they maybe related to exceptional internal properties of the source central engine, like a high jet power or a long activity time. Broad band analysis of new GRG, discovered during this work, will also be presented.

  20. Training information service specialists in the less favoured regions of the European Union (TRAIN-ISS

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    I. Owens

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The expanding information infrastructure in Europe will increase the demand for high-quality, easily accessible and usable information services. At the same time, in the Information Society, there will be an increasing demand for professionals with skills, able to improve their potential through life long learning, accessing and using information sources available world-wide. Highly qualified information professionals are a crucial asset in any society to enable it to reap all the benefits and opportunities created by the Information Market. In the Less Favoured Regions (LFRs of the European Union there is a shortage of education and training opportunities for information professionals to enable them to cope with the rapidly changing environment. It was to address this need for well qualified and trained information professionals that the TRAIN-ISS project was funded under the IMPACT 2 programme of the Commission of the European Communities

  1. Autistic regression with and without EEG abnormalities followed by favourable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappella, Michele

    2010-10-01

    To explore the relationship between autistic regression (AR) with and without EEG abnormalities and favourable outcome. Follow up data on children with favourable outcome in a series of 534 cases aged below 5 years and diagnosed as ASD. Cases with regression were 167 (31.8%), usually with persistent ASD, intellectual disabilities and EEG abnormalities. Thirty nine children (7.3%) went off autism and recovered entirely their intellectual and social abilities. Few of them included examples of pharmacologically treated Landau and Kleffner syndrome and other similar complex cases with abnormal EEG. The majority was represented by 36 (6.7%) children, mostly males, with a dysmaturational syndrome: their development was initially normal up to 18 months when an autistic regression occurred accompanied by the appearance of motor and vocal tics. Relational therapies were followed by rapid improvement. By 6 years all children had lost features of ASD and their I.Q. was in most cases between 90 and 110. Convulsions were absent and EEG was normal in all cases except one. In a few of them recovery was spontaneous. Seventeen children were followed after 5 years 6 months: 12 (70%) had ADHD, 10 (56%) persistent tics. Tics were often present in parents and relatives, ASD absent, suggesting a genetic background different from cases with persistent ASD. With one exception all "off autism" children had a previous autistic regression. In this series "off autism" children had either early onset epilepsy and/or EEG abnormalities or cases of dysmaturational syndrome. Autistic regression was present in almost all. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Analysis of the results obtained from the psychosocial risk assessment questionnaire in Suseso-Istas 21: a descriptive study for prevention in primary care network in the Municipality of Quellón, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín del Río Arteaga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realiza en el Centro de Salud familiar de Quellón (Chile y busca describir los riesgos psicosociales a los que están expuestos los trabajadores de la red de atención primaria de salud de dicha comuna, para ello se utiliza el Cuestionario de Evaluación de Riesgos Psicosociales en el Trabajo Suseso-Istas 21 (versión breve. Luego se hace un análisis de dichos resultados con fines preventivos y de una futura intervención.

  3. ‘The collected past’: Stefanie Gänger, Relics of the Past. The Collecting and Study of Pre-Columbian Antiquities in Peru and Chile, 1837-1911, Oxford University Press. Oxford, 2014

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    Henry Tantaleán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A summary outline and analysis of Stefanie Gänger’s Relics of the Past, discussing some of the main topics treated in the book. This book is an important contribution to understanding the emergence of archaeology in Peru and Chile through the activities of collectors’ interest in its antiquities. The book reconstructs the political context where this practice was developed and introduces debates about the roles of indigenous people and the agendas of the creole elites from the Chilean and Peruvian republics. It goes on to conclude with a discussion of these activities in the context of collecting in Europe and America

  4. ICT Use and Parental Mediation Perceived by Chilean Children/Uso de las TIC y mediación parental percibida por niños de Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berríos, Llarela

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study we used an ex post facto descriptive methodology by survey. A questionnaire was applied for data recollection to 422 children of private schools in Santiago de Chile aged between 9 and 12 years old...

  5. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  6. [A scientometric view of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin

    2008-08-01

    During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.

  7. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  8. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  9. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  10. Report on the ESO Fellows Days in Chile 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M.; Emsellem, E.

    2012-03-01

    The 2011 ESO Fellows Days were held in Chile and brought together over 30 ESO Fellows from Garching and Chile. As well as presentations of research and social activities, the Fellows Days included a visit to San Pedro de Atacama and the ALMA site.

  11. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  12. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  13. Assessing the performance of hybrid CSP+PV plants in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allan; Cardemil, José M.; Escobar, Rodrigo; Colle, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    The electricity systems in Chile are characterized by a variable hourly demand in the central grid and an almost constant demand in the northern grid, which require different operation strategies for solar power plants depending on their location. Hybridizing a CSP plant with a PV plant can increase the whole plant capacity factor by allowing thermal energy to be stored while the PV plant is in production and thus help to achieve a fully dispatchable solar electricity production system. A thermal and economic analysis of hybrid CSP+PV plants is conducted considering a range of plant capacities based on a parabolic trough plant with the addition of a PV plant for the environmental conditions of Crucero in Northern Chile, which is a hotspot for solar energy development in the country. The study considers a parametric analysis and optimization of the storage and power block sizes for the CSP plant in terms of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for varying PV plant nominal capacity. The annual production of the plants are calculated by using the Transient System Simulation program (TRNSYS), which uses a new component library developed for that purpose. The results show good agreement with other software packages as well as with actual data from currently operating CSP plants. The adopted approach helps the proper assessment of the integration of different technologies, since it uses the well-kwon modular structure of the TRNSYS. Regarding the potential for the hybrid solar-solar plants in the Atacama Desert, the high level of irradiation available in Chile can provide a competitive electricity cost, allowing to investors the access to PPA contracts with mining companies in northern Chile. Additionally, the optimization analysis shows that the northern regions of Chile present an outstanding potential for the deployment of such projects.

  14. Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile. V. Iquiqueite, Na4K3Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH).12H2O, a new saline mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, G.E.; Mrose, M.E.; Marinenko, J.W.; McGee, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Iquiqueite (Na4K3Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH).12H2O, a 11.6369(14), c 30.158(7) A, P31c, Z = 3) occurs as a widespread minor constituent in the nitrate fields of northern Chile. It is particularly abundant in the vicinity of Zapiga, Tarapaca province. Associated minerals include nitratite, halite, nitre, darapskite, blodite, glauberite, dietzeite, bruggenite, ulexite and gypsum. Iquiqueite forms thin, yellow, hexagonal platelets (5-50 mu m in diameter, <5 mu m in thickness) that are disseminated singly or in vermiform aggregates in nitrate ore. Observed forms are c(0001) and m(1010). Cleavage is perfect on (0001) and imperfect on (1010); H. = or <2. D(calc.) 2.05 g/cm3 and measured sp. gr. 2.05 + or - 0.09. The mineral is uniaxial negative, epsilon 1.447(2), omega 1.502(2). The XRD pattern has the six strongest lines 3.02(100), 2.856(100), 10.11(85), 6.04(85), 3.28(85), 3.22(85) A. The name is for the city of Iquique, Chile.-J.A.Z.

  15. Co-seismic deformation of the crustal Mw=6.3, 2001, Chusmiza, Chile event triggered by the subduction Mw=8.4, 2001, Arequipa, Peru earthquake studied using seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, D.

    2005-12-01

    The 24 July 2001 Chusmiza, Mw=6.3, Chile earthquake is one of the few recent moderate shallow superficial earthquake in Northern Chile. Different kinds of data (short- and long-period seismograms, accelerograms) have been used to better locate this event with corresponding aftershocks. A special care has been taken to constrain their depth and to determine the focal mechanism of the main shock and aftershock, in particular to discriminate the real fault plane among the 2 nodal planes. These data have been used separately in the respective inverse problem approach, and similar results have been obtained. The main shock and main after-shock have very similar focal mechanism (strike-slip faults with a small normal component) and are both superficial (less than 10 km depth). The main shock fault plane solution (strike,dip,rake)=(14°,53°,-163°), dipping eastwards, has been discriminated among the two nodal planes without ambiguity with accelerograms waveform modelling data. It corresponds to the distribution of aftershocks (with a dip of about 50° and a strike of about N30°E), and local lineaments of azimuth about N35°E

  16. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  17. Nuevos registros de piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera en aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile New records of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera from domestic and ornamental birds from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio del examen del plumaje de aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile se reconfirma la presencia de los phthiraptera Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae y Menacanthus stramineus en la gallina doméstica, Gallus gallus domesticus y se registra además por primera vez en el país la especie Menacanthus pallidulus. En aves ornamentales se registran en pavo, Meleagris gallipavo, la especie M. stramineus, en pavo real, Pavo cristatus las especies Goniodes pavonis y Amrysidea minuta, en faisán común Phasianus colchicus las especies Goniocotes chrysocephalus y Oxylipeurus colchicus y en ganso doméstico Anser anser las especies Anaticola anseris y Trinoton anserinum. Los siete registros realizados en aves ornamentales representan nuevos reportes para Chile.The objective of this study was to confirm and update previous records of Phthiraptera in domestic and ornamental birds of Chile, through the examination of the plumage of the birds. The presence of Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Menacanthus stramineus species on the domestic fowl Gallus gallus domesticus was confirmed, and the Menacanthus pallidulus is reported for the first time in Chile. In ornamental birds, seven species of lice were reported for the first time in Chile: M. stramineus in wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, Goniodes pavonis and Amrysidea minuta in the Indian Peafowl, Goniocotes chrysocephalus and Oxylipeurus colchicus in the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, and Anaticola anseris and Trinoton anserinum in the Greylag Goose (Anser anser.

  18. A failed platform: The Citizen Consensus Conference travels to Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    This article starts by reviewing the setbacks that the recent Science and Technology Studies literature has identified in the functioning of technologies of democracy, the different arrangements that look to enact deliberation on technoscientific issues. Putting a focus on the Citizen Consensus Conference, it then proposes that several of these setbacks are related to the kind of "work" that these technologies are expected to do, identifying two kinds of it: performing a laboratory-based experiment and constituting a platform for the dissemination of facts. It then applies this framework to study a Citizen Consensus Conference carried out in Chile in 2003. After a detailed genealogy of the planning, implementation and afterlife of this exercise, the article concludes that several of the limitations experienced are derived from a "successful outcome" conceived as solely running a neat lab-based experiment, arguing for the need to incorporate its functioning as a platform with all the associated transformations and messiness.

  19. Algunas lexías monoverbales caracterizadoras del habla culta de Santiago de Chile. Aportes para un diccionario de uso del español de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Poblete V.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo da cuenta de la presencia de aquellas lexías monoverbales que contribuirían a determinar el perfil del hablante culto de Santiago de Chile. El estudio se basó en un corpus representativo de 25 horas de grabación de distintos tipos de discurso y estos elementos caracterizadores fueron analizados por grupos etarios y por género. (This article presents the findings of a study made on a representative corpus of 25 hours of taped material containing different types of discourse recorded by cultivated speakers of Santiago de Chile. It focuses on the presence of characteristic lexemes that would contribute to determine the profile of "cultivated speaker" in this dialect. Age and sex variables were considered in the analysis.

  20. Rockeras en Chile: negación de la reivindicación Women Rock Musicians in Chile: Negation of Self-Assertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Becker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A través de un estudio comparativo de algunas rockeras nacionales, el presente trabajo busca reflexionar críticamente acerca del rol adjudicado a la mujer dentro de los círculos fuertemente masculinos que circundan este movimiento musical, junto con examinar cómo se refleja en performances y atributos musicales que responden a otros paradigmas simbólicos.Based on a comparative study of some women rock musicians from Chile, this article presents a critical reflection about the roles cast on women within the predominantly male rock circuits in Chile. Besides, an analysis is presented of the relationships of these roles with performances and musical attributes pertaining to other symbolic paradigms.

  1. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  2. Pobreza Multidimensional en Chile: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Sanhueza; Angela Denis; Francisca Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de medición multidimensional de la pobreza para Chile. Siguiendo el enfoque conceptual de Amartya Sen, pobreza no es meramente insuficiencia de ingresos, sino se define como privación de capacidades para la realización de funcionamientos valiosos en la vida. Medimos carencias individuales en tres grupos de la población: niños, población económicamente activa y adultos mayores, y en cinco dimensiones: educación, salud, vivienda, empleo e ingresos. La justifi...

  3. EFECTOS DEL EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    LOYOLA HEUFEMANN, AMANDA

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...

  4. Pentecostalism and Politics in Neoliberal Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las relaciones históricas y contemporáneas entre el Pentecostalismo y la política en Chile. La primera parte del artículo provee un resumen histórico del crecimiento y consolidación de la religión Pentecostal en relación a diferentes ambientes políticos. En este artículo se esclarecen además las diferentes posturas Pentecostales hacia la esfera política. En particular hago hincapié, en cómo surge una cultura de desencanto político en el Chile post-dictatorial que crea un vacío simbólico, el cual trae como consecuencia el nacimiento de movimientos religiosos. En la segunda parte de este artículo se discute las posibles afinidades entre el Pentecostalismo, como una cultura religiosa, y los principios democráticos. El argumento es que a pesar de que el Pentecostalismo puede contener algunas cualidades democráticas, también existe una compatibilidad notable entre la visión teísta e individualista Pentecostal acerca de los cambios sociales, y un orden social neoliberal, en donde la indolencia política se expande y en donde predomina un sentido de progreso individual y no colectivo. English: This article explores historical and contemporary relationships between Pentecostalism and politics in Chile. The first part of the article provides an historical account of the growth and consolidation of Pentecostal religion within changing political environments and sheds light on Pentecostal stances to and involvements with the political sphere. In particular, it focuses on how a culture of political disenchantment has emerged in post-dictatorial neo-liberal Chile, creating a symbolic void that can be filled by religious movements. The second part of the article discusses possible affinities between Pentecostalism as a religious culture and democratic principles and values. It argues that although Pentecostalism may contain certain democratic qualities, there is also a striking compatibility between, on the one

  5. The Death of Socialism in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    him to return. During his absence Chile was ruled by a junta lead by General Carlos Ibanez del Campo . Welcomed back in March 1925, Alessandri kept...dictatorship of Colonel (later General) Carlos Ibanez del Campo in 1931-32. The first two were the product of divisions within the political community; the last...the Investigaciones detachment, and tanks were lined up in front of the palace. At 1:30 P.M. shortly after the Air Force bombed the presidential palace

  6. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research conducted in Chile on reading, reading proficiency and reading news on politics shows that negative values around 50. These data add to the forty million illiterates in Latin America, so this article rejects the death of the book and the frivolous faith in the replacement of the book by the use of information technology and communication (schools full of computers Instead, he insists on paying serious attention to the links between reason, book, and reading in the development of the individual and society

  7. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  8. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    diversos del mundo. Más aún, esta variabilidad y flexibilidad pueden ser responsables de las confusiones taxonómicas que han rodeado a este conjunto faunísticoIn this study we present a classification system reflecting the phylogenetic relationships for the intertidal patellogastropods of Chile and Peru. We infer phylogenetic relationships between limpets species using DNA sequences from the 16S region of the mitochondrial genome. We include a comparative limpet study of: shell structure, color and morphological patterns of the shell, radular teeth and anatomy. Additionally, we provide information about the distribution and ecology for members of this group within the studied area. The results show a Chilean-Peruvian Lottiidae fauna consisting of at least nine species, which are grouped into a single monophyletic clade Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana and a non identificated species, and a "problematic taxon" preliminarily assigned to the genus Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. The group of species is present in the intertidal rocky shores between 5º S and 54º S, from the upper to the lower intertidal fringes, ranging from exposed to protected areas. The systematic outcome of this study suggests the synonymization of S. parasitica to S. variabilis, and of S. ceciliana to S. boehmita. According to our field results, the species S. variabilis shows at least three ecophenotypes: (1 on rocky substrates along the full geographic range, (2 on the shells of the key-hole limpets: Fissurella crassa and F. limbata mainly in central and south of Chile, and (3 on the chiton plates of Enoplochiton niger in the north of Chile and south of Perú. S. ceciliana is a species in which morphology and color patterns are highly variable. In general, this variability indicates that the Chilean-Peruvian limpet species are among the most complex and diverse limpet fauna in the world. This, may reflects the taxonomic confusion which has

  9. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  10. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  11. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  12. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  13. Falta de reconocimiento de osteoporosis y omisión de tratamiento en adultos mayores con fractura de cadera en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez P,José Adolfo; Borzutzky S,Arturo; Barnett T,Carolina; Marín L,Pedro Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hip fractures are the most severe complication of osteoporosis, yet patients who suffer hip fracture rarely receive adequate treatment. Aim: To assess diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with hip fracture. Patients and methods: a retrospective study in 203 patients admitted for hip fracture surgery at two medical institutions in Santiago, Chile. Clinical data from 101 patients from the Hospital Clínico Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (a university tertiary...

  14. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the 'Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA' (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.

  15. Nursing leadership in Chile: a concept in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Ana M; Astudillo, Paula R; Barrios, Sara A; Rivas, Edith E

    2002-10-01

    The purposes of this two-year research study were to uncover Chilean nurses' perspectives of the elements that comprise leadership, and to identify challenges faced by nurse leaders in modern health administration. The research question is, What are the structural components that define and characterize nursing leadership in Chile? Nine nurses from different professional backgrounds volunteered to take part in audiorecorded successive interviews. The research methodology was a kind of grounded theory. Findings suggest that leadership is characterized mainly by exerting a positive influence on others based on good communication, knowledge of management, and a futurist vision of the nursing profession. Crisis and transition in nursing leadership were associated with external and internal forces, such as reforms in healthcare organizations and changes in the nursing conceptual framework.

  16. Future climate change will favour non-specialist mammals in the (sub)arctics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Anouschka R; Jansson, Roland; Nilsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub]arctic) ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (sub)arctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (sub)arctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature.

  17. Future climate change will favour non-specialist mammals in the (subarctics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouschka R Hof

    Full Text Available Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub]arctic ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (subarctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (subarctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature.

  18. De-novo CD5 + B- prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) presenting at younger age with favourable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rakhee; Kumar, Rajat; Tyagi, Seema

    2008-09-05

    B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) comprises 1% of chronic lymphocytic leukemias. CD5 positivity is seen in 1/3rd of cases which generally arise from pre existing CLL. They have longer median survival compared with de novo B-PLL which are commonly CD5 negative and are more aggressive with an older age of presentation. Herewith, we describe a 48-year-old male of de-novo CD5+ B-PLL presenting with minimal lymphadenopathy and massive splenomegaly with 90% atypical lymphoid cells in the peripheral smear and bone marrow. Immunophenotyping was strongly positive for CD5, CD45, CD19, CD22, FMC-7, S-Ig and CD38, moderately positive for CD 11c, weakly positive for CD23 and negative for CD-103 and ZAP 70. The patient responded well to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and had an uneventful hospital course. Our case illustrates a de-novo B-PLL with aberrant CD5 positivity who had a short duration of illness, younger age at presentation and favourable treatment outcome.

  19. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A F; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2013-10-22

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC--dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring.

  20. Soft Gamma-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Bassani, L; Molina, M; Malizia, A; Dallacasa, D; Panessa, F; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2016-01-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of 64 confirmed plus 3 candidate radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample covers all optical classes and is dominated by objects showing a FR II radio morphology; a large fraction (70%) of the sample is made of radiative mode or High Excitation Radio Galaxies (HERG). We have measured the source size on NVSS, FIRST and SUMSS images and have compared our findings with data in the literature obtaining a good match. We surprisingly found that the soft gamma-ray selection favours the detection of large size radio galaxies: 60% of objects in the sample have size greater than 0.4 Mpc while around 22% reach dimension above 0.7 Mpc at which point they are classified as Giant Radio Galaxies or GRGs, the largest and most energetic single entities in the Universe. Their fraction among soft gamma ray selected radio galaxies is significantly larger than typically found in radio surveys, where only a few percent of objects ...

  1. Micro-RNA dysregulation in multiple sclerosis favours pro-inflammatory T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Smith, Kristen M; Godlewski, Jakub; Liu, Yue; Winger, Ryan; Lawler, Sean E; Whitacre, Caroline C; Racke, Michael K; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2011-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory T cells mediate autoimmune demyelination in multiple sclerosis. However, the factors driving their development and multiple sclerosis susceptibility are incompletely understood. We investigated how micro-RNAs, newly described as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, contribute to pathogenic T-cell differentiation in multiple sclerosis. miR-128 and miR-27b were increased in naïve and miR-340 in memory CD4(+) T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis, inhibiting Th2 cell development and favouring pro-inflammatory Th1 responses. These effects were mediated by direct suppression of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) and interleukin-4 (IL4) expression, resulting in decreased GATA3 levels, and a Th2 to Th1 cytokine shift. Gain-of-function experiments with these micro-RNAs enhanced the encephalitogenic potential of myelin-specific T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, treatment of multiple sclerosis patient T cells with oligonucleotide micro-RNA inhibitors led to the restoration of Th2 responses. These data illustrate the biological significance and therapeutic potential of these micro-RNAs in regulating T-cell phenotypes in multiple sclerosis.

  2. Physiological responses to increased brood size and ectoparasite infestation: Adult great tits favour self-maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Michele; Voegeli, Beatrice; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Different types of stressors trigger responses of different physiological systems, and these responses may contribute differentially to the maintenance of homeostasis, to trade-offs and the evolution of life-history traits. To manipulate two common stressors during reproduction, we infested half of the nests in a naturally breeding great tit population with ectoparasites and simultaneously manipulated brood size, using a 2×2 experimental design. Parents in this model species commonly compensate for ectoparasites by an increase in food provisioning. We assessed parental responses to these concurrent stressors by measuring several physiological stress parameters such as changes in metabolic rate, oxidative stress and expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp), and explored how these stressors affect the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction. Neither flea infestation nor brood size manipulation affected adult metabolic rate, oxidative damage or Hsp levels. Furthermore, we found no interactive effect of the two treatments on adults. However, nestlings in infested nests had lower body mass and lower survival. Nestlings in enlarged broods were lighter and had lower survival, although parents of enlarged broods increased food provisioning rate. The findings suggest that adults favour maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and physiological equilibrium over current reproduction, and that the costs induced by both stressors, flea infestation and increased brood size, are carried by the offspring. It emphasizes the importance of self-maintenance over reproduction in life-history decisions, and more generally the need of including physiological traits for understanding the evolution of life-histories.

  3. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Marcantonio

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests. Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk.

  4. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, Matteo; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk.

  5. Amplified mid-latitude planetary waves favour particular regional weather extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2014-08-01

    There has been an ostensibly large number of extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the past decade. An open question that is critically important for scientists and policy makers is whether any such increase in weather extremes is natural or anthropogenic in origin. One mechanism proposed to explain the increased frequency of extreme weather events is the amplification of mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves. Disproportionately large warming in the northern polar regions compared with mid-latitudes--and associated weakening of the north-south temperature gradient--may favour larger amplitude planetary waves, although observational evidence for this remains inconclusive. A better understanding of the role of planetary waves in causing mid-latitude weather extremes is essential for assessing the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of future planetary wave changes. Here we show that months of extreme weather over mid-latitudes are commonly accompanied by significantly amplified quasi-stationary mid-tropospheric planetary waves. Conversely, months of near-average weather over mid-latitudes are often accompanied by significantly attenuated waves. Depending on geographical region, certain types of extreme weather (for example, hot, cold, wet, dry) are more strongly related to wave amplitude changes than others. The findings suggest that amplification of quasi-stationary waves preferentially increases the probabilities of heat waves in western North America and central Asia, cold outbreaks in eastern North America, droughts in central North America, Europe and central Asia, and wet spells in western Asia.

  6. January 2016 extensive summer melt in West Antarctica favoured by strong El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Julien P.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Scott, Ryan C.; Wilson, Aaron B.; Cadeddu, Maria P.; Bromwich, David H.; Verlinde, Johannes; Lubin, Dan; Russell, Lynn M.; Jenkinson, Colin; Powers, Heath H.; Ryczek, Maciej; Stone, Gregory; Wille, Jonathan D.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past two decades the primary driver of mass loss from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has been warm ocean water underneath coastal ice shelves, not a warmer atmosphere. Yet, surface melt occurs sporadically over low-lying areas of the WAIS and is not fully understood. Here we report on an episode of extensive and prolonged surface melting observed in the Ross Sea sector of the WAIS in January 2016. A comprehensive cloud and radiation experiment at the WAIS ice divide, downwind of the melt region, provided detailed insight into the physical processes at play during the event. The unusual extent and duration of the melting are linked to strong and sustained advection of warm marine air toward the area, likely favoured by the concurrent strong El Niño event. The increase in the number of extreme El Niño events projected for the twenty-first century could expose the WAIS to more frequent major melt events.

  7. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  8. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  9. [The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate

  10. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  11. Labor Income Dynamics in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Huneeus L.; Andrea Repetto L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of individual earnings using data from the personal income survey Encuesta Suplementaria de Ingresos. We find that the predictable component of income is humpshaped over the life-cycle, and that there are strong effects from education. The unpredictable component of income can be described by a very persistent permanent shock and a transitory shock. Our estimates are built from a panel of cohorts, so we use US data from the Panel Study of Income Dynam...

  12. ACCESO A LA SALUD EN CHILE ACESSO À SAÚDE NO CHILE ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Olavarría Gambi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile presenta una pronunciada reducción en la incidencia de la pobreza y los indicadores del estado de salud de la población se acercan a los de los países desarrollados. Este artículo se pregunta por el acceso efectivo de los pobres a la atención de salud y analiza el estado de salud de las personas de más bajos ingresos: si cuando están enfermos acceden a atención médica y dental, si cuando reciben atención de salud la reciben oportunamente, con demora o de manera tardía, y si disponen de cobertura de sistemas de protección de saludCostatamos que o Chile apresenta uma redução significada na incidencia da pobreza e que os indicadores do estado de saúde da população se aproximam dos países desenvolvidos. Neste artígo se pergunta pelo acesso efetivo dos pobres aos cuidados de saúde. O trabalho analiza o estado de sáude das pessoas de mais baixa renda. Quando estas adoecem tem acesso à atenção médica e odontológica? Recebem cuidados de saúde no momento necessário, com demora ou tardiamente? Além disso discorre a respeito da cobertura de sistemas de proteção de saúdeChile presents a remarkable lessening of its poverty; indicators show that people's healthcare conditions are close to those of the developed countries. This paper analyses the healthcare conditions of people with the lowest incomes, if they have access to medical and dental care when they are sick, if this care is readily obtained or with delay or when it is already late, and if they get coverage from the healthcare protective systems

  13. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements.

  14. Organic farming favours insect-pollinated over non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Sutcliffe, Laura; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of landscape-scale management intensity, local management intensity and edge effect on diversity patterns of insect-pollinated vs. non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields. Nine landscapes were selected differing in percent intensively used agricultural area (IAA), each with a pair of organic and conventional winter wheat fields and a pair of organic and conventional meadows. Within fields, forbs were surveyed at the edge and in the interior. Both diversity and cover of forbs were positively affected by organic management in meadows and wheat fields. This effect, however, differed significantly between pollination types for species richness in both agroecosystem types (i.e. wheat fields and meadows) and for cover in meadows. Thus, we show for the first time in a comprehensive analysis that insect-pollinated plants benefit more from organic management than non-insect pollinated plants regardless of agroecosystem type and landscape complexity. These benefits were more pronounced in meadows than wheat fields. Finally, the community composition of insect-pollinated and non-insect-pollinated forbs differed considerably between management types. In summary, our findings in both agroecosystem types indicate that organic management generally supports a higher species richness and cover of insect-pollinated plants, which is likely to be favourable for the density and diversity of bees and other pollinators.

  15. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.

  16. A novel organometallic ReI complex with favourable properties for bioimaging and applicability in solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszeja, Lukasz; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Hahn, Stephan; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2011-02-11

    Organometallic complexes possess great potential for imaging applications in biology, due to their kinetic stability and often favourable intrinsic properties. In this work we present a new class of Re(I) -tricarbonyl complexes with a substituted bis(phenanthridinylmethyl)amine (bpm) ligand. The complex Re(CO)(3) (R-bpm) could be conveniently prepared by microwave synthesis from [Re(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3) ]Br and a suitably substituted bis(phenanthridinylmethyl)amine (R-bpm). Complex 5, with R=CH(2)-CO(2)-CH(3) , was characterized by a single-crystal X-ray structure. Complex 6 (R=CH(2)-C(6)H(4)-CO(2)H) was used in solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) to label the neurotensin(8-13) (NT) fragment N-terminally. The complexes show luminescence emission with large Stokes shifts (λ(ex) =350 nm, λ(em) =570 nm). Cellular uptake and intracellular localization studies in several cell lines demonstrate the utility of the new Re(CO)(3) (R-bpm) complexes for fluorescence imaging and reveal significant differences between the simple methyl ester 5 and the NT bioconjugate 7.

  17. Estudio anual de la eliminación de huevos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales y larvas de nemátodos pulmonares en ovinos de una estancia en Magallanes, Chile Annual study of the of egg and oocyst outputs of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworm larvae in a sheep station of Magallanes, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SIEVERS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de recabar antecedentes epidemiológicos sobre las endoparasitosis del ovino en Magallanes, XIIª Región de Chile, se trabajó en la estancia "Entre Vientos", comuna de Río Verde, durante un año (septiembre de 1999 a agosto del 2000. A partir de animales de 3 categorías de edad mantenidos bajo un sistema de explotación extensiva, compuestos por 9.800 corderos (nacidos durante la primavera de 1999, 1.800 borregas (1 año de edad y 13.500 ovejas (2 o más años de edad, se determinaron las tendencias de eliminación de huevos, ooquistes y larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales y pulmonares. Cada 14 días se obtuvo materia fecal desde el recto de 25 animales pertenecientes a cada grupo de edad, muestreados al azar, para realizar recuentos de huevos y diferenciación de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales, recuentos de huevos de cestodos, determinación de animales positivos a ooquistes de protozoos intestinales y detección de larvas de nemátodos pulmonares. Los corderos presentaron las mayores eliminaciones de huevos de nemátodos gastrointestinales durante el verano, con predominancia de los géneros Nematodirus y Ostertagia. En borregas y ovejas, las mayores eliminaciones de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus se produjeron en primavera, coincidiendo con el alza de la temperatura ambiental. La categoría más contaminante fue la de las ovejas en primavera, mientras que los corderos lo fueron en el verano. Durante la primavera, la mayor parte de los animales eliminó ooquistes de Eimeria spp., pero fueron los corderos los mayores contaminantes. La mayor oviposición de huevos de Moniezia expansa se registró en corderos y borregas, durante el verano y primavera respectivamente. Larvas de Dictyocaulus filaria se detectaron principalmente en corderos durante el otoño e invierno. No se diagnosticaron casos de parasitosis clínicas durante los meses del estudio, lo que se puede explicar dado el sistema de crianza extensivo y al

  18. Testing the efficacy of downscaling in species distribution modelling: a comparison between MaxEnt and Favourability Function models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, J.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Real, R.

    2016-07-01

    Statistical downscaling is used to improve the knowledge of spatial distributions from broad–scale to fine–scale maps with higher potential for conservation planning. We assessed the effectiveness of downscaling in two commonly used species distribution models: Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) and the Favourability Function (FF). We used atlas data (10 x 10 km) of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra distribution in southern Spain to derive models at a 1 x 1 km resolution. Downscaled models were assessed using an independent dataset of the species’ distribution at 1 x 1 km. The Favourability model showed better downscaling performance than the MaxEnt model, and the models that were based on linear combinations of environmental variables performed better than models allowing higher flexibility. The Favourability model minimized model overfitting compared to the MaxEnt model. (Author)

  19. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

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    Chiara Bianchini, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  20. Effectiveness of the National Program of Complementary Feeding for older adults in Chile on vitamin B12 status in older adults; secondary outcome analysis from the CENEX Study (ISRCTN48153354).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-09-09

    Older people are at increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and the provision of fortified foods may be an effective way to ensure good vitamin B12 status in later life. To evaluate the effectiveness of a vitamin B12 fortified food provided by a national program of complementary food for older people on plasma vitamin B12 levels. A random sub-sample of 351 subjects aged 65-67 y from a large cluster randomised controlled trial provided blood samples at baseline and after 24 months of intervention. The intervention arm (10 clusters 186 participants) received a vitamin B12 fortified food designed to deliver 1.4 μg/day, while the control arm did not receive complementary food (10 clusters, 165 participants). Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels determined by radioimmunoassay were used to estimate the effect of intervention on vitamin B12 levels, adjusting for baseline levels and sex. Attrition at 24 months was 16.7% and 23.6% in the intervention and control arms respectively (p = 0.07). Over 24 months of intervention, mean (95% CI) serum vitamin B12 decreased from 392 (359-425) pmol/dL to 357 (300-414) pmol/dL (p < 0.07) in the intervention arm and from 395 (350-440) pmol/dL to 351 (308-395) pmol/dL in the control arm. There was no significant effect of the intervention on folate status. Our findings suggest that foods fortified with 1.4 μg/daily vitamin B12 as provided by Chile's national programme for older people are insufficient to ensure adequate vitamin B12 levels in this population. Chile has a long and successful experience with nutrition intervention programs; however, the country's changing demographic and nutritional profiles require a constant adjustment of the programs.

  1. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

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    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  2. Favourable areas for expansion and reintroduction of Iberian lynx accounting for distribution trends and genetic variation of the wild rabbit

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    A. Márcia Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although on a local scale Iberian lynx distribution is determined by the availability of prey rabbits, recent modelling analyses have uncovered broad-scale disagreements between these two species’ distribution trends. These analyses showed also that the lynx had become restricted to only a fraction of the rabbit’s genetic variability, and that this could be jeopardising its survival in the face of environmental hazards and uncertainty. In the present paper, a follow-up was carried out through the building of lynx and rabbit distribution models based on the most recent Spanish mammal atlas. The predictions of environmental favourability (which is an indicator of abundance for lynx and rabbit were positively correlated within the lynx's current distribution area, but they were negatively correlated within the total Spanish area where lynx occurred in the 1980’s. Environmental favourability for rabbits was significantly higher where lynx maintains reproductive populations than where it recently disappeared, indicating that rabbit favourability plays an important role and can be a good predictor of lynx persistence. The lynx and rabbit models were extrapolated to predict favourable areas for both species in Spain as well as in Portugal, on the original scale of the distribution data (10x10 km and on a 100 times finer spatial resolution (1x1 km. The lynx and rabbit models were also combined through fuzzy logic to forecast the potential for lynx occurrence incorporating information on favourable areas for its main prey. Several areas are proposed as favourable for lynx expansion or re-introduction, encompassing both countries and both genetic lineages of the rabbit.

  3. Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianduan; Koch, Felix S; Marcus, Claude; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ong, Ken K; Sobko, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood growth affects long-term health and could contribute to health inequalities that persist throughout life. Methods We compared growth data of 4-6 year old children born 1997-2002 in UK (n=15,168), Sweden (n=6,749) and rural China (n=10,327). Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated against the WHO Standard. Obesity and overweight were defined by International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs, and stunting, underweight and thinness by height, weight or BMI < −2 SDS. Associations with maternal education were standardised by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Mean SDS height, weight and BMI in UK (−0.01; 0.42; 0.62, respectively) and Sweden (0.45; 0.59; 0.45) were higher than in China (−0.98, −0.82, −0.29). Higher maternal education was consistently associated with taller offspring height SDS (SII: UK 0.25; Sweden 0.17; China 1.06). Underweight and stunting were less common in UK (prevalence: 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively) and Sweden (0.3% and 0.6%) than in China (9.5% and 16.4%), where these outcomes were inversely associated with maternal education (SII: −25.8% and −12.7%). Obesity prevalence in UK, Sweden and China was 4.8%, 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Maternal education was inversely associated with offspring obesity in UK (SII: −3.3%) and Sweden (−2.8%), but not in China (+0.3%). Conclusions Higher maternal education was associated with more favourable growth in young children: lower obesity and overweight in UK and Sweden, and lower stunting and underweight in rural China. Public health strategies to optimize growth in early childhood need to acknowledge socioeconomic factors, but possibly with a different emphasis in different settings. PMID:23450064

  4. Harmful and favourable ultraviolet conditions for human health over Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Zhdanova, Ekaterina

    2014-05-01

    We provide the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of ultraviolet (UV) radiation over Northern Eurasia taking into account for both its detrimental (erythema and eye-damage effects) and favourable (vitamin D synthesis) influence on human health. The UV effects on six different skin types are considered in order to cover the variety of skin types of European and Asian inhabitants. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1x 1 degree grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia, which can be of separate interest for the different multidisciplinary scientific applications over the PEEX domain. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol and cloud transmittance from different satellite and re-analysis datasets for calculating the solar UV irradiance at ground. Using model simulations and some experimental data we provide the altitude parameterization for different types of biologically active irradiance in mountainous area taking into account not only for the effects of molecular scattering but for the altitude dependence of aerosol parameters and surface albedo. Based on the new classification of UV resources (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we show that the distribution of harmful (UV deficiency and UV excess) and favorable UV conditions is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. The interactive tool for providing simulations of biologically active irradiance and its attribution to the different

  5. Indios urbanos: inmigraciones, alteridad y ladinización en Santiago de Chile (siglos XVI-XVII

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    Jaime Valenzuela Márquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the period following the Conquista and when the Santiago de Chile's urban society was formed, one can observe various indigenous peoples that migrated to the city: Andinos, Huarpes of Cuyo, Juries from Tucaman, and Mapuche-Huilliches from the south of the Kingdom of Chile. The objective of this article is to show the great geographic and ethnic diversity of the city by studying the arrival, deployment and mobility of these actors and their descendants, as well as their forms of settlement and their strategies for integration.

  6. Bordeaux of Talca and Champagne of Mendoza: Appellations of Origin and identity contamination of wines in Argentina and Chile

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    Pablo Alberto Lacoste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of Appellations of Origin (AO is one of the wines of outstanding wine industry in Argentina and Chile subjects. Given the strong trend towards concentration of the wine industry in these two countries, it is relevant to study the AO because they represent an appropriate mechanism to reduce the gap and enhance the possibilities of SMEs. Why AO not have developed in Argentina and Chile? This article examines the causes that inhibit the development of local AO in the regional viticulture.

  7. A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Thalía B; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Castro, Jorge M; Castro, Germán M

    2006-11-24

    A preliminary biometric and ecologic database for the brine shrimp Artemia from Mexico and Chile is presented. The area abounds in small and seasonal ponds and large inland lakes, the latter mainly located in Mexico, although relatively large and isolated lakes are found in complex hydrological settings in pre-high plateau areas of Chile. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at the localization, characterization, and evaluation of the aquaculture potential of Artemia populations in Mexico and Chile, which exhibit great habitat diversity (ponds, salterns, coastal lagoons, sea arms, coastal and inland lakes), contrasting weather conditions and different levels of isolation and human intervention. This study covered locations between 29 degrees north latitude (Baja California, Mexico) to 50 degrees south latitude (Puerto Natales, Chile). Biological characteristics considered are species name, reproductive mode, cyst diameter, chorion thickness, and nauplius length, whereas ecological data include pond size, pH, salinity, temperature, and water ionic composition. Artemia franciscana is the only species found in Mexico, it exists together with A. persimilis in Chile, though separated geographically. Ecological differences in habitat exist between both regions but also within countries, a pattern particularly clear with regard to water composition. Surprisingly, a Mexican (Cuatro Ciénegas, A. franciscana) and a Chilean location (Torres del Paine, A. persimilis) share habitat characteristics, at least for the period when data were collected. The discriminant analysis for cyst diameter and nauplius length shows that Artemia from only one location match in cyst diameter with those from San Francisco Bay (SFB) (Point Lobos), and one (Marquez) is far apart from SFB and all the others. The Chilean locations (Pampilla, Cejar, Cahuil, Llamara, Yape) share cyst diameter, but tend to differ from SFB. The remaining Mexican locations (Juchitan, Ohuira, Yavaros) are well

  8. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-05-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a `logic of induction' has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between the logic of induction and the mechanism of emulation, and the territorial aspects of educational inequalities. Emulation plays a main role inasmuch as the logic of induction leads targeted groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, which actually legitimizes inequalities. A brief statistical summary completes the study, showing that educational inequality has remained unchanged as far as urban-rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in all three countries) are concerned.

  9. [Neighborhood Systematic Social Observation; The Case of Chile and its Perspectives for Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The study of neighborhood characteristics and their effects on individuals has become an area of increasing attention by scholars from various disciplines in developed countries. Although there are various methods to study neighborhoods and their impact on human populations, one of the most used is the Systematic Social Observation -Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios (OSV), in Spanish-because it allows the collection of information about various features of the physical, social, environmental and economic characteristics of neighborhoods. The purpose of this article is to (i) briefly present some research on neighborhood effects influential in the U.S., ii) describe how they Systematic Social Observation was designed and implemented in the city of Santiago, Chile, iii) discuss some facilitators and obstacles of the implementation process and, finally iv) list possible contributions and limitations this approach would offer the profession of social work in Chile.

  10. Accelerated nucleation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun'Ichi; Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2016-04-01

    The earthquake nucleation process has been vigorously investigated based on geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical studies; however, a general consensus has yet to be achieved. Here, we studied nucleation process for the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 megathrust earthquake located within the current North Chile seismic gap, by analyzing a long-term earthquake catalog constructed from a cross-correlation detector using continuous seismic data. Accelerations in seismicity, the amount of aseismic slip inferred from repeating earthquakes, and the background seismicity, accompanied by an increasing frequency of earthquake migrations, started around 270 days before the mainshock at locations up-dip of the largest coseismic slip patch. These signals indicate that repetitive sequences of fast and slow slip took place on the plate interface at a transition zone between fully locked and creeping portions. We interpret that these different sliding modes interacted with each other and promoted accelerated unlocking of the plate interface during the nucleation phase.

  11. Unwanted sexual experiences in young men: evidence from a survey of university students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-02-01

    The public health problem of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in male youths has received little attention. In this study, we examined prevalence of USE, risk factors, contexts, and barriers to disclosure with data from a quantitative survey of students enrolled in General Education courses at a public university in Chile. This study focused on the male sample (N = 466). Approximately 20.4 % of participants reported some form of USE since age 14. Forced sex through physical coercion, forced sex through verbal coercion or while intoxicated, attempted forced sex, and less severe forms of USE were reported by 0.2, 10.1, 1.4, and 8.7 % of participants, respectively. USE before age 14 was reported by 9.4 % of participants and was a significant predictor of USE since age 14 (AOR 6.38, 95 % CI 3.22-12.65, p Chile and elsewhere.

  12. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  13. TRANSPARENCIA Y LEYES SECRETAS EN CHILE

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    Pablo Contreras V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza el problema de constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas en Chile, en razón de las modificaciones introducidas a la Constitución en el 2005. Primero, describe brevemente el fundamento sobre la publicidad de la ley en el Estado Democrático. Luego, se analiza el nuevo principio constitucional de publicidad establecido en el artículo 8º de la Constitución. Adicionalmente, se examina la constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas desde dos puntos de vista: confrontando la compatibilidad con el principio general de transparencia -como base de la institucionalidad- y analizando la afectación en el contenido esencial del derecho fundamental de acceso a la información pública.

  14. Los valores del urbanismo en Chile

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    Waldo López Moya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el mes de junio de 2004 fue presentado al Senado de Chile un proyecto de ley destinado a modificar la Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones (LGUC, con el fin de adecuarla para permitir la formación y edificación de «áreas urbanas condicionadas» (AUC. Esto es, conjuntos residenciales urbanos, construidos fuera del límite urbano convencional. Unos, en áreas rurales ubicadas inmediatamente adyacentes al mismo, llamadas «áreas de extensión urbana condicionada» (AEUC, y otros, ubicados en áreas rurales segregadas, denominadas «áreas de desarrollo urbano condicionado» (ADUC.

  15. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-01-01

    Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas), ...

  16. [From clinical to social bioethics in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Correa, Francisco Javier

    2008-08-01

    The scope of clinical bioethics must be broadened to a social bioethics that tackles institutional and public health ethical problems and those related to the health system reform. The superficial application of the four bioethical principles is not enough to face these problems and assure a complete respect of individual rights. Using a qualitative research in bioethics, we will be able to deal with those problems that rise from health care in Chile and propose solutions to avoid inequities, to promote a humane care of patients, develop an institutional ethics and provide an efficient protection to people 's rights. We propose to incorporate these social issues to the academic bioethical discussion and to develop a bioethics with complementary principles that can be used to solve cases and in decision making. We should use the means incorporated in our legislation such as Assistance Ethics Committees, Research Ethics Committees and the National Bioethics Commission, to pursue our objectives).

  17. [Ectoparasitosis of clinical importance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno M, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Several parasitic diseases affect the skin and appendages in humans, the most common are head lice and scabies. Both diseases have worldwide distribution with geographical variations. In Chile, the reported prevalence of head lice is 20-25% and of scabies 1-5%. Other ectoparasites include fleas and mite, causing transient parasitosis related to human and animal contact. These parasites are associated with various factors such as poor personal hygiene, promiscuity, long hair, crowding, and sharing of combs, among others. Various effective pharmacological therapies are available, which base on several active compounds. Important therapeutic options include topical treatments with pyrethroids, lindane, crotamiton, and malathion as well as oral medications such as ivermectin, which is used in case of drug intolerance, poor treatment response, infections with multiple parasites or concomitant bacterial infections. For some drugs, resistance has been reported in patients received multiple dosis.

  18. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  19. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas, insistiendo en cambio en atender seriamente a los lazos entre razón, libro y lectura en el desarrollo individual y de la sociedad

  20. Cultural Identity and Citizenship in Poverty–Stricken Areas in Santiago, Chile

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    Cristian Cabalin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a qualitative study in La Victoria, a shantytown in Santiago de Chile with a long history of urban mobilization that goes back to the 50's, this paper examines how cultural identities shape political representation and contribute to social exclusion. The results suggest that the origins of the shantytown left an important imprint on its residents delineating their cultural identity in ways that limit their political and social integration.