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Sample records for fatty seedlings functional

  1. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

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    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  2. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

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    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  3. Diaphragmatic function is enhanced in fatty and diabetic fatty rats

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    Carreira, Serge; Na, Na; Carillion, Aude; Jiang, Cheng; Beuvin, Maud; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. Methods Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways. Results Diaphragm active-force (AF) was higher in fatty (96±7mN.mm-2,P = 0.02) but not in diabetic fatty rats (90±17mN.mm-2) when compared with controls (84±8mN.mm-2). Recovery from fatigue was improved in fatty and diabetic fatty groups compared with controls. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction was observed in each group, but AF remained higher in fatty (82±8mN.mm-2,P = 0.03) compared with controls (70±8mN.mm-2). There was neutral lipid droplet accumulation in fatty and diabetic fatty. There were shifts towards a higher cross-sectional-area (CSA) of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC)-2A fibers in fatty and diabetic fatty compared with control rats (P = 0.002 and Pobese rats before and after mechanical ventilation, and is associated with activation of AKT pathway signaling and complex changes in morphology. PMID:28328996

  4. Reduced Triacylglycerol Mobilization during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis Containing Nutritionally Important Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

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    Shrestha, Pushkar; Callahan, Damien L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.; Zhou, Xue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesize and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG). The utilization of TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain elevated levels of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilized engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  5. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

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    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  6. Reduced triacylglycerol mobilization during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis containing nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Pushkar Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesise and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG. The utilization of such TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain an elevated level of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilised engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  7. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

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    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  8. A transfer of carbon atoms from fatty acids to sugars and amino acids in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seedlings.

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    Borek, Sławomir; Ratajczak, Wiktoria; Ratajczak, Lech

    2003-05-01

    The metabolism of 14C-acetate was investigated during the in vitro germination of yellow lupine seeds. Carbon atoms (14C) from the C-2 position of acetate were incorporated mainly into amino acids: aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine and into sugars: glucose, sucrose, and fructose. In contrast to this, 14C from the C-1 position of acetate was released mainly as 14CO2. Incorporation of 1-14C and 2-14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in seedling axes was more intense when sucrose was added to the medium. However, in cotyledons where lipids are converted to carbohydrates, this process was inhibited by exogenous sucrose. Since acetate is the product of fatty acid beta-oxidation, our results indicate that, at least in lupine, seed storage lipids can be converted not only to sucrose, but mainly to amino acids. Inhibitory effects of sucrose on the incorporation of 14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in cotyledons of lupine seedlings may be explained as the effect of regulation of the glyoxylate cycle by sugars.

  9. The role of nurse functional types in seedling recruitment dynamics of alternative states in rangelands

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    López, Dardo R.; Cavallero, Laura

    2017-02-01

    In arid ecosystems, recruitment dynamics are limited by harsh environmental conditions and greatly depend on the net outcome of the balance between facilitation and competition. This outcome can change as a consequence of degradation caused by livestock overgrazing. Also, distinct plant species may show a differential response to a common neighbour under the same environmental conditions. Therefore, ecosystem degradation could affect the net balance of plant-plant interactions, which can also depend on the functional traits of potential nurse species. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of alternative degradation states on (i) the density of seedlings of perennial species emerging in four microsite types, and on (ii) the relative interaction intensity (RII) between seedlings and potential nurses belonging to three functional types (deep- and shallow-rooted shrubs, and tussock grasses). During three years, we recorded seedling density of perennial species in four alternative degradation states in grass-shrubby steppes from northwestern Patagonia. The density of emerged seedlings of perennial species decreased sharply as degradation increased, showing non-linear responses in most microsites. Seedling density underneath deep-rooted shrubs was higher than underneath shallow-rooted shrubs and tussock grasses. Also, deep-rooted shrubs were the only functional type that recorded seedling emergence in highly degraded states. Deep-rooted shrubs had facilitative effects on the seedlings emerging and surviving underneath them, independently of ecosystem degradation. In contrast, RII between shallow-rooted shrubs and recently emerged seedlings, switched from positive effects in the less degraded states, to negative effects in the most degraded state. Tussock grasses recorded the weakest intensity of facilitative interactions with recently emerged seedlings, switching to competitive interactions as degradation increased. Our results suggest that species with key

  10. Fatty acids as modulators of neutrophil recruitment, function and survival.

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    Rodrigues, Hosana G; Takeo Sato, Fabio; Curi, Rui; Vinolo, Marco A R

    2016-08-15

    Neutrophils are well-known to act in the destruction of invading microorganisms. They have also been implicated in the activation of other immune cells including B- and T-lymphocytes and in the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation from where they migrate to tissues to perform their effector functions. Neutrophils are in constant contact with fatty acids that can modulate their function, activation and fate (survival or cell death) through different mechanisms. In this review, the effects of fatty acids pertaining to five classes, namely, long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9) unsaturated fatty acids, on neutrophils and the relevance of these effects for disease development are discussed.

  11. Fatty acids, lipid mediators, and T-cell function.

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    de Jong, Anja J; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E M; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research.

  12. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

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    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  13. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

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    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

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    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  15. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

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    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

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    Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...

  17. Fatty Acid Signaling: The New Function of Intracellular Lipases

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    Zuzana Papackova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, intracellular triacylglycerols (TAG stored in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets have been considered to be only passive “energy conserves”. Nevertheless, degradation of TAG gives rise to a pleiotropic spectrum of bioactive intermediates, which may function as potent co-factors of transcription factors or enzymes and contribute to the regulation of numerous cellular processes. From this point of view, the process of lipolysis not only provides energy-rich equivalents but also acquires a new regulatory function. In this review, we will concentrate on the role that fatty acids liberated from intracellular TAG stores play as signaling molecules. The first part provides an overview of the transcription factors, which are regulated by fatty acids derived from intracellular stores. The second part is devoted to the role of fatty acid signaling in different organs/tissues. The specific contribution of free fatty acids released by particular lipases, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triacylglycerol lipase and lysosomal lipase will also be discussed.

  18. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

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    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction a...

  19. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

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    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  20. Effect of variations in the fatty acid chain on functional properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, van S.E.H.J.; Schols, H.A.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Oligofructose fatty acid esters are surfactants that considerably lower the surface tension of an air/water interface, provide the interface with a high dilatational modulus and lead to a high foam stability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the molecular structure of oligofructose fatty

  1. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids.

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    Watts, Jennifer L

    2016-02-02

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids.

  2. Functional Roles of Fatty Acids and Their Effects on Human Health.

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    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    A variety of fatty acids exists in the diet of humans, in the bloodstream of humans, and in cells and tissues of humans. Fatty acids are energy sources and membrane constituents. They have biological activities that act to influence cell and tissue metabolism, function, and responsiveness to hormonal and other signals. The biological activities may be grouped as regulation of membrane structure and function; regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity, and gene expression; and regulation of the production of bioactive lipid mediators. Through these effects, fatty acids influence health, well-being, and disease risk. The effects of saturated, cis monounsaturated, ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids are discussed. Although traditionally most interest in the health impact of fatty acids related to cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that fatty acids influence a range of other diseases, including metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Scientists, regulators, and communicators have described the biological effects and the health impacts of fatty acids according to fatty acid class. However, it is now obvious that within any fatty acid class, different members have different actions and effects. Thus, it would seem more appropriate to describe biological effects and health impacts of individual named fatty acids, although it is recognized that this would be a challenge when communicating outside of an academic environment (eg, to consumers).

  3. Fatty acid metabolism in infants with functional and inflamatory bowel diseases

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    Marushko RV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Over past years, considerable attention is paid to the role of fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated, in the development of various gastrointestinal diseases, among which the most common are functional and inflammatory bowel diseases. The need for studies of fatty acid disorders is to clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms in which fatty acids participate in the development intestinal pathology. The aim of this study to elaborate the optimal preventive and therapeutic measures to reduce the incidence of these diseases and provide the effective treatment, especially in early childhood . Objective: To study the profile features of fatty acids in infants with functional and inflammatory bowel diseases. Patients and methods: Were examined 149 children aged from 6 months to 3 years, divided into 3 groups: 52 children with chronic non-ulcerative non-specific colitis, 49 children with functional constipation and 47 children with functional diarrhea. Verification of diagnoses was provided in accordance with the «Standardised cinical protocols of medical care for children with digestive diseases». Analysis of fatty acid's profile was evaluated by the method blood gas chromatography. Results: All the examined children had fatty acid disorders. The level of saturated fatty acids was decreased and the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased in the expence of omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particularly, linoleic and arachidonic acids. The greatest changes were observed in patients with chronic non-ulcerative non-specific colitis which can be considered as important links in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. In functional bowel disorders imbalance of fatty acids is likely to be a risk factor in development significant lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Conclusions: Given the presence of lipid imbalance in inflammatory bowel disease as well as in intestinal functional disorders, which is characterized by a

  4. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

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    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  5. Production and development of eucalyptus seedlings in function of doses of phosphorus

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    José Henrique Tertulino Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P on the survival in the nursery and early development in the field of clonal Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates of 30 plants per replicate. At the end of the cycle (90 days, 15 seedlings were used for determining the dry matter accumulation and nutrient concentration in the shoot. The rest was planted in the field to determine the percentage of survival and early development. The treatments consisted of four doses of P fertilization (0.0, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg plant-1. To obtain high quality seedlings in conditions similar to this experiment it is required doses of P in the range from 3.6 to 3.8 mg plant-1. Doses greater than 4 mg plant-1 affect the development and quality of eucalyptus seedlings. An adequate phosphorus fertilization of eucalyptus seedlings increase, by about 30%, the percentage of surviving seedlings in the field.

  6. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  7. The growth of maize seedlings as function of free energy and redox potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference in the growth of maize seedlings originating from seeds injured by accelerated ageing, as well as those altered by restoring with low 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations was examined, from the point of view of free energy and redox potential. The ageing decreased germination ability, the seedling growth and free energy, with no remarkable influence on the redox capacity. Meanwhile, the 2,4-D treatment increased the germination percentage and the seedling growth, by better energy utilisation, with shifting of the redox balance to a reducing environment. From this point of view, the free energy and the redox potential are useful tools for the determination of biological vitality.

  8. Growth of seedlings of Corymbia citriodora as a function of hydrogel use and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Rodrigo Bernardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corymbia citriodora, also known as lemon eucalyptus, is one of the most cultivated species for extraction of essential oils. Seedling production for this species, however, is more difficult than for other species, considering its slower growth, higher susceptibility to disease and nutrition requirements. As regards top dressing in particular, no established routine is available so far to ensure fertilizer savings and good seedling development. Slow growth reduces seedling capability to absorb nutrients before leaching starts, and a potential alternative to that is to add water-retaining polymers to the substrate so as to facilitate absorption of the fertilizers applied and their slow release in seedling tubes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different fertilizer dosages, as applied to substrates containing water-retaining polymers, on the growth of Corymbia citriodora seedlings. A completely randomized design was used, with four replicates, consisting of a control treatment with routine substrate and fertilizer used by a commercial nursery, plus five treatments with top dressing dosages ranging from 80% to 20% of commercial dosage plus addition of a polymer (6 g L-1. After 126 days, seedlings were evaluated for height, stem base diameter and ratio of height to stem base diameter. After analysis, it was concluded that the use of a water-retaining polymer had a positive effect on the height, stem base diameter and ratio of shoot height to stem base diameter, and that it helped reduce by at least 20% the amount of routine fertilizer used by the commercial nursery, whether basic fertilizer or top dressing.

  9. Functional analysis of Leishmania cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O Oyola

    Full Text Available The single gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase (CFAS is present in Leishmania infantum, L. mexicana and L. braziliensis but absent from L. major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In L. infantum, usually causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, the CFAS gene is transcribed in both insect (extracellular and host (intracellular stages of the parasite life cycle. Tagged CFAS protein is stably detected in intracellular L. infantum but only during the early log phase of extracellular growth, when it shows partial localisation to the endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid analyses of L. infantum wild type, CFAS null and complemented parasites detect a low abundance CFAS-dependent C19Δ fatty acid, characteristic of a cyclopropanated species, in wild type and add-back cells. Sub-cellular fractionation studies locate the C19Δ fatty acid to both ER and plasma membrane-enriched fractions. This fatty acid is not detectable in wild type L. major, although expression of the L. infantum CFAS gene in L. major generates cyclopropanated fatty acids, indicating that the substrate for this modification is present in L. major, despite the absence of the modifying enzyme. Loss of the L. infantum CFAS gene does not affect extracellular parasite growth, phagocytosis or early survival in macrophages. However, while endocytosis is also unaffected in the extracellular CFAS nulls, membrane transporter activity is defective and the null parasites are more resistant to oxidative stress. Following infection in vivo, L. infantum CFAS nulls exhibit lower parasite burdens in both the liver and spleen of susceptible hosts but it has not been possible to complement this phenotype, suggesting that loss of C19Δ fatty acid may lead to irreversible changes in cell physiology that cannot be rescued by re-expression. Aberrant cyclopropanation in L. major decreases parasite virulence but does not influence parasite tissue tropism.

  10. Effect of fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches: A structural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three saturated fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches were investigated. The complexing index (CI) of normal wheat starch-fatty acid complexes decreased with increasing carbon chain length. In contrast, waxy wheat starch-fatty acid complexes presented much lower CI. V-type crystalline polymorphs were formed between normal wheat starch and three fatty acids, with shorter chain fatty acids producing more crystalline structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy presented the similar results with XRD. The formation of amylose-fatty acid complex inhibited granule swelling, gelatinization progression, retrogradation and pasting development of normal wheat starch, with longer chain fatty acids showing greater inhibition. Amylopectin can also form complexes with fatty acids, but the amount of complex was too little to be detected by XRD, FTIR, Raman and DSC. As a consequence, small changes were observed in the functional properties of waxy wheat starch with the addition of fatty acids.

  11. Impact of fatty acids on brain circulation, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, R.A.M.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary intervention has evolved into a promising approach to prevent the onset and progression of brain diseases. The positive relationship between intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-LCPUFAs) and decreased onset of disease- and aging-related deterioration of

  12. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretani, F.; BANDINELLI, S.; Benedetta, B.; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A. D.; Blè, A.; Giacomini, V.; Corsi, A.M.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and t...

  13. Improving surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides by chemical modification with fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matemu, Athanasia Oswald; Katayama, Shigeru; Kayahara, Hisataka; Murasawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2012-04-01

    Effect of acylation with saturated fatty acids on surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides was investigated. Tofu whey (TW) and soy proteins (7S, 11S, and acid-precipitated soy protein [APP]) were hydrolyzed by Protease M 'Amano' G, and resulting peptide mixtures were acylated with esterified fatty acids of different chain length (6C to 18C) to form a covalent linkage between the carboxyl group of fatty acid and the free amino groups of peptide. Acylation significantly (P whey ultra filtered fraction (UFTW proteins.

  14. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  15. The complex and important cellular and metabolic functions of saturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes recent findings on the metabolism and biological functions of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Some of these findings show that SFA may have important and specific roles in the cells. Elucidated biochemical mechanisms like protein acylation (N-myristoylation, S-palmitoylation) and regulation of gene transcription are presented. In terms of physiology, SFA are involved for instance in lipogenesis, fat deposition, polyunsaturated fatty acids bioavailability and apoptosis. The...

  16. Fat-1 transgenic cattle as a model to study the function of ω-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Tao; Liu Xin F; Ding Xiang B; Yang Fei F; Nie Yong W; An Yu J; Guo Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in health. Enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate expression of a number of genes with such broad functions as cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis and cell signaling and transduction, these effects, seem to regulate coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, psychiatric disorders and various cancer. In this context, fat-1 transgenic cattle was designed to convert ω-6 to ω-3 fat...

  17. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANA P.Q. SCALON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of “uvaia” seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S, Latosol + Sand (L + S (1:1, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL ( 1:1:0.5, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL (1:2:0.5, Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B (1:1, and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2 and Dickson Quality Index (DQI and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m–2 s–1, stomatal conductance (mol m–2 s–1, transpiration rate (mmol m–2 s–1, photosynthesis (µmol m–2 s–1 and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O. Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%.

  18. Correlation of clinical symptoms and function with fatty degeneration of infraspinatus in rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jae-Sung; Jang, Ho-Seong; Kim, Jung-Sang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation of clinical symptoms and function with the fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus in rotator cuff tears. A total of 152 patients who had rotator cuff tears was enroled retrospectively. The infraspinatus muscle was divided into two compartments according to the bundle of fibres, and the patients were divided into four groups that reflected fatty degeneration. The muscle strength of the shoulder and clinical symptoms was investigated. The severity of the rotator cuff tear and retraction increased with fatty degeneration of both the superior and inferior parts in the infraspinatus muscles. Because of the increasing fatty degeneration of the superior part of the infraspinatus, the shoulder strength index (SSI) of abduction had poor results. Additionally, as the fatty degeneration of the inferior part of the infraspinatus increased, the SSI of abduction and external rotation had worse results. Fatty degeneration of the superior part of the infraspinatus has no correlation with the power of external rotation but has a negative correlation with the power of abduction. Moreover, fatty degeneration of the inferior part of the infraspinatus has a negative correlation with both the power of abduction and external rotation. Retrospective study, Level IV.

  19. The effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac autonomic and hemodynamic function in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Schlemmer, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiac autonomic function and vascular function in patients with psoriatic arthritis.......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiac autonomic function and vascular function in patients with psoriatic arthritis....

  20. Functions of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4 (GPR120) in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong-Soon

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, have been known for decades to be beneficial functional nutrients in different disease states. GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor for long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 PUFAs, and was recently renamed free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). Studies on FFA4-deficient mice and the development of specific pharmacological tools have started to unravel the functions of FFA4 associated with the actions of n-3 PUFAs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation-related diseases. Here, the state of the art regarding the roles and functions of FFA4 and n-3 PUFA in macrophages are reviewed from the pharmacological perspective. In particular, the functions of n-3 PUFA on the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes of macrophages in different organs, such as, adipose tissues and liver, are discussed along with future research directions.

  1. Dietary Fatty Acids and Temperature Modulate Mitochondrial Function and Longevity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations in temperature and resource availability are conditions many organisms contend with in nature. Specific dietary nutrients such as fatty acids play an essential role in reproduction, cold adaptation, and metabolism in a variety of organisms. The present study characterizes how temperature and diet interact to modulate Drosophila physiology and life span. Flies were raised on media containing specific saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids supplements at low concentrations and were placed in varied thermal environments. We found that dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve chill coma recovery and modulate mitochondrial function. Additionally, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid food supplements were detrimental to life span regardless of temperature, and antioxidants were able to partially rescue this effect. This study provides insight into environmental modulation of Drosophila physiology and life span. PMID:25910846

  2. Self-shading in cork oak seedlings: Functional implications in heterogeneous light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteso-Martínez, Jordán; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Valladares, Fernando; Morales, Fermín; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2010-07-01

    The high self-shading found in Quercus suber seedlings has been interpreted as a feature common for plants growing in high light environments. But many studies reveal that Q. suber has high survival rates under low-light conditions, so a high degree of self-shading could be the consequence of a foliage composed of many small leaves, with no drawbacks for coping with low light. A characterization of the light environment in a Q. suber stand together with a study of photosynthetic parameters of full sunlight-exposed (FSLE) and self-shaded (SS) leaves were carried out to tackle this apparent contradiction. Although the number of sunflecks longer than 120 min during the 3 months of measurements was low, the occurrence of at least one sunfleck longer than 120 min per day in the understory of the forest studied was very common. Sunflecks shorter than 30 min promoted an increase in net photosynthesis ( A) in FSLE leaves, but not in SS leaves. However, sunflecks longer than 60 min led to a very strong decrease in A and in actual photosystem II efficiency (Φ PSII) in FSLE leaves, when compared to sunflecks shorter than 30 min. In SS leaves, changes were, again, negligible. The multi-layered foliage of Q. suber seedlings allowed i) FSLE leaves to obtain the maximum photosynthetic yield for short sunflecks, and ii) SS leaves to increase their contribution to the photosynthesis of the whole plant for long sunflecks, thus, optimizing the use of light by FSLE and SS leaves during short and long sunflecks respectively. Therefore, shoot architecture of Q. suber seedlings involving high levels of self-shading allows to adequately cope with the low but highly heterogeneous light conditions of the understory, particularly when sunflecks of contrasting durations take place as it is frequently the case for evergreen Mediterranean forests.

  3. Thermal optima of photosynthetic functions and thermostability of photochemistry in cork oak seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouil, Hana; Montpied, Pierre; Epron, Daniel; Ksontini, Mustapha; Hanchi, Belkacem; Dreyer, Erwin

    2003-10-01

    Temperature effects on photosynthesis were studied in seedlings of evergreen Mediterranean cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Responses to changes in temperature and the temperature optima of maximal carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) and maximal light-driven electron flux (J(max)) were estimated from gas exchange measurements and a leaf-level photosynthesis model. The estimated temperature optima were approximately 34 and 33 degrees C for V(cmax) and J(max), respectively, which fall within the lower range of temperature optima previously observed in deciduous tree species. The thermostability of the photosynthetic apparatus was estimated according to the temperature at which basal chlorophyll a fluorescence begins to increase (T(c)). The T(c) was highly variable, increasing from 42 to 51 degrees C when ambient temperature rose from 10 to 40 degrees C, and increasing from 44 to 54 degrees C with decreasing soil water availability while net CO(2) assimilation rate dropped to almost zero. When a heat shock was imposed, an additional small increase in T(c) was observed in drought-stressed and control seedlings. Maximal T(c) values following heat shock were about 56 degrees C, which, to our knowledge, are the highest values that have been observed in tree species. In conclusion, the intrinsic temperature responses of cork oak did not differ from those of other species (similar T(c) under ambient temperature and water availability, and relatively low thermal optima for photosynthetic capacity in seedlings grown at cool temperatures). However, the large ability of cork oak to acclimate to drought and elevated temperature may be an important factor in the tolerance of this evergreen Mediterranean species to summer drought and high temperatures.

  4. Pectin functionalized with natural fatty acids as antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; Mignogna, Eleonora; Bugatti, Valeria; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Vittoria, Vittoria; De Luca, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Several pectin derivatives were prepared by chemical modifications of the polysaccharide with natural fatty acids. The obtained biodegradable pectin-based materials, pectin-linoleate, pectin-oleate and pectin-palmitate, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Good results were obtained for pectin-oleate and pectin-linoleate, which inhibit the growth of the selected microorganisms by 50-70%. They exert the better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Subsequently, the pectin-oleate and the pectin-linoleate samples were coated on polyethylene films and were assessed for their capacity to capture the oxygen molecules, reducing its penetration into the polymeric support. These results confirmed a possible application of the new materials in the field of active food packaging.

  5. The complex and important cellular and metabolic functions of saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    This review summarizes recent findings on the metabolism and biological functions of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Some of these findings show that SFA may have important and specific roles in the cells. Elucidated biochemical mechanisms like protein acylation (N-myristoylation, S-palmitoylation) and regulation of gene transcription are presented. In terms of physiology, SFA are involved for instance in lipogenesis, fat deposition, polyunsaturated fatty acids bioavailability and apoptosis. The variety of their functions demonstrates that SFA should no longer be considered as a single group.

  6. Assessment of UV biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Titta; Venäläinen, Tuulia; Tegelberg, Riitta; Lindfors, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sutinen, Sirkka; O'Hara, Robert B; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum. We monitored effects of UV radiation on the concentration of individual UV absorbing metabolites and chlorophyll concentrations in leaves and growth responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. Experiments were conducted outdoors using plastic films attenuating different parts of the UV spectrum. Chlorophyll concentrations and growth were not affected by the UV treatments. The response to UV radiation varied between and within groups of phenolics. In general, the observed responses of phenolic groups and individual flavonoids were best predicted by action spectra extending into the UV-A region with moderate effectiveness.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakari AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid

  9. Functional Foods Enriched with Marine Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata as a Source of ω-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Babuskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for functional food incorporated with ω-3 fatty acids is increasing over the years due to their added health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, ocular diseases, arthritis, etc. This study mainly aims to develop functional cookies and pasta enriched with ω-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis oculata was used because of its relatively high growth rate, high lipid content, resistance to mixing and contamination together with high nutritional values. The effect of the incorporation of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass on colour, firmness, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of cookies and pasta were evaluated. The colour values were found to be stable for two months of storage and the firmness increased with the addition of microalgal biomass. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids of 98 mg per 100 g and 63 mg per 100 g were observed in cookies and pasta, respectively, enriched with 1 % of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of up to 2 and 3 % of microalgal biomass was positively evaluated and accepted for cookies and pasta, respectively. This study confirms that the cookies and pasta enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata biomass might be used as a potential source of ω-3 fatty acids.

  10. Curie-point pyrolysis of sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Selected sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids were subjected to Curie-point pyrolysis and their pyrolysis products subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to study the thermal dissociation mechanisms of lipid moieties in bio- and geomacromolecules. Pyrolysis of t

  11. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

  12. B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Hooijdonk, L.W.A.; Doets, E.L.; Schiepers, O.J.G.; Eilander, J.H.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is one of many factors that affect brain development and functioning, and in recent years the role of certain nutrients has been investigated. B vitamins and n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are two of the most promising and widely studied nutritional factors. Methods: In

  13. Hepatic fat is not associated with beta-cell function or postprandial free fatty acid response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Doesburg, T.; Girman, C.J.; Mari, A.; Rhodes, T.; Gastaldelli, A.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the association of hepatic fat with beta-cell function estimated from the oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) suppression after a meal tolerance test (MTT) is linked to hepatic fat. Individuals with normal glucose

  14. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Dienke J.; Montfort, van Simone J.T.; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest that there are benefits of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake on brain functioning. However, it is an open question whether this is indeed the case. Therefore, we reviewed the evidence for effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA on human brain morp

  15. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P.; Bakke, Siril S.; Levin, Klaus; Blaak, Ellen E.; Thoresen, G. Hege; Gaster, Michael; Rustan, Arild C.

    2010-01-01

    Corpeleijn E, Hessvik NP, Bakke SS, Levin K, Blaak EE, Thoresen GH, Gaster M, Rustan AC. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E14-E22, 2010. First published May 4, 2010; doi:1

  16. Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    A diet enriched in PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 family, decreases adipose tissue mass and suppresses development of obesity in rodents. Although several nuclear hormone receptors are identified as PUFA targets, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PUFAs still remain...... to be elucidated. Here we review research aimed at elucidating molecular mechanisms governing the effects of PUFAs on the differentiation and function of white fat cells. This review focuses on dietary PUFAs as signaling molecules, with special emphasis on agonistic and antagonistic effects on transcription...... factors currently implicated as key players in adipocyte differentiation and function, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) (alpha, beta and gamma), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptors (LXRs). We review evidence that dietary n-3 PUFAs decrease...

  17. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands.

  18. PPARα augments heart function and cardiac fatty acid oxidation in early experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Stephen W; Bennion, Brock G; Knowles, Taft O; Ledee, Dolena R; Portman, Michael A; McGuire, John K; Liles, W Conrad; Olson, Aaron K

    2017-02-01

    Children with sepsis and multisystem organ failure have downregulated leukocyte gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), a nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor that regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. Mouse models of sepsis have likewise demonstrated that the absence of PPARα is associated with decreased survival and organ injury, specifically of the heart. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of early sepsis, we found that heart function increases in wild-type (WT) mice over the first 24 h of sepsis, but that mice lacking PPARα (Ppara(-/-)) cannot sustain the elevated heart function necessary to compensate for sepsis pathophysiology. Left ventricular shortening fraction, measured 24 h after initiation of sepsis by echocardiography, was higher in WT mice than in Ppara(-/-) mice. Ex vivo working heart studies demonstrated greater developed pressure, contractility, and aortic outflow in WT compared with Ppara(-/-) mice. Furthermore, cardiac fatty acid oxidation was increased in WT but not in Ppara(-/-) mice. Regulatory pathways controlling pyruvate incorporation into the citric acid cycle were inhibited by sepsis in both genotypes, but the regulatory state of enzymes controlling fatty acid oxidation appeared to be permissive in WT mice only. Mitochondrial ultrastructure was not altered in either genotype indicating that severe mitochondrial dysfunction is unlikely at this stage of sepsis. These data suggest that PPARα expression supports the hyperdynamic cardiac response early in the course of sepsis and that increased fatty acid oxidation may prevent morbidity and mortality. In contrast to previous studies in septic shock using experimental mouse models, we are the first to demonstrate that heart function increases early in sepsis with an associated augmentation of cardiac fatty acid oxidation. Absence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) results in reduced cardiac performance and fatty

  19. Very long-chain fatty acids support synaptic structure and function in the mammalian retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopiavuori Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of Very Long chain fatty acids-like 4 (ELOVL4 is a fatty acid elongase responsible for the biosynthesis of very long chain (VLC; ≥ C26 fatty acids in the retina, brain, skin, Meibomian gland, and testes. Heterozygous inheritance of mutant ELOVL4 causes juvenile macular degeneration in autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3. Retinal photoreceptors are enriched with VLC polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs, which have been shown by our group and others to be necessary for the survival of rod photoreceptors. Our group performed a series of studies using mice conditionally depleted of retinal Elovl4 (KO aimed at understanding the role of VLC-PUFAs in long-term retinal health and function, focusing on the role of these fatty acids in mediating synaptic function between the photoreceptors and the rest of the neural retina. The absence of VLC-PUFA from the retina of KO mice resulted in a marked decrease in retinal b-wave responses of the electroretinogram as well as a decrease in the amplitude of the oscillatory potentials mediated by the neural retina. Although there were no measureable differences between KO and wild type (WT mice in either pre-synaptic rod calcium channel function or post-synaptic bipolar cell glutamate receptor responses, ultrastructural analysis revealed a marked decrease in the diameter of synaptic vesicles in rod terminals. Recent quantification suggests that this decrease in synaptic vesicle size due to the absence of VLC-PUFAs in KO mice, and the consequent decrease in glutamate content, could account for the decrease in b-wave response amplitudes that were previously measured in these animals.

  20. N-3 fatty acids and membrane microdomains: from model membranes to lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Teague, Heather

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the author's research on fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids, plasma membrane organization and B cell function. We first cover basic model membrane studies that investigated how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) targeted the organization of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched lipid microdomains. A key finding here was that DHA had a relatively poor affinity for cholesterol. This work led to a model that predicted DHA acyl chains in cells would manipulate lipid-protein microdomain organization and thereby function. We then review how the predictions of the model were tested with B cells in vitro followed by experiments using mice fed fish oil. These studies reveal a highly complex picture on how n-3 fatty acids target lipid-protein organization and B cell function. Key findings are as follows: (1) n-3 fatty acids target not just the plasma membrane but also endomembrane organization; (2) DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), disrupts microdomain spatial distribution (i.e. clustering), (3) DHA alters protein lateral organization and (4) changes in membrane organization are accompanied by functional effects on both innate and adaptive B cell function. Altogether, the research over the past 10 years has led to an evolution of the original model on how DHA reorganizes membrane microdomains. The work raises the intriguing possibility of testing the model at the human level to target health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Subjects with Non-functioning Adrenal Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Yener

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relation between non-functioning adrenal adenoma and unfavorable metabolic status has been a debate so far. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in subjects with silent adrenal adenomas.Materials and Methods: 130 consecutive subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenomas, 170 age-, gender- and BMI-matched individuals without adrenal gland disorders, and 20 patients with Cushing’s syndrome were included in the study. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed by ultrasonography and the severity was scored semiquantitatively. Liver function tests were performed. Cushing’s syndrome and non-functioning adrenal adenoma were diagnosed using appropriate tests of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function.Results: The prevalence of NAFLD was 30.7%, 65.0% and 39.4% in adenoma group, Cushing’s syndrome group and control group, respectively. There was no significant difference in terms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and NAFLD prevalence between adenoma group and controls. NAFLD was not only more common in subjects with Cushing’s syndrome but was also more severe. Hypercortisolemia strongly predicted the development of metabolic syndrome (OR: 10.571, p=0.004. When age, gender, hypercortisolemia and metabolic syndrome were assessed, metabolic syndrome remained as the sole independent predictor of fatty liver development (OR: 9.162, p<0.001.Conclusion: Comparable prevalence between adenoma and control group was likely to be associated with similar rates of metabolic derangements and similar BMI. Cortisol excess seemed to be related with fatty liver development mainly through its unfavorable metabolic effects. Türk Jem 2011; 15: 116-20

  2. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.

  3. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators and T cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eNicolaou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are involved in T cell biology both as nutrients important for energy production as well as signalling molecules. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events, although the molecular mechanisms of these actions have not yet been fully elucidated. Some of these immune activities are linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alteration of the composition of cellular membranes and the consequent changes in signalling pathways linked to membrane raft associated proteins. However, significant aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid bioactivities are mediated through their transformation to specific lipid mediators, products of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or cytochrome P450 enzymatic reactions. Resulting bioactive metabolites including prostaglandins, leukotrienes and endocannabinoids are produced by and/or act upon T leukocytes through cell surface receptors and have been shown to alter T cell activation and differentiation, proliferation, cytokine production, motility and homing events. Detailed appreciation of the mode of action of these lipids presents opportunities for the design and development of therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating T cell function.

  5. Seedling mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Rasmussen, Finn N.

    2014-01-01

    mycobionts suggest a derivation from a pathogenic relationship, and sister group comparison offers little support for derivation from other mycorrhizal relationships. A combination of in situ sowings and molecular identification of seedling mycobionts has established that a broad range of fungi besides...

  6. Structure-Function of CD36 and Importance of Fatty Acid Signal Transduction in Fat Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Kuda, Ondrej; Samovski, Dmitri; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2014-01-01

    CD36 is a scavenger receptor that functions in high affinity tissue uptake of long chain fatty acids (FA) and contributes under excessive fat supply to lipid accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. This review describes recent evidence regarding the CD36 FA binding site and a potential mechanism for FA transfer. It also presents the view that CD36 and FA signaling coordinate fat utilization based on newly identified CD36 actions that involve oral fat perception, intestinal fat absorption, sec...

  7. Temperature-dependent growth and emergence of functional leaves: an adaptive mechanism in the seedlings of the western Himalayan plant Podophyllum hexandrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Rekha; Pandey, Subedar; Chanda, Sanjoy; Bhattacharya, Amita; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2008-05-01

    As an adaptive mechanism, hypocotyl dormancy delays emergence of functional leaf until favorable season of growth in Podophyllum hexandrum, an endangered medicinal plant of the western Himalayas. However, upon exposure of the freshly germinated seedlings to favorable temperature (25 degrees C), functional leaves emerged within 20 days. Therefore, we examined regulation mechanisms of growth and development of this alpine plant by temperature under laboratory conditions. The seedlings were exposed to (1) 25 degrees C (temperature prevailing at the time of maximum vegetative growth), (2) 4 degrees C (mean temperature at the onset of winter in its natural habitat), and (3) 10 degrees C (an intermediate temperature). Slackened growth at 4 degrees C was followed by senescence of aerial parts and quiescence of roots and predetermined leaf primordia. Rapid development of leaf primordia at 25 degrees C was associated with increased starch hydrolysis. This was evident from higher alpha-amylase activity and reducing sugars. These parameters decreased on sudden exposure to 4 degrees C. In contrast, the roots (perennating organs) showed a slight increase (1.36-fold) in alpha-amylase activity. Growth and development in seedlings growing at 10 degrees C (temperature less adverse than 4 degrees C) were comparatively faster. The content of reducing sugars and alpha-amylase activity were also higher in all the seedling parts at 10 degrees C as compared to 4 degrees C. This indicated larger requirements for sugar by the seedlings at 10 degrees C. Irrespective of temperature, maximum changes in nitrate and nitrate reductase occurred during the initial 10 days, i.e., when the readily available form of sugars (reducing sugar) was highest. This indicated that a temperature-dependent availability of carbon, but not temperature itself, was an important regulator of uptake and reduction of nitrogen.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Modulate TRPV4 Function through Plasma Membrane Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Rebeca; Sierra-Valdez, Francisco J; Millet, Jonathan R M; Herwig, Joshua D; Roan, Esra; Vásquez, Valeria; Cordero-Morales, Julio F

    2017-10-03

    Dietary consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), present in fish oils, is known to improve the vascular response, but their molecular targets remain largely unknown. Activation of the TRPV4 channel has been implicated in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Here, we studied the contribution of ω-3 PUFAs to TRPV4 function by precisely manipulating the fatty acid content in Caenorhabditis elegans. By genetically depriving the worms of PUFAs, we determined that the metabolism of ω-3 fatty acids is required for TRPV4 activity. Functional, lipid metabolome, and biophysical analyses demonstrated that ω-3 PUFAs enhance TRPV4 function in human endothelial cells and support the hypothesis that lipid metabolism and membrane remodeling regulate cell reactivity. We propose a model whereby the eicosanoid's epoxide group location increases membrane fluidity and influences the endothelial cell response by increasing TRPV4 channel activity. ω-3 PUFA-like molecules might be viable antihypertensive agents for targeting TRPV4 to reduce systemic blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  10. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Plant functional traits provide a mechanistic basis for understanding ecological variation among plant species and the implications of this variation for species distribution, community assembly and restoration. 2. The bulk of our functional trait understanding, however, is centered on traits rel...

  11. A proteomic analysis of the functional effects of fatty acids in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalon Juliana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that long chain fatty acids influence fibroblast function at sub-lethal concentrations. This study is the first to assess the effects of oleic, linoleic or palmitic acids on protein expression of fibroblasts, as determined by standard proteomic techniques. The fatty acids were not cytotoxic at the concentration used in this work as assessed by membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and the MTT assay but significantly increased cell proliferation. Subsequently, a proteomic analysis was performed using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and MS based identification. Cells treated with 50 μM oleic, linoleic or palmitic acid for 24 h were associated with 24, 22, 16 spots differentially expressed, respectively. Among the identified proteins, α-enolase and far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP-1 are of importance due to their function in fibroblast-associated diseases. However, modulation of α-enolase and FBP-1 expression by fatty acids was not validated by the Western blot technique.

  12. A proteomic analysis of the functional effects of fatty acids in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magdalon, Juliana

    2011-11-24

    Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that long chain fatty acids influence fibroblast function at sub-lethal concentrations. This study is the first to assess the effects of oleic, linoleic or palmitic acids on protein expression of fibroblasts, as determined by standard proteomic techniques. The fatty acids were not cytotoxic at the concentration used in this work as assessed by membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and the MTT assay but significantly increased cell proliferation. Subsequently, a proteomic analysis was performed using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and MS based identification. Cells treated with 50 μM oleic, linoleic or palmitic acid for 24 h were associated with 24, 22, 16 spots differentially expressed, respectively. Among the identified proteins, α-enolase and far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP-1) are of importance due to their function in fibroblast-associated diseases. However, modulation of α-enolase and FBP-1 expression by fatty acids was not validated by the Western blot technique.

  13. Thermal analysis of laser interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue using exponential functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Nelson Jr. [Biomedical Optics and Laser Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami College of Engineering, PO Box 248294, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Manns, Fabrice [Biomedical Optics and Laser Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami College of Engineering, PO Box 248294, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Milne, Peter J [Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1638 NW 10th Ave, McKnight Bldg, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Denham, David B [Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1638 NW 10th Ave, McKnight Bldg, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Minhaj, Ahmed M [Biomedical Optics and Laser Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami College of Engineering, PO Box 248294, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Parel, Jean-Marie [Biomedical Optics and Laser Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami College of Engineering, PO Box 248294, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Robinson, David S [Center for Breast Care, St Luke' s Hospital of Kansas City, 4400 Broadway, Suite 509, Kansas City, MO 64111 (United States)

    2004-05-07

    A therapeutic procedure to treat small, surface breast tumours up to 10 mm in radius plus a 5 mm margin of healthy, surrounding tissue using laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is currently being investigated. The purpose of this study is to analyse and model the thermal and coagulative response of ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue, a model for breast tissue, during experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy at 980 nm. Laser radiation at 980 nm was delivered interstitially through a diffusing tip optical fibre inserted into a fibro-fatty tissue model to produce controlled heating at powers ranging from 3.2 to 8.0 W. Tissue temperature was measured with thermocouples placed at 15 positions around the fibre. The induced coagulation zone was measured on gross anatomical sections. Thermal analysis indicates that a finite sum of exponential functions is an approximate solution to the heat conduction equation that more accurately predicts the time-temperature dependence in tissue prior to carbonization (T < 100 deg. C) during LITT than the traditional model using a single exponential function. Analysis of the ellipsoid coagulation volume induced in tissue indicates that the 980 nm wavelength does not penetrate deep enough in fibro-fatty tissue to produce a desired 30 mm diameter (14.1 x 10{sup 3} mm{sup 3}) coagulation volume without unwanted tissue liquefaction and carbonization.

  14. Fatty alcohols can complement functions of heterocyst specific glycolipids in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimatul, Heli Siti Munawaroh; Ehira, Shigeki; Awai, Koichiro

    2014-07-18

    Heterocyst glycolipid synthase (HglT) catalyzes the final step of heterocyst glycolipid (Hgl) biosynthesis, in which a glucose is transferred to the aglycone (fatty alcohol). Here we describe the isolation of hglT null mutants. These mutants lacked Hgls under nitrogen-starved conditions and instead accumulated fatty alcohols. Differentiated heterocyst cells in the mutants were morphologically indistinguishable from those of the wild-type cells. Interestingly, the mutants grew under nitrogen starvation but fixed nitrogen with lower nitrogenase activity than did the wild-type. The mutants had a pale green phenotype with a decreased chlorophyll content, especially under nitrogen-starved conditions. These results suggest that the glucose moiety of the Hgls may be necessary for optimal protection against oxygen influx but is not essential and that aglycones can function as barriers against oxygen influx in the heterocyst cells.

  15. The human fatty acid-binding protein family: Evolutionary divergences and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smathers Rebecca L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs are members of the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP family and are involved in reversibly binding intracellular hydrophobic ligands and trafficking them throughout cellular compartments, including the peroxisomes, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. FABPs are small, structurally conserved cytosolic proteins consisting of a water-filled, interior-binding pocket surrounded by ten anti-parallel beta sheets, forming a beta barrel. At the superior surface, two alpha-helices cap the pocket and are thought to regulate binding. FABPs have broad specificity, including the ability to bind long-chain (C16-C20 fatty acids, eicosanoids, bile salts and peroxisome proliferators. FABPs demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation and are present in a spectrum of species including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, mouse and human. The human genome consists of nine putatively functional protein-coding FABP genes. The most recently identified family member, FABP12, has been less studied.

  16. Fatty acid metabolism and the basis of brown adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan F; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, leading to severe associated pathologies such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue has become crucial due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and traditionally white adipose tissue has captured the most attention. However in the last decade the presence and activity of heat-generating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has been rediscovered. BAT decreases with age and in obese and diabetic patients. It has thus attracted strong scientific interest, and any strategy to increase its mass or activity might lead to new therapeutic approaches to obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In this review we highlight the mechanisms of fatty acid uptake, trafficking and oxidation in brown fat thermogenesis. We focus on BAT's morphological and functional characteristics and fatty acid synthesis, storage, oxidation and use as a source of energy.

  17. Physiological functions of iso-type short-chain fatty acid and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids containing oil in obese OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Furuya, Kenta; Nagai, Toshiharu; Ichioka, Kenji; Tokairin, Shigeru; Iida, Yasuhiro; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that tissues of porpoise contain unique structured-lipids as combination of iso-valeric acid (iso-C5:0) and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 PUFAs). It is well known that omega3 PUFAs have lipid-lowering effects in animal and human studies. Although branched chain fatty acids have been interested in their unique functions, there is no data concerning the effect of iso-C5:0 on lipid metabolism. In this study we investigated the effect of structured-lipids from porpoise adipose tissue (porpoise oil) on lipid metabolism in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. For 4 weeks, rats were fed semisynthetic diets containing either 10% corn oil or 5% corn oil plus 5% porpoise oil. After feeding period, the porpoise oil diet significantly alleviated hepatic triglyceride accumulation compared with the control diet in OLETF rats. Although serum triglyceride level increased, serum level of adiponectin that can protect liver function and alleviate abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism increased in rats fed porpoise oil diet. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest that porpoise oil feeding prevents the development of fatty liver disease through the enhancement of lipoprotein secretion and increase of adiponectin production in obese rats.

  18. Convergent functional genomic studies of ω-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Niculescu, H; Case, N J; Hulvershorn, L; Patel, S D; Bowker, D; Gupta, J; Bell, R; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Kuczenski, R; Geyer, M A; Rodd, Z A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-04-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond.

  19. Recent insights into the biological functions of liver fatty acid binding protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, GuQi; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; de Lemos, Andrew; Burczynski, Frank J

    2015-12-01

    Over four decades have passed since liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP)1 was first isolated. There are few protein families for which most of the complete tertiary structures, binding properties, and tissue occurrences are described in such detail and yet new functions are being uncovered for this protein. FABP1 is known to be critical for fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport and also has an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways. FABP1 is an important endogenous cytoprotectant, minimizing hepatocyte oxidative damage and interfering with ischemia-reperfusion and other hepatic injuries. The protein may be targeted for metabolic activation through the cross-talk among many transcriptional factors and their activating ligands. Deficiency or malfunction of FABP1 has been reported in several diseases. FABP1 also influences cell proliferation during liver regeneration and may be considered as a prognostic factor for hepatic surgery. FABP1 binds and modulates the action of many molecules such as fatty acids, heme, and other metalloporphyrins. The ability to bind heme is another cytoprotective property and one that deserves closer investigation. The role of FABP1 in substrate availability and in protection from oxidative stress suggests that FABP1 plays a pivotal role during intracellular bacterial/viral infections by reducing inflammation and the adverse effects of starvation (energy deficiency).

  20. Thermal analysis of laser interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue using exponential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Nelson, Jr.; Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Denham, David B.; Minhaj, Ahmed M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Robinson, David S.

    2004-05-01

    A therapeutic procedure to treat small, surface breast tumours up to 10 mm in radius plus a 5 mm margin of healthy, surrounding tissue using laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is currently being investigated. The purpose of this study is to analyse and model the thermal and coagulative response of ex vivo fibro-fatty tissue, a model for breast tissue, during experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy at 980 nm. Laser radiation at 980 nm was delivered interstitially through a diffusing tip optical fibre inserted into a fibro-fatty tissue model to produce controlled heating at powers ranging from 3.2 to 8.0 W. Tissue temperature was measured with thermocouples placed at 15 positions around the fibre. The induced coagulation zone was measured on gross anatomical sections. Thermal analysis indicates that a finite sum of exponential functions is an approximate solution to the heat conduction equation that more accurately predicts the time-temperature dependence in tissue prior to carbonization (T deep enough in fibro-fatty tissue to produce a desired 30 mm diameter (14.1 × 103 mm3) coagulation volume without unwanted tissue liquefaction and carbonization.

  1. Exogenous γ-Aminobutyric Acid Improves the Structure and Function of Photosystem II in Muskmelon Seedlings Exposed to Salinity-Alkalinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weinan; Zhen, Ai; Zhang, Liang; Hu, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is important in plant responses to environmental stresses. We wished to clarify the role of GABA in maintenance of photosynthesis in muskmelon seedlings (Cucumis melo L., cv. Yipintianxia) during saline-alkaline stress. To this end, we assessed the effect of GABA on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in muskmelon seedlings grown under saline-alkaline stress. These stresses in combination reduced net photosynthetic rate, gas-exchange, and inhibited photosystem II (PSII) electron transport as measured by the JIP-test. They also reduced the activity of chloroplast ATPases and disrupted the internal lamellar system of the thylakoids. Exogenous GABA alleviated the stress-induced reduction of net photosynthesis, the activity of chloroplast ATPases, and overcame some of the damaging effects of stress on the chloroplast structure. Based on interpretation of the JIP-test, we conclude that exogenous GABA alleviated stress-related damage on the acceptor side of PSII. It also restored energy distribution, the reaction center status, and enhanced the ability of PSII to repair reaction centers in stressed seedlings. GABA may play a crucial role in protecting the chloroplast structure and function of PSII against the deleterious effects of salinity-alkalinity stress. PMID:27764179

  2. Functional interconnection of MYC2 and SPA1 in the photomorphogenic seedling development of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Prasad, V Babu Rajendra; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2010-11-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that cross talks with light, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we have shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MYC2 directly binds to the G-box present in the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A1 (SPA1) promoter and that it controls the expression of SPA1 in a COP1-dependent manner. Analyses of atmyc2 spa1 double mutants suggest that whereas MYC2 and SPA1 act redundantly to suppress photomorphogenic growth in the dark, they function synergistically for the suppression of photomorphogenic growth in the light. Our studies have also revealed that MYC2-mediated ABA and JA responses are further modulated by SPA1. Taken together, this study demonstrates the molecular and physiological interrelations of MYC2 and SPA1 in light, ABA, and JA signaling pathways.

  3. Dynamic functional characterization and phylogenetic changes due to Long Chain Fatty Acids pulses in biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano;

    2016-01-01

    The process stability of biogas plants is often deteriorated by the accumulation of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA). The microbial community shifts due to LCFA disturbances have been poorly understood as the molecular techniques used were not able to identify the genome characteristics of uncultured...... microorganisms, and additionally, the presence of limited number of reference genomes in public databases prevented the comprehension of specific functional roles characterizing these microorganisms. The present study is the first research which deciphers by means of high throughput shotgun sequencing...

  4. [Role of the fatty acids in ovarian functions: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and adipokines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J; Froment, P; Ramé, C; Pierre, P; Coyral-Castel, S; Chabrolle, C

    2008-12-01

    The impact of nutrition and energy reserves on the reproductive functions is known for a very long time. However, the metabolic factors involved in the interactions between nutrition and reproduction are still poorly understood. These factors may be hormones or nutrients (glucose, protein and fatty acids). However, it remains to determine whether these factors act directly or indirectly on the reproductive tissues. In this issue, we briefly summarize the impact of fatty acids on the development of ovarian follicles, oocyte and embryo. We then discuss the current hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of these fatty acids on the ovarian functions. We describe more particularly the role of some receptors of fatty acids, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) and Liver X Receptors (LXR) and two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin on ovarian cells.

  5. [Chemical approach to analyze the physiological function of phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Tatsuo; Kawamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) occur in biological membranes as acyl groups of phospholipids and exhibit remarkable physiological activities. In human, they have various beneficial effects on health such as protective effects against cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. We have been studying their physiological functions in bacteria, which have a much simpler membrane structure than eukaryotes. We found that the cell division of a marine bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, is inhibited and shows growth retardation by disruption of its EPA biosynthesis genes. We synthesized a fluorescent analog of EPA-containing phospholipids (EPA-PLs) as a chemical probe to analyze their subcellular distribution and found that it is localized at the center of the cell undergoing cell division. This localization was shown to depend on the structure of the hydrocarbon chain of the phospholipids. We also examined the effects of EPA-PLs on the folding of Omp74, a major membrane protein of this bacterium, by using liposomes and found that EPA-PLs facilitated the folding process. The results imply that EPA-PLs function as a chemical chaperone in the folding of membrane proteins. These findings would contribute to understanding of the physiological function of phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains in various biological membranes.

  6. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kiyohito; Hashimoto, Mikako; Hori, Ryuji; Adachi, Takumi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Nagamine, Tadashi; Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Morita, Naoki

    2016-05-12

    The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed.

  7. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohito Yoshida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase, the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue function in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Leyre; Laiglesia, Laura M; Huerta, Ana E; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2015-09-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) have been reported to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders including chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Growing evidence exits about adipose tissue as a target in mediating the beneficial effects of these marine n-3 PUFAs in adverse metabolic syndrome manifestations. Therefore, in this manuscript we focus in reviewing the current knowledge about effects of marine n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions. This scope includes n-3 PUFAs actions on adipogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis as well as on fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis. The effects of n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue glucose uptake and insulin signaling are also summarized. Moreover, the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and AMPK activation in mediating n-3 PUFAs actions on adipose tissue functions are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms underlying the ability of n-3 PUFAs to prevent and/or ameliorate adipose tissue inflammation are also revised, focusing on the role of n-3 PUFAs-derived specialized proresolving lipid mediators such as resolvins, protectins and maresins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ceramide synthesis from free fatty acids in rat brain: function of NADPH and substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.

    1983-06-01

    At the subcellular level, the synthesis of ceramide from free lignoceric acid and sphingosine in brain required reconstituted enzyme system (particulate fraction, heat-stable and heat-labile factors) and pyridine nucleotide (NADPH). The mitochondrial electron transfer inhibitors (KCN and antimycin A), energy uncouplers (oligomycin and 2,4-dinitrophenol), and carboxyatractyloside, which prevents the transport of ATP and ADP through the mitochondrial wall, inhibit the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of NADPH but have very little effect in the presence of ATP. Similar to the synthesis of ceramide, the synthesis of ATP from NADPH and NADH by the particulate fraction also required cytoplasmic factors (heat-stable and heat-labile factors). Moreover, ATP, but not its analog (AMP-CH2-P-O-P), can replace NADPH, thus suggesting that the function of the pyridine nucleotide is to provide ATP for the synthesis of ceramide. The cytoplasmic factors were not required for the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of ATP. The maximum velocity for synthesis of ceramide from free fatty acids of different chain lengths (C16-C26) was bimodal, with maxima around stearic acid (C18) and behenic acid (C22). The relative rate of synthesis of ceramide parallels the relative distribution of these fatty acids in brain cerebrosides and sulfatides.

  10. Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function-a yin yang situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen

    2006-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins.

  11. Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids by trans fatty acids lowers serum HDL cholesterol and impairs endothelial function in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Bots, M.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids had different effects on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a risk marker of coronary heart disease (CHD). Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to increased risk of CHD, probably through effects on lipoproteins. Trans fatty acids di

  12. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.

  13. Vascular function in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weghuber, Daniel; Roden, Michael; Franz, Carlo; Chmelik, Marek; Torabia, Sherin; Nowotny, Peter; Gruber, Stephan; Waldhäusl, Werner; Klingler, Anton; Bieglmayer, Christian; Bischof, Martin; Wolzt, Michael; Schaller, Georg; Widhalm, Kurt

    2011-04-01

    To test whether obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have impaired vascular function compared with obese children with normal liver fat content. Obese children (n = 28, 16 males, mean age 10.9 ± 0.7 years, body mass index [BMI] 31.9 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) with normal (HCLn) and increased hepatocellular lipid content (HCLi, 2.6 ± 0.8 vs. 12.4 ± 8.2%) were recruited, outcome measures being flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery [FMD] measured by ultrasound, biochemical markers of inflammation (hs-CRP, hs-IL6) and cell adhesion molecules [CAMs], hepatocellular lipids, visceral and subcutaneous fat quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. HCLi and HCLn groups showed no significant differences in terms of age, gender, BMI, waist circumference and subcutaneous fat. Subjects in the HCLi group had significantly higher amounts of visceral fat and higher fasting glucose, insulin and triglyceride, but lower adiponectin levels and were more insulin resistant than their HCLn controls. Hepatic fat fraction (HFF) correlated positively with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, adiponectin, visceral fat, negatively with WBISI independent of BMI. HFF was not associated with subcutaneous fat, fasting insulin, FFA, HDL-C, TG, hs-CRP, hs-IL6, vCAM, iCAM, and FMD. HCLi patients had significantly higher serum levels of hs-CRP and hs-IL6 than HCLn controls. FMD and serum levels of vCAM and iCAM were comparable between groups. Obese children with simple steatosis rather than steatohepatitis seem to have intact vascular function. Further studies in obese children with different grades of NAFLD are warranted to elucidate the role of fatty liver as a marker of risk for future cardiovascular events.

  14. Synthesis of some glucose-fatty acid esters by lipase from Candida antarctica and their emulsion functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangzi; Lamsal, Buddhi P

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters' pelleted surface increased as the hydrophobicity increased. Glucose esters' and commercial sucrose esters' functionality as emulsifiers were compared. Glucose esters delayed, but did not prevent coalescence, because the oil droplets diameter doubled during 7days. Sucrose esters prevented coalescence during 7days since the droplets diameter did not have significant change.

  15. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-01

    Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  16. [Early identification of impaired renal function in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hu; Fu, Junfen; Chen, Xuefeng; Huang, Ke; Wu, Wei; Liang, Li

    2013-07-01

    To early assess the impaired renal function in the obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to identify the relationship between NAFLD and impairment of renal function. Three hundred and eighty-six obese children were enrolled and divided into NAFLD group and simple obesity group (control) according to the diagnostic criteria. Clinical biochemical parameters and early impaired renal functions were evaluated and compared. Among all patients 234 obese children aged over 10 y were subdivided into 3 groups: NAFLD combined with metabolic syndrome (NAFLD+MS) group, NAFLD group and simple obesity group (control), and the above indexes were compared among 3 groups. The urinary microalbumin levels in NAFLD, NAFLD+MS (>10y) and NAFLD groups (>10y) were significantly higher than those in controls. Additionally, the positive correlations of urinary microalbumin with systolic pressure, triglyceride and 2h-postprandial blood glucose were found. There is early renal dysfunction in children with NAFLD and those accompanied with MS, which may be associated with hypertension and glucose-lipid metabolic disorder. The results indicate that NAFLD is not only an early sign of early impaired renal function but also an early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese children.

  17. The effect of natural and synthetic fatty acids on membrane structure, microdomain organization, cellular functions and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2014-06-01

    This review deals with the effects of synthetic and natural fatty acids on the biophysical properties of membranes, and on their implication on cell function. Natural fatty acids are constituents of more complex lipids, like triacylglycerides or phospholipids, which are used by cells to store and obtain energy, as well as for structural purposes. Accordingly, natural and synthetic fatty acids may modify the structure of the lipid membrane, altering its microdomain organization and other physical properties, and provoking changes in cell signaling. Therefore, by modulating fatty acids it is possible to regulate the structure of the membrane, influencing the cell processes that are reliant on this structure and potentially reverting pathological cell dysfunctions that may provoke cancer, diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The so-called Membrane Lipid Therapy offers a strategy to regulate the membrane composition through drug administration, potentially reverting pathological processes by re-adapting cell membrane structure. Certain fatty acids and their synthetic derivatives are described here that may potentially be used in such therapies, where the cell membrane itself can be considered as a target to combat disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy.

  18. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Stefano; Davie, Andrew; Oboh, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called “Δ8 pathway”. PMID:28052125

  19. Fatty Acid Regulation of Voltage- and Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antollini, Silvia S.; Barrantes, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) are essential components of the cell, where they play a key role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and most particularly in cell membranes, where they are central actors in shaping the physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayer and the cellular adaptation to the environment. FFA are continuously being produced and degraded, and a feedback regulatory function has been attributed to their turnover. The massive increase observed under some pathological conditions, especially in brain, has been interpreted as a protective mechanism possibly operative on ion channels, which in some cases is of stimulatory nature and in other cases inhibitory. Here we discuss the correlation between the structure of FFA and their ability to modulate protein function, evaluating the influence of saturation/unsaturation, number of double bonds, and cis vs. trans isomerism. We further focus on the mechanisms of FFA modulation operating on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel function, contrasting the still conflicting evidence on direct vs. indirect mechanisms of action. PMID:27965583

  20. Effect of short-chain fatty acids on colonic function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, D; Levine, G M

    1992-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), fermentation products of fiber, are believed to play a role in intestinal adaptation. Although the administration of fiber or the infusion of SCFA has been shown to cause colonic growth, studies have been done primarily in enterally fed animals. In addition, the effects of SCFA on absorptive function have not been determined. Adult male rats were maintained on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and, in addition, received either 150 mmol/L of saline or 150 mmol/L of SCFA mixture (60:25:15, acetate:propionate:butyrate) into the proximal colon. One week later, the in vivo absorption of water, electrolytes, and 20 mmol/L of butyrate was measured. After the rats were killed, parameters of colonic mass were determined. SCFA infusion into the colon had no significant effect on absorptive function. However, significantly greater mucosal height (p less than .01) and mucosal DNA (p less than .05), were observed. Although SCFA has a modest effect on colonic structure, they do not influence absorptive function in TPN rats.

  1. Fatty Acid Regulation of Voltage- and Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antollini, Silvia S; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) are essential components of the cell, where they play a key role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and most particularly in cell membranes, where they are central actors in shaping the physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayer and the cellular adaptation to the environment. FFA are continuously being produced and degraded, and a feedback regulatory function has been attributed to their turnover. The massive increase observed under some pathological conditions, especially in brain, has been interpreted as a protective mechanism possibly operative on ion channels, which in some cases is of stimulatory nature and in other cases inhibitory. Here we discuss the correlation between the structure of FFA and their ability to modulate protein function, evaluating the influence of saturation/unsaturation, number of double bonds, and cis vs. trans isomerism. We further focus on the mechanisms of FFA modulation operating on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channel function, contrasting the still conflicting evidence on direct vs. indirect mechanisms of action.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  3. REPRESSOR OF ULTRAVIOLET-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS function allows efficient phototropin mediated ultraviolet-B phototropism in etiolated seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Schumacher, Paolo; Poelman, Dirk; Fankhauser, Christian; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a part of the solar radiation which has significant effects on plant morphology, even at low doses. In Arabidopsis, many of these morphological changes have been attributed to a specific UV-B receptor, UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Recent findings showed that next to phototropin regulated phototropism, UVR8 mediated signaling is able of inducing directional bending towards UV-B light in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis, in a phototropin independent manner. In this study, kinetic analysis of phototropic bending was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these pathways in UV-B mediated phototropism. Diminishing UV-B light intensity favors the importance of phototropins. Molecular and genetic analyses suggest that UV-B is capable of inducing phototropin signaling relying on phototropin kinase activity and regulation of NPH3. Moreover, enhanced UVR8 responses in the UV-B hypersensitive rup1rup2 mutants interferes with the fast phototropin mediated phototropism. Together the data suggest that phototropins are the most important receptors for UV-B induced phototropism in etiolated seedlings, and a RUP mediated negative feedback pathway prevents UVR8 signaling to interfere with the phototropin dependent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-25

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by cognitive decline is increasing at an alarming rate and account for a significant proportion of the global disease burden. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that neurocognitive development is influenced by various environmental factors including nutrition. It has been established that nutrition affects the brain throughout life. However, the mechanisms through which nutrition modulates mental health are still not well understood. It has been suggested that the deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids can have adverse effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Studies indicate a need for supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of cognitive decline, although the results of intervention trials using these nutrients in isolation are inconclusive. In the present article, we provide an overview of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids, the possible mechanisms and the evidences through which vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids modulate mental health and cognition. Understanding the role of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on brain functioning may provide important clues to prevent early cognitive deficits and later neurobehavioral disorders.

  5. Evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil effects on glycemic index, liver functions and kidney functions of New Zealand rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Hamdi-Pacha, Y; Belkhiri, A M; Djaalab, H; Riachi, F; Serakta, M; Boukeloua, A; Maameri, Z

    2011-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) is a well known natural remedy in eastern Algeria folk medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of respiratory disorders and dermal burns. The present study has been carried out to investigate effects of this oil on fasting glucose and some functional parameters of the liver and kidney in white male New Zealand rabbits (Initial mean weight 1.95 Kg). PLFO was applied to tested rabbits (PLFO group) via rectal route, once daily 5-day per week, for six consecutive weeks at the dose of 1 ml/Kg body weight. The same number of animals (n=6) was not treated and served as control (CRL group). The results showed that PLFO was tolerated by rectal route. No significant differences were observed in body weights of the two groups. Biochemical analysis showed that aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly decreased in blood plasma at (P< 0.05) and (P< 0.01) respectively in PLFO group (Mann-Whitney test). On the other hand, the fasting glucose level (GLU) was significantly increased (Mann-Whitney test, P< 0.05), while the rest of the tested parameters (Albumin, total proteins, creatinine, urea) was not significantly affected. However, these variations have not biologic signification toxicity. The study concludes that PLFO is tolerable via rectal route; it is safe with no adverse effect on liver functions and renal functions with possible anti-glycogenesis activity.

  6. Metabolism and functions of phosphatides specific fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kögl, F.; Gier, J. de; Mulder, I.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1960-01-01

    In attempting to establish a specific lipid composition of biological interfaces, the fatty acid composition of the lipid moiety of the red cell membrane of a number of mammals was determined by means of gas-liquid chromatography. A rather constant and characteristic fatty acid pattern proved to occ

  7. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of B-oxid

  8. Modulation of the chicken immune cell function by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijben, J.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a wide range of biological properties, including immunomodulation. The amount, type, and ratio of dietary PUFA determine the types of fatty acids that are incorporated into immune cell membranes. Consequently, the physiological properties of immune cells an

  9. Metabolism and functions of phosphatides specific fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kögl, F.; Gier, J. de; Mulder, I.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1960-01-01

    In attempting to establish a specific lipid composition of biological interfaces, the fatty acid composition of the lipid moiety of the red cell membrane of a number of mammals was determined by means of gas-liquid chromatography. A rather constant and characteristic fatty acid pattern proved to occ

  10. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of

  11. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of B-oxid

  12. ECERIFERUM2-LIKE proteins have unique biochemical and physiological functions in very-long-chain fatty acid elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Tegan M; Haslam, Richard; Thoraval, Didier; Pascal, Stéphanie; Delude, Camille; Domergue, Frédéric; Fernández, Aurora Mañas; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Napier, Johnathan A; Kunst, Ljerka; Joubès, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The extension of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) for the synthesis of specialized apoplastic lipids requires unique biochemical machinery. Condensing enzymes catalyze the first reaction in fatty acid elongation and determine the chain length of fatty acids accepted and produced by the fatty acid elongation complex. Although necessary for the elongation of all VLCFAs, known condensing enzymes cannot efficiently synthesize VLCFAs longer than 28 carbons, despite the prevalence of C28 to C34 acyl lipids in cuticular wax and the pollen coat. The eceriferum2 (cer2) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously shown to have a specific deficiency in cuticular waxes longer than 28 carbons, and heterologous expression of CER2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) demonstrated that it can modify the acyl chain length produced by a condensing enzyme from 28 to 30 carbon atoms. Here, we report the physiological functions and biochemical specificities of the CER2 homologs CER2-LIKE1 and CER2-LIKE2 by mutant analysis and heterologous expression in yeast. We demonstrate that all three CER2-LIKEs function with the same small subset of condensing enzymes, and that they have different effects on the substrate specificity of the same condensing enzyme. Finally, we show that the changes in acyl chain length caused by each CER2-LIKE protein are of substantial importance for cuticle formation and pollen coat function.

  13. Melatonin improves mitochondrial function in inguinal white adipose tissue of Zücker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenéz-Aranda, Aroa; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Mohammad A-Serrano, María; Reiter, Russel J; Agil, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity-related metabolic derangements such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because mitochondria are a target for melatonin action, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial function in white (WAT) and beige inguinal adipose tissue of Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of obesity-related T2DM. In this experimental model, melatonin reduces obesity and improves the metabolic profile. At 6 wk of age, ZDF rats and lean littermates (ZL) were subdivided into two groups, each composed of four rats: control (C-ZDF and C-ZL) and treated with oral melatonin in the drinking water (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk (M-ZDF and M-ZL). After the treatment period, animals were sacrificed, tissues dissected, and mitochondrial function assessed in isolated organelles. Melatonin increased the respiratory control ratio (RCR) in mitochondria from white fat of both lean (by 26.5%, P types of fat, white and beige, in both lean and obese rats. These results demonstrate that chronic oral melatonin improves mitochondrial respiration and reduces the oxidative status and susceptibility to apoptosis in white and beige adipocytes. These melatonin effects help to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and thereby to improve obesity-related metabolic disorders such as diabetes and dyslipidemia of ZDF rats.

  14. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Zanetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  16. Functional characterization of the Bombyx mori fatty acid transport protein (BmFATP) within the silkmoth pheromone gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kana; Imai, Kiyohiro; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2009-02-20

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) is an evolutionarily conserved membrane-bound protein that facilitates the uptake of extracellular long chain fatty acids. In humans and mice, six FATP isoforms have been identified and their tissue-specific distributions suggest that each plays a discrete role in lipid metabolism in association with fatty acid uptake. While the presence of FATP homologs in insects has been demonstrated, their functional role remains to be characterized. Pheromonogenesis is defined as the dynamic period in which all machinery required for sex pheromone biosynthesis is generated and organized within the pheromone gland (PG) cells. By exploiting this unique system in the PG of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, we found that BmFATP is predominantly expressed in the PG and undergoes up-regulation 1 day prior to eclosion. Before eclosion, B. mori PG cells accumulate cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), which play a role in storing the pheromone (bombykol) precursor fatty acid in the form of triacylglycerol. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of BmFATP in vivo significantly suppressed LD accumulation by preventing the synthesis of triacylglycerols and resulted in a significant reduction in bombykol production. These results, in conjunction with the findings that BmFATP stimulates the uptake of extracellular long-chain fatty acids and BmFATP knockdown reduces cellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity, suggest that BmFATP plays an essential role in bombykol biosynthesis by stimulating both LD accumulation and triacylglycerol synthesis via a process called vectorial acylation that couples the uptake of extracellular fatty acids with activation to CoA thioesters during pheromonogenesis.

  17. Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on vascular function and blood pressure: Relevance for cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, G; Catena, C; Novello, M; Bertin, N; Sechi, L A

    2017-03-01

    To overview the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on blood vessels and blood pressure (BP) and their relevance for cardiovascular prevention. The importance of omega-3 PUFA for the cardiovascular system has come under the spotlight during the last decades. These fatty acids are present in variable amounts in cell membranes of mammal species, and their content affects a variety of cellular functions. Evidence obtained in animal and human studies suggests that omega-3 PUFA affect many steps of the atherosclerotic process. In blood vessels, omega-3 PUFA improve endothelial function; promote vasodilatation through relaxation of smooth muscle cells; exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic actions; delay development of plaques and increase their stability; and decrease wall stiffening. Omega-3 PUFA might affect BP, and studies conducted with ambulatory monitoring suggest that supplementation with these fatty acids decreases the average 24-h BP levels. This effect on BP is related to the pretreatment membrane content of omega-3 PUFA, and this might explain some inconsistencies among intervention trials. Meta-analyses indicate that omega-3 PUFA have a mild but significant BP lowering effect. While encouraging results were initially obtained with the use of omega-3 PUFA supplements in secondary prevention trials, meta-analyses have not confirmed the ability of these fatty acids to decrease the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Omega-3 PUFA are associated with significant improvement in vascular function and lowering of BP. However, the evidence currently supporting the role of these fatty acids in cardiovascular prevention is weak and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Gallbladder Function and Hepatic Structural Changes in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavgorodnya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, pediatric nonalcoholic liver disease has reached epidemic proportions, becoming one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases in the global child population. Purpose: to study the relationship of the functional state of the gallbladder with structural changes in the liver in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods. We examined 34 children aged from 8 to 17 years old. Hepatic steatosis was determined using the FibroScan® 502 touch with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP. According to the results of transient elastometry and ultrasound of the abdomen with the gallbladder function study, patients were divided into 4 groups: the 1st group consisted of 7 patients with steatosis and hypofunction of gallbladder (20.5 %, group 2 included 6 patients with steatosis and gallbladder normofunction (17.65 %, group 3 consisted of 11 patients without hepatic steatosis with hypofunction of gallbladder (32.35 %, group 4 included 10 patients without hepatic steatosis with gallbladder normofunction (29.4 %. Results. The sonographic studies demonstrated children of the 1st group (steatosis with gallbladder hypokinesia to have significantly larger sizes of liver lobes compared to group 4 (children without steatosis with gallbladder normofunction. Also, the stiffness of the liver parenchyma was highest in patients with hepatic steatosis and gallbladder hypokinesia. Discussion. The combination of hepatic steatosis and hypokinesia of the gallbladder in children is accompanied by a significant increase in liver size, increased stiffness of the liver parenchyma and increasing degree of steatosis. The data indicate the relationship of the gallbladder function and the liver structural changes.

  19. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  20. Enterocyte fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs): different functions of liver and intestinal FABPs in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Angela M; Storch, Judith

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and intestinal FABPs (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high-affinity binding for long-chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands; thus, they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand-binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have different functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte.

  1. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Todorčević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3. Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity.

  2. Functional characterization of the duck and turkey fatty acyl elongase enzymes ELOVL5 and ELOVL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Melissa K; James, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    In most Western countries, the consumption of fish is low and insufficient to provide the recommended daily intake of the n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Poultry has the potential to be a sustainable source of EPA and DHA if poultry species are capable of synthesizing these n-3 PUFAs from dietary plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3). In most animals, the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (ELOVL) enzyme ELOVL2 is essential for conversion of dietary ALA to DHA because only ELOVL2 and not ELOVL5 can elongate docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) to 24:5n-3, the precursor of DHA. The chicken is the only poultry species in which elongase enzymes have been functionally characterized, and chicken ELOVL5 had unique DPA-to-24:5n-3 activity, which may enable chickens to synthesize more DHA than other animals. By using a yeast expression system, we examined the duck and turkey elongases, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5, to understand if all poultry species have similar potential to synthesize EPA and DHA. The duck and turkey ELOVL5 enzymes were active with C18-20 PUFAs only. The duck ELOVL2 had a broad substrate specificity with C18-22 PUFAs, whereas the turkey ELOVL2 was active only with EPA and C22 PUFAs. Both duck and turkey ELOVL2 enzymes catalyzed 2 rounds of EPA elongation, with the products being DPA and its elongation product, 24:5n-3. With exogenous DPA, both duck and turkey ELOVL2 synthesized 24:5n-3, with the duck ELOVL2 being more active than the turkey ELOVL2. The reason for the lack of DPA elongation activity by the duck and turkey ELOVL5 enzymes compared with the chicken ELOVL5 could not be elucidated by protein sequence comparisons. By using the elongase enzyme activities only as a predictor of DHA synthesis, ducks may have a similar ability to chickens to convert increasing dietary ALA to DHA. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Free fatty acid palmitate impairs the vitality and function of cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence of urinary tract infections is elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. Those patients show increased levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. As recently shown metabolic alterations induced by palmitate include production and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-6 (IL-6 in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC. Here we studied the influence of palmitate on vital cell properties, for example, regulation of cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity in hBSMC, and analyzed the involvement of major cytokine signaling pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HBSMC cultures were set up from bladder tissue of patients undergoing cystectomy and stimulated with palmitate. We analyzed cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and antioxidant capacity by ELISA and confocal immunofluorescence. In signal transduction inhibition experiments we evaluated the involvement of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MEK1, PI3K, and JNK in major cytokine signaling pathway regulation. We found: (i palmitate decreased cell proliferation, increased mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity; (ii direct inhibition of cytokine receptor by AG490 even more strongly suppressed cell proliferation in palmitate-stimulated cells, while counteracting palmitate-induced increase of antioxidant capacity; (iii in contrast knockdown of the STAT3 inhibitor SOCS3 increased cell proliferation and antioxidant capacity; (iv further downstream JAK/STAT3 signaling cascade the inhibition of PI3K or JNK enhanced palmitate induced suppression of cell proliferation; (v increase of mitochondrial enzyme activity by palmitate was enhanced by inhibition of PI3K but counteracted by inhibition of MEK1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Saturated free fatty acids (e.g., palmitate cause massive alterations in vital cell functions of cultured hBSMC involving distinct major cytokine signaling pathways. Thereby

  4. Recognition of intermediate functionality by acyl carrier protein over a complete cycle of fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoskoń, Eliza; Arthur, Christopher J; Kanari, Amelia L P; Wattana-amorn, Pakorn; Williams, Christopher; Crosby, John; Simpson, Thomas J; Willis, Christine L; Crump, Matthew P

    2010-07-30

    It remains unclear whether in a bacterial fatty acid synthase (FAS) acyl chain transfer is a programmed or diffusion controlled and random action. Acyl carrier protein (ACP), which delivers all intermediates and interacts with all synthase enzymes, is the key player in this process. High-resolution structures of intermediates covalently bound to an ACP representing each step in fatty acid biosynthesis have been solved by solution NMR. These include hexanoyl-, 3-oxooctanyl-, 3R-hydroxyoctanoyl-, 2-octenoyl-, and octanoyl-ACP from Streptomyces coelicolor FAS. The high-resolution structures reveal that the ACP adopts a unique conformation for each intermediate driven by changes in the internal fatty acid binding pocket. The binding of each intermediate shows conserved structural features that may ensure effective molecular recognition over subsequent rounds of fatty acid biosynthesis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Maki, Mimi; Sano, Ryuhei; Toriniwa, Yasufumi; Ishii, Yukihito; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kakimoto, Kochi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx) on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham). Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery. PMID:25177706

  6. Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham. Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery.

  7. Altered UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase and Sulfotransferase Expression and Function during Progressive Stages of Human Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Ferreira, Daniel W.; More, Vijay R.; Lake, April D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Manautou, Jose E.; Slitt, Angela L.; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) represent major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that are also responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by metabolism of several endogenous molecules. Perturbations in the expression or function of these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders and improper management of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic...

  8. Altered development and function of the placental regions in preeclampsia and its association with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Wadhwani, Nisha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-01

    The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation. Studies have associated these LCPUFAs with placental development through their roles in regulating oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which may in turn influence their transfer to the fetus. The placenta has a heterogeneous morphology with variable regional vasculature, oxidative stress, and LCPUFA levels in healthy pregnancies depending upon the location within the placenta. However, these regional structural and functional parameters are found to be disturbed in pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia (PE), thereby affecting pregnancy outcome. Hence, the alterations in LCPUFA metabolism and transport in different regions of the PE placenta as compared with normal placenta could potentially be contributing to the pathological features of PE. The regional variations in development and function of the placenta and its possible association with placental LCPUFA metabolism and transport in normal and PE pregnancies are discussed in this review. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:582-597. doi: 10.1002/wdev.238 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. The Impact of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Renal Function in Children with Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pacifico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and chronic kidney disease has attracted interest and attention over recent years. However, no data are available in children. We determined whether children with NAFLD show signs of renal functional alterations, as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and urinary albumin excretion. We studied 596 children with overweight/obesity, 268 with NAFLD (hepatic fat fraction ≥5% on magnetic resonance imaging and 328 without NAFLD, and 130 healthy normal-weight controls. Decreased GFR was defined as eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Abnormal albuminuria was defined as urinary excretion of ≥30 mg/24 h of albumin. A greater prevalence of eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was observed in patients with NAFLD compared to those without liver involvement and healthy subjects (17.5% vs. 6.7% vs. 0.77%; p < 0.0001. The proportion of children with abnormal albuminuria was also higher in the NAFLD group compared to those without NAFLD, and controls (9.3% vs. 4.0% vs. 0; p < 0.0001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with decreased eGFR and/or microalbuminuria (odds ratio, 2.54 (confidence interval, 1.16–5.57; p < 0.05 independently of anthropometric and clinical variables. Children with NAFLD are at risk for early renal dysfunction. Recognition of this abnormality in the young may help to prevent the ongoing development of the disease.

  10. Characterization and functional analysis of fatty acid binding protein from the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, the cDNA encoding FABP (Ov-FABP) was isolated from the adult stage of Opisthorchis viverrini and characterized. The Ov-FABP protein sequence (107 amino acids) was predicted to have a molecular mass of 12.26kDa and an isoelectric point (PI) of 6.82. This sequence had a high identity and similarity to Cs-FABP of the related opisthorchid Clonorchis sinensis. Multiple sequence alignment with FABPs from other parasitic flatworms and mammals showed a number of conserved amino acids including Phe(34), Gly(37), Glu(38), Glu(39),Val(50), Iso(62), Gly(81), Ile(84), Ser(87) and Arg(101). In addition, the structure of Ov-FABP was predicted to have eleven β-sheets and one α-helix based on the known structures for FABPs from human (hL-FABP), rat and a schistosome. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequence data revealed a close relationship of Ov-FABP with Cs-FABP and hL-FABP. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that Ov-FABP was transcribed in the egg, metacercaria, juvenile and adult stages. The soluble form of recombinant Ov-FABP (rOv-FABP) was shown to specifically bind fatty acids, including oleic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid, as shown for other animals. Anti-serum against rOv-FABP (produced in mice) located the protein to parenchyma, egg, sucker musculature, testes and tegument of adult O. viverrini. Taken together, the findings suggest key functional roles for Ov-FABP in development, reproduction and/or host-parasite interactions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thyroid function in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Hüseyin; Pirgon, Özgür

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the relationships between thyroid function and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). One hundred sixty obese adolescents and 40 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of liver steatosis (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group). Serum samples were assayed for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The ratio of fT3 to fT4 was evaluated as an indirect index of deiodinase activity. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups had slightly higher fasting blood glucose values than the control group. Fasting insulin levels in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than those in the non-NAFLD and control groups. The NAFLD group had significantly greater HOMA-IR values compared with the non-NAFLD group and also with the control group. The NAFLD group had significantly higher fT3/fT4 ratio values compared to both non-NAFLD and control groups. fT3/fT4 was positively correlated with serum insulin levels in the NAFLD group. This study showed that obese adolescents with hepatosteatosis had elevated values for fT3/fT4 ratio. This finding suggested a high conversion of T4 to T3 due to increased deiodinase activity as a compensatory mechanism for fat accumulation.

  12. Transcriptome sequencing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings subjected to water stress reveals functional single nucleotide polymorphisms and genes under selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumma Bala R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water stress limits plant survival and production in many parts of the world. Identification of genes and alleles responding to water stress conditions is important in breeding plants better adapted to drought. Currently there are no studies examining the transcriptome wide gene and allelic expression patterns under water stress conditions. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to identify the candidate genes and alleles and to explore the evolutionary signatures of selection. Results We studied the effect of water stress on gene expression in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings derived from three natural populations. We used reference-guided transcriptome mapping to study gene expression. Several genes showed differential expression between control and stress conditions. Gene ontology (GO enrichment tests revealed up-regulation of 140 stress-related gene categories and down-regulation of 35 metabolic and cell wall organisation gene categories. More than 190,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected and 2737 of these showed differential allelic expression. Allelic expression of 52% of these variants was correlated with differential gene expression. Signatures of selection patterns were studied by estimating the proportion of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (Ka/Ks. The average Ka/Ks ratio among the 13,719 genes was 0.39 indicating that most of the genes are under purifying selection. Among the positively selected genes (Ka/Ks > 1.5 apoptosis and cell death categories were enriched. Of the 287 positively selected genes, ninety genes showed differential expression and 27 SNPs from 17 positively selected genes showed differential allelic expression between treatments. Conclusions Correlation of allelic expression of several SNPs with total gene expression indicates that these variants may be the cis-acting variants or in linkage disequilibrium with such variants. Enrichment of apoptosis and cell death gene

  13. Campylobacter jejuni fatty acid synthase II: Structural and functional analysis of [beta]-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew S.; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; (Houston)

    2009-08-14

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is crucial for all living cells. In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria use a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) composed of a series of individual proteins, making FAS II enzymes excellent targets for antibiotics discovery. The {beta}-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) catalyzes an essential step in the FAS II pathway. Here, we report the structure of Campylobacter jejuni FabZ (CjFabZ), showing a hexamer both in crystals and solution, with each protomer adopting the characteristic hot dog fold. Together with biochemical analysis of CjFabZ, we define the first functional FAS II enzyme from this pathogen, and provide a framework for investigation on roles of FAS II in C. jejuni virulence

  14. Altered UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase expression and function during progressive stages of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Ferreira, Daniel W; More, Vijay R; Lake, April D; Lu, Zhenqiang; Manautou, Jose E; Slitt, Angela L; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-03-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) represent major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that are also responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by metabolism of several endogenous molecules. Perturbations in the expression or function of these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders and improper management of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Because the liver plays a central role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of human NAFLD progression on the expression and function of UGTs and SULTs in normal, steatosis, NASH (fatty), and NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) samples. We identified upregulation of UGT1A9, 2B10, and 3A1 and SULT1C4 mRNA in both stages of NASH, whereas UGT2A3, 2B15, and 2B28 and SULT1A1, 2B1, and 4A1 as well as 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 were increased in NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) only. UGT1A9 and 1A6 and SULT1A1 and 2A1 protein levels were decreased in NASH; however, SULT1C4 was increased. Measurement of the glucuronidation and sulfonation of acetaminophen (APAP) revealed no alterations in glucuronidation; however, SULT activity was increased in steatosis compared with normal samples, but then decreased in NASH compared with steatosis. In conclusion, the expression of specific UGT and SULT isoforms appears to be differentially regulated, whereas sulfonation of APAP is disrupted during progression of NAFLD.

  15. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the deleterious effects of palmitate and high glucose on human pancreatic beta-cell turnover and function

    OpenAIRE

    Maedler, Kathrin; Oberholzer, José; Bucher, Pascal Alain Robert; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Donath, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to the impaired beta-cell function observed in type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the effect of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at different glucose concentrations on human beta-cell turnover and secretory function. Exposure of cultured human islets to saturated fatty acid and/or to an elevated glucose concentration for 4 days increased beta-cell DNA fragmentation and decreased beta-cell proliferation. In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitol...

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Bi-Bo

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to screen for and isolate a novel enzyme with the specific activity of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, R. oryzae was identified as a novel fungal species that produces large amounts of γ-linolenic acid. A full-length cDNA, designated here as RoD6D, with high homology to fungal Δ6-fatty acid desaturase genes was isolated from R. oryzae by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. It had an open reading frame of 1176 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 391 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis characterized the putative RoD6D protein as a typical membrane-bound desaturase, including three conserved histidine-rich motifs, a hydropathy profile, and a cytochrome b5 -like domain in the N terminus. When the coding sequence was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl, the encoded product of RoD6D exhibited Δ6-fatty acid desaturase activity that led to the accumulation of γ-linolenic acid. The corresponding genomic sequence of RoD6D was 1565 bp in length, with five introns. This is the first report on the characterization and gene cloning of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase of R. oryzae from Douchi.

  17. Lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum seeds and seedlings, and their pest spotted stem borer larvae: a standardized GC-MS based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dhillon, Mukesh K

    2015-03-01

    In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions.

  18. The Study of Seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1966-01-01

    ”The seedling represents the most critical stage in the life of a tree. Conditions of seeding and germination may be entirely favourable, and natural seedlings may appear in countless quantities at the beginning of the rainy season, only to disappear largely or entirely within a comparatively short

  19. The relation of red blood cell fatty acids with vascular stiffness, cardiac structure and left ventricular function: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Bernhard M; Harris, William S; Lacey, Sean; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Vita, Joseph A; Robins, Sander J; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with beneficial influences on cardiovascular health. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear, and data on the relations of polyunsaturated fatty acids to subclinical disease measures such as vascular stiffness and cardiac function are sparse and inconclusive. In a large community-based cohort, we examined the relations of omega-3 and other fatty acids to a comprehensive panel of vascular function measures (assessing microvascular function and large artery stiffness), cardiac structure and left ventricular function. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid composition, a measure of long-term fatty acid intake, was assessed in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study and Omni cohorts and related to tonometry-derived measures of vascular stiffness and to a panel of echocardiographic traits using partial correlations. Up to n=3055 individuals (56% women, mean age 66 years) were available for analyses. In age- and sex-adjusted models, higher RBC omega-3 content was moderately associated (p≤0.002) with several measures of vascular stiffness and function in a protective direction. However, after multivariable adjustment, only an association of higher RBC omega-3 content with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of aortic stiffness) remained significant (r = -0.06, p=0.002). In secondary analyses, higher linoleic acid, the major nutritional omega-6 fatty acid, was associated with smaller left atrial size, even after multivariable adjustment (r = -0.064, pacid. The clinical significance of these modest associations remains to be elucidated.

  20. Molecular characterization, functional expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium fatty acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas, Oscar; Carrero, Julio C; Bobes, Raúl J; Flisser, Ana; Rosas, Gabriela; Laclette, Juan P

    2012-12-01

    The fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) comprise a family of proteins that are widely expressed in animal cells and perform a variety of vital functions. Here, we report the identification, characterization, recombinant expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium FABP (TsFABP1). The TsFABP1 primary structure showed all the conserved residues characteristic of the subfamily iv of the intracellular Lipid-Binding Proteins (iLBPs), including those involved in the binding stabilization of the fatty acid molecule. Through a competitive binding assay we found that TsFABP1 is able to bind at least six different fatty acids with preference toward palmitic and stearic acid, suggesting that TsFABP1 is a member of the iLBP subfamily iv. Immunolocalization assays carried out on larval and adult tissues of four species of taeniids using anti-TsFABP1 hyperimmune sera produced in mice and rabbit, showed intense labeling in the tegument of the spiral canal and in subtegumental cytons of the larvae. These findings suggest that the spiral canal might be a major place for FA uptake in the developing scolex. In contrast, only subtegumental cytons in the adult worms stained positive. We propose that TsFABP1 is involved in the mechanism to mobilize fatty acids between compartments in the extensive syncytial tissue of taeniids. Protection assays carried out in a murine model of cysticercosis showed that subcutaneous immunization with TsFABP1 resulted in about 45% reduction of parasite load against an intraperitoneal challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts. This reduction in parasite load correlated with the level of cellular and humoral immune responses against TsFABP1, as determined in spleen lymphocyte proliferation and ELISA testing.

  1. Functionalized fatty-acid vesicles as soft-matter/polymer hybrid nanocontainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löffler, Richard J.G.; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Klösgen, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    Delivery and removal of delicate material in controlled amounts to or from cellular targets is still a challenge in nanomedicine. A suggestion for a new soft-matter/polymer hybrid container system is presented here. It is based on the self-assembly of fatty acids into bilayer membranes and stabil......Delivery and removal of delicate material in controlled amounts to or from cellular targets is still a challenge in nanomedicine. A suggestion for a new soft-matter/polymer hybrid container system is presented here. It is based on the self-assembly of fatty acids into bilayer membranes...... and stabilized by a polymer scaffold. The polymers exhibit a reversible thermotropic conformational transition. In toto, the composite system shall yield a novel delivery system with permeability properties that can controlled upon the thermally induced expansion/ shrinking of the polymers. The system bears...

  2. Interspecific variation in functional traits of oak seedlings (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana, Quercus virgiliana) grown under artificial drought and fire conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, D; Tognetti, R; Scippa, G S; Congiu, T; Baesso, B; Terzaghi, M; Montagnoli, A

    2015-07-01

    To face summer drought and wildfire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, plants adopt different strategies that involve considerable rearrangements of biomass allocation and physiological activity. This paper analyses morphological and physiological traits in seedlings of three oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana and Quercus virgiliana) co-occurring under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate species-specific characteristics and the response of these oak seedlings to drought stress and fire treatment. Seedlings were kept in a growth chamber that mimicked natural environmental conditions. All three species showed a good degree of tolerance to drought and fire treatments. Differences in specific biomass allocation patterns and physiological traits resulted in phenotypic differences between species. In Q. ilex, drought tolerance depended upon adjustment of the allocation pattern. Q. trojana seedlings undergoing mild to severe drought presented a higher photosystem II (PSII) efficiency than control seedlings. Moreover, Q. trojana showed a very large root system, which corresponded to higher soil area exploitation, and bigger leaf midrib vascular bundles than the other two species. Morphological and physiological performances indicated Q. trojana as the most tolerant to drought and fire. These characteristics contribute to a high recruitment potential of Q. trojana seedlings, which might be the reason for the dominance of this species under natural conditions. Drought increase as a result of climate change is expected to favour Q. trojana, leading to an increase in its spatial distribution.

  3. Left Ventricular Functions and Its Relation with Grade of Hepatosteatosis in Non-Alcholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Karaağaç

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to asses left ventricular functions and its relation with hepatosteatosis grade with conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with the non-alcholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: A total of 32 patients (15 males, 17 females; mean age 50±9 years and with ultrasonographically diagnosed non-alcholic fatty liver disease and 22 healty subjects ( 11 female and 11 male; mean age: 50±10 without hepatosteatosis were enrolled in this study. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, myocardial performance index and its relation with HS grade were assessed by conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant charasteristics difference, chambers diameters, standard Doppler parameters and conventional echocardiography parameters between the patients and control groups. Among tissue Doppler parameters the mitral annulus peak early diastolic velocity and ratio of early to late diastolic velocity were lower in patients group than in controls ( p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively. Isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT and myocardial performance index (MPI were significantly higher ( p = 0.002, p < 0.001 respectively in the patient group. There were no significant differences in mitral annuler late diastolic velocity, deceleration time of early diastolic filling, mitral annuler peak systolic velocity, isovolumetric contraction time and contraction time between the two groups. HS grade was positively correlated with the left ventricle MPI index ( r = 0.57 p = 0.001. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results show that left ventricular diastolic dysfunctions in patients with non-alcholic fatty liver disease and degree of hepatosteatosis is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunctions.

  4. Effects of exercise training on myocardial fatty acid metabolism in rats with depressed cardiac function induced by transient ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liguang; Nohara, Ryuji; Hirai, Taku [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine] (and others)

    2001-06-01

    The effects of exercise training on metabolic and functional recovery after myocardial transient ischemia were investigated in a rat model. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were subjected either to a 30-min left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion or to a sham operation. At 4 weeks after operation, the rats were randomly assigned either to sedentary conditions or to exercise training for 6 weeks. In the ischemic rats, pinhole SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging with thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) and {sup 123}I-({rho}-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) showed a reduction of both myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism in the risk zone of the left ventricle (LV). The LV was dilated and the ejection fraction was decreased after ischemic injury. The severity score showed a significant decrease on both {sup 201}Tl and BMIPP ({sup 201}Tl, from 19.9{+-}2.7 to 17.0{+-}2.2, p<0.05; BMIPP, from 21.5{+-}2.4 to 18.6{+-}1.9, p<0.05) after exercise training in the ischemic trained rats, but did not change significantly in their sedentary counterparts. Plasma levels of free fatty acids normalized in the ischemic trained rats, but elevated in the ischemic sedentary rats (0.53{+-}0.05 vs 0.73{+-}0.06 mmol/L, p<0.05). Furthermore, the trained rats had a significant increase in LV stroke volume (0.25{+-}0.02 vs 0.21{+-}0.01 ml/beat, p<0.05) and adaptive cardiac hypertrophy. These findings demonstrate that adaptive improvements in myocardial perfusion, fatty-acid metabolism and LV function were induced by exercise training after transient ischemia. (author)

  5. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  6. Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca(2+) uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C

    2013-06-01

    High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ∼25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca(2+) uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function.

  7. In vitro modulation of caprine monocyte immune functions by ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchi, Cristina; Invernizzi, Guido; Agazzi, Alessandro; Ferroni, Mariella; Pisani, Laura Francesca; Savoini, Giovanni; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2011-09-01

    The in vitro effects of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on phagocytosis and the extracellular respiratory burst in caprine monocytes were assessed. Blood monocytes incubated with increasing concentrations of EPA or DHA (25-200 μM) demonstrated increased phagocytosis compared to unexposed monocytes. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was not markedly affected in the presence of EPA and DHA, except at 200 μM, at which concentrations monocyte viability was also reduced.

  8. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V; Schmidt, Erik B; Aalkjær, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe H; Ivarsen, Per

    2016-11-21

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated correlations between hemodynamic measurements, resistance artery function and fish consumption to the content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue, a long-term marker of seafood intake. Seventeen patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 + 5d and 27 healthy kidney donors were evaluated with hemodynamic measurements before surgery; from these subjects, 11 patients and 11 healthy subjects had vasodilator properties of subcutaneous resistance arteries examined. The measurements were correlated to adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Information on fish intake was obtained from a dietary questionnaire and compared with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish intake and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue did not differ between patients and controls. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in adipose tissue were positively correlated to systemic vascular resistance index; (r = 0.44; p = 0.07 and r = 0.62; p fatty acid levels in adipose tissue and vasodilator properties in resistance arteries. n-3 PUFA content in adipose tissue increased with increasing self-reported fish intake. The correlations found, suggest a role for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemodynamic properties. However, this is apparently not due to changes in intrinsic properties of the resistance arteries as no correlation was found to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and Modifies Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Responses to Insulin in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Ledee, Dolena; Ning, Xue-Han; Ge, Ming; Portman, Michael A.

    2010-07-02

    Aging presumably initiates shifts in substrate oxidation mediated in part by changes in insulin sensitivity. Similar shifts occur with cardiac hypertrophy and may contribute to contractile dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with microtipped pressure transducers in the left ventricle from control (4–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice. Cardiac function was also measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate and anaplerotic fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle (CAC) by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate, lactate, and unlabeled glucose. Stroke volume and cardiac output were diminished in aged mice in vivo, but pressure development was preserved. Systolic and diastolic functions were maintained in aged isolated hearts. Insulin prompted an increase in systolic function in aged hearts, resulting in an increase in cardiac efficiency. FFA and ketone flux were present but were markedly impaired in aged hearts. These changes in myocardial substrate utilization corresponded to alterations in circulating lipids, thyroid hormone, and reductions in protein expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)4. Insulin further suppressed FFA oxidation in the aged. Insulin stimulation of anaplerosis in control hearts was absent in the aged. The aged heart shows metabolic plasticity by accessing multiple substrates to maintain function. However, fatty acid oxidation capacity is limited. Impaired insulin-stimulated anaplerosis may contribute to elevated cardiac efficiency, but may also limit response to acute stress through depletion of CAC intermediates.

  10. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, fatty acids composition, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  11. Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3 in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 ± 6.2 y; 73.4 ± 5.1 kg to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ containing MicroN3 (450–550 mg EPA/DHA during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE plasma DHA (91.18 ± 9.3 vs. 125.58 ± 11.3 umol/L; P

  12. Ketoacylsynthase Domains of a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase in Thraustochytrium sp. Strain ATCC 26185 Can Effectively Function as Stand-Alone Enzymes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Qiu, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Thraustochytrium sp. strain ATCC 26185 accumulates a high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutritionally important ω-3 very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA) synthesized primarily by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase, a type I polyketide synthase-like megaenzyme. The PUFA synthase in this species comprises three large subunits, each with multiple catalytic domains. It was hypothesized that among these domains, ketoacylsynthase (KS) domains might be critical for catalyzing the condensation of specific unsaturated acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) with malonyl-ACP, thereby retaining double bonds in an extended acyl chain. To investigate the functions of these putative KS domains, two segment sequences from subunit A (KS-A) and subunit B (KS-B) of the PUFA synthase were dissected and then expressed as stand-alone enzymes in Escherichia coli The results showed that both KS-A and KS-B domains could complement the defective phenotypes of both E. colifabB and fabF mutants. Overexpression of these domains in wild-type E. coli led to increases in total fatty acid production. KS-B produced a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while KS-A could improve the overall production of fatty acids more effectively, particularly for the production of SFAs, implying that KS-A is more comparable to FabF, while KS-B is more similar to FabB in catalytic functions. Successful complementation and functional expression of the embedded KS domains in E. coli are the first step forward in studying the molecular mechanism of the PUFA synthase for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs in ThraustochytriumIMPORTANCE Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) are important for human health. They can be biosynthesized in either an aerobic pathway or an anaerobic pathway in nature. However, abundant VLCPUFAs in marine microorganisms are primarily synthesized by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase, a megaenzyme with

  13. Very-long-chain ω-3 fatty acid supplements and adipose tissue functions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C; Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harteneck, Debra A; Zhou, Lendia; Port, John D; Lanza, Ian R; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    Background: Increased omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption is reported to benefit patients with metabolic syndrome, possibly due to improved adipose tissue function.Objective: We tested the effects of high-dose, very-long-chain ω-3 fatty acids on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin regulation of lipolysis.Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared 6 mo of 3.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/d (4.2 g total ω-3/d; n = 12) with a placebo (4.2 g oleate/d; n = 9) in insulin-resistant adults. Before and after treatment, the volunteers underwent adipose tissue biopsies to measure the total (CD68(+)), pro- (CD14(+) = M1), and anti- (CD206(+) = M2) inflammatory macrophages, crown-like structures, and senescent cells, as well as a 2-step pancreatic clamping with a [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion to determine the insulin concentration needed to suppress palmitate flux by 50% (IC50(palmitate)f).Results: In the ω-3 group, the EPA and DHA contributions to plasma free fatty acids increased (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.003, respectively), as did the EPA and DHA content in adipose tissue (P adipose and plasma EPA and DHA in the ω-3 group, there were no significant changes in the IC50(palmitate)f (19 ± 2 compared with 24 ± 3 μIU/mL), adipose macrophages (total: 31 ± 2/100 adipocytes compared with 33 ± 2/100 adipocytes; CD14(+): 13 ± 2/100 adipocytes compared with 14 ± 2/100 adipocytes; CD206(+): 28 ± 2/100 adipocytes compared with 29 ± 3/100 adipocytes), crown-like structures (1 ± 0/10 images compared with 1 ± 0/10 images), or senescent cells (4% ± 1% compared with 4% ± 1%). There were no changes in these outcomes in the placebo group.Conclusions: Six months of high-dose ω-3 supplementation raised plasma and adipose ω-3 fatty acid concentrations but had no beneficial effects on adipose tissue lipolysis or inflammation in insulin-resistant adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01686568. © 2017 American

  14. Physiological function and ecological aspects of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2016-07-01

    In tritrophic interactions, plants recognize herbivore-produced elicitors and release a blend of volatile compounds (VOCs), which work as chemical cues for parasitoids or predators to locate their hosts. From detection of elicitors to VOC emissions, plants utilize sophisticated systems that resemble the plant-microbe interaction system. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), a class of insect elicitors, resemble compounds synthesized by microbes in nature. Recent evidence suggests that the recognition of insect elicitors by an ancestral microbe-associated defense system may be the origin of tritrophic interactions mediated by FACs. Here we discuss our findings in light of how plants have customized this defense to be effective against insect herbivores, and how some insects have successfully adapted to these defenses.

  15. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00, stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10, and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02 divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%, eicosadienoic acid (15.12%, oleic acid (8.72%, and palmitic acid (8.14% were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  16. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  17. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  18. A Δ-9 Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene in the Microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl: Cloning and Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Xue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Myrmecia incisa is one of the richest natural sources of arachidonic acid (ArA. To better understand the regulation of ArA biosynthesis in M. incisa, a novel gene putatively encoding the Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (FAD was cloned and characterized for the first time. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was employed to yield a full length cDNA designated as MiΔ9FAD, which is 2442 bp long in sequence. Comparing cDNA open reading frame (ORF sequence to genomic sequence indicated that there are 8 introns interrupting the coding region. The deduced MiΔ9FAD protein is composed of 432 amino acids. It is soluble and localized in the chloroplast, as evidenced by the absence of transmembrane domains as well as the presence of a 61-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of amino acids revealed two conserved histidine-rich motifs, typical for Δ9 acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP desaturases. To determine the function of MiΔ9FAD, the gene was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with impaired desaturase activity. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that MiΔ9FAD was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, generating palmitoleic acid and oleic acid through the addition of a double bond in the Δ9 position of palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively.

  19. Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royah Vaezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4 from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15. These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in marine microalgae.

  20. The plastidic DEAD-box RNA helicase 22, HS3, is essential for plastid functions both in seed development and in seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masatake; Hayashi, Makoto; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-09-01

    Plants accumulate large amounts of storage products in seeds to provide an energy reserve and to supply nutrients for germination and post-germinative growth. Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the Brassica family, and oil is the main storage product in Arabidopsis seeds. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of oil biosynthesis in seeds, we screened for high density seeds (heavy seed) that have a low oil content. HS3 (heavy seed 3) encodes the DEAD-box RNA helicase 22 that is localized to plastids. The triacylglycerol (TAG) content of hs3-1 seeds was 10% lower than that of wild-type (WT) seeds, while the protein content was unchanged. The hs3-1 plants displayed a pale-green phenotype in developing seeds and seedlings, but not in adult leaves. The HS3 expression level was high in developing seeds and seedlings, but was low in stems, rosette leaves and flowers. The plastid gene expression profile of WT developing seeds and seedlings differed from that of hs3-1 developing seeds and seedlings. The expression of several genes was reduced in developing hs3-1 seeds, including accD, a gene that encodes the β subunit of carboxyltransferase, which is one component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in plastids. In contrast, no differences were observed between the expression profiles of WT and hs3-1 rosette leaves. These results show that HS3 is essential for proper mRNA accumulation of plastid genes during seed development and seedling growth, and suggest that HS3 ensures seed oil biosynthesis by maintaining plastid mRNA levels.

  1. Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psoriatic Arthritis – Inflammation and Cardiac Autonomic and Hemodynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome

    This thesis is based on three studies of patients with established psoriatic arthritis (PsA) aiming at investigating the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on clinical symptoms and selected measures of inflammation, cardiac autonomic and hemodynamic function in these patients...... examination. To investigate effects of marine n-3 PUFA on clinical outcomes, important biochemical markers and cardiovascular risk in patients with PsA a randomized placebo-controlled trial was undertaken (Study II and III). One-hundred and forty-five patients were enrolled and randomized to a supplement...... with either 3 g of marine n-3 PUFA (6 capsules of fish oil) or 3 g of olive oil daily for 24 weeks. A total of 133 patients (92%) completed the study. The difference in the outcomes between baseline and 24 weeks was analysed within and between the two supplemented groups. In Study II, the effects of n-3 PUFA...

  2. Fatty replacement of rotator cuff in brain-injured patients is associated with hemiplegic arm function, but not with tendon tear: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Jang, Hye Jin; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2015-01-01

    The association between fatty replacement of rotator cuff and hemiplegic upper extremity function has not been defined yet. Moreover, the relationships among rotator cuff tears, shoulder pain, spasticity, and fatty replacement were not clearly studied. We investigated the association of fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with tendon tear in stroke or brain-injured patients. A total of 72 hemiplegic patients were enrolled in 3 hospitals, and ultrasonography of both shoulders was performed once. Fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus was graded by the visibility of outer contours, pennate pattern, central tendon, and echogenicity. Fatty replacement was observed in 22 (30.6%) out of the 72 patients (in 18 supraspinatus muscles and 12 infraspinatus). Inter-rater agreement (kappa value) between the 2 physiatrists was 0.530 for the supraspinatus, and 0.411 for the infraspinatus. The Fugl-Meyer assessment score, Brunnstrom stage, and modified Barthel index were significantly lower in patients with fatty replacement of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus (group 1) than in those without (group 2). The motor power of both shoulders, the pain-free range of motion, spasticity, and hemiplegic shoulder pain were comparable between the two groups. The tear rate of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, or subscapularis tendon at the hemiplegic side was higher than that at the contralesional side in each group, although there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. Disuse leading to muscle atrophy rather than rotator cuff tear might be the cause of fatty replacement of these muscles, which may be associated with decreased function of the hemiplegic upper extremities.

  3. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on haemostatic functions in urocortin-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M

    2014-09-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.

  4. 脂肪酸免疫调节功能研究进展%Research Progress of Fatty Acids in Immunoregulation Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓燕; 王加启; 卜登攀; 孙鹏; 崔海; 赵小伟; 孙妍; 周凌云; 赵国琦

    2011-01-01

    随着对脂肪酸研究的不断深入,人们发现脂肪酸与机体的健康存在着密切的关系.近年来,脂肪酸与机体免疫系统的关系已成为研究的热点之一.笔者概述了脂肪酸的分类,着重归纳了饱和、单不饱和及多不饱和脂肪酸对机体免疫功能的影响,并阐述了脂肪酸影响免疫功能的作用机理.%With continuous study of fatty acids, people realize the close relationship between fatty acid and the health of the body. In recent years,the research of the relationship between fatty acids and immune system has be come one of the hottest topics. In this paper, research progress concerning the effects of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune functions are presented. In addition,the mechanisms by which fatty acids might modulate immune functions are also elaborated.

  5. Function of heterologous Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA, a type 2 fatty acid synthase enzyme involved in extending C20 fatty acids to C60-to-C90 mycolic acids, during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Aner; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J

    2008-08-01

    We describe the physiological function of heterologously expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria. InhA, representing 2-trans-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and the target for the front-line antituberculous drug isoniazid, is involved in the activity of dissociative type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII) that extends associative type 1 fatty acid synthase (FASI)-derived C(20) fatty acids to form C(60)-to-C(90) mycolic acids. Mycolic acids are major constituents of the protective layer around the pathogen that contribute to virulence and resistance to certain antimicrobials. Unlike FASI, FASII is thought to be incapable of de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. Here, the genes for InhA (Rv1484) and four similar proteins (Rv0927c, Rv3485c, Rv3530c, and Rv3559c) were expressed in S. cerevisiae etr1Delta cells lacking mitochondrial 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase activity. The phenotype of the yeast mutants includes the inability to produce sufficient levels of lipoic acid, form mitochondrial cytochromes, respire, or grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. Yeast etr1Delta cells expressing mitochondrial InhA were able to respire, grow on glycerol, and produce lipoic acid. Commensurate with a role in mitochondrial de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, InhA could accept in vivo much shorter acyl-thioesters (C(4) to C(8)) than was previously thought (>C(12)). Moreover, InhA functioned in the absence of AcpM or protein-protein interactions with its native FASII partners KasA, KasB, FabD, and FabH. None of the four proteins similar to InhA complemented the yeast mutant phenotype. We discuss the implications of our findings with reference to lipoic acid synthesis in M. tuberculosis and the potential use of yeast FASII mutants for investigating the physiological function of drug-targeted pathogen enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis.

  6. Produção de abobrinha em função da idade das mudas Squash production as a function of seedling age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane da Cunha Salata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A idade do transplante de mudas é um fator de grande importância, pois pode afetar a qualidade e a produtividade das plantas, se o volume da célula da bandeja não for ideal ao tempo de permanência da muda. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da idade das mudas na produção de abobrinha ´Sandy'. Os tratamentos consistiram em cinco idades de transplante das mudas (36, 32, 28, 24 e 20 dias após a semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. As semeaduras foram realizadas a cada quatro dias, em bandejas de poliestireno de 128 células, com o objetivo de transplantar muda com diferentes idades, na mesma data (17/08/2007. Foram avaliados, no dia do transplante, o número de folhas na muda, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea das mudas e, após o transplante, a produção total de frutos por planta (número e massa e a produção de frutos comerciais por planta (número e massa. As mudas transplantadas com 32 dias após a semeadura apresentaram maior número de folhas e massa fresca da parte aérea, porém, a maior produção de frutos por planta é obtida com mudas transplantadas aos 27 dias após semeadura, o que corresponde às mudas com 3,2 folhas.The seedling transplant age is an important factor, since it may affect the quality and yield of plants if the tray cell size is not ideal to the time that the seedlings remain in the tray. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seedling age on the 'Sandy' zucchini production. Treatmeats consisted of five seedling transplanting ages (36, 32, 28, 24 and 20 days after sowing. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with six replicates and five plants per plot. Sowings were performed at each four days in polystyrene trays contaning 128 cells, in order to transplant seedlings with different ages at same day (08/17/2007. At the transplanting day, the number of seedling leaves, fresh and dry mass of

  7. Isotope and fatty acid trends along continental shelf depth gradients: Inshore versus offshore hydrological influences on benthic trophic functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Schaal, G.; Grall, J.; Pernet, F.; Perdriau, M.; A-Pernet, E. J.; Le Bris, H.

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities and land-based inputs into the sea may influence the trophic structure and functioning of coastal and continental shelf ecosystems, despite the numerous opportunities and services the latter offer to humans and wildlife. In addition, hydrological structures and physical dynamics potentially influence the sources of organic matter (e.g., terrestrial versus marine, or fresh material versus detrital material) entering marine food webs. Understanding the significance of the processes that influence marine food webs and ecosystems (e.g., terrestrial inputs, physical dynamics) is crucially important because trophic dynamics are a vital part of ecosystem integrity. This can be achieved by identifying organic matter sources that enter food webs along inshore-offshore transects. We hypothesised that regional hydrological structures over wide continental shelves directly control the benthic trophic functioning across the shelf. We investigated this issue along two transects in the northern ecosystem of the Bay of Biscay (north-eastern Atlantic). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA) and fatty acid analysis (FAA) were conducted on different complementary ecosystem compartments that include suspended particulate organic matter (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM), and benthic consumers such as bivalves, large crustaceans and demersal fish. Samples were collected from inshore shallow waters (at ∼1 m in depth) to more than 200 m in depth on the offshore shelf break. Results indicated strong discrepancies in stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) compositions in the sampled compartments between inshore and offshore areas, although nitrogen SI (δ15N) and FA trends were similar along both transects. Offshore the influence of a permanently stratified area (described previously as a "cold pool") was evident in both transects. The influence of this hydrological structure on benthic trophic functioning (i.e., on the food sources available for

  8. Depletion of ceramides with very long chain fatty acids causes defective skin permeability barrier function, and neonatal lethality in ELOVL4 deficient mice

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    Wenmei Li, Roger Sandhoff, Mari Kono, Patricia Zerfas, Vickie Hoffmann, Bryan Char-Hoa Ding, Richard L. Proia, Chu-Xia Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA, either free or as components of glycerolipids and sphingolipids, are present in many organs. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4 belongs to a family of 6 members of putative fatty acid elongases that are involved in the formation of VLCFA. Mutations in ELOVL4 were found to be responsible for an autosomal dominant form of Stargardt's-like macular dystrophy (STGD3 in human. We have previously disrupted the mouse Elovl4 gene, and found that Elovl4+/- mice were developmentally normal, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of ELOVL4 is not a cause for the juvenile retinal degeneration in STGD3 patients. However, Elovl4-/- mice died within several hours of birth for unknown reason(s. To study functions of ELOVL4 further, we have explored the causes for the postnatal lethality in Elovl4-/- mice. Our data indicated that the mutant mice exhibited reduced thickness of the dermis, delayed differentiation of keratinocytes, and abnormal structure of the stratum corneum. We showed that all Elovl4-/- mice exhibited defective skin water permeability barrier function, leading to the early postnatal death. We further showed that the absence of ELOVL4 results in depletion in the epidermis of ceramides with ω-hydroxy very long chain fatty acids (≥C28 and accumulation of ceramides with non ω-hydroxy fatty acids of C26, implicating C26 fatty acids as possible substrates of ELOVL4. These data demonstrate that ELOVL4 is required for VLCFA synthesis that is essential for water permeability barrier function of skin.

  9. Urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein is a predictor of early renal function after partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanishi, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Mishima, Takao; Taniguchi, Hisanori; Yoshida, Kenji; Komai, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kaneki; Watanabe, Masato; Sugi, Motohiko; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    Urinary biomarkers of renal injury urinary may identify loss of renal function following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This study was designed to evaluate whether urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein (l-FABP) is an early biomarker of loss of renal function after NSS. Specifically, the kinetics of urinary l-FABP level after NSS and its correlation with factors related to ischemic renal injury were analyzed. This study prospectively evaluated 18 patients who underwent NSS between July and December 2014, including 12 who underwent laparoscopic and six who underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Urinary l-FABP concentrations were measured preoperatively and 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after renal artery declamping. Loss of renal function loss was calculated by comparing the effective renal plasma flow, as determined by (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) clearance, on the operated and normal sides. The decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate from before surgery to six months after surgery was also measured. Urinary l-FABP concentration peaked within 2 h of declamping, which may quantify nephron damage caused by ischemia. The decrease in MAG3 reduction ratio correlated with both the ischemia time and peak urinary l-FABP concentration. Peak urinary l-FABP concentration showed a significant correlation with MAG3 reduction ratio. l-FABP is a suitable urinary biomarker for predicting the extent of ischemic renal injury.

  10. Alterations in the molecular species of rat liver lecithin by corn-oil feeding to essential fatty acid-deficient rats as a function of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, L.M.G. van; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1968-01-01

    The present paper describes, as a function of time, the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the molecular species pattern of rat liver lecithin which are observed when corn oil is fed to essential fatty acid-deficient rats. One of the most important changes observed was a very rapid

  11. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebrowska, Aleksandra; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Mizia, Magda; Gąsior, Zbigniew; Poprzęcki, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 3-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on serum nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethyloarginine (ADMA), ultrasound indices of endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) of elite cyclists. The effects of dietary supplementation (n-3 PUFA at a dose of 1.3 g twice daily for 3 weeks) and placebo administration on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), pulse wave velocity, serum markers (NO, ADMA), lipid profile, and ΔVO2max were analysed in 13 cyclists both before and after dietary protocols. Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after n-3 PUFA dietary protocol (13.9 ± 4.2 vs. 23.5 ± 3.6 µmol·l(-1); P PUFA diet compared with placebo (23.5 ± 3.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.0 µmol·l(-1); P PUFA increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO) by 6.7 ± 3.8 µmol·l(-1) and placebo by 1.6 ± 4.4 µmol·l(-1). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.72; P omega-3 fatty acids supplementation. There was an association between a 5.25% higher FMD (P PUFA diet compared with lower values of placebo (r = 0.68; P PUFA supplementation may play a central role in cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and enhanced exercise performance in cyclists.

  13. Exploring developmental and physiological functions of fatty acid and lipid variants through worm and fly genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huanhu; Han, Min

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are more than biomolecules for energy storage and membrane structure. With ample structural variation, lipids critically participate in nearly all aspects of cellular function. Lipid homeostasis and metabolism are closely related to major human diseases and health problems. However, lipid functional studies have been significantly underdeveloped, partly because of the difficulty in applying genetics and common molecular approaches to tackle the complexity associated with lipid biosynthesis, metabolism, and function. In the past decade, a number of laboratories began to analyze the roles of lipid metabolism in development and other physiological functions using animal models and combining genetics, genomics, and biochemical approaches. These pioneering efforts have not only provided valuable insights regarding lipid functions in vivo but have also established feasible methodology for future studies. Here, we review a subset of these studies using Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster.

  14. The Metabolism of the Germinating Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Seedling 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Khaik Cheang; Stumpf, Paul K.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism of 14C-labeled fatty acids and triacylglycerols was followed in intact germinating oil palm seedlings as well as in tissue slices. In the germinating seedling, the shoot contained a normal pattern of membrane fatty acids (mainly C16, C18:1, C18:2) but the kernel contained about 68% C12 and C14 fatty acids. Haustorium fatty acids were intermediate between the two. [14C]Acetate was actively metabolized by shoot and haustorium slices but not so actively by the kernel. Approximately 9% to 17% was converted to water-soluble substances, 4% to 6% to CO2, and 0.5% to 5.9% to lipids. The fatty acids synthesized in the shoot and haustorium were mainly C16, C18, and C18:1 fatty acids but in the kernel about 18% to 32% of the 14C-fatty acids were C12 fatty acids. [14C]Lauric acid was absorbed and metabolized by haustorium slices and by the haustorium in intact seedlings; it was partly esterified to triacylglycerols and also converted to water-soluble substances and insoluble tissue material. In contrast, tri-[14C]laurin was absorbed but not metabolized. The haustorium also absorbed other fatty acids but the longer chain (C16 and C18) fatty acids were not esterified or metabolized further. Preincubation of the haustorium with plant hormones or in the presence of kernel tissue did not alter its inactivity towards tri-[14C]laurin. When tri-[14C]laurin or [14C]lauric acid were injected into the seed or the shoot, there was no movement or radioactivity to other parts of the seedling. When injected into the shoot, but not into the seed, tri-[14C] laurin was hydrolyzed and partly metabolized to water-soluble substances. PMID:16663324

  15. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function

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    Xia Yunqiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of patients suffering from fatty liver caused by type 2 diabetes. We intended to study the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine (LC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Thirty male Kungming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, diabetic group, pre-treatment group (125 mg/kg BW, low-dose (125 mg/kg BW therapeutic group and high-dose (250 mg/kg BW therapeutic group. The morphology of hepatocytes was observed by light and electron microscopy. LC and ALC (acetyl L-carnitine concentrations in the liver were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, liver weight, insulin levels and free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in the liver and plasma were measured. Results Average liver LC and ALC levels were 33.7% and 20% lower, respectively, in diabetic mice compared to control mice (P Conclusion LC supplements ameliorated fatty liver in type 2 diabetic mice by increasing fatty acid oxidation and decreasing the LC/ALC ratio in the liver. Therefore, oral administration of LC protected mitochondrial function in liver.

  16. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-08-03

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  18. Multiple genes for functional 6 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): gene and cDNA characterization, functional expression, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Morais, Sofia; Leaver, Michael J; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-01

    Fish are the primary source in the human food basket of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6n-3), that are crucial to the health of higher vertebrates. Atlantic salmon are able to synthesize EPA and DHA from 18:3n-3 through reactions catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) and elongases of very long chain fatty acids. Previously, two cDNAs encoding functionally distinct Delta5 and Delta6 Fads were isolated, but screening of a genomic DNA library revealed the existence of more putative fad genes in the Atlantic salmon genome. In the present study, we show that there are at least four genes encoding putative Fad proteins in Atlantic salmon. Two genes, Delta6fad_a and Delta5fad, corresponded to the previously cloned Delta6 and Delta5 Fad cDNAs. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed that the cDNAs for both the two further putative fad genes, Delta6fad_b and Delta6fad_c, had only Delta6 activity, converting 47 % and 12 % of 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, and 25 and 7 % of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6, for 6Fad_b and Delta6fad_c, respectively. Both 6fad_a and 6fad_b genes were highly expressed in intestine (pyloric caeca), liver and brain, with 6fad_b also highly expressed in gill, whereas 6fad_c transcript was found predominantly in brain, with lower expression levels in all other tissues. The expression levels of the 6fad_a gene in liver and the 6fad_b gene in intestine were significantly higher in fish fed diets containing vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil suggesting up-regulation in response to reduced dietary EPA and DHA. In contrast, no significant differences were found between transcript levels for 6fad_a in intestine, 6fad_b in liver, or 6fad_c in liver or intestine of fish fed vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil. The observed differences in tissue expression and nutritional regulation of the fad genes are discussed in relation to gene structures and fish

  19. [THE OPTIMIZATION OF NUTRITION FUNCTION UNDER SYNDROME OF RESISTANCE TO INSULIN, DISORDER OF FATTY ACIDS' METABOLISM AND ABSORPTION OF GLUCOSE BY CELLS (A LECTURE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic processes continue to proceed in Homo Sapiens. At the very early stages ofphylogenesis, the ancient Archaea that formed mitochondria under symbiotic interaction with later bacterial cells conjointly formed yet another system. In this system, there are no cells' absorption of glucose if it is possible to absorb fatty acids from intercellular medium in the form of unesterfied fatty acids or ketonic bodies--metabolites of fatty acids. This is caused by objectively existed conditions and subsequent availability of substrates at the stages ofphylogenesis: acetate, ketonic bodies, fatty acids and only later glucose. The phylogenetically late insulin used after billions years the same dependencies at formation of regulation ofmetabolism offatty acids and cells' absorption of glucose. In order that syndrome ofresistance ceased to exist as afoundation of metabolic pandemic Homo Sapiens has to understand the following. After successful function ofArchaea+bacterial cells and considered by biology action of insulin for the third time in phylogenesis and using biological function of intelligence the content ofphylogenetically earlier palmitic saturated fatty acid infood can't to exceed possibilities of phylogenetically late lipoproteins to transfer it in intercellular medium and blood and cells to absorb it. It is supposed that at early stages of phylogenesis biological function of intelligence is primarily formed to bring into line "unconformities" of regulation of metabolism against the background of seeming relative biological "perfection". These unconformities were subsequently and separately formed at the level of cells in paracrin regulated cenosises of cells and organs and at the level of organism. The prevention of resistance to insulin basically requires biological function of intelligence, principle of self-restraint, bringing into line multiple desires of Homo Sapiens with much less extensive biological possibilities. The "unconformities" of

  20. Cardiac and Renal Function are Progressively Impaired with Aging in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Type II Diabetic Rats

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    John Baynes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/? LC (n = 7, untreated ZDF rats (n = 7 sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7 untreated ZDF rats (n = 9 sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC. End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27% respectively at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC. Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks, without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.

  1. Cardiac and renal function are progressively impaired with aging in Zucker diabetic fatty type II diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, John; Murray, David B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old) were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/?) LC(n = 7), untreated ZDF rats (n = 7) sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7) untreated ZDF rats (n = 9) sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC). End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27%respectively) at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC). Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks,without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.

  2. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Dienke J; van Montfort, Simone J T; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-03-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest that there are benefits of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake on brain functioning. However, it is an open question whether this is indeed the case. Therefore, we reviewed the evidence for effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA on human brain morphology and function. We included studies on (1) naturalistic long-term ω-3 LC-PUFA intake during life (2) the effects of short-term ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation in healthy subjects and (3) the effects of ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation as alternative or add-on treatment for psychiatric or neurological disorders. To date, 24 studies have been published on the effect of ω-3 LC-PUFA on brain function and structure. Findings from naturalistic studies and clinical trials in healthy individuals indicate that ω-3 LC-PUFA intake may be associated with increased functional activation of the prefrontal cortex in children, and greater gray matter volume and white matter integrity during aging. However, most naturalistic studies were cross-sectional or did not find any effect on cognition. As such, it is hard to estimate the magnitude of any beneficial effects. Furthermore, there is only limited evidence to support that ω-3 LC-PUFA supplementation is beneficial in brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and schizophrenia. Overall, the literature suggests that sensitivity to supplementation may vary over development, and as a consequence of brain disorders. The biological mechanisms underlying any (beneficial) effects ω-3 LC-PUFAs on the brain are currently unknown and need to be investigated.

  3. Regulation of small intestinal transport function by fatty acids and the role of PPAR alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.M.

    2008-01-01

    A key function of the small intestine is to form a selective barrier between the body and the environment. Potentially dangerous compounds and organisms have to be kept in the lumen, while simultaneously nutrients have to be taken up efficiently. Furthermore, the enterocyte is the first place where

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an essential fatty acid for the proper functioning of neuronal cells: their role in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The brain and the nervous system are tissues with high contents of two polyunsaturated fatty acids: arachidonic acid (20:4, omega-6, AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, omega-3, DHA. Despite their abundance in these tissues, AA and DHA cannot be re-synthesized in mammals. However, the concentration of these fatty acids can be modulated by dietary intake. AA and DHA must be provided by the diet as such (preformed or through the respective omega-6 and omega-3 precursors from vegetable origin. Linoleic acid, the precursor of AA is very abundant in the western diet and therefore the formation of AA from linoleic acid is not restrictive. On the other hand, alpha linolenic acid, the precursor of DHA is less available in our diet and preformed DHA is highly restrictive in some populations. During the last period of gestation and during the early post natal period, neurodevelopment occurs exceptionally quickly, and significant amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA, are critical to allow neurite outgrowth and the proper brain and retina development and function. In this review various functions of DHA in the nervous system, its metabolism into phospholipids, and its involvement in different neurological and mood disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and others are revised.

    El cerebro y el sistema nervioso son tejidos con un alto contenido de dos ácidos grasos poliinsaturados: el ácido araquidónico (20:4, omega-6, AA y el ácido docosahexaenoico (22:6, omega-3, DHA. A pesar de la abundancia de estos ácidos grasos en dichos tejidos los mamíferos no los pueden sintetizar de novo. Sin embargo, la concentración de estos ácidos grasos puede ser modificada por la dieta. El AA y el DHA pueden ser aportados por la dieta como tales (preformados o a partir de los respectivos precursores de origen vegetal. El ácido linoleico, precursor del AA es muy abundante en la dieta occidental, por lo cual la

  5. Cabbage production in function of seedling age. = Produção de repolho em função da idade das mudas.

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    Felipe Oliveira Magro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The seedling transplanting ages is a factor of great importance because it can affect the quality and yield of plants if the volume of the cell is not compatible with the phenology of seedlings at time of transplantation. The experiment was conducted at São Manuel Experimental farm, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, from March to August, 2009. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seedling age on cabbage production, hybrid Kenzan. The seedlings were grown in polystyrene trays containing 128 cells. Seedings were done every four days and contained the following streatments: 37, 41, 45, 49 and 53 days after sowing (DAS. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replications. On transplantation’s day (11/05/2009,the number of leaves, fresh and dry weight and height, were evaluated to the characterization of seedlings. It was observed that the seedling age had no influence on traits at harvest: number of leaves inside and outside of “head”,fresh weight of shoot and “head”, dry mass of shoot and “head” and length of “heart”. =A idade de transplante das mudas é um fator de grande importância, pois pode afetar a qualidade e a produtividade das plantas se o volume da célula não for compatível às condições fenológicas das mudas no momento do transplante. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, no período de março a agosto de 2009. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade das mudas na produção de repolho, híbrido Kenzan. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido contendo 128 células, sendo que as semeaduras foram realizadas a cada quatro dias compondo os seguintes tratamentos: 37, 41, 45, 49 e 53 dias após a semeadura (DAS. O delineamentoexperimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Foram avaliados, no dia do transplante (11/05/2009, o n

  6. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

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    Debora eCutuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.

  7. Adaptation of hepatic mitochondrial function in humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver is lost in steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Szendroedi, Julia; Kaul, Kirti; Jelenik, Tomas; Nowotny, Peter; Jankowiak, Frank; Herder, Christian; Carstensen, Maren; Krausch, Markus; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Schlensak, Matthias; Roden, Michael

    2015-05-05

    The association of hepatic mitochondrial function with insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. This study applied high-resolution respirometry to directly quantify mitochondrial respiration in liver biopsies of obese insulin-resistant humans without (n = 18) or with (n = 16) histologically proven NAFL or with NASH (n = 7) compared to lean individuals (n = 12). Despite similar mitochondrial content, obese humans with or without NAFL had 4.3- to 5.0-fold higher maximal respiration rates in isolated mitochondria than lean persons. NASH patients featured higher mitochondrial mass, but 31%-40% lower maximal respiration, which associated with greater hepatic insulin resistance, mitochondrial uncoupling, and leaking activity. In NASH, augmented hepatic oxidative stress (H2O2, lipid peroxides) and oxidative DNA damage (8-OH-deoxyguanosine) was paralleled by reduced anti-oxidant defense capacity and increased inflammatory response. These data suggest adaptation of the liver ("hepatic mitochondrial flexibility") at early stages of obesity-related insulin resistance, which is subsequently lost in NASH.

  8. The Effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Combination with Different Fatty Acids on Gastrointestinal Functions: A Pilot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Sauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE. 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22–29 years, BMI 19–25.7 kg/m² were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter, placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil, or placebo + olive oil in double-blinded randomized order. Two hours after FA/5-HTP or placebo intake, a 13C octanoid acid test was conducted. Cortisol, serotonin, cholecystokinin (CCK, and ghrelin were measured, as were mood and GE. Results. GE was delayed with butter and was normal with olive (P<0.05 but not affected by 5-HTP. 5-HTP supplementation did not affect serotonin levels. Food intake increased plasma CCK (F=6.136; P<0.05 irrespective of the FA. Ghrelin levels significantly decreased with oil/5-HTP (F=9.166; P<0.001. The diurnal cortisol profile was unaffected by FA or 5-HTP, as were ratings of mood, hunger, and stool urgency. Conclusion. Diverse FAs have different effects on GE and secretion of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Supplementation of 5-HTP had no effect on plasma serotonin and central functions. Further studies are needed to explain the complex interplay.

  9. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan in combination with different Fatty acids on gastrointestinal functions: a pilot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Helene; Mack, Isabelle; Kohler, Silke; Siegle, Stefanie; Rieber, Nicole; Zipfel, Stephan; Otto, Bärbel; Ritze, Yvonne; Bischoff, Stephan C; Enck, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE). 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP) is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22-29 years, BMI 19-25.7 kg/m²) were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter), placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil), or placebo + olive oil in double-blinded randomized order. Two hours after FA/5-HTP or placebo intake, a (13)C octanoid acid test was conducted. Cortisol, serotonin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin were measured, as were mood and GE. Results. GE was delayed with butter and was normal with olive (P HTP. 5-HTP supplementation did not affect serotonin levels. Food intake increased plasma CCK (F = 6.136; P HTP (F = 9.166; P HTP, as were ratings of mood, hunger, and stool urgency. Conclusion. Diverse FAs have different effects on GE and secretion of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Supplementation of 5-HTP had no effect on plasma serotonin and central functions. Further studies are needed to explain the complex interplay.

  10. Systemic short-chain fatty acids rapidly alter gastrointestinal structure, function, and expression of early response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappenden, K A; McBurney, M I

    1998-07-01

    Luminal and systemic short chain fatty acids (SCFA) stimulate mucosal proliferation but the mechanism(s) is unclear. This study examined acute effects of systemic SCFAs on gastrointestinal structure and function and signals potentially mediating SCFA-induced mucosal proliferation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (246+/-2 g) received nutrients as either standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or an isoenergetic, isonitrogenous formulation containing SCFAs (TPN + SCFA). Animals were randomized to one of five treatments: standard TPN for 72 hr, TPN + SCFA for 72 hr, or standard TPN followed by TPN + SCFA for the final 6, 12, and 24 hr. SCFAs reduced (P SCFA groups and ileal GLUT2 protein in the 6-, 12-, and 24-hr SCFA groups (P < 0.05). SCFAs increased (P < 0.003) ileal proglucagon abundance following 6, 12, and 24 hr, and plasma GLP-2 concentration following 12 hr (P < 0.03). Jejunal c-myc expression was increased (P < 0.001) following 6, 12, and 24 hr of SCFAs. SCFAs increased ileal c-myc, c-jun, and c-fos expression following 24 hr (P < 0.02), 12 hr (P < 0.05) and 6, 12, and 24 hr (P=0.0001), respectively. In conclusion, systemic SCFAs increase plasma GLP-2 and ileal proglucagon mRNA, GLUT2 expression and protein, and c-myc, c-jun, and c-fos expression.

  11. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P; Ackermans, Mariette T; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M; van der Plas, Mart N; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K; Serlie, Mireille J

    2011-10-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle. Whether FAs have a direct effect on intrinsic mitochondrial capacity remains to be established. Therefore, we measured ex vivo mitochondrial respiratory capacity in human skeletal muscle after exposure to hyperinsulinemia and high levels of plasma FFA. Nine healthy lean men were studied during a 6-hour hyperinsulinemic (600 pmol/L) euglycemic clamp with concomitant infusion of Intralipid (Fresensius Kabi Nederland, Den Bosch, the Netherlands) (FFA clamped at 0.5 mmol/L) or saline. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity was measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibers using an Oxygraph (OROBOROS Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria). Each participant served as his own control. Peripheral glucose uptake (rate of disappearance) was significantly lower during infusion of the lipid emulsion compared with the control saline infusion (68 μmol/kg·min [saline] vs 40 μmol/kg·min [lipid], P = .008). However, adenosine diphosphate-stimulated and maximal carbonylcyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone-stimulated uncoupled respiration rates were not different in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers after exposure to high levels of FFA compared with the control condition. We conclude that short-term elevation of FFA within the physiological range induces insulin resistance but does not affect intrinsic mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle in humans.

  12. A Systems genetics approach identifies gene regulatory networks associated with fatty acid composition in brassica rapa seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basnet, Ram Kumar; Pino Del Carpio, Dunia; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Jin, Mina; Boyle, Kerry; Fobert, Pierre; Visser, R.G.F.; Maliepaard, Chris; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids in seeds affect seed germination and seedling vigor, and fatty acid composition determines the quality of seed oil. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fatty acid and transcript abundance was integrated with gene network analysis to unravel the genetic regulation

  13. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated cor...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids improve liver and pancreas function in postoperative cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Axel R; Rössel, Thomas; Gottschlich, Birgit; Tiebel, Oliver; Menschikowski, Mario; Litz, Rainer J; Zimmermann, Thomas; Koch, Thea

    2004-09-10

    Epidemiologic studies have indicated that high intake of saturated fat and/or animal fat increases the risk of colon and breast cancer. Omega-3 PUFAs in fish oil (FO) can inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These effects are related to the uptake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into the cellular substrate pool and their competitive metabolism with arachidonic acid (AA) at the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase levels. The metabolites of EPA and DHA have less inflammatory and immunosuppressant potency than the substances derived from AA. Based on previous experimental data, we hypothesized that FO supplementation after major abdominal cancer surgery would improve hepatic and pancreatic function. Ours was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial on 44 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, randomly assigned to receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) supplemented with either soybean oil (SO 1.0 g/kg body weight daily, n = 20) for 5 days or a combination of FO and SO (FO 0.2 + SO 0.8 g/kg body weight daily, n = 24). Compared to pure SO supplementation in the postoperative period, FO significantly reduced ASAT [0.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.1 mmol/(l. sec)], ALAT [0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/(l. sec)], bilirubin (16.1 +/- 5.3 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.6 mmol/l), LDH (7.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/(l. sec) and lipase (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 micromol/(l. sec) in the postoperative course. Moreover, patients with increased risk of sepsis (IL-6/IL-10 ratio >8) showed a tendency to shorter ICU stay (18 hr) under omega-3 PUFA treatment. Weight loss as encountered after the SO emulsion of 1.1 +/- 2.2 kg was absent in the FO group. After major abdominal tumor surgery, FO supplementation improved liver and pancreas function, which might have contributed to the faster recovery of patients.

  15. ω-3不饱和脂肪酸的生物学作用%The biologic functions of ω-3unsatrated fatty acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利华; 霍贵成

    2001-01-01

    由于人们的膳食中饱和脂肪酸/多不饱和脂肪酸(S/P)及ω-6不饱和脂肪酸/ω-3不饱和脂肪酸的比例失调,使得心血管的发病率显著增加。正因为ω-3不饱和脂肪酸的摄入量相对不足,所以人们更加重视ω-3不饱和脂肪酸在脂肪酸促进胎儿和新生儿的大脑发育,抗肿瘤和炎性反应及降低冠心病、高血压、动脉粥样硬化、二型糖尿病等发病率的特殊作用,这些作用源于ω-3的某些生物学作用。本文阐述ω-3功能活性的生物学作用基础%Since the ratio of saturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid and ω-6/ω-3 is serious imbalance, the incidence of cardiovascular disorder increases significantly. While ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids are relative inadequate to ω-6 unsaturated fatty acid, so they are paid close attention to promote brain growth of fetus and neonate, and be a inhibitor of tumor, inflammatory, coronary heart diseases, atherogensis, hypertension diabetic I and so on, all these are the action of ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid biologic functions. The review illustrates the biologic basis of its functions.

  16. Overexpression of Peroxiredoxin 4 Affects Intestinal Function in a Dietary Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Nawata

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has shown that methionine- and choline-deficient high fat (MCD+HF diet induces the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, in which elevated reactive oxygen species play a crucial role. We have reported that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4, a unique secretory member of the PRDX antioxidant family, protects against NAFLD progression. However, the detailed mechanism and potential effects on the intestinal function still remain unclear.Two weeks after feeding mice a MCD+HF diet, the livers of human PRDX4 transgenic (Tg mice exhibited significant suppression in the development of NAFLD compared with wild-type (WT mice. The serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were significantly lower in Tg mice. In contrast, the Tg small intestine with PRDX4 overexpression showed more suppressed shortening of total length and villi height, and more accumulation of lipid in the jejunum, along with lower levels of dihydroethidium binding. The enterocytes exhibited fewer apoptotic but more proliferating cells, and inflammation was reduced in the mucosa. Furthermore, the small intestine of Tg mice had significantly higher expression of cholesterol absorption-regulatory factors, including liver X receptor-α, but lower expression of microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein.Our present data provide the first evidence of the beneficial effects of PRDX4 on intestinal function in the reduction of the severity of NAFLD, by ameliorating oxidative stress-induced local and systemic injury. We can suggest that both liver and intestine are spared, to some degree, by the antioxidant properties of PRDX4.

  17. Myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein from Bifidobacterium breve is a FAD-dependent fatty acid hydratase which has a function in stress protection

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva

    2011-02-17

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the catalytic activity and physiological role of myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) from Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258. MCRA from B. breve NCIMB 702258 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts (Lactococcus and Corynebacterium) and the recombinant proteins assessed for enzymatic activity against fatty acid substrates. Results MCRA catalysed the conversion of palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids to the corresponding 10-hydroxy fatty acids, but shorter chain fatty acids were not used as substrates, while the presence of trans-double bonds and double bonds beyond the position C12 abolished hydratase activity. The hydroxy fatty acids produced were not metabolised further. We also found that heterologous Lactococcus and Corynebacterium expressing MCRA accumulated increasing amounts of 10-HOA and 10-HOE in the culture medium. Furthermore, the heterologous cultures exhibited less sensitivity to heat and solvent stresses compared to corresponding controls. Conclusions MCRA protein in B. breve can be classified as a FAD-containing double bond hydratase, within the carbon-oxygen lyase family, which may be catalysing the first step in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production, and this protein has an additional function in bacterial stress protection.

  18. FADS2 function loss at the cancer hotspot 11q13 locus diverts lipid signaling precursor synthesis to unusual eicosanoid fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jung Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genes coding for the fatty acid desaturases (FADS1, 2, 3 localized at the cancer genomic hotspot 11q13 locus are required for the biosynthesis of 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA that are direct eicosanoid precursors. In several cancer cell lines, FADS2 encoded Δ6 and Δ8 desaturation is not functional. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analyzing MCF7 cell fatty acids with detailed structural mass spectrometry, we show that in the absence of FADS2 activity, the FADS1 product Δ5-desaturase operates to produce 5,11,14-20∶3 and 5,11,14,17-20∶4. These PUFA are missing the 8-9 double bond of the eicosanoid signaling precursors arachidonic acid (5,8,11,14-20∶4 and eicosapentaenoic acid (5,8,11,14,17-20∶5. Heterologous expression of FADS2 restores Δ6 and Δ8-desaturase activity and normal eicosanoid precursor synthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of FADS2-encoded activities in cancer cells shuts down normal PUFA biosynthesis, deleting the endogenous supply of eicosanoid and downstream docosanoid precursors, and replacing them with unusual butylene-interrupted fatty acids. If recapitulated in vivo, the normal eicosanoid and docosanoid cell signaling milieu would be depleted and altered due to reduction and substitution of normal substrates with unusual substrates, with unpredictable consequences for cellular communication.

  19. Cognitive functions in protein-energy malnutrition: in relation to long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-khayat, Hamed; Shaaban, Sanaa; Emam, Ehab Khairy; Elwakkad, Amany

    2007-06-01

    plasma AA and DHA levels and both MDI and PDI scores. From the course of this study we concluded that malnourished infants had impaired neurodevelopmental functions that could be related to the poor status of plasma LC-PUF. Thus, we recommend early intervention including nutritional rehabilitation and LC-PUFA supplementation as well as stimulation program, so as to have a better effect on future cognitive abilities of these infants.

  20. Whole-blood fatty acids are associated with executive function in Tanzanian children aged 4-6 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S; Harris, William S; Kinabo, Joyce; Pontifex, Matthew B; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2016-11-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4-6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of α-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38 % of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25 % of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3·8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.

  1. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  2. Sonographic Visualization of the Rotator Cable in Patients With Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation With Tear Size, Muscular Fatty Infiltration and Atrophy, and Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Nathalie J; Blain-Paré, Etienne; Tétreault, Patrice; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of sonographic visualization of the rotator cable in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and asymptomatic controls and to correlate rotator cable visualization with tear size, muscular fatty infiltration and atrophy, and the functional outcome in the patients with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears and 30 asymptomatic volunteers underwent shoulder sonography for prospective assessment of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tear and responded to 2 functional outcome questionnaires (shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH] and Constant). In the patients with rotator cuff tears, appropriate tests were used to correlate rotator cable visualization with the tear size, functional outcome, muscular fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The patients with rotator cuff tears included 25 women and 32 men (mean age,57 years; range, 39-67 years), and the volunteers included 13 women and 17 men (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-64 years). The rotator cable was identified in 77% (23 of 30) of controls and 23% (13 of 57) of patients with rotator cuff tears. In the patients, nonvisualization of the rotator cable correlated with larger tears (P infraspinatus fatty infiltration (P = .065). Nonvisualization of the rotator cable was more prevalent in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears than asymptomatic controls and was associated with a larger tear size and greater supraspinatus fatty infiltration and atrophy. Diligent assessment of the supraspinatus muscle should be done in patients with rotator cuff tears without a visible rotator cable, as the integrity of these anatomic structures may be interdependent.

  3. Molecular and functional characterisation of two elovl4 elongases involved in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) polyunsaturated fatty acids in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Monroig, Óscar; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Tocher, Douglas R; Zhou, Qi-Cun

    2017-10-01

    Elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) 4 proteins are important fatty acyl elongases that participate in the biosynthesis of long-chain (C20-24) and very long-chain (˃C24) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA, respectively) in teleost fish, especially in marine species. Moreover, knowledge of Elovl4 and other elongases such as Elovl2 has contributed to an advanced understanding of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in marine fish. In the present study, elovl4a and elovl4b were cloned from black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii and functionally characterised using recombinant expression in yeast. The elovl4a and elovl4b cDNA sequences included open reading frames (ORF) of 969 and 918 base pairs (bp), encoding proteins of 322 and 315 amino acids (aa), respectively. The functional characterisation of A. schlegelii Elovl4 proteins showed they were able to utilise all assayed C18-22 PUFA substrates except 22:6n-3. Moreover, it was particularly noteworthy that both A. schlegelii Elovl4a and Elovl4b proteins had the ability to elongate 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 to 24:5n-3, which can be potentially desaturated and β-oxidised to 22:6n-3. Tissue transcript abundance analysis showed the highest expression of elovl4a and elovl4b in brain and eye, respectively, suggesting these tissues were major sites for VLC-PUFA biosynthesis in black seabream. The functions of the A. schlegelii Elovl4-like elongases, Elovl4a and Elovl4b, characterised in the present study, along with those of the Elovl5 and fatty acyl desaturase (Fads2) proteins of A. schlegelii characterised previously, provided evidence of the biosynthetic pathways of LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA in this teleost species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene expression in plant lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shan Hsiao

    Full Text Available Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, β-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1 and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6 in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  5. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  6. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited......Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...

  7. Effect of fungal infection on the composition of acyl lipids in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, A G; Zhukov, A V

    2000-12-01

    Infection of etiolated wheat seedlings with a root rot fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana caused a strong deviation in the fatty acid composition of their total lipids from the control. The deviation occurred at the expense of that lipid group, which predominates in a given plant organ (shoots or roots), and peak deviation coincided with the onset of a severe inhibition of growth.

  8. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs). Zooplankto

  9. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs). Zooplankto

  10. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs).

  11. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs).

  12. Oral salmon calcitonin attenuates hyperglycaemia and preserves pancreatic beta-cell area and function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Andreassen, K V; Neutzsky-Wulff, A V

    2012-01-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT), a dual-action amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, improved glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats. Here, we have evaluated the anti-diabetic efficacy of oral sCT using parameters of glycaemic control and beta-cell morphology in male Zucker diabetic fatty...

  13. Enzymatic modification by point mutation and functional analysis of an omega-6 fatty acid desaturase from Arctic Chlamydomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woongsic; Kim, Eun Jae; Han, Se Jong; Kang, Sung-Ho; Choi, Han-Gu; Kim, Sanghee

    2017-02-07

    Arctic Chlamydomonas sp. is a dominant microalgal strain in cold or frozen freshwater in the Arctic region. The full-length open reading frame of the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene (AChFAD6) was obtained from the transcriptomic database of Arctic Chlamydomonas sp. from the KOPRI culture collection of polar micro-organisms. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated the presence of three conserved histidine-rich segments as unique characteristics of omega-6 fatty acid desaturases, and three transmembrane regions transported to plastidic membranes by chloroplast transit peptides in the N-terminal region. The AChFAD6 desaturase activity was examined by expressing wild-type and V254A mutant (Mut-AChFAD6) heterologous recombinant proteins. Quantitative gas chromatography indicated that the concentration of linoleic acids in AChFAD6-transformed cells increased more than 3-fold [6.73 ± 0.13 mg g(-1) dry cell weight (DCW)] compared with cells transformed with vector alone. In contrast, transformation with Mut-AChFAD6 increased the concentration of oleic acid to 9.23 ± 0.18 mg g(-1) DCW, indicating a change in enzymatic activity to mimic that of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. These results demonstrate that AChFAD6 of Arctic Chlamydomonas sp. increases membrane fluidity by enhancing denaturation of C18 fatty acids and facilitates production of large quantities of linoleic fatty acids in prokaryotic expression systems.

  14. Fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores function of IKs channels with diverse long QT mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Sara I; Larsson, Johan E; Barro-Soria, Rene

    2016-01-01

    . Finally, we find that the fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores channel gating of many different mutant channels, even though the mutations are in different domains of the IKs channel and affect the channel by different molecular mechanisms. N-arachidonoyl taurine is therefore an interesting...

  15. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors to autoinducer-2 (AI-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, K W; Soni, K A; Hume, M E; Beier, R C; Jesudhasan, P; Pillai, S D

    2007-11-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum-sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat wash (PMW) samples were characterized by molecular weight and hydrophobic properties using liquid chromatography systems. Most fractions that demonstrated AI-2 inhibition were 13.7 kDa or less, and had hydrophobic properties. Hexane was used to extract inhibitory compounds from a PMW preparation and the extract was further separated by gas chromatography (GC). Several fatty acids were identified and quantified. Linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid were each tested for inhibition at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM concentrations. All samples expressed AI-2 inhibition (ranging from approximately 25% to 99%). Fatty acids, combined in concentrations equivalent to those determined by GC analysis, expressed inhibition at 59.5%, but higher combined concentrations (10- and 100-fold) had inhibition at 84.4% and 69.5%, respectively. The combined fatty acids (100-fold) did not demonstrate a substantial decrease in colony plate counts, despite presenting high AI-2 inhibition. These fatty acids, through modulating quorum sensing by inhibition, may offer a unique means to control foodborne pathogens and reduce microbial spoilage.

  16. Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... inside liver cells. Just consuming a high-fat diet does not result in fatty liver. Rarely, fat ...

  17. Molecular characterization and functions of fatty acid and retinoid binding protein gene (Ab-far-1 in Aphelenchoides besseyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    Full Text Available Rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, is a kind of plant parasitic nematodes that cause serious losses in rice and many other crops. Fatty acid and retinoid binding protein (FAR is a specific protein in nematodes and is related to development, reproduction, infection to the host, and disruption of plant defense reactions, so the inhibition of FAR function is the potential approach to control A. besseyi. The full-length of Ab-far-1 cDNA is 805 bp, including 546 bp of ORF that encodes 181 amino acids. Software analysis revealed that the Ab-FAR-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a hydrophobic secretory signal peptide, but did not have glycosylation sites. The Ab-FAR-1 had 52% homology to Gp-FAR-1 protein. The Ab-FAR-1 and Gp-FAR-1 were grouped in the same branch according to the phylogenetic tree. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ab-FAR-1 (rAb-FAR-1 bound with the fluorescent analogues 11-((5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl amino undecannoic acid (DAUDA, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, but the oleic acid would compete with the binding site. Quantitative PCR (qPCR was used to assess the expression level of Ab-far-1 at different development stages of A. besseyi, the highest expression was found in the females, followed by eggs, juveniles and males. Using in situ hybridization technique, Ab-far-1 mRNA was present in the hypodermis of juveniles and adults, the ovaries of females and the testes of males. When A. besseyi was treated with Ab-far-1 dsRNA for 48 h, the silencing efficiency of Ab-far-1 was the best and the number of nematodes on the carrot was the least. Thus FAR plays important roles in the development and reproduction of nematodes. This study is useful and helpful to figure out a new way to control the plant parasitic nematodes.

  18. Molecular characterization and functions of fatty acid and retinoid binding protein gene (Ab-far-1) in Aphelenchoides besseyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Xiang, Yu; Xie, Hui; Xu, Chun-Ling; Xie, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, is a kind of plant parasitic nematodes that cause serious losses in rice and many other crops. Fatty acid and retinoid binding protein (FAR) is a specific protein in nematodes and is related to development, reproduction, infection to the host, and disruption of plant defense reactions, so the inhibition of FAR function is the potential approach to control A. besseyi. The full-length of Ab-far-1 cDNA is 805 bp, including 546 bp of ORF that encodes 181 amino acids. Software analysis revealed that the Ab-FAR-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a hydrophobic secretory signal peptide, but did not have glycosylation sites. The Ab-FAR-1 had 52% homology to Gp-FAR-1 protein. The Ab-FAR-1 and Gp-FAR-1 were grouped in the same branch according to the phylogenetic tree. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ab-FAR-1 (rAb-FAR-1) bound with the fluorescent analogues 11-((5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino) undecannoic acid (DAUDA), cis-parinaric acid and retinol, but the oleic acid would compete with the binding site. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to assess the expression level of Ab-far-1 at different development stages of A. besseyi, the highest expression was found in the females, followed by eggs, juveniles and males. Using in situ hybridization technique, Ab-far-1 mRNA was present in the hypodermis of juveniles and adults, the ovaries of females and the testes of males. When A. besseyi was treated with Ab-far-1 dsRNA for 48 h, the silencing efficiency of Ab-far-1 was the best and the number of nematodes on the carrot was the least. Thus FAR plays important roles in the development and reproduction of nematodes. This study is useful and helpful to figure out a new way to control the plant parasitic nematodes.

  19. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with Δ4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Methylglyoxal--a test for impaired biological functions of exotrophy and endoecology, low glucose level in the cytosol and gluconeogenesis from fatty acids (a lecture)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, L F; Krylin, V A; Dmitriev, V A

    2010-03-01

    In philogenesis, due to the failure to store a great deal of carbohydrates in vivo as glycogen, all animal species began synthesizing from glucose palminitic fatty acid and depositing it as triglycerides. During biological dysfunction of exotrophy (long starvation, early postnatality, hibernation), cells also accomplish a reverse synthesis of glucose from fatty acids under aerobic conditions. Under physiological conditions, acetyl-CoA that is converted to malate and pyruvate in the glyoxalate cycle is a substrate of glyconeogenesis. Under pathological conditions of hypoxia and deficiency of macroerges, gluconeogenesis occurs without ATP consumption through the methylglyoxal pathway when used as a substrate of ketone bodies via the pathway: butyric acid (butyrate) --> beta-hydroxybutyrate --> acetoacetate --> acetone --> acetol --> methylglyoxal --> S-D-lactol-glutathione --> D-lactate --> pyruvate --> D-lactate. Under physiological conditions, this gluconeogenesis pathway does not function. We believe that with low glucose levels in the cell cytosole (glycopenia), under pathological conditions of hypoxia and due to failure to mitochondria to oxidize fatty acids, gene expression and gluconeogenesis occur through the methylglyoxal pathway. At the same time, the cytosol, intercellular environment, and plasma shows the elevated levels of methylglyoxal and D-lactate that it is converted to by the action of glyoxalases I and II. Under pathological conditions, glycopenia develops in starvation, diabetes, and metabolic acidosis, neoplasms, renal failure, and possibly, metabolic syndrome. The chemical interaction of methylglyoxal with the amino acid residues of lysine and arginine results in the denaturation of circulating and structurized proteins via carbonylation--glycosylation.

  1. Distributions of phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acids in two strains of different functional Erythrobacter sp.isolated from South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan YANG; Xiangru MA; Qiang LI; Nianzhi JIAO; Shucheng XIE

    2009-01-01

    The comparison of the fatty acids between aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) and their phylogenetic relatives has been a fascinating but yet enigmatic topic, enhancing our understanding of physiological variations between these evolutionarily related microorganisms. Two strains of marine bacteria, both phylogenetically falling into Erythrobacter sp., were isolated from the South China Sea, and demonstrated, respectively, to be an aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) (JL475) which is capable of anoxygenic photosynthesis via BChl a, and an obligate heterotroph (JL316) with a lack of BChl a, on the basis ofphylogenetic analysis and pure culture cultivation. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) of the two swains were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The PLFA in JL475 AAPB arecharacterized by C18:1, C18:2w7,13 and C18:0, with the C18:2w7,13 being a specific compound for AAPB and in particular for Erythrobacter longus and some of its phylogenetically closely related relatives. The JL316 strain is characterized in PLFA by the presence of C18:1, C16:1and C16:1, and in particular C17:1. GLFA do not show any discrimination between the two strains. Four α,wdicarboxylic acids, including 1,8-octanedioic acid, 1,9-nonanedioic acid, 1,10-decanedioic acid and 1,11-undecanedioic acid, are present only in JL316 GLFA, presumably derived from metabolic products. C14-C16 2-hydroxy fatty acids were found in the two strains, probably assuming a similar function of their LPS in outer membranes.

  2. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  3. Metabolic and endocrine modulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways of glucose and fatty acids. I. Chemical anatomy of the major metabolic pathways of the energogenic general function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloiu, D D; Belloiu, I

    1986-01-01

    This study is an attempt to integrate the intermediary metabolism of energogenic substrates--glucose and fatty acids--within the framework of the energogenic general function (EGF), which is active in two distinct phases: anabolic and catabolic. EGF is a component of the metabolic general function (MGF), which together with the reproductive general function and the adaptation general function may be taken to represent three main "general functions of organisms" common to all beings, whether animal or vegetal. This initial paper presents, descriptively and graphically, the main anabolic functions and pathways of glucose and fatty acids and, separately, the main catabolic ones, in other words, the "chemical anatomy" of EGF. The study begins with the anabolic "digestive" function of the digestive tract, concerning the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Conversion of the non-absorbable macromolecules of ingested carbohydrates into absorbable micromolecules of glucose, is shown to enable the latter, after absorption, to carry out the two characteristic anabolic processes: transmembrane "transport" and "condensation". Absorption and vehiculation of hydrophobic lipids is carried out by means of the major function of intestinal cells: synthesis of chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are hydrophilic special lipoprotein particles which are able to transport fats to the adipose tissue and cholesterol to the liver. In the liver the anabolic aspects of EGF are represented by two main functions: glycogeno-genesis, i.e. "non-reductive" condensation of glucose into glycogen stores, and lipoproteino-genesis, i.e. "reductive" condensation of glucose into lipoproteins or VLDL (very low density lipoproteins). VLDL are hydrophilic (vehiculable) spheric particles (containing triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters in their core, and phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B at their surface), which are to be released into the general circulation. The anabolic phase in

  4. Effect of milk replacer feeding rate and functional fatty acids on dairy calf performance and digestion of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Suarez-Mena, F X; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-08-01

    Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (43±1.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved

  5. Taking control over intracellular fatty acid levels is essential for the analysis of thermogenic function in cultured primary brown and brite/beige adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongguo; Fromme, Tobias; Schweizer, Sabine; Schöttl, Theresa; Klingenspor, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipocytes, conferred by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), is receiving great attention because metabolically active brown adipose tissue may protect humans from metabolic diseases. In particular, the thermogenic function of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue, known as brite (or beige) adipocytes, is currently of prime interest. A valid procedure to quantify the specific contribution of UCP1 to thermogenesis is thus of vital importance. Adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis is a common way to activate UCP1. We here report, however, that in this frequently applied setup, taking control over intracellular fatty acid levels is essential for the analysis of thermogenic function in cultured brown and brite adipocytes. By the application of these findings, we demonstrate that UCP1 is functionally thermogenic in intact brite adipocytes and adrenergic UCP1 activation is largely dependent on adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) rather than hormone sensitive lipase (HSL).

  6. Functional characterization of a fatty acid double-bond hydratase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its interaction with biosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Anaya, Joana; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogenation of linoleic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids is a detoxification mechanism that is present in the Lactobacillus genus of lactic bacteria. The first stage in this multi-step process is hydration of the substrate with formation of 10-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid due to fatty-acid hydratase activity that has been detected only in the membrane-associated cell fraction; however, its interaction with the cell membrane is unknown. To provide information in this respect we characterized the homotrimeric 64.7 kDa-native protein from Lactobacillus plantarum; afterwards, it was reconstituted in proteoliposomes and analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that hydratase is an extrinsic-membrane protein and hence, the enzymatic reaction occurs at the periphery of the cell. This location may be advantageous in the detoxifying process since the toxic linoleic acid molecule can be bound to hydratase and converted to non-toxic 10-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid before it reaches cell membrane. Additionally, we propose that the interaction with membrane periphery occurs through electrostatic contacts. Finally, the structural model of L. plantarum hydratase was constructed based on the amino acid sequence and hence, the putative binding sites with linoleic acid were identified: site 1, located in an external hydrophobic pocket at the C-terminus of the protein and site 2, located at the core and in contact with a FAD molecule. Interestingly, it was found that the linoleic acid molecule arranges around a methionine residue in both sites (Met154 and Met81, respectively) that acts as a rigid pole, thus playing a key role in binding unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. The Effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Combination with Different Fatty Acids on Gastrointestinal Functions: A Pilot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Sauer; Isabelle Mack; Silke Kohler; Stefanie Siegle; Nicole Rieber; Stephan Zipfel; Bärbel Otto; Yvonne Ritze; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Paul Enck

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE). 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP) is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22–29 years, BMI 19–25.7 kg/m²) were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter), placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil),...

  8. The Effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Combination with Different Fatty Acids on Gastrointestinal Functions: A Pilot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Sauer; Isabelle Mack; Silke Kohler; Stefanie Siegle; Nicole Rieber; Stephan Zipfel; Bärbel Otto; Yvonne Ritze; Bischoff, Stephan C; Paul Enck

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE). 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP) is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22–29 years, BMI 19–25.7 kg/m²) were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter), placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil),...

  9. In Vivo Determination of Mitochondrial Function Using Luciferase-Expressing Caenorhabditis elegans: Contribution of Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glycolysis, and Fatty Acid Oxidation to Toxicant-Induced Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Lagido, Cristina; Hirschey, Matthew D; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are a target of many drugs and environmental toxicants; however, how toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the progression of human disease remains poorly understood. To address this issue, in vivo assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial function need to be developed. Here, using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we describe how to rapidly assess the in vivo role of the electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation in energy metabolism following toxicant exposure, using a luciferase-expressing ATP reporter strain. Alterations in mitochondrial function subsequent to toxicant exposure are detected by depleting steady-state ATP levels with inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation. Differential changes in ATP following short-term inhibitor exposure indicate toxicant-induced alterations at the site of inhibition. Because a microplate reader is the only major piece of equipment required, this is a highly accessible method for studying toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Characteristics of water relations in seedling of Machilus yunnanensis and Cinnamomum camphora under soil drought condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tian-tian; ZHAO Lin-sen

    2006-01-01

    The soil drought stress experiment in different durations (no watering within 3d, 6d, 9d, 11d individually) was conducted to study the drought-resistant capacity of one-year-old seedlings for the native tree species (Machilus yunnanensis) in Yunnan Province and the introduced tree species (Cinnamomum camphora). The leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, proline content and plasma membrane permeability for two species seedlings were measured in different soil drought conditions. The results showed that, on the 9th day of drought stress, the leaf water potential of two species decreased obviously, whereas the free proline content and plasma membrane permeability increased sharply. On the 11th day, the leaf water potential of C. camphora seedlings was lower than that of M. yunnanensis seedlings; the plasma membrane permeability in C. camphora seedling leaves increased much more than that in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves, which showed that the injury to the former by soil drought stress was more severe than that to the latter. The free proline content in M. yunnanensis seedling leaves continued to increase on the 11th day, but that in the C. camphora seedling leaves started to drop obviously, indicating that the reduction of osmotic regulation substance in C. camphora seedling leaves after the 11th day was unable to maintain the osmotic balance between the plasma system and its surroundings and the water loss occurred inevitably. Comprehensively, M. yunnanensis seedlings enhanced the drought-resistance in the course of soil drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential and by increasing osmotic regulation substance to promote cell plasma concentration and maintain membrane structure integrity so as to reduce water loss. The subordination function index evaluated with fuzzy mathematic theory also showed that the drought-resistant capacity ofM. yunnanensis seedlings was stronger than that of C. camphora seedlings.

  11. Crescimento do maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes em função da calagem Growth of sweet passion fruit seedlings as a function of liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Bonilha Assis Fonseca

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as respostas em crescimento do maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Dryand. propagado por sementes, quando cultivado sob diferentes níveis de saturação por bases em solos representativos das regiões produtoras de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras-UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (2 x 4 + 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos envolveram dois solos (LATOSSOLO VERMELHO AMARELO distrófico - LVAd e LATOSSOLO VERMELHO distrófico - LVd, quatro níveis de saturação por bases (40, 60, 80 e 100% mais dois tratamentos adicionais (LVAd sem calagem e LVd sem calagem. Aos 150 dias, determinaram-se o comprimento das hastes, número de folhas por haste, pesos de matéria seca de parte aérea e de raízes e relação raiz/parte aérea. Concluiu-se que, até 150 dias, o maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes apresentou maior crescimento vegetativo quando cultivado no LVd, em comparação ao LVAd, com ou sem calagem, e tolerou solos com baixos níveis de saturação por bases; o aumento do nível de saturação por bases no LVd reduziu o crescimento vegetativo do maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes, enquanto no LVAd, não influenciou o crescimento vegetativo.ABSTRACT - The objective for this work was to evaluate the growth of sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Dryand. under different base saturation levels in representative soils of Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried in the greenhouse of the Agriculture Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The statistical design used was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 4 + 2, with four repetitions. The treatments involved two soil classes (Distrophic Red-Yellow Latosol - LVAd and Distrophic Red Latosol - LVd, four base saturation levels (40, 60, 80 and 100% and two more additional treatments

  12. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-07

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease.

  13. Potential production of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon seedlings viarescue seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Ferreira e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Translocation of rare populations is regarded as the last resort for the conservation of species whose habitat destruction is imminent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two height classes and three leaf reduction intensities on growth and increases in height, stem diameter, survival, and new leaf production in seedlings of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (peroba obtained via rescue seedlings in a remnant of tropical semi deciduous forest. We recovered 240 individuals that were divided into two height classes (Class I-5 to 15cm and Class II-20 to 35cm and subjected to three leaf reduction intensities (0%, 50%, and 100%, which were then transported to a shade house with 50% light reduction. Measurements of height, stem diameter, and new leaf production were collected 8 times at 0, 15, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 days, and survival rate was measured at day 135. The average survival rate was 82.9%; 77.5% for one Class I (5-15cm and 88.3% for Class II (20-35cm. Higher seedling growth was observed for the 0% leaf reduction treatment in both height classes. The leaves insertion were greater in the 100% cuts, with a decrease observed over time. It is advisable to restore A. cylindrocarpon seedlings in two height classes owing to the high survival rate, leaf appearance, and growth reported in the present study. The no-leaf reduction treatment (0% is the most viable alternative for the production of A. cylindrocarpon seedlings, via rescue seedlings.

  14. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 at the Blood-Brain Barrier Regulates Endogenous Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Choy, Kwok H C; Zeng, Annie X; Marriott, Philip J; Owada, Yuji; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-11-16

    Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) at the blood-brain barrier contributes to the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a blood-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for maintenance of cognitive function. Given the importance of DHA in cognition, the aim of this study was to investigate whether deletion of FABP5 results in cognitive dysfunction and whether this is associated with reduced brain endothelial cell uptake of exogenous DHA and subsequent attenuation in the brain levels of endogenous DHA. Cognitive function was assessed in male and female FABP5(+/+) and FABP5(-/-) mice using a battery of memory paradigms. FABP5(-/-) mice exhibited impaired working memory and short-term memory, and these cognitive deficits were associated with a 14.7 ± 5.7% reduction in endogenous brain DHA levels. The role of FABP5 in the blood-brain barrier transport of DHA was assessed by measuring (14)C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and capillaries isolated from FABP5(+/+) and FABP5(-/-) mice. In line with a crucial role of FABP5 in the brain uptake of DHA, (14)C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries of FABP5(-/-) mice was reduced by 48.4 ± 14.5% and 14.0 ± 4.2%, respectively, relative to those of FABP5(+/+) mice. These results strongly support the hypothesis that FABP5 is essential for maintaining brain endothelial cell uptake of DHA, and that cognitive deficits observed in FABP5(-/-) mice are associated with reduced CNS access of DHA. Genetic deletion of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in mice reduces uptake of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries and reduces brain parenchymal levels of endogenous DHA. Therefore, FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell is a crucial contributor to the brain levels of DHA. Critically, lowered brain DHA levels in FABP5(-/-) mice occurred in tandem with cognitive deficits in a battery of memory paradigms. This study provides evidence of a critical role

  15. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  16. A chemical genetic screen uncovers a small molecule enhancer of the N-acylethanolamine degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; Faure, Lionel; Chapman, Kent D.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2017-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of fatty acid amides that play signaling roles in diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades NAE into ethanolamine and free fatty acid to terminate its signaling function. In animals, chemical inhibitors of FAAH have been used for therapeutic treatment of pain and as tools to probe deeper into biochemical properties of FAAH. In a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that dampened the inhibitory effect of N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth, we identified 6-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-2,4(3 H,6 H)-dione (or MDPD). MDPD alleviated the growth inhibitory effects of NAE 12:0, in part by enhancing the enzymatic activity of Arabidopsis FAAH (AtFAAH). In vitro, biochemical assays showed that MDPD enhanced the apparent Vmax of AtFAAH but did not alter the affinity of AtFAAH for its NAE substrates. Structural analogs of MDPD did not affect AtFAAH activity or dampen the inhibitory effect of NAE 12:0 on seedling growth indicating that MDPD is a specific synthetic chemical activator of AtFAAH. Collectively, our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an unbiased chemical genetic approach to identify new pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH- and NAE-mediated physiological processes in plants. PMID:28112243

  17. Non-equivalence of Key Positively Charged Residues of the Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor in the Recognition and Function of Agonist Versus Antagonist Ligands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Pandey, Sunil K.; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled free fatty acid 2 (FFA2) receptor, and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, a lack of understanding of the molecular determinants dictating how ligands bind to this receptor has hindered development. We have developed a novel radiolabeled FFA2 antagonist to probe ligand binding to FFA2, and in combination with mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies, we define how agonist and antagonist ligands interact with the receptor. Although both agonist and antagonist ligands contain negatively charged carboxylates that interact with two key positively charged arginine residues in transmembrane domains V and VII of FFA2, there are clear differences in how these interactions occur. Specifically, although agonists require interaction with both arginine residues to bind the receptor, antagonists require an interaction with only one of the two. Moreover, different chemical series of antagonist interact preferentially with different arginine residues. A homology model capable of rationalizing these observations was developed and provides a tool that will be invaluable for identifying improved FFA2 agonists and antagonists to further define function and therapeutic opportunities of this receptor. PMID:26518871

  18. Dual functions of the trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase TER in the sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathway and in fatty acid elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakashima, Takeshi; Abe, Kensuke; Kihara, Akio

    2014-09-05

    The sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) functions as a lipid mediator and as a key intermediate of the sole sphingolipid to glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway (S1P metabolic pathway). In this pathway, S1P is converted to palmitoyl-CoA through 4 reactions, then incorporated mainly into glycerophospholipids. Although most of the genes responsible for the S1P metabolic pathway have been identified, the gene encoding the trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase, responsible for the saturation step (conversion of trans-2-hexadecenoyl-CoA to palmitoyl-CoA) remains unidentified. In the present study, we show that TER is the missing gene in mammals using analyses involving yeast cells, deleting the TER homolog TSC13, and TER-knockdown HeLa cells. TER is known to be involved in the production of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). A significant proportion of the saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs are used for sphingolipid synthesis. Therefore, TER is involved in both the production of VLCFAs used in the fatty acid moiety of sphingolipids as well as in the degradation of the sphingosine moiety of sphingolipids via S1P.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids protect renal functions by increasing docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolite levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Tanabe, Yoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

    2014-03-17

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum), TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA), or EPA (300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Renal Functions by Increasing Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolite Levels in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats, a Metabolic Syndrome Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHRcp rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum, TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA, or EPA (300 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  1. Effects of variations in the proportions of saturated, monosaturated and polynsaturated fatty acids in the rat diet upon spleen lymphocyte functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, N. M.; M. Cortina-Borja; Newsholme, E A; Calder, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain further information about the immunomodulatory effects of specific dietary fatty acids, weanling male rats were fed for 6 weeks on high-fat (178 g/kg) diets which differed according to the principal fatty acids present. The nine diets used differed in their contents of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids; as a result the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and the PUFA: saturated fatty acid ratio varied (from 17·8 to 58·5 g/lW g fatty acids and from 0·28 to 5...

  2. Venus Flytrap Seedlings Show Growth-Related Prey Size Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hatcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought.

  3. 超长链脂肪酸延伸酶家族的功能及表达调控%The function and expression regulation of elongases of very long chain fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧; 潘志雄; 卢立志; 王继文

    2009-01-01

    The elongase of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) family is responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The ELOVL family consists of seven members: ELOVL1~7. And they are believed to carry out substrate-specific elongation with fatty acids of various lengths and regulate fatty acid metabolism. In this review, we present the structure, biological function, expression regulation of ELOVL proteins.%超长链脂肪酸延伸酶(elongase of very long chain fatty acids,ELOVL)家族是哺乳动物中一类编码超长链脂肪酸(very long chain fatty acids,VLCFA)延伸酶的基因家族.该家族有7个成员:ELOVL1~7.各个成员编码的蛋白质参与不同长度脂肪酸链的延长,对脂肪酸的代谢进行调控,进而发挥其生物学功能.本文就该家族成员的结构、生物学功能及表达调控进行综述.

  4. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  5. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipids, platelet function, coagulation, fibrinolysis and monocyte chemotaxis in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E B; Nielsen, L K; Pedersen, J O; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J

    1990-07-01

    We have studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4 g of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) daily for 6 wk on plasma lipids, haemostasis and monocyte chemotaxis in 10 patients with untreated hypertension. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change, but the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced after the fish oil supplement. Platelet function was unaltered by intake of n-3. Plasma fibrinogen and fibronectin decreased after supplementation with n-3 PUFA, while the effects on fibrinolysis were equivocal. Monocyte chemotaxis was reduced by the supplement. These data lend support to a role for an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in the management of patients with hypertension.

  6. Lipid functions in skin: Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena; Brownbridge, Luke C; Harwood, John L; Nicolaou, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. Supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in a number of inflammatory skin conditions, altering the lipid profile of the skin and production of bioactive lipids such as the eicosanoids, docosanoids and endocannabinoids. In this study we wished to investigate whether EPA and DHA could also affect the ceramide profile in epidermis and dermis, and, in this way, contribute to formation of a robust lipid barrier and ceramide-mediated regulation of skin functions. Ex vivo skin explants were cultured for 6days, and supplemented with EPA or DHA (50μM). Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation was used to assess the prevalence of 321 individual ceramide species, and a number of sphingoid bases, phosphorylated sphingoid bases, and phosphorylated ceramides, within the dermis and epidermis. EPA augmented dermal production of members of the ceramide families containing Non-hydroxy fatty acids and Sphingosine or Dihydrosphingosine bases (CER[NS] and CER[NDS], respectively), while epidermal CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] ceramides were not affected. DHA did not significantly affect ceramide production. Ceramide-1-phosphate levels in

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  8. Animal studies of the functional consequences of suboptimal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy, lactation and early post-natal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Scores of animal studies demonstrate that seed oils replete with linoleic acid and very low in linolenic acid fed as the exclusive source of fat through pregnancy and lactation result in visual, cognitive, and behavioural deficits in the offspring. Commodity peanut, sunflower, and safflower oils fed to mother rats, guinea pigs, rhesus monkeys, and baboons induce predictable changes in tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid composition that are abnormal in free-living land mammals as well as changes in neurotransmitter levels, catecholamines, and signalling compounds compared with animals with a supply of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. These diets consistently induce functional deficits in electroretinograms, reflex responses, reward or avoidance induced learning, maze learning, behaviour, and motor development compared with ω3 replete groups. Boosting neural tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by feeding preformed DHA enhances visual and cognitive function. Though no human randomized controlled trials on minimal ω3 requirements in pregnancy and lactation have been conducted, the weight of animal evidence compellingly shows that randomizing pregnant or lactating humans to diets that include high linoleate oils as the sole source of fat would be frankly unethical because they would result in suboptimal child development. Increasing use of commodity ω3-deficient oils in developing countries, many in the name of heart health, will limit brain development of the next generation and can be easily corrected at minimal expense by substituting high oleic acid versions of these same oils, in many cases blended with small amounts of α-linolenic acid oils like flax or perilla oil. Inclusion of DHA in these diets is likely to further enhance visual and neural development.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Mélanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, pfatty acids may represent a valuable dietary strategy to improve behavioural and cognitive functions.

  10. Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids by the liver of mice fed linseed oil as a function of feeding duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Angelo Lima Perini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA on male Swiss mice livers receiving diets based on linseed oil (LO for up to 56 days. The mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 days and FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 13 FA were identified on LO feeds presenting alpha-linolenic acid (LNA contents of 26.97 %. A total 22 FA were identified in the livers of the mice. Part of the LNA was converted into n-3 FA (20:3n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA, 22:5n-3, and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA, and some of the LNA was stored in the liver. LNA, EPA and DHA concentrations (mg/g total lipids from 0 days for up 56 days increased from 1.29 to 18.90 (LNA, 0.20 to 18.90 (EPA and 41.26 to 99.17 (DHA.The concentration of n-3 FA in the livers varied with the duration of the LO diet. During LO feed, n-6 FA concentration fell and n-3 FA concentration rose through the experimental period.

  11. Structural diversity and possible functional roles of free fatty acids of the novel soil isolate Streptomyces sp. NP10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Genčić, Marija S; Živković, Milena Z; Vasiljevic, Branka; Djokic, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radulović, Niko S

    2015-06-01

    Herein, a novel soil bacterium Streptomyces sp. NP10 able to grow outside usual streptomycetes optimum conditions (e.g., at 4 °C, pH 9 and high NaCl concentration), exhibiting atypical hemolytic, DNAse, and cellulolytic activities, is described. This strain produces and excretes into the growth medium large amounts of free long-chain fatty acids (FAs). A concurrent lipidomics study revealed a large structural diversity of FAs with over 50 different n- and branched-chain, (un)saturated, and cyclopropane FAs (C7-C30) produced by this strain. Two of these, i-17:0cy9-10 and a-18:0cy9-10, represent new natural products and the first ever identified branched cyclopropane FAs. Both free and bound lipid profiles of Streptomyces sp. NP10 were dominated by saturated branched chain FAs (i-14:0, a-15:0, and i-16:0). Although these free FAs showed only a moderate antimicrobial activity, our results suggest that they could have an ecophysiological role in interspecies signaling with another soil microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work represents the first comprehensive report on the structural diversity and complexity of the free FA pool in Streptomyces. A naturally occurring streptomycete, such as Streptomyces sp. NP10, which secretes significant amounts of free long-chain FAs (non-cytotoxic) into the medium, could be useful in microbial biodiesel production.

  12. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF. Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC. The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC (p = 0.014. Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p < 0.05. It is important to recognize the difference between NAFLD and CHC. We concluded that changes in hepatic blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  13. Altered maternal thyroid function: Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on fetal and neonatal myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ratan

    1998-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro, in offsprings born of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mothers was studied in rats. L-carnitine supplementation stimulated myocardial fatty acid oxidation during gestational period in offspring born of control and hyperthyroid mothers. In contrast L-carnitine supplementation induced stimulation in myocardial fatty acid oxidation was very less in fetuses born of hypothyroid mothers. However, in neonates born of...

  14. 高粱-苏丹草杂交种的生长特性和光合功能研究%Growth Characteristics and Photosystem Ⅱ Functions of Sorghum bicolor × S.sudanense Seedlings under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会慧; 张秀丽; 胡彦波; 许楠; 李鑫; 田野; 张婷; 孙广玉

    2012-01-01

    The responses of plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and light energy allocation in leaves of Sorghum bicolorXS. sudanense and Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf seedlings to drought stress were in-vestigated. Results showed that plant height, root length and total biomass of S. bicolorXS. sudanense were significantly higher than that of S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Relative water content (RWC) in above-ground S. bicolorXS. sudanense under drought stress was higher than that of S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. . The activity and opening proportion of PS[[ reaction centers and electron transport rate (ETR) in leaves of both plants were reduced under drought stresS. Under severe drought stress, ETR in leaves of S. bicolorX S. sudanense maintained higher than that of S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf to alleviate photoinhibition. The proportion of light energy used to quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSⅡ) and xanthophyll-mediated thermal dissipation (ΦNpq) decreased under drought. But, under severe drought stress,ΦPSn and Φnpq in leaves of S. bicolorX S. sudanense seedlings were much higher than that of S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Quantum yield used to thermal dissipation in non-functional PSH (Φnf) in leaves of S. bicolorXS. sudane-nse was lower than that of S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Thermal dissipation by xanthophyll cycle played an important role in photoprotection of S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf under severe drought condition to ensure physiological function of PS II reaction centers and alleviate photoinhibition.%研究了高丹草(Sorghum bicolor×S.sudanense)和苏丹草(Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.)的生长特性、叶片叶绿素荧光特性及激发能的分配对干旱的响应.结果表明:高丹草的株高、根系长度和干物质积累等明显优于苏丹草,干旱下高丹草地上部相对含水率高于苏丹草.干旱降低了2种牧草叶片的PSⅡ反应中心活性和反应中心开放程度,电子传递速率降低,但高丹草叶片在

  15. Functional characterization of flax fatty acid desaturase FAD2 and FAD3 isoforms expressed in yeast reveals a broad diversity in activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Natasa; Thambugala, Dinushika; Duguid, Scott; Loewen, Evelyn; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-07-01

    With 45 % or more oil content that contains more than 55 % alpha linolenic (LIN) acid, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of this essential fatty acid. Fatty acid desaturases 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) are the main enzymes responsible for the Δ12 and Δ15 desaturation in planta. In linseed, the oilseed morphotype of flax, two paralogous copies, and several alleles exist for each gene. Here, we cloned three alleles of FAD2A, four of FAD2B, six of FAD3A, and seven of FAD3B into a pYES vector and transformed all 20 constructs and an empty construct in yeast. The transformants were induced in the presence of oleic (OLE) acid substrate for FAD2 constructs and linoleic (LIO) acid for FAD3. Conversion rates of OLE acid into LIO acid and LIO acid into LIN acid were measured by gas chromatography. Conversion rate of FAD2 exceeded that of FAD3 enzymes with FAD2B having a conversion rate approximately 10 % higher than FAD2A. All FAD2 isoforms were active, but significant differences existed between isoforms of both FAD2 enzymes. Two FAD3A and three FAD3B isoforms were not functional. Some nonfunctional enzymes resulted from the presence of nonsense mutations causing premature stop codons, but FAD3B-C and FAD3B-F seem to be associated with single amino acid changes. The activity of FAD3A-C was more than fivefold greater than the most common isoform FAD3A-A, while FAD3A-F was fourfold greater. Such isoforms could be incorporated into breeding lines to possibly further increase the proportion of LIN acid in linseed.

  16. 光合细菌对苗期水稻抗氧化作用的影响%Effect of Photosynthetic Bacteria on Rice Seedling Antioxidant Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊

    2009-01-01

    The effect of photosynthetic bacteria on rice pigment and antioxidant enzyme systems was studied which irradiated by ultraviolet.The results showed that catalase(CAT),superoxide dismutase(SOD),the chlorophyll content had change after ultraviolet radiation,the ultraviolet radiation had the induce function on rice catalase,superoxide dismutase activity and chlorophyll content,while photosynthetic bacteria played protective role on rice in the ultraviolet radiation.%光合细菌施用于水稻,经紫外线照射后对水稻色素及抗氧化酶系统的影响进行了研究.结果表明,经紫外线照射后的水稻过氧化氢酶、超氧化物歧化酶、叶绿素含量发生变化,紫外线辐射对水稻的过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性及叶绿素含量均有诱导作用,而光合细菌对水稻

  17. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  18. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1n-15 ((∆5)20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1n-9 ((∆11)20:1) to (∆5,11)20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5n-3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) PUFAs.

  19. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  20. Linking carbon and water limitations to drought-induced mortality of Pinus flexilis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below −5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  1. Role of Melatonin, Neuropeptide S and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Regulation of Duodenal Mucosal Barrier Function and Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Saudi, Wan Salman

    2015-01-01

    The duodenal epithelium is regularly exposed to HCl, digestive enzymes, bacteria and toxins, and sometimes also to ethanol and drugs. The imbalance of aggressive factors in the intestinal lumen and mucosal barrier function increases the risk of tissue injury and inflammation. The key components of the duodenal barrier function include mucosal permeability, bicarbonate transport and the secretion or absorption of fluids. This thesis aims to elucidate the role of melatonin, neuropeptide S (NPS)...

  2. Serum Chemerin Concentrations Associate with Beta-Cell Function, but Not with Insulin Resistance in Individuals with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erifili Hatziagelaki

    Full Text Available The novel adipokine chemerin has been related to insulin-resistant states such as obesity and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, its association with insulin resistance and beta cell function remains controversial. The main objective was to examine whether serum chemerin levels associate with insulin sensitivity and beta cell function independently of body mass index (BMI, by studying consecutive outpatients of the hepatology clinics of a European university hospital. Individuals (n=196 with NAFLD were stratified into persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=110, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n=51 and type 2 diabetes (T2D; n=35 and the association between serum chemerin and measures of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function as assessed during fasting and during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was measured. Our results showed that serum chemerin positively associated with BMI (P=0.0007 and C peptide during OGTT (P0.18. No BMI independent relationships of chemerin with fasting and OGTT derived measures of insulin sensitivity were found (P>0.5. Chemerin associated positively with fasting beta cell function as well as the OGTT derived insulinogenic index IGI_cp and the adaptation index after adjustment for age, sex and BMI (P=0.002-0.007, and inversely with the insulin/C peptide ratio (P=0.007. Serum chemerin neither related to the insulinogenic index IGI_ins nor the disposition index. In conclusion, circulating chemerin is likely linked to enhanced beta cell function but not to insulin sensitivity in patients with NAFLD.

  3. Serum Chemerin Concentrations Associate with Beta-Cell Function, but Not with Insulin Resistance in Individuals with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Herder, Christian; Tsiavou, Anastasia; Teichert, Tom; Chounta, Athina; Nowotny, Peter; Pacini, Giovanni; Dimitriadis, George; Roden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The novel adipokine chemerin has been related to insulin-resistant states such as obesity and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its association with insulin resistance and beta cell function remains controversial. The main objective was to examine whether serum chemerin levels associate with insulin sensitivity and beta cell function independently of body mass index (BMI), by studying consecutive outpatients of the hepatology clinics of a European university hospital. Individuals (n=196) with NAFLD were stratified into persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=110), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n=51) and type 2 diabetes (T2D; n=35) and the association between serum chemerin and measures of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function as assessed during fasting and during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was measured. Our results showed that serum chemerin positively associated with BMI (P=0.0007) and C peptide during OGTT (P0.18). No BMI independent relationships of chemerin with fasting and OGTT derived measures of insulin sensitivity were found (P>0.5). Chemerin associated positively with fasting beta cell function as well as the OGTT derived insulinogenic index IGI_cp and the adaptation index after adjustment for age, sex and BMI (P=0.002-0.007), and inversely with the insulin/C peptide ratio (P=0.007). Serum chemerin neither related to the insulinogenic index IGI_ins nor the disposition index. In conclusion, circulating chemerin is likely linked to enhanced beta cell function but not to insulin sensitivity in patients with NAFLD.

  4. Non-equivalence of key positively charged residues of the free fatty acid 2 receptor in the recognition and function of agonist versus antagonist ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hojgaard Hansen, Anders; Pandey, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled Free Fatty Acid 2 (FFA2) receptor and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic an...

  5. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  6. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  7. A Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum Improves Liver Function in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Antioxidant Action and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Tan, Le-He; Li, Chuan; Gong, De-Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-09

    The present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma atrum (PSG-1) on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats. Results showed that PSG-1 decreased the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while increasing hepatic glycogen levels. PSG-1 also exerted strong antioxidant activities, together with upregulated mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were significantly higher in the liver, serum, and faeces of diabetic rats after treating with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. These results suggest that the improvement of PSG-1 on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats may be due to its antioxidant effects, SCFA excretion in the colon from PSG-1, and regulation of hepatic glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation through PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  8. Propylsulfonic and arenesulfonic functionalized SBA-15 silica as an efficient and reusable catalyst for the acidolysis of soybean oil with medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhang, Chi

    2016-11-15

    The objective of this work was to develop a feasible ecofriendly process to produce medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-enriched structured lipids (SLs) in heterogeneous manners. For this purpose, the propyl-SO3H or arene-SO3H-modified SBA-15 materials were prepared through a surface functionalization of SBA-15 silica with propyl-SO3H and arene-SO3H groups. The organosulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 materials were characterized by Brönsted acidity determination, elemental analysis, XRD, C(13) MAS NMR, FT-IR, SEM, TG, TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Results showed that the propyl-SO3H and arene-SO3H groups were successfully tethered on the SBA-15 support, and the ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 silica was well retained after the organofunctionalization. This organic-inorganic hybrid material displayed high surface acidities and high activities in the acidolysis of soybean oil with caprylic or capric acid to produce SLs containing MCFAs. The influences of processing parameters on the reaction were investigated. The two studied catalysts showed an excellent recyclability for the reaction.

  9. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion improves Paneth cell function via the IL-22/Stat3 pathway in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwei; Tian, Feng; Zheng, Huijun; Tian, Hao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejin; Wang, Xinying

    2017-08-19

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure. Long-term TPN impairs gut barrier function and contributes to infections and poor clinical outcomes. However, the underlying mechanisms of TPN-related gut barrier damage have not been fully elucidated, and effective measures are still rare. Here, we compared the effects of a predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsion (PUFAs; Intralipid) and a lipid emulsion containing n-3 PUFAs (Intralipid plus Omegaven) on antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells. Our results show for the first time that n-3 PUFAs markedly ameliorated intestine atrophy, and increased protein levels of lysozyme, RegIIIγ, and α-cryptdin 5, and their mRNA expression, compared to the n-6 PUFAs emulsion. Importantly, our study reveals that downregulation of IL-22 and phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) is associated with Paneth cell dysfunction, which may mediate TPN-related gut barrier damage. Lastly, n-3 PUFAs upregulated levels of IL-22 and increased the p-Stat3/Stat3 ratio in ileal tissue, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs improve Paneth cell function through activation of the IL-22/Stat3 pathway. Therefore, our study provides a cogent explanation for the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs, and indicates the IL-22/Stat3 pathway as a promising target in the treatment of TPN-related gut barrier damage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Indoleacetaldehyde in Cucumber Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, William K.; Brown, Hugh M.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of indoleacetaldehyde in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons was demonstrated by thin layer chromatographic RF values in three solvent systems, by the formation and hydrolysis of a bisulfite adduct, and by chemical reduction to indoleethanol and oxidation to indoleacetic acid. Bioassays indicated a minimum indoleacetaldehyde content in etiolated cotyledons of 0.7 μg per kg fresh weight. Tissue samples from all parts of both green and etiolated cucumber seedlings reduced exogenously supplied indoleacetaldehyde to indoleethanol. PMID:16660219

  11. Suppression of circulating free fatty acids with acipimox in chronic heart failure patients changes whole body metabolism but does not affect cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels; Schmitz, Ole; Gøtzsche, Liv; Nielsen, Roni; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Nielsen, Torsten Toftegaard; Eiskjær, Hans; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Wiggers, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) may worsen heart failure (HF) due to myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired energy generation. We studied cardiac and whole body effects of 28 days of suppression of circulating FFAs with acipimox in patients with chronic HF. In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 24 HF patients with ischemic heart disease [left ventricular ejection fraction: 26 ± 2%; New York Heart Association classes II (n = 13) and III (n = 5)] received 28 days of acipimox treatment (250 mg, 4 times/day) and placebo. Left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic function, tissue-Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise capacity, noninvasive cardiac index, NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), and whole body metabolic parameters were measured. Eighteen patients were included for analysis. FFAs were reduced by 27% in the acipimox-treated group [acipimox vs. placebo (day 28-day 0): -0.10 ± 0.03 vs. +0.01 ± 0.03 mmol/l, P < 0.01]. Glucose and insulin levels did not change. Acipimox tended to increase glucose and decrease lipid utilization rates at the whole body level and significantly changed the effect of insulin on substrate utilization. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp M value did not differ. Global and regional myocardial function did not differ. Exercise capacity, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, and NT-pro-BNP were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, acipimox caused minor changes in whole body metabolism and decreased the FFA supply, but a long-term reduction in circulating FFAs with acipimox did not change systolic or diastolic cardiac function or exercise capacity in patients with HF.

  12. Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05μg/L) and hair (0.49μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138

  13. Comparison of low-calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahmanabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD is defined as a spectrum of clinical scenarios which is pathological deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients who have no history of alcohol use. This study compared the effect of low calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function in patients with NAFLD. Materials & Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted in 2010 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, on 40 obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of intervention and control groups. Group one received 15 mg daily sibutramine capsules half an hour before lunch and a weight loss diet based on ideal body weight. The other group only had diet control for weight reduction. Before and after 3 months of intervention, weight changes, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, levels of liver enzymes and ultrasound evaluation was repeated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired T test, Mann-Whitney and McNemar test. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 38.90 ± 7.00 in the sibutramine group and 36.55 ±7.87 for the control group. After three months, the average weight loss in sibutramine group was significantly more than the control group (sibutramine group13 kg and control group 4 kg (p<0.05. Improvement in liver echogenicity in sibutramine patients was 90% and 50% of diet group patients. ALT changes in the sibutramine group and control group was 7.50 ± 15.11 and 6.15 ± 28.23 respectively, which was statistically significant in the sibutramine group. AST changes were 4.38 ± 13.37 and 1.70 ± 18.37 in sibutramine and control group respectively. The changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall, findings of this study suggest that sibutramine is effective in liver function improvement and treatment of NAFLD patients.

  14. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Produtividade da chicória (Cichorium endivia L. em função de tipos de bandejas e idade de transplante de mudas Endive (Cichorium endivia L. yield in function of tray types and seedlings age at transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Yamamoto Reghin

    2007-06-01

    types and age of seedlings at transplanting on endive yield. Seedlings were produced under protected cultivation, with the cultivar AF-254 (SAKATA. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks, with four replications, and the treatments arranged in a factorial scheme 4x3, being four seedlings age at transplanting (25, 30, 35 and 42 days after sowing and three tray types (with 128, 200 and 288 cells. The substrate used was Plantmax®. Seeds were sowed between the period of March, 11th to March, 28th, in 2005, with the intervals of seven days from the first to second sowing, and five days from each other. The seedlings were tranplanted in May, 23th, in plots with three rows and plants arranged in 0,30x0,30m. Plants were harvested as they reached maturation. Seedlings produced on tray of 128 cells were superior, independent of the age. The highest difference was observed when trays with 128 and 288 cells were compared. The highest point of seedlings development was observed between 30 and 40 days on the three tray types. The best option for endive production was obtained from seedlings produced on tray of 128 cells and with ages of 30 and 35 days. The high yield obtained with the seedlings from 128 trays repay the cost on seedlings production.

  16. Heterologous Expression of PA8FAD9 and Functional Characterization of a Δ9-Fatty Acid Desaturase from a Cold-Tolerant Pseudomonas sp. A8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Lawal; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Fatty acid desaturase enzymes are capable of inserting double bonds between carbon atoms of saturated fatty acyl-chains to produce unsaturated fatty acids. A gene coding for a putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein was isolated from a cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. A8, cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene named as PA8FAD9 has an open reading frame of 1185 bp and codes for 394 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa. The enzyme showed high Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein activity and increased overall levels of cellular unsaturated fatty acids in the recombinant E. coli cells upon expression at different temperatures. The results showed that the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid in the recombinant E. coli cells increased by more than twice the amount observed in the control cells at 20 °C using 0.4 mM IPTG. GCMS analysis confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert exogenous stearic acid to oleic acid incorporated into the recombinant E. coli membrane phospholipids. It may be concluded that the PA8FAD9 gene from Pseudomonas sp. A8 codes for a putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase protein actively expressed in E. coli under the influence of temperature and an inducer.

  17. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure not only to protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair.

  18. The mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake stimulates Pinus densiflora seedling growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Shindo, Katsumi; Matsushita, Norihisa; Suzuki, Kazuo; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    While it has been suggested that Matsutake mycorrhizae might not be functional and that Matsutake may behave as a saprobic fungus in soil or even have some pathogenic activity on seedlings, we investigated the consequences of Matsutake inoculation on Pinus densiflora growth. Seventy-five days after inoculation, hyphae were anchored on short roots and well-developed Hartig net palmettis were observed. Compared to both control treatments--seedlings treated with distilled water and seedlings treated with autoclaved mycelium--inoculation significantly stimulated seedling total dry weight by 70.9% and 98.0%, respectively. These findings attest that some type of symbiotic relationship must be functional and favour host growth, ruling out claims of pathogenicity under the sterile conditions used here.

  19. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Improved the Cognitive Function in the Chinese Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may protect against mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, there is still a lack of the n-3 PUFAs intervention in the elderly with MCI in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in the Chinese elderly with MCI. Methods: Eighty six MCI individuals aged 60 years or older were randomly assigned to receive either n-3 PUFAs (480 mg DHA and 720 mg EPA per day, n = 44 or placebo (olive oil, n = 42 capsules. The changes of cognitive functions were assessed using Basic Cognitive Aptitude Tests (BCAT. Results: The mean age of participants was 71 years old, and 59% of the participants were men. n-3 PUFA supplementation was associated with improved total BCAT scores, perceptual speed, space imagery efficiency, and working memory (p < 0.01, but not with mental arithmetic efficiency or recognition memory (p > 0.05. Subgroup analysis by sex showed that n-3 PUFAs significantly improved perceptual speed (p = 0.001, space imagery efficiency (p = 0.013, working memory (p = 0.018, and total BCAT scores (p = 0.000 in males. However, in females, the significant beneficial effects can only be observed in perceptual speed (p = 0.027, space imagery efficiency (p = 0.006, and total BCAT scores (p = 0.015—not working memory (p = 0.113. Conclusion: n-3 PUFAs can improve cognitive function in people with MCI. Further studies with different fish oil dosages, longer intervention periods, and larger sample sizes should be investigated before definite recommendations can be made.

  20. The ω-3-poly-unsaturated fatty acids and the function of the brain and retina in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2007-01-01

    LNA could meet the ¿-3 PUFA requirements. Moreover, the potential long-term implications of the early improvements in visual function are not known. ¿-3 PUFA intake in the first year of life is also believed to affect infant cognitive development, although this question remains unresolved. Breast......-feeding has been shown to confer a long-term advantage in cognitive performance of approximately 3 IQ-points relative to that in formula-fed subjects, but this difference could be due to confounding as well as specific components of human milk. The DHA-content of human milk depends on the maternal fish intake...

  1. Haematological parameters, serum lipid profile, liver function and fatty acid profile of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterys, A; Franczyk-Zarow, M; Czyzynska-Cichon, I; Drahun, A; Kus, E; Szymczyk, B; Kostogrys, R B

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and linseed oil (LO) on haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes as well as fatty acids profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Broilers (n = 400) were fed on diets containing graded PSO levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) with or without 2% LO. After 6 weeks of feeding, 6 male broilers from each group were slaughtered and abdominal fat, liver and blood samples were collected. Mixtures of pomegranate seed oil (0.5%, 1%) with linseed oil increased white blood cell level in broilers. Total cholesterol was elevated after LO supplementation whereas administration of PSO (1.5%) significantly decreased this parameter. PSO administration caused c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration-dependent deposition in adipose tissue. By LO addition α-linolenic acid (ALA) content was enhanced, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio. PSO and ALA also affected oleic acid proportion in adipose tissue. Neither pomegranate seed oil nor linseed oil had any effect on liver parameters. Pomegranate seed oil had no negative effects on broiler health status and can be considered as a functional poultry meat component.

  2. Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

    2015-02-03

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  3. Disturbance of mitochondrial functions provoked by the major long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids accumulating in MTP and LCHAD deficiencies in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenesis of the muscular symptoms and recurrent rhabdomyolysis that are commonly manifested in patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effects of the major long-chain monocarboxylic 3-hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA) accumulating in these disorders, namely 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3HPA) acids, on important mitochondrial functions in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA markedly increased resting (state 4) and decreased ADP-stimulated (state 3) and CCCP-stimulated (uncoupled) respiration. 3HPA provoked similar effects in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers, validating the results obtained in purified mitochondria. Furthermore, 3HTA and 3HPA markedly diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) induction probably underlie these effects since they were totally prevented by cyclosporin A and ADP. In contrast, the dicarboxylic analogue of 3HTA did not alter the tested parameters. Our data strongly indicate that 3HTA and 3HPA behave as metabolic inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and mPT inducers in skeletal muscle. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis may be involved in the muscle alterations characteristic of MTP and LCHAD deficiencies.

  4. Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujia Ye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7 from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and

  5. Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhujia; Sangireddy, Sasikiran; Okekeogbu, Ikenna; Zhou, Suping; Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Howe, Kevin J; Fish, Tara; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a "sandwich" system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress) and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome) expressed a significant difference (p 1.7) from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA)-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes) that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and establishment under soil drought conditions (Data are

  6. Expression patterns of the rice class I metallothionein gene family in response to lead stress in rice seedlings and functional complementation of its members in lead-sensitive yeast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YuFeng; ZHOU GongKe; ZHOU Lu; LI YiQin; LIU JinYuan

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular mass and cysteine-rich proteins that can chelate heavy-metal ions.In this paper, Northern blot analysis was used to investigate the influence of lead stress on the expression patterns of 10 rice class I MT genes (OsMT-Is) in rice seedlings.With the exception of OsMT-I-3b, the data demonstrate dynamic changes of 9 OsMT-I transcripts in response to Pb2+ treatment in rice seedling roots.Of these genes, transcription of OsMT-I-1a, OsMT-I-1b, OsMT-I-2c, OsMT-I-4a, OsMT-I-4b and OsMT-I-4c increased significantly, while transcription of OsMT-I-2a and OsMT-I-3a increased marginally.In contrast, the expression of OsMT-I-2b was inhibited.Pb2+ induced the expression of 6 OsMT-I genes in seedling shoots, but had no obvious effects on the expression of OsMT-I-1a, OsMT-I-1b, OsMT-I-4a and OsMT-I-4b.All the 10 OsMT-Is had enhanced lead tolerance when heterologously expressed in lead-sensitive yeast mutant cells.These results provide an expression profile of the rice MT gene family in response to Pb2+ stress in rice seedlings and demonstrate increased lead tolerance in sensitive yeast mutant cells expressing OsMT-Is.This study lays a foundation for further analysis of the role of the rice MT gene family in respond to Pb2+ stress.

  7. Seedling-herbivore interactions: insights into plant defence and regeneration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kasey E; Hanley, Mick E

    2013-08-01

    Herbivores have the power to shape plant evolutionary trajectories, influence the structure and function of vegetation, devastate entire crops, or halt the spread of invasive weeds, and as a consequence, research into plant-herbivore interactions is pivotal to our understanding of plant ecology and evolution. However, the causes and consequences of seedling herbivory have received remarkably little attention, despite the fact that plants tend to be most susceptible to herbivory during establishment, and this damage can alter community composition and structure. In this Viewpoint article we review why herbivory during early plant ontogeny is important and in so doing introduce an Annals of Botany Special Issue that draws together the latest work on the topic. In a synthesis of the existing literature and a collection of new studies, we examine several linked issues. These include the development and expression of seedling defences and patterns of selection by herbivores, and how seedling selection affects plant establishment and community structure. We then examine how disruption of the seedling-herbivore interaction might affect normal patterns of plant community establishment and discuss how an understanding of patterns of seedling herbivory can aid our attempts to restore semi-natural vegetation. We finish by outlining a number of areas where more research is required. These include a need for a deeper consideration of how endogenous and exogenous factors determine investment in seedling defence, particularly for the very youngest plants, and a better understanding of the phylogenetic and biogeographical patterns of seedling defence. There is also much still be to be done on the mechanisms of seedling selection by herbivores, particularly with respect to the possible involvement of volatile cues. These inter-related issues together inform our understanding of how seedling herbivory affects plant regeneration at a time when anthropogenic change is likely to

  8. Conformational changes in human serum albumin studied by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Distance measurements as a function of pH and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Pedersen, A O

    1989-01-01

    pH- and fatty acid-induced conformational changes in human serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence-energy transfer, determining the distance between Trp-214 and bound bilirubin at 25 degrees C. This distance changes significantly with the pH, being 2.52 +/- 0.01 nm at pH 6, 2.31 +/- 0.04 ...... chromophores. The contraction of the protein carrying long-chain saturated fatty acids is even more pronounced at pH 9. Udgivelsesdato: 1989-Feb-15......pH- and fatty acid-induced conformational changes in human serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence-energy transfer, determining the distance between Trp-214 and bound bilirubin at 25 degrees C. This distance changes significantly with the pH, being 2.52 +/- 0.01 nm at pH 6, 2.31 +/- 0.04 nm...... at pH 9, 2.13 +/- 0.07 nm at pH 11.0 and 2.77 nm at pH 11.9. The influence of different fatty acids on the distance was also determined. At pH 7.4 medium-chain fatty acids seem to increase this distance, whereas long-chain fatty acids, at low concentrations, decrease the distance between the two...

  9. Evaluation of maize grain and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) as energy sources for breeding rams based on hormonal, sperm functional parameters and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Raju, Priyadarshini; Rao, Somu Bala Nageswara; Raghavendra, Subbarao; Nandi, Sumantha; Dineshkumar, Dhanasekaran; Thayakumar, Allen; Parthipan, Shivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of different sources of dietary energy (maize vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on semen functional parameters and fertility of adult rams. Eighteen adult rams were divided into two groups (maize and PUFA, n=9). The main energy source for the rams in the maize group was coarsely ground maize grain, whereas in the PUFA group it was sunflower oil (rich in 18:2 linoleic acid, an omega-6 acid). The ration was fed for a minimum period of 60 days and thereafter semen was collected for evaluation. The proportion of progressive forward motility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. Sperm lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde formation (µM per 1×10(9) spermatozoa) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. When the semen was diluted with Tris-egg yolk-citrate buffer and incubated for 24h at 4°C, the proportions of plasmalemma integrity, the sperm subpopulation positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities, and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PUFA-fed than in maize-fed animals. The different sources of energy did not influence the serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels. The cleavage rate (percentage) did not differ significantly between PUFA- (45.4±4.91) and maize- (44.63±6.8) fed animals. In conclusion, PUFA feeding influenced sperm quality by altering or stabilising membrane integrity. The present study indicates that PUFA may improve semen quality but did not improve in vitro fertilisation.

  10. Functional characterization of ExFadLO, an outer membrane protein required for exporting oxygenated long-chain fatty acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Eriel; Estupiñán, Mónica; Pastor, F I Javier; Busquets, Montserrat; Díaz, Pilar; Manresa, Angeles

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial proteins of the FadL family have frequently been associated to the uptake of exogenous hydrophobic substrates. However, their outer membrane location and involvement in substrate uptake have been inferred mainly from sequence similarity to Escherichia coli FadL, the first well-characterized outer membrane transporters of Long-Chain Fatty Acids (LCFAs) in bacteria. Here we report the functional characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane protein (ORF PA1288) showing similarities to the members of the FadL family, for which we propose the name ExFadLO. We demonstrate herein that this protein is required to export LCFAs 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME, derived from a diol synthase oxygenation activity on oleic acid, from the periplasm to the extracellular medium. Accumulation of 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME in the extracellular medium of P. aeruginosa was abolished by a transposon insertion mutation in exFadLO (ExFadLO¯ mutant). However, intact periplasm diol synthase activity was found in this mutant, indicating that ExFadLO participates in the export of these oxygenated LCFAs across the outer membrane. The capacity of ExFadLO¯ mutant to export 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME was recovered after complementation with a wild-type, plasmid-expressed ExFadLO protein. A western blot assay with a variant of ExFadLO tagged with a V5 epitope confirmed the location of ExFadLO in the bacterial outer membrane under the experimental conditions tested. Our results provide the first evidence that FadL family proteins, known to be involved in the uptake of hydrophobic substrates from the extracellular environment, also function as secretion elements for metabolites of biological relevance.

  11. Diversity of seedling responses to drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Drought is an important seedling mortality agent in dry and moist tropical forests, and more severe and frequent droughts are predicted in the future. The effect of drought on leaf gas exchange and seedling survival was tested in a dry-down experiment with four tree species from dry and moist forest

  12. Combining Exergame Training with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study assessing the Effect on Neuronal Structure/Function in the Elderly Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling that might lead to injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g. decline in grey- and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that the sole administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a combination of exergame training with omega-3 FA supplementation on the elderly brain. We hypothesize that an intervention using a combination approach differently effects on the neuronal structure and function of the elderly’s brain as compared to the sole administration of exergame training. The study is a parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial lasting 26 weeks. Sixty autonomous living, non-smoking, and right-handed healthy older (>65 years adults who live independently or in a senior residency are included, randomized, and allocated to one of two study groups. The experimental group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml fish oil (including 2.9g of omega-3 FA, whereas the control group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml olive oil for 26 weeks. After 16 weeks, both groups start with an exergame training program three times per week. Measurements are performed on three time-points by treatment blinded investigators: pre-intervention measurement, blood sample after 16 week, and post-intervention measurements. The main outcomes are motor evoked potentials of the right M. tibialis anterior (transcranial magnetic stimulation and response-related potentials (electroencephalography during a cognitive test. For secondary outcomes, reaction times during cognitive tests and spatio-temporal parameters during gait performance are measured. Statistics

  13. Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Darlene; Carrington, Elizabeth M; Frank, Jonathan L; Gould, Peter; Harrington, Connie A; Devine, Warren D

    2009-03-01

    Oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. We also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery. Further, we compared the mycorrhizal assemblage of oak nursery seedlings to that of conifer seedlings in the nursery and to that of oak seedlings in nearby oak woodlands. Seedlings were excavated and the roots washed and examined microscopically. Mycorrhizas were identified by DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and by morphotype. On oak nursery seedlings, predominant mycorrhizas were species of Laccaria and Tuber with single occurrences of Entoloma and Peziza. In adjacent beds, seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii were mycorrhizal with Hysterangium and a different species of Laccaria; seedlings of Pinus monticola were mycorrhizal with Geneabea, Tarzetta, and Thelephora. Height of Q. garryana seedlings correlated with root biomass and mycorrhizal abundance. Total mycorrhizal abundance and abundance of Laccaria mycorrhizas significantly predicted seedling height in the nursery. Native oak seedlings from nearby Q. garryana woodlands were mycorrhizal with 13 fungal symbionts, none of which occurred on the nursery seedlings. These results demonstrate the value of mycorrhizas to the growth of oak seedlings. Although seedlings in nursery beds developed mycorrhizas without intentional inoculation, their mycorrhizas differed from and were less species rich than those on native seedlings.

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  15. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  16. Chronic reduction of plasma free fatty acid improves mitochondrial function and whole-body insulin sensitivity in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Eldor, Roy; Merovci, Aurora; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Xiong, Juan; Tripathy, Devjit; Taranova, Anna; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance and dysregulation of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism are core defects in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals. Impaired muscle mitochondrial function (reduced ATP synthesis) also has been described in insulin-resistant T2DM and obese subjects. We examined whether reduction in plasma FFA concentration with acipimox improved ATP synthesis rate and altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Eleven NGT obese and 11 T2DM subjects received 1) OGTT, 2) euglycemic insulin clamp with muscle biopsy, and 3) (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tibialis anterior muscle before and after acipimox (250 mg every 6 h for 12 days). ATP synthesis rate and ROS generation were measured in mitochondria isolated from muscle tissue ex vivo with chemoluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. Acipimox 1) markedly reduced the fasting plasma FFA concentration and enhanced suppression of plasma FFA during oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin clamp in obese NGT and T2DM subjects and 2) enhanced insulin-mediated muscle glucose disposal and suppression of hepatic glucose production. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was closely correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA in obese NGT (r = 0.81) and T2DM (r = 0.76) subjects (both P 50% in both obese NGT and T2DM subjects and was strongly correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA and increase in insulin-mediated glucose disposal (both r > 0.70, P < 0.001). Production of ROS did not change after acipimox. Reduction in plasma FFA in obese NGT and T2DM individuals improves mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate, indicating that the mitochondrial defect in insulin-resistant individuals is, at least in part, reversible.

  17. Unexpected functional diversity in the fatty acid desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and identification of key residues determining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritos, Victoria S; Horne, Irene; Damcevski, Katherine; Glover, Karen; Gibb, Nerida

    2014-08-01

    Desaturases catalyse modifications to fatty acids which are essential to homeostasis and for pheromone and defensive chemical production. All desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum were investigated via query of the sequenced genome which yielded 15 putative acyl-Coenzyme A genes. Eleven desaturase mRNA were obtained in full length and functionally expressed in yeast. Phylogenetic analysis separated the desaturases into 4 distinct clades; one clade contained conserved beetle Δ9 desaturases, second clade was Tribolium-specific having diverse activities including Δ5, Δ9 and Δ12 desaturation and the other 2 clades had mixed insect representatives. Three members of this clade contained unusual inserted sequences of ∼20 residues in the C-terminal region and were related to desaturases that all contained similar inserts. Deletion of the entirety of the insert in the flour beetle Δ12 desaturase abolished its activity but this was partially restored by the reintroduction of two histidine residues, suggesting the histidine(s) are required for activity but the full length insert is not. Five new desaturase activities were discovered: Δ9 desaturation of C12:0-C16:0 substrates; two unprecedented Δ5 enzymes acting on C18:0 and C16:0; Δ9 activity exclusively on C16:0 and a further stearate Δ9 desaturase. qPCR analysis ruled out a role in sex pheromone synthesis for the Δ5 and Δ9/C16:0 desaturases. The flour beetle genome has underpinned an examination of all transcribed desaturases in the organism and revealed a diversity of novel and unusual activities, an improved understanding of the evolutionary relationships among insect desaturases and sequence determinants of activity.

  18. Sinorhizobium meliloti Functionally Replaces 3-Oxoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabG) by Overexpressing NodG During Fatty Acid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ya-Hui; Li, Feng; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nodG gene is located in the nodFEG operon of the symbiotic plasmid. Although strong sequence similarity (53% amino acid identities) between S. meliloti NodG and Escherichia coli FabG was reported in 1992, it has not been determined whether S. meliloti NodG plays a role in fatty acid synthesis. We report that expression of S. meliloti NodG restores the growth of the E. coli fabG temperature-sensitive mutant CL104 under nonpermissive conditions. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that NodG is able to catalyze the reduction of the 3-oxoacyl-ACP intermediates in E. coli fatty acid synthetic reaction. Moreover, although deletion of the S. meliloti nodG gene does not cause any growth defects, upon overexpression of nodG from a plasmid, the S. meliloti fabG gene encoding the canonical 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (OAR) can be disrupted without any effects on growth or fatty acid composition. This indicates that S. meliloti nodG encodes an OAR and can play a role in fatty acid synthesis when expressed at sufficiently high levels. Thus, a bacterium can simultaneously possess two or more OARs that can play a role in fatty acid synthesis. Our data also showed that, although SmnodG increases alfalfa nodulation efficiency, it is not essential for alfalfa nodulation.

  19. Repression of Seed Maturation Genes by a Trihelix Transcriptional Repressor in Arabidopsis Seedlings[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming-Jun; Lydiate, Derek J.; Li, Xiang; Lui, Helen; Gjetvaj, Branimir; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The seed maturation program is repressed during germination and seedling development so that embryonic genes are not expressed in vegetative organs. Here, we describe a regulator that represses the expression of embryonic seed maturation genes in vegetative tissues. ASIL1 (for Arabidopsis 6b-interacting protein 1-like 1) was isolated by its interaction with the Arabidopsis thaliana 2S3 promoter. ASIL1 possesses domains conserved in the plant-specific trihelix family of DNA binding proteins and belongs to a subfamily of 6b-interacting protein 1-like factors. The seedlings of asil1 mutants exhibited a global shift in gene expression to a profile resembling late embryogenesis. LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 were markedly derepressed during early germination, as was a large subset of seed maturation genes, such as those encoding seed storage proteins and oleosins, in seedlings of asil1 mutants. Consistent with this, asil1 seedlings accumulated 2S albumin and oil with a fatty acid composition similar to that of seed-derived lipid. Moreover, ASIL1 specifically recognized a GT element that overlaps the G-box and is in close proximity to the RY repeats of the 2S promoters. We suggest that ASIL1 targets GT-box–containing embryonic genes by competing with the binding of transcriptional activators to this promoter region. PMID:19155348

  20. Combining Exergame Training with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study Assessing the Effect on Neuronal Structure/Function in the Elderly Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schättin, Alexandra; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling and related injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g., decline in gray-and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a combination of exergame training with omega-3 FA supplementation on the elderly brain. We hypothesize that an intervention using a combination approach differently affects on the neuronal structure and function of the elderly's brain as compared to the sole administration of exergame training. The study is a parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial lasting 26 weeks. Sixty autonomous living, non-smoking, and right-handed healthy older (>65 years) adults who live independently or in a senior residency are included, randomized, and allocated to one of two study groups. The experimental group receives a daily amount of 13.5 ml fish oil (including 2.9 g of omega-3 FA), whereas the control group receives a daily amount of 13.5 ml olive oil for 26 weeks. After 16 weeks, both groups start with an exergame training program three times per week. Measurements are performed on three time-points by treatment blinded investigators: pre-intervention measurements, blood sample after 16 week, and post-intervention measurements. The main outcomes are motor evoked potentials of the right M. tibialis anterior (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and response-related potentials (electroencephalography) during a cognitive test. For secondary outcomes, reaction time during cognitive tests and spatio-temporal parameters during gait performance are measured. Statistics will include effect sizes and a

  1. Quality cedar seedlings in function of the use of fertilizers and containers with different sizes = Qualidade de mudas de cedro em função da utilização de fertilizantes e recipientes de diferentes tamanhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of quality seedlings, together with low costs, is critical to the success of forestry projects. Accordingly, choosing the correct source of fertilizer and type of container is essential. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the quality of seedlings of Cedrela fissilis, known locally as cedro-rosa, resulting from the use of fertilizers and containers of different sizes. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme (containers of different sizes x sources of fertilizer, with three replications. The containers being tested were plastic pots (3,000 cm 3, plastic bags (1,000 cm 3 and tubes (175 cm 3. The sources of fertilizer were Osmocote® , Kimcoat® and conventional. The following evaluations of the seedlings were carried out 90 days after transplanting: height, stem diameter, leaf area, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and total dry weight. These variables were used to calculate the Dickson quality index. Seedlings grown in plastic pots or in plastic bags displayed the best quality, although the former presented higher values. The highest levels of quality for the seedlings of cedro-rosa were provided by the Osmocote® fertilizer, however values did not differ from the conventional source of fertilizer. With a view to reducing production costs for seedlings of cedro-rosa, the use of plastic bags with conventional fertilizer is recommended = A produção de mudas de qualidade, aliada a um baixo custo, é fundamental para o sucesso dos projetos florestais. Neste sentido, a escolha correta da fonte de fertilizante e do tipo de recipiente é essencial. Diante disso, objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar a qualidade de mudas de Cedro-rosa em função do uso de fertilizantes e recipientes com diferentes tamanhos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (recipientes com diferentes tamanhos x fontes de fertilizante, com tr

  2. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  3. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  4. Taxonomic scale-dependence of habitat niche partitioning and biotic neighbourhood on survival of tropical tree seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenborough, Simon A; Burslem, David F R P; Garwood, Nancy C; Valencia, Renato

    2009-12-07

    In order to differentiate between mechanisms of species coexistence, we examined the relative importance of local biotic neighbourhood, abiotic habitat factors and species differences as factors influencing the survival of 2330 spatially mapped tropical tree seedlings of 15 species of Myristicaceae in two separate analyses in which individuals were identified first to species and then to genus. Using likelihood methods, we selected the most parsimonious candidate models as predictors of 3 year seedling survival in both sets of analyses. We found evidence for differential effects of abiotic niche and neighbourhood processes on individual survival between analyses at the genus and species levels. Niche partitioning (defined as an interaction of taxonomic identity and abiotic neighbourhood) was significant in analyses at the genus level, but did not differentiate among species in models of individual seedling survival. By contrast, conspecific and congeneric seedling and adult density were retained in the minimum adequate models of seedling survival at species and genus levels, respectively. We conclude that abiotic niche effects express differences in seedling survival among genera but not among species, and that, within genera, community and/or local variation in adult and seedling abundance drives variation in seedling survival. These data suggest that different mechanisms of coexistence among tropical tree taxa may function at different taxonomic or phylogenetic scales. This perspective helps to reconcile perceived differences of importance in the various non-mutually exclusive mechanisms of species coexistence in hyper-diverse tropical forests.

  5. Fluctuation of Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla, Analogous to the Seasonal Changes of Those in the Shoot of the Adult Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Qin Han; Xing-Fu Yan; Hua Zhang; Zheng-Hai Hu; Bing-Zhong Hao; Wei-Min Tian

    2007-01-01

    In order to identify appropriate plant materials for studying the gene expression and biological function of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) in woody plants, the VSPs in the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King were investigated by using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and Western-blotting. The seed of S. macrophylla was rich in storage proteins that accumulated in the vacuoles of cotyledon parenchyma cells in appearance of compact spherical grains. The growth and development of S.macrophylla seedlings were characterized by an obvious growth rhythm. The storage proteins in seeds disappeared during seedling growth while VSPs appeared in the stem 2 weeks after seedling leaves matured. Thereafter,the VSPs in the seedling stem almost exhausted during new shoot growth, and when the leaves of new shoot just matured, both the stem beneath the new shoot of seedlings and the stem of new shoot started to accumulate VSPs. Nitrogen application dramatically increased the level of VSPs, but had little influence on the dynamics of VSP consumption and accumulation in seedling stem. Together with these data, the fluctuation of VSPs in seedlings was very similar to that in the branches of the adult trees. In addition, seedlings are easy to be treated due to their small size. Our results suggested that S. macrophylla seedlings were suitable for investigating the biological roles of VSPs and the mechanism of nitrogen storage in trees.

  6. Produção e qualidade de abóbora em função da idade das mudas e tipo de bandeja Squash production and quality in function of seedling age and container type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Fernanda Piovesan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito do tipo de bandeja e da idade das mudas na produção de abóbora, híbrido Atlas. Foram avaliados dois tipos de bandeja (72 e 128 células e quatro idades das mudas (19, 24, 29 e 34 dias após a semeadura no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. As características avaliadas foram a produção (número e massa de frutos por planta e as dimensões dos frutos (comprimento total, do bojo, do pescoço, diâmetro do bojo e do pescoço. Apesar de não ter havido efeito estatístico sobre a produtividade, houve redução linear para a maioria das características do fruto (comprimento, diâmetro e massa com o aumento da idade das mudas. Assim, observou-se que mudas mais velhas, com a parte aérea mais desenvolvida e as preferidas por alguns produtores por seu sistema radicular compacto e a maior facilidade para serem transplantadas, podem reduzir a qualidade de abóbora.The purpose of this research was to study the effect of tray type and seedling age in the production of squash, hybrid Atlas. Two tray types (72 and 128 cells and four seedling ages (19, 24, 29 and 34 days after sowing were evaluated in randomized blocks design, with six replication and five plants per plot. Fruit yield, average fruit weight and fruit dimensions (total length, neck and seed cavity length and diameter were evaluated. Besides absence of significant statistical difference in fruit yield, for most of fruit characteristics (average weight, length and diameter a linear reduction was observed in aging seedling. Therefore, older seedlings with more developed shoots, and which are preferred by some producers due to their compact radicular system and easiness to transplant, may present lower squash quality.

  7. Controlled release fertilizer improves quality of container longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeff Parkhurst; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    In an operational trial, increasing the amount of nitrogen (N) applied to container longleaf pine seedlings by incorporating controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the media improved seedling growth and quality. Compared with control seedlings that received 40 mg N, seedlings receiving 66 mg N through CRF supplemented with liquid fertilizer had needles that were 4 in...

  8. ω-6 (18:2) and ω-3 (18:3) fatty acids in reconstituted high-density lipoproteins show different functionality of anti-atherosclerotic properties and embryo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Yong; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Among unsaturated fatty acids, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) fatty acids show different associations with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To determine why consumption of ω-3 fatty acid is associated with lower risk of CVD, we investigated the biological functions of ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) in reconstituted HDL (rHDL) after encapsulation using human cells and zebrafish embryo. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the principal protein behind the beneficial functions of HDL, which include potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities in blood. Several rHDLs were synthesized with apoA-I and different molar ratio of ω-6 or ω-3 fatty acid. Both fatty acids showed similar solubility in rHDL up to a molar ratio of 95:5:1:10 (palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:apoA-I:fatty acid). Although both rHDL showed similar structural properties and α-helical contents, ω-6-rHDL showed loss of anti-oxidant ability against LDL oxidation. Uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages was inhibited by ω-3-rHDL but not ω-6-rHDL, suggesting that ω-6-rHDL has higher pro-atherosclerotic activity. ω-3-rHDL showed more enhanced cholesterol efflux activity with less accumulation of triglyceride in the macrophage. ω-6-rHDL caused more senescence in human dermal fibroblast cells with cytotoxicity, while ω-3-rHDL treatment inhibited the senescence. In zebrafish embryo survivability, ω-3-rHDL-injected embryos showed 86±3% survival, whereas ω-6-rHDL-injected ones showed 72±2% survival as well as an elevated inflammatory response in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, ω-6-rHDL and ω-3-rHDL show different physiological activities in atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cellular senescence.

  9. Cucumber Seedling Indoleacetaldehyde Oxidase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter J.; Brown, Hugh M.; Purves, William K.

    1978-01-01

    Extracts of light-grown Cucumis sativus L. seedlings catalyzed the oxidation of indole-3-acetaldehyde to indole-3-acetic acid. No added cofactors were required. Inhibitor studies indicated that the enzyme is a metalloflavoprotein. While indole-3-aldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde partially inhibited the oxidation of indole-3-acetaldehyde, suggesting that they may serve as alternative substrates, it is proposed that indoleacetaldehyde is the major substrate in vivo. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid strongly inhibited the indoleacetaldehyde oxidase activity, and it is proposed that this enzyme may be subject in vivo to feedback inhibition by indole-3-acetic acid. The enzyme was activated by brief heating or by treatment with mercaptoethanol. PMID:16660220

  10. Responses of leaf functional traits and nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in Abies fabiri seedlings in Gongga Mountain to simulated nitrogen deposition%峨眉冷杉幼苗叶片功能特征及其N、P化学计量比对模拟大气氮沉降的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊留冬; 王根绪; 杨阳; 杨燕

    2012-01-01

    Abies fabiri is one of the dominant conifers in the subalpine area of western Sichuan Province, Southwest China. Taking A. Fabiri seedlings as test materials, this paper studied their leaf functional traits and N and P stoichiometry under effects of simulated nitrogen deposition. To simulate nitrogen deposition, ammonium nitrate solution (50 kg N ? Hm-2? A-1) was weekly sprayed over the growth season (from May to October) of 2009 and 2010. After the two growth seasons, the total biomass, leaf dry weigh, leaf mass ratio, leaf N and P concentrations, and leaf N:P ratio of the seedlings under ammonium nitrate spraying increased by 11. 29% , 46. 70% , 41.40% , 37. 30% , 22. 33% and 6. 43% , respectively, while specific leaf area (SLA) de creased by 6. 61% , as compared with the control. There existed significant differences in the leaf dry weigh, leaf mass ratio, leaf N concentration, and leaf N : P ratio between ammonium nitrate spraying and the control, and the leaf dry weight had a strong linear correlation with leaf N con centration. The total biomass, leaf dry weight, leaf N and P concentrations, and leaf N : P ratio of seedlings under ammonium nitrate spraying were higher in the second growth season than in the first growth season. This study demonstrated that nitrogen deposition promoted the leaf growth of A. Fabiri seedlings significantly, and increased the leaf N and P concentrations and leaf N : P ratio. However, the variation of leaf N : P ratio under nitrogen supply suggested that the seedling growth was still limited by the shortage of N supply. It was suggested that A. Fabiri seedlings had cumulative effect for N.%通过人工施氮模拟大气氮沉降,研究了施氮对峨眉冷杉(Abies fabiri)幼苗叶片功能特征、氮和磷含量及其化学计量比的影响,以及幼苗对氮素的积累效应.结果表明:经过2个生长季节的施氮处理(2009年和2010年,N2)幼苗的总生物量、叶干重、叶重比、叶片氮和磷含量及

  11. Seedling quality of common sage (Salvia officinalis L. as affected by seedling production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalişkan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effects of four different seedling production methods (i.e., open seedbed, greenhouse seedbed, float system and modified float system on the seedling growth and quality of common sage. Sowing rates were 1 g per m2 in an open seedbed and a greenhouse seedbed system, whereas the sowing rate was one seed per cell in the float and modified float systems. Emergence period, seedling growth period, the fresh and dry weights of aerial parts of seedlings, the fresh and dry weights of roots, seedling height, root height and stem diameter were determined as agronomical observations and measurements. The greenhouse seedling method was found to be superior over the other methods

  12. Crescimento, nutrição mineral e nível crítico foliar de P em mudas de umbuzeiro, em função da adubação fosfatada Growth, mineral nutrition and foliar critical level of P in 'umbuzeiro' seedlings, as a function of phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caíres Neves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento, a nutrição mineral e o nível crítico foliar de P em mudas de umbuzeiro crescidas em vasos contendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em função da adubação fosfatada, foram avaliados neste trabalho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e seis doses de P (0; 30; 60; 120; 240 e 480 mg dm-3. A adubação fosfatada foi realizada numa única aplicação, antes do transplantio das mudas. Observa-se que a dose de 281 mg dm-3 de P proporcionou a máxima produção de matéria seca das mudas de umbuzeiro, e, mesmo quando bem nutrido em P, o umbuzeiro apresentou maior produção de matéria seca do sistema radicular do que na parte aérea. A faixa crítica de P nas folhas das mudas do umbuzeiro é de 1,52 a 1,91 g kg-1.This work was accomplished in order to evaluate the growth, the mineral nutrition and the foliar critical level of P in 'umbuzeiro' seedlings, grown in pots containing distroferric Red Latosol, in function of phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and six doses of P (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 mg dm-3. The phosphorus fertilization was done in just one application, before the transplant of the seedlings. The dose of 281 mg dm-3 of P provided the highest production of dry matter of the 'umbuzeiro' seedlings. Even when well nourished with P, the 'umbuzeiro' accumulated more organic matter in the root than shoot. The level critical of P in the leaves of the umbuzeiro seedlings range from 1.52 to 1.91 g kg-1.

  13. Growth and photosynthetic responses of ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yahua; Nara, Kazuhide; Wen, Zhugui; Shi, Liang; Xia, Yan; Shen, Zhenguo; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-10-01

    It is still controversial whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelia filter out toxic metals in nutrient absorption of host trees. In this study, pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings colonized by Cu-sensitive and Cu-tolerant ECM species were exposed to a wide spectrum of soil Cu concentrations to investigate functions of ECM fungi under Cu stress. The photosynthetic rates of intact needles were monitored in situ periodically. The biomass and elements of plants were also measured after harvest. The ameliorating effect of ECM infection on host plants exposed to toxic stress was metal concentration specific. Under lower-level Cu stress, ECM fungi increased seedling performance, while ECM seedlings accumulated more Cu than nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings. Under higher-level Cu stress, photosynthesis decreased well before visible symptoms of Cu toxicity appeared. The reduced photosynthesis and biomass in ECM seedlings compared to NM seedlings under higher Cu conditions were also accompanied by lower phosphorus in needles. There was no marked difference between the two fungal species. Our results indicate that the two ECM fungi studied in our system may not have an ability to selectively eliminate Cu in nutrient absorption and may not act as effective barriers that decrease toxic metal uptake into host plants.

  14. [Response of leaf anatomical characteristics of Cyclobalanopsis gilva seedlings to drought stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-jun; Li, Zhi-hui; Yang, Mo-hua; Wang, Pei-lan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the leaf anatomical characteristics and transpiration rate of one-year-old seedlings from three study areas including Qingyuan of Zhejiang Province, Dongkou and Jingzhou of Hunan Province were investigated using a pot planting experiment in which relative soil water content was kept as 75%-80% (control), 55%-60% (mild drought stress), 45%-50% (moderate drought stress), 30%-35% (severe drought stress), respectively. The results showed that drought stress significantly reduced the total thickness of the seedling leaves, the thickness of their upper and lower epidermis and the thickness of palisade tissue. The ratio of the palisade tissue to spongy tissue, stomatal length and width also decreased significantly, while the stomatal density increased significantly as the drought stress became more intense. The treatments of drought stress had no significant effect on the thickness of the main veins of the leaves although their xylem thickness varied depending on the seedlings from the different study sites. The change of leaf structure caused the change of physiological function. As drought stress was intensified, the transpiration rate of C. gilva seedlings decreased significantly. The ratio of the palisade tissue to spongy tissue, the thickness of the lower epidermis and stomatal density of the seedlings from Dongkou of Hunan Province were significantly greater, while the transpiration rate was significantly lower than those from other two study sites for all the drought stress treatments, implying that the C. gilva seedlings from Dongkou of Hunan Province had a stronger drought-resistance ability.

  15. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for multiple sclerosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Kong-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.

  17. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  19. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejun Yang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Guangzheng Liu; Zhenying Huang

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand buria...

  20. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  1. Modulation effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on target organ function as well as immune and inflammatory response of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-Xun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the modulation effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on target organ function as well as immune and inflammatory reaction of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats.Methods:Adult SD rats were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into control group, model group and PUFA group. Septic rat models were made by cecal ligation and puncture method and given n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid for parenteral nutrition. Then number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, contents of intestinal flora, intestinal mucosal barrier function and immune function were detected.Results: (1) Intestinal mucosa function: the number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, intestinal E. coli contents, serum D-lactose and DAO contents as well as L/M ratio in urine of model group were higher than those of control group, and contents of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were lower than those of control group; the number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, intestinal E. coli contents, serum D-lactose and DAO contents as well as L/M ratio in urine of PUFA group were lower than those of model group, and contents of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were higher than those of model group; (2) Immune and inflammatory response: the number of PP nodes and PP node cells as well as contents of B cells and T cells in intestinal mucosa of model group were lower than those of control group; the number of PP nodes and PP node cells as well as contents of B cells and T cells in intestinal mucosa of PUFA group were higher than those of model group.Conclusion: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) are helpful to protect intestinal mucosal barrier function of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats, regulate intestinal flora balance and improve immune and inflammatory response.

  2. Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Lan; Li, Guo-Lei; Liu, Yong; Kasten Dumroese, R; Lv, Rui-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings become mycorrhizal and survival and growth are enhanced; without O. davidiana, pines often remain without mycorrhizae and performance is poorer. To better understand this relationship, we initiated an experiment using rhizoboxes that restricted root and tested the hypothesis that O. davidiana seedlings facilitated ectomycorrhizae formation on P. tabulaeformis seedlings through hyphal contact. We found that without O. davidiana seedlings, inocula of five indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi were unable to grow and associate with P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Inocula placed alongside O. davidiana seedlings, however, resulted in enhanced growth and nutritional status of O. davidiana and P. tabulaeformis seedlings, and also altered rhizosphere pH and phosphatase activity. We speculate that these species form a common mycorrhizal network and this association enhances outplanting performance of P. tabulaeformis seedlings used for forest restoration.

  3. Effect of petroleum products on mangrove seedlings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    seen. General damage in both the species were burning, yellowing and wilting of the leaves associated with root damage causing retardation of growth. Extensive leaf fall in Avicennia seedlings resulted in its mortality...

  4. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  5. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  6. Morphoanatomy of Serjania communis Cambess. seedling (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Adriano Lira Lopes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serjania communis Cambess. (Sapindaceae is a plant with climbing habit and occurs relatively often in Paraná State, Brazil. The fruits were collected at the 'Parque dos Pioneiros' a remnant of subtropical forest in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. The seedlings obtained in the greenhouse were described according to traditional techniques in plant morphology. Seedlings were embedded in historesin and sectioned in rotation microtome. The fruit is the samaroid type, the seeds have about 3 mm in length and brown color. Seedlings are epigeal phanerocotylar. The seedlings have a hairy hypocotyl, foliaceous cotyledons, reduced epicotyl, and two opposite eophylls. The root is diarch, the hypocotyl shows root-stem transition structure, stem epicotyl, and dorsiventral and hypostomatous cotyledons and eophylls. 'Tirodendros' with 45 days of age do not develop cambial variant.

  7. Morphoanatomy of Serjania communis Cambess. seedling (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Serjania communis Cambess. (Sapindaceae) is a plant with climbing habit and occurs relatively often in Paraná State, Brazil. The fruits were collected at the 'Parque dos Pioneiros' a remnant of subtropical forest in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. The seedlings obtained in the greenhouse were described according to traditional techniques in plant morphology. Seedlings were embedded in historesin and sectioned in rotation microtome. The fruit is the samaroid type, the seeds have about 3 mm in l...

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  9. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  10. Seedling Lethal1, a Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Lacking an E/E+ or DYW Domain in Arabidopsis, Is Involved in Plastid Gene Expression and Early Chloroplast Development1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Young Jae; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Kim, Anna; Cho, Myeon Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis and the biosynthesis of essential metabolites, including amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolites. It is known that many seedling-lethal mutants are impaired in chloroplast function or development, indicating the development of functional chloroplast is essential for plant growth and development. Here, we isolated a novel transfer DNA insertion mutant, dubbed sel1 (for seedling lethal1), that exhibited a pigment-defective and seedling-lethal phenotype with a disrupted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene. Sequence analysis revealed that SEL1 is a member of the PLS subgroup, which is lacking known E/E+ or DYW domains at the C terminus, in the PLS subfamily of the PPR protein family containing a putative N-terminal transit peptide and 14 putative PPR or PPR-like motifs. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the SEL1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein is localized in chloroplasts. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the sel1 mutant is impaired in the etioplast, as well as in chloroplast development. In sel1 mutants, plastid-encoded proteins involved in photosynthesis were rarely detected due to the lack of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, transcript profiles of plastid genes revealed that, in sel1 mutants, the transcript levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-dependent genes were greatly reduced, but those of nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase-dependent genes were increased or not changed. Additionally, the RNA editing of two editing sites of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit gene transcripts in the sel1 mutant was compromised, though it is not directly connected with the sel1 mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that SEL1 is involved in the regulation of plastid gene expression required for normal chloroplast development. PMID:24144791

  11. Fertility-dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on white spruce seedling nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair J H; Potvin, Lynette R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2015-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) typically colonize nursery seedlings, but nutritional and growth effects of these communities are only partly understood. To examine these effects, Picea glauca seedlings collected from a tree nursery naturally colonized by three dominant EcMF were divided between fertilized and unfertilized treatments. After one growing season seedlings were harvested, ectomycorrhizas identified using DNA sequencing, and seedlings analyzed for leaf nutrient concentration and content, and biomass parameters. EcMF community structure-nutrient interactions were tested using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with vector analysis of foliar nutrients and biomass. We identified three dominant species: Amphinema sp., Atheliaceae sp., and Thelephora terrestris. NMDS + envfit revealed significant community effects on seedling nutrition that differed with fertilization treatment. PERMANOVA and regression analyses uncovered significant species effects on host nutrient concentration, content, and stoichiometry. Amphinema sp. had a significant positive effect on phosphorus (P), calcium and zinc concentration, and P content; in contrast, T. terrestris had a negative effect on P concentration. In the unfertilized treatment, percent abundance of the Amphinema sp. negatively affected foliar nitrogen (N) concentration but not content, and reduced foliar N/P. In fertilized seedlings, Amphinema sp. was positively related to foliar concentrations of N, magnesium, and boron, and both concentration and content of manganese, and Atheliaceae sp. had a negative relationship with P content. Findings shed light on the community and species effects on seedling condition, revealing clear functional differences among dominants. The approach used should be scalable to explore function in more complex communities composed of unculturable EcMF.

  12. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  13. Produção de couve-brócolo em função do tipo de bandeja e idade das mudas Broccoli production in function of container type and seedling age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiaini Kano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de março a agosto de 2005, na FCA/UNESP em São Manuel (SP e objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar os efeitos dos tipos de bandeja de poliestireno expandido com 128 e 200 células e das idades das mudas de 32, 39, 46 e 53 dias após a semeadura no transplantio sobre a produção de couve-brócolo 'Legacy'. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito repetições. Foram avaliados, por ocasião da colheita, a massa e o diâmetro da "cabeça" e o número de folhas por planta. Observou-se que os tipos de bandejas e as idades das mudas não influenciaram a massa e o diâmetro da "cabeça", bem como o número de folhas por planta.The experiment was carried out from March to August 2005, at FCA/UNESP in São Manuel, São Paulo State. The purpose of the present research was to study the effects of type of extended polystyrene trays with 128 and 200 cells and seedling ages of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days after sowing at transplanting in the production of broccoli 'Legacy'. The experimental outline was in randomized blocks, with eight replications. Head weight and diameter and leave number per plant were evaluated. It was observed that container type and seedlings age didn't influence the head weight and diameter and the leave number per plant.

  14. Pancreatic islet function in omega-3 fatty acid-depleted rats : Alteration of calcium fluxes and calcium-dependent insulin release

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Oguzhan, Berrin; Louchami, Karim; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Portois, Laurence; Carpentier, Yvon; Malaisse, Willy-Jean; Herchuelz, André; Sener, Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Considering the insufficient supply of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids often prevailing in Western populations, this report deals mainly with alterations of Ca2+ fluxes and Ca2+-dependent insulin secretory events in isolated pancreatic islets from omega-3-depleted rats. In terms of Ca-45(2+) handling, the islets from omega-3-depleted rats, compared with those from normal animals, displayed an unaltered responsiveness to an increase in extracellular K+ concentration, a lower inf...

  15. The Leaf Functional Traits and their Correlation Analysis of Three Seedlings of Magnoliaceae%3种木兰科植物幼苗叶片功能性状及关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 赵广东; 史作民; 王兵; 邓宗富; 夏晨; 王财英; 陈和东

    2016-01-01

    研究了中亚热带木兰科乐昌含笑( Micheliachapensls)、深山含笑( Micheliamaudiae)和观光木( Tsoongioden-dronodorum)2年生幼苗在生长季节的叶厚度、比叶面积、叶干物质含量、叶氮浓度、叶磷浓度和叶氮磷比6种叶片性状的种间差异及其相关性。结果表明:(1)3树种的6个叶片性状表现出了一定的种间差异性,观光木比叶面积、叶干物质含量、叶氮磷比最大,叶氮浓度最高;乐昌含笑叶干物质含量最小,叶氮浓度、叶磷浓度最低;深山含笑叶磷浓度最高,比叶面积、叶氮磷比最小,但3树种叶片的叶厚度无显著性差异( P>0.1)。(2)3树种叶片的叶厚度与叶干物质含量极显著正相关( P<0.01),比叶面积与叶氮浓度显著正相关( P<0.05);叶干物质含量与叶磷浓度显著正相关( P<0.05);叶氮浓度与叶磷浓度极显著正相关( P<0.01)。(3)3树种叶片氮磷比均在9~12,且差异显著( P<0.05)。研究结果显示,3种木兰科树种幼苗叶片的6种功能性状表现出了一定的种间差异性,但同一功能性状的大小顺序和种间差异的显著性不同;同时所有树种幼苗叶片各功能性状间的相关性及其显著程度不同。%Interspecific differences in leaf thickness,specific leaf area,leaf dry matter content,leaf nitrogen concentration,leaf phosphorus concentration,ratio of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and their corre-lation of Micheliachapensls,Micheliamaudiae and Tsoongiodendronodorum two-year seedlings of Magnoliaceae in the mid-subtropical zone of China in the growing season were investigated.The results were as follows:(1) The six leaf trait indicators of the three trees exhibited a certain interspecific difference,among the three tree seedlings,the specific leaf area,leaf dry matter content and ratio of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of

  16. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L

    1973-01-01

    Seedlings of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) were grown in 20-cm pots for 5 to 7 months in the greenhouse following inoculation with a high or low level of one of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus dihystera had no effect on seedling growth. High inoculum densities of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni caused a significant reduction of fresh weight of seedling roots. Root and top weights of seedlings grown in soil infested with Meloidodera floridensis or Pratylenchus brachyurus were significantly less than those of seedlings in noninfested soil. Root growth of seedlings was stimulated by the higher inoculum density of Scutellonema brachyurum.

  17. A Gate-to-gate Case Study of the Life Cycle Assessment of an Oil Palm Seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Surif, Salmijah; Ai, Tan Yew; May, Choo Yuen

    2012-05-01

    The palm oil industry has played an important role in the economic development of Malaysia and has enhanced the economic welfare of its people. To determine the environmental impact of the oil palm seedling at the nursery stage, information on inputs and outputs need to be assessed. The oil palm nursery is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. A gate-to-gate study was carried out whereby the system boundary was set to only include the process of the oil palm seedling. The starting point was a germinated seed in a small polyethylene bag (6 in × 9 in) in which it remained until the seedling was approximately 3 to 4 months old. The seedling was then transferred into a larger polyethylene bag (12 in × 15 in), where it remained until it was 10-12 months old, when it was planted in the field (plantation). The functional unit for this life cycle inventory (LCI) is based on the production of one seedling. Generally, within the system boundary, the production of an oil palm seedling has only two major environmental impact points, the polybags used to grow the seedling and the fungicide (dithiocarbamate) used to control pathogenic fungi, as both the polybags and the dithiocarbamate are derived from fossil fuel.

  18. Seedling establishment in a masting desert shrub parallels the pattern for forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E.; Pendleton, Burton K.

    2015-05-01

    The masting phenomenon along with its accompanying suite of seedling adaptive traits has been well studied in forest trees but has rarely been examined in desert shrubs. Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) is a regionally dominant North American desert shrub whose seeds are produced in mast events and scatter-hoarded by rodents. We followed the fate of seedlings in intact stands vs. small-scale disturbances at four contrasting sites for nine growing seasons following emergence after a mast year. The primary cause of first-year mortality was post-emergence cache excavation and seedling predation, with contrasting impacts at sites with different heteromyid rodent seed predators. Long-term establishment patterns were strongly affected by rodent activity in the weeks following emergence. Survivorship curves generally showed decreased mortality risk with age but differed among sites even after the first year. There were no detectable effects of inter-annual precipitation variability or site climatic differences on survival. Intraspecific competition from conspecific adults had strong impacts on survival and growth, both of which were higher on small-scale disturbances, but similar in openings and under shrub crowns in intact stands. This suggests that adult plants preempted soil resources in the interspaces. Aside from effects on seedling predation, there was little evidence for facilitation or interference beneath adult plant crowns. Plants in intact stands were still small and clearly juvenile after nine years, showing that blackbrush forms cohorts of suppressed plants similar to the seedling banks of closed forests. Seedling banks function in the absence of a persistent seed bank in replacement after adult plant death (gap formation), which is temporally uncoupled from masting and associated recruitment events. This study demonstrates that the seedling establishment syndrome associated with masting has evolved in desert shrublands as well as in forests.

  19. A robust and efficient method for the extraction of plant extracellular surface lipids as applied to the analysis of silks and seedling leaves of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashid, Amani; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lauter, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily of saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons, as well as fatty acids, and aldehydes. To efficiently extract lipids of differing polarities from maize silks, five solvent systems (hexanes; hexanes:diethyl ether (95:5); hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10); chloroform:hexanes (1:1) and chloroform) were tested by immersing fresh silks in solvent for different extraction times. Surface lipid recovery and the relative composition of individual constituents were impacted to varying degrees depending on solvent choice and duration of extraction. Analyses were performed using both silks and leaves to demonstrate the utility of the solvent- and time-optimized protocol in comparison to extraction with the commonly used chloroform solvent. Overall, the preferred solvent system was identified as hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10), based on its effectiveness in extracting surface hydrocarbons and fatty acids as well as its reduced propensity to extract presumed internal fatty acids. Metabolite profiling of wildtype and glossy1 seedlings, which are impaired in surface lipid biosynthesis, demonstrated the ability of the preferred solvent to extract extracellular surface lipids rich in amphipathic compounds (aldehydes and alcohols). In addition to the expected deficiencies in dotriacontanal and dotriacontan-1-ol for gl1 seedlings, an unexpected increase in fatty acid recovery was observed in gl1 seedlings extracted in chloroform, suggesting that chloroform extracts lipids from internal tissues of gl1 seedlings. This highlights the importance of extraction method when evaluating mutants that have altered cuticular lipid compositions. Finally, metabolite profiling of silks from maize inbreds B73

  20. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  1. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  2. Antisense technologies targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshun; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-05-01

    Fatty acid synthesis is a coordinated process involving multiple enzymes. Overexpression of some of these enzymes plays important roles in tumor growth and development. Therefore, these enzymes are attractive targets for cancer therapies. Antisense agents provide highly specific inhibition of the expression of target genes and thus have served as powerful tools for gene functional studies and potential therapeutic agents for cancers. This article reviews different types of antisense agents and their applications in the modulation of fatty acid synthesis. Patents of antisense agents targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes are introduced. In addition, miR-122 has been shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes, and thus antisense agent patents that inhibit miR-122 expression are also discussed.

  3. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    Full Text Available Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet, 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg(-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg(-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01, up to 31.04 mg kg(-1, with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg(-1 PA exhibited higher (P<0.01 docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg(-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal

  4. Crescimento, nutrição mineral e nível crítico foliar de K em mudas de umbuzeiro, em função da adubação potássica Growth, mineral nutrition and foliar critical level of K in umbuzeiro seedlings, in function of the potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. é uma frutífera originária da região nordeste do Brasil e se caracteriza pela alta tolerância à seca. O crescimento, a nutrição mineral e o nível crítico foliar de potássio em mudas de umbuzeiros crescidas num Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em função de doses de potássio, foram avaliados neste experimento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e seis doses de potássio (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 e 480 mg dm-3. A adubação potássica foi realizada parceladamente, em quatro aplicações, tendo como fontes o sulfato de potássio e o cloreto de potássio. Enquanto para atingir a máxima produção de folhas a dose de potássio foi de 137 mg dm-3, a máxima produção de raízes só aconteceu na dose de 229 mg dm-3. Os teores foliares de potássio nas mudas do umbuzeiro aumentaram com a adubação potássica. O nível crítico de potássio nas folhas das mudas do umbuzeiro variou de 3,40 a 6,04 g kg-1.The umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is original of the Northeast of Brazil and it is characterized by tolerance to the drought. The growth, the mineral nutrition and the foliar critical level of potassium in umbuzeiro seedlings, grown in distroferric Red Latosol, in function of potassium doses, were evaluated in this experiment. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and six doses of potassium (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480, mg dm-3. The potassium fertilization was accomplished in four applications, and the used sources were potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride. The highest production of leaves occurred in the dose of 137 mg dm-3 of potassium and the highest production of roots at the dose of 229 mg dm-3 of potassium. The foliar contents of potassium in the umbuzeiro seedlings increased with the potassium fertilization. The critical level of potassium in the leaves of the umbuzeiro seedlings ranged from 3

  5. Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Seedlings were grown for 8 weeks in nursery bags filled with sandy-loam soil in two categories.

  6. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  7. Dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deline, Marshall L; Vrablik, Tracy L; Watts, Jennifer L

    2013-11-29

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acid sodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method.

  8. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  9. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on the Drought Tolerance of Poncirus trifoliata Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qiangsheng; Xia Renxue; Hu Zhengjia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Glomus mosseae colonization on the plant growth and drought tolerance of 1-year-old trifoliate Poncirus trifoliata seedlings in potted culture were studied in natural water stress and rewatering conditions.Results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)inoculation significantly improved the height,stem diameter,and fresh weight of P.trifoliata seedlings before natural water stress.By the end of the experiment,the survival percentage of AM-transplanted seedlings was 8%higher than those of non-AM ones.During water stress and rewatering,AM significantly increased the contents of soluble sugars and proteins in leaves,and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD),and catalase (CAT) in either seedling leaves or roots,which indicated that AM colonization could improve the osmotic adjustment response of P.trifoliata,enhance its defense system,and alleviate oxidative damages to membrane lipids and proteins.These results demonstrated that the drought tolerance of P.trifoliata seedlings was increased by inoculation with AM fungi.The functional mechanism underlying the observation that mycorrhizas increased the host's drought tolerance was closely related to enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems such as SOD,GPOD,CAT,and soluble protein.

  10. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Méndez-Hurtado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them.

  11. Tolerance to cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) seeds and seedlings from sites contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Marcus; Těšitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    For germination and establishment, orchids depend on carbon (C) and nutrients supplied by mycorrhizal fungi. As adults, the majority of orchids then appear to become autotrophic. To compare the proportional C and nitrogen (N) gain from fungi in mycoheterotrophic seedlings and in adults, here we examined in the field C and N stable isotope compositions in seedlings and adults of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Using a new highly sensitive approach, we measured the isotope compositions of seedlings and adults of four orchid species belonging to different functional groups: fully and partially mycoheterotrophic orchids associated with narrow or broad sets of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and two adult putatively autotrophic orchids associated exclusively with saprotrophic fungi. Seedlings of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi were enriched in (13) C and (15) N similarly to fully mycoheterotrophic adults. Seedlings of saprotroph-associated orchids were also enriched in (13) C and (15) N, but unexpectedly their enrichment was significantly lower, making them hardly distinguishable from their respective adult stages and neighbouring autotrophic plants. We conclude that partial mycoheterotrophy among saprotroph-associated orchids cannot be identified unequivocally based on C and N isotope compositions alone. Thus, partial mycoheterotrophy may be much more widely distributed among orchids than hitherto assumed.

  13. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Bodner, Gernot; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries.

  15. The fungi causin damping-off of carrot seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When 136 samples of dying carrot seedlings from several fields were analyzed Alternaria rudicina proved to be the most common seedling pathogen (41%, followed by some Fusarium species (27%, mostly F. avenaceum.The less common seedling pathogens were Pythium spp. (13%, Phoma spp.(2,5% and Botrytis cinerea (1,4%. Some other fungi (Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium botryosym and Ulocladium consortiale were found in less than 1% of seedlings examined.

  16. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  17. Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

  18. Discussion on Pipe Model through Hydraulic Architecture of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAIHongbo; LIJiyue; NIELishui

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the hydraulic architecture parameters of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings (4 years old) were measured by improved flushing method under normal water condition in the green house and the basic theory of hydraulic architecture is used to discuss the rationality of the pipe model. The results of the experiment and simulation show that the differences of hydraulic conductivity, specific conductivity and leaf specific conductivity is great in different stems and branches of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. The hydraulic conductivity of non-constriction area is higher than that of constriction area. The devotion of functional xylem of stem to unit leaf growth is not a constant, namely, the Huber value is diverse. Even though the pipe model has been accepted in some areas, its precondition is not perfect, and it is helpless in correctly understanding the essence of water transport in seedlings from the prospective of water physiology.

  19. Emerging roles for specific fatty acids in developmental processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals synthesize a vast range of fatty acids serving diverse cellular functions. The roles of specific fatty acids in early development are just beginning to be characterized. In this Perspective, a study by Kniazeva et al. (in the March 15, 2012, issue) that describes the particular combination of a branched chain fatty acid and an acyl-CoA synthetase required for critical cellular processes during early embryogenesis in C. elegans is discussed.

  20. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...

  1. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  2. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  3. [Influence of seedling assortment on Panax notoginseng growth and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X; Wang, C; Chen, Z

    1998-02-01

    Making Panax notoginseng seedling assortment according to seedling size before transplanting, the result shows that the influence is better, the yield of root tuber and fruit is higher. Culturing good seedling is the fundamental measure to increase yield of P. notoginseng.

  4. Seed mucilage improves seedling emergence of a sand desert shrub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Yang

    Full Text Available The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively. Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment.

  5. Analysis of liver function indexes and blood lipid, glucose test results in patients with fatty liver%脂肪肝患者血脂血糖及肝功能指标相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣国

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of liver enzymes index and blood lipid in patients fatty liver. Methods Total of 1219 patients with health examination select 276 cases with fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasound as a test group, 219 cases of abnormal indicators of healthy people as a control group, to analyze the two indicators comparison with statistical of the results. Results There was difference between the serum ALT, AST, TG, TC and glucose and GGT of treatment group and control group. The differences was statistically signiifcant (all P>0.05). conclusions There were obviously abnormality of serum liver function and abnormal lipid and glucose abnormalities disorders in patients with fatty liver.%目的:探讨脂肪肝患者血脂血糖和肝功能指标变化的相关性。方法在1219例体检者中,选择经超声诊断的脂肪肝患者276例作为脂肪肝组,219例无指标异常的健康人作为对照组,把两组人员血脂血糖和肝功能指标结果进行统计学对比分析。结果脂肪肝组甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC),血糖(GLU),ALT、AST、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γ-GGT)均显著高于对照组,差异均有显著统计学意义(P均>0.05)。结论脂肪肝患者不仅存在明显的肝功能异常,而且血脂血糖代谢也异常紊乱。

  6. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  7. Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. isolated from wheat seedlings plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yu, Hongshan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-07-01

    Strain THG-SQM11(T), a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, was isolated from wheat seedlings plant in P. R. China. Strain THG-SQM11(T) was closely related to members of the genus Acinetobacter and showed the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarities with Acinetobacter junii (97.9 %) and Acinetobacter kookii (96.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization showed 41.3 ± 2.4 % DNA reassociation with A. junii KCTC 12416(T). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain THG-SQM11(T) possesses ubiquinone-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18:1 ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol %. These data, together with phenotypic characterization, suggest that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-SQM11(T) as the type strain (=CCTCC AB 2015123(T) =KCTC 42611(T)).

  8. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  10. Salt stress-induced seedling growth inhibition coincides with differential distribution of serotonin and melatonin in sunflower seedling roots and cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumya; David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Baluška, František; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2014-12-01

    Indoleamines regulate a variety of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis and stress-induced responses in plants. Present investigations report the effect of NaCl stress on endogenous serotonin and melatonin accumulation and their differential spatial distribution in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedling roots and cotyledons using HPLC and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments lead to variable effect on hypocotyl elongation and root growth under NaCl stress. NaCl stress for 48 h increases endogenous serotonin and melatonin content in roots and cotyledons, thus indicating their involvement in salt-induced long distance signaling from roots to cotyledons. Salt stress-induced accumulation of serotonin and melatonin exhibits differential distribution in the vascular bundles and cortex in the differentiating zones of the primary roots, suggesting their compartmentalization in the growing region of roots. Serotonin and melatonin accumulation in oil body rich cells of salt-treated seedling cotyledons correlates with longer retention of oil bodies in the cotyledons. Present investigations indicate the possible role of serotonin and melatonin in regulating root growth during salt stress in sunflower. Effect of exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments (15 μM) on sunflower seedlings grown in the absence or presence of 120 mM NaCl substantiates their role on seedling growth. Auxin and serotonin biosynthesis are coupled to the common precursor tryptophan. Salt stress-induced root growth inhibition, thus pertains to partial impairment of auxin functions caused by increased serotonin biosynthesis. In seedling cotyledons, NaCl stress modulates the activity of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; EC 2.1.1.4), the enzyme responsible for melatonin biosynthesis from N-acetylserotonin.

  11. A Mutation in Arabidopsis SEEDLING PLASTID DEVELOPMENT1 Affects Plastid Differentiation in Embryo-Derived Tissues during Seedling Growth1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Nicholas J.; Logsdon, Charles A.; Whippo, Craig W.; Inoue, Kentaro; Hangarter, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed plants like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) develop green photosynthetically active embryos. Upon seed maturation, the embryonic chloroplasts degenerate into a highly reduced plastid type called the eoplast. Upon germination, eoplasts redifferentiate into chloroplasts and other plastid types. Here, we describe seedling plastid development1 (spd1), an Arabidopsis seedling albino mutant capable of producing normal green vegetative tissues. Mutant seedlings also display defects in etioplast and amyloplast development. Precocious germination of spd1 embryos showed that the albino seedling phenotype of spd1 was dependent on the passage of developing embryos through the degreening and dehydration stages of seed maturation, suggesting that SPD1 is critical during eoplast development or early stages of eoplast redifferentiation. The SPD1 gene was found to encode a protein containing a putative chloroplast-targeting sequence in its amino terminus and also domains common to P-loop ATPases. Chloroplast localization of the SPD1 protein was confirmed by targeting assays in vivo and in vitro. Although the exact function of SPD1 remains to be defined, our findings reveal aspects of plastid development unique to embryo-derived cells. PMID:21045120

  12. Fatty acids, eicosanoids and PPAR gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Savoye, Guillaume; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the family of nuclear nuclear receptors and is mainly expressed in adipose tissue, hematopoietic cells and the large intestine. Contrary to other nuclear receptors that mainly bind a single specific ligand, there are numerous natural PPARγ ligands, in particular fatty acids or their derivatives called eicosanoids. PPARγ have pleiotropic functions: (i) glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, (ii) anti-inflammatory properties, (iii) oxidative stress inhibition, (iv) improvement of endothelial function. Its role has been mainly studied by the use synthetic agonists. In this review, we will focus on the effects of PPARγ mediated through fatty acids and how these have beneficial health properties.

  13. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  14. Targets for modulation of fatty acid oxidation in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2004-03-01

    Fatty acids are a major source of fuel used by the heart to provide large amounts of energy necessary to sustain contractile function. In the healthy heart, a balance between fatty acid and carbohydrate use ensures that energy supply to the heart matches demand. However, myocardial ischemia causes profound changes in metabolism, including alterations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that can lead to excessive myocardial fatty acid oxidation, which occurs at the expense of glucose oxidation. This contributes to cellular acidosis, a decrease in cardiac efficiency and contractile dysfunction in the ischemic heart. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation has recently emerged as a promising approach to the prevention of these adverse effects of fatty acids. As a result, a number of key enzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in myocardial ischemia. This includes inhibition of fatty acid uptake into the myocyte, inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake and direct inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation. This review describes these potential targets for modulation of energy metabolism in the heart.

  15. Characterization of rhizobacteria associated with weed seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, R J; Begonia, M F; Stanley, L; Lanham, E T

    1990-06-01

    Rhizobacteria were isolated from seedlings of seven economically important weeds and characterized for potential phytopathogenicity, effects on seedling growth, and antibiosis to assess the possibility of developing deleterious rhizobacteria as biological control agents. The abundance and composition of rhizobacteria varied among the different weed species. For example, fluorescent pseudomonads represented from 11 to 42% of the total rhizobacterial populations from jimsonweed and lambsquarters, respectively. Other bacteria frequently isolated were nonfluorescent pseudomonads, Erwinia herbicola, Alcaligenes spp., and Flavobacterium spp. Only 18% of all isolates were potentially phytopathogenic, based on an Escherichia coli indicator bioassay. However, the proportion of isolates that inhibited growth in seedling assays ranged from 35 to 65% depending on the weed host. Antibiosis was most prevalent among isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., the activity of which was due to siderophore production in over 75% of these isolates. Overall, rhizobacterial isolates exhibited a complex array of properties that were inconsistent with accepted definitions for plant growth-promoting and deleterious rhizobacteria. It is suggested that for development of effective biological control agents for weed control, deleterious rhizobacteria must be screened directly on host seedlings and must possess several properties including high colonizing ability, specific phytotoxin production, and resistance or tolerance to antibiotics produced by other rhizosphere microorganisms, and they must either synthesize or utilize other bacterial siderophores.

  16. Phylogeny and functional divergence of ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase families%ω-6和ω-3脂肪酸脱氢酶家族系统进化与功能分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官玲亮; 侯凯; 陈郡雯; 徐应文; 吴卫

    2013-01-01

    The deduced amino acid sequences characteristics, phylogeny, and functional diverge of co-6 and co-3 fatty acid desaturase families were analyzed by using Bioinformatics methods. The results showed that all the deduced amino acid sequences shared three highly conserved histidine rich motifs (Hisbox). All the plastidial co-6 and co-3 fatty acid de- saturases possessed putative N-terminal signal peptide with different amino acids. A relatively conserved hydrophobic region composed of 10 amino-acid residues was found in the middle of signal peptides, which is presumed to be the functional region of the signal peptide of these enzymes. Most of the plant microsomal co-6 and co-3 fatty acid desaturases (FAD 2 and FADS) contained a KKXX-like motif of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal at the C-terminus. However, no such motif was detected in saffiower CtFAD2-3, CtFAD2-4, CtFAD2-5, CtFAD2-6, and CtFAD2-7, while an aromatic aa enriched signal (YKNK) was found at their C-terminus which has been reported to be both necessary and sufficient for maintaining localization of the enzymes in the ER. All the amino acid sequences were divided into four categories through phylogenetic analysis. It was suggested that co-3 fatty acid desaturase originates in a prokaryotic lineage from co-6 fatty acid desaturase. Both plastidial and microsomal co-3 fatty acid desaturases could be divided into dicotyledonous and monocoty-ledonous subgroups, which inferred that functional differentiation of plastidial and microsomal co-3 fatty acid desaturases had been formed before the divergence of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. Seed type and housekeeping type FAD2 diverged after the formation of dicotyledonous plants. Except for plant FAD3/plant FAD2, posterior probability values over 0.80 amino acid sites were identified among the functional differentiation subsets, which were mainly distributed at the front and back end of Hisbox I, and the front end of Hisbox II. This indicated

  17. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  18. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  19. Water management in hardening Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of seedling height and irrigation management on M. ilicilofia seedlings. The experiment used a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Seedlings of two height classes (greater than or less than 18.0 cm were subjected to three irrigation regimes (daily irrigation, irrigation every other day, and gradual reduction of irrigation. After eight weeks, the morphophysiological and performance attributes of the seedlings were quantified. Gradual reduction of irrigation promoted the highest rate of net carbon assimilation. Irrigating every other day resulted in greater secondary growth rate, biomass accumulation in the shoot and root tissues, and lower electrolyte leakage rate. After planting, these treatments maintained higher leaf relative water content (RWC. RWC in seedlings smaller than 18 cm was significantly higher until the third week after planting. Therefore, larger seedlings submitted to hardening by gradually reducing irrigation improves seedling quality.

  20. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letley Louise

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance.

  1. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  2. Postfire seedling dynamics and performance in Pinus halepensis Mill. populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakou, Evangelia N.; Thanos, Costas A.

    2010-09-01

    Postfire dynamics of Aleppo pine seedling density, survival and growth were assessed in five burned forests of Attica, Greece (Stamata, Villia, Avlona, Kapandriti and Agios Stefanos) through the establishment of permanent experimental plots. All emerging seedlings were tagged and their survival and growth monitored at regular intervals. Seedling density dynamics show an initial, steep increase (to maximum values 2.9-4.6 seedlings m -2) followed by a gradual decrease that levels off at the second and third postfire year (1.3-3.0 seedlings m -2); similarly, postfire seedling survival more or less stabilised at 30-50%, 2-3 years after fire. On the basis of density and mortality trends as well as relevant bibliographic data, it is predicted that very dense, mature forests (10.000 trees ha -1 or more) will be reinstated within 15-20 years. During the first 5-7 postfire years, seedling/sapling annual height followed linear trends with various yearly rates, ranging mostly between 8 and 15 cm (and 27-30 cm in two exceptional, fast growing cases). Within an individual growth season, seedling height dynamics were found to follow sigmoid curves with growth increment peaks in mid-spring. The time (on a monthly basis) of seedling emergence did not affect seedling growth or survival. On the other hand, for the first time under natural conditions, it has been shown that cotyledon number per seedling, an indirect measure of both seed size and initial photosynthetic capacity, significantly affected seedling survival but not growth. Seedlings bearing a higher number of cotyledons, presumably derived from larger seeds, showed greater survival at the end of the first postfire year than seedlings with fewer cotyledons. A postfire selective pressure, favouring large seed size, is postulated to counteract with a contrasting one, which favours small seed size, expressed during fire-free conditions.

  3. Molecular identification and functional characterization of the fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein gene Rs-far-1 in the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein (FAR is a nematode-specific protein expressed in the nematode hypodermis. It is involved in nematode development, reproduction, and infection and can disrupt the plant defense reaction. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the far gene from Radopholus similis (Rs-far-1, which is 828 bp long and includes a 558 bp ORF encoding 186 amino acids. A protein homology analysis revealed that Rs-FAR-1 is 75% similar to Mj-FAR-1 from Meloidogyne javanica. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was inferred and showed that Rs-FAR-1 is most similar to Pv-FAR-1 from Pratylenchus vulnus. A fluorescence-based ligand-binding analysis confirmed that Rs-FAR-1 can combine with fatty acids and retinol. qPCR was used to assess Rs-far-1 expression levels at different developmental stages in different R. similis populations, and its expression was 2.5 times greater in the highly pathogenic Rs-C population than in the less pathogenic Rs-P population. The highest expression was found in females, followed by eggs, juveniles and males. When R. similis was treated with Rs-far-1 dsRNA for 36 h, the reproduction and pathogenicity decreased significantly. In situ hybridization revealed Rs-far-1 transcripts in the R. similis hypodermis. Additionally, R. similis treated with Rs-far-1 dsRNA or water were inoculated into Arabidopsis thaliana. Allene oxide synthase (AOS expression in A. thaliana was upregulated during early infection in both treatments and then returned to the expression levels of the control plant. Compared with the control plant, AOS expression significantly decreased in A. thaliana inoculated with water-treated R. similis but significantly increased in A. thaliana inoculated with Rs-far-1 dsRNA-treated R. similis. This finding indicates that Rs-far-1 regulates AOS expression in A. thaliana. Rs-FAR-1 plays a critical role in R. similis development, reproduction, and infection and can disturb the plant

  4. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, John C; Battles, John J

    2010-11-01

    In semi-arid regions, a major population limitation for riparian trees is seedling desiccation during the dry season that follows annual spring floods. We investigated the stress response of first-year pioneer riparian seedlings to experimental water table declines (0, 1 and 3 cm day(-1)), focusing on the three dominant cottonwood and willows (family Salicaceae) in California's San Joaquin Basin. We analyzed growth and belowground allocation response to water stress, and used logistic regression to determine if these traits had an influence on individual survival. The models indicate that high root growth (>3 mm day(-1)) and low shoot:root ratios (water-use efficiency for surviving water stress. Both S. gooddingii and sandbar willow (S. exigua) reduced leaf size from controls, whereas Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) sustained a 29% reduction in specific leaf area (from 13.4 to 9.6 m(2) kg(-1)). The functional responses exhibited by Goodding's willow, the more drought-tolerant species, may play a role in its greater relative abundance in dry regions such as the San Joaquin Basin. This study highlights the potential for a shift in riparian forest composition. Under a future drier climate regime or under reduced regulated river flows, our results suggest that willow establishment will be favored over cottonwood.

  5. Persistent rotating shift work exposure is a tough second hit contributing to abnormal liver function among on-site workers having sonographic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between elevated serum alanine-transaminase (e-ALT) and persistent rotating shift work (p-RSW) among employees with sonographic fatty liver (SFL), the authors performed a retrospective analysis on a cohort of electronics manufacturing workers. The records of 758 workers (507 men, 251 women) with initially normal ALT and a mean age of 32.9 years were analyzed. A total of 109 workers (14.4%) developed e-ALT after 5 years. Compared with those having neither initial SFL nor p-RSW exposure, multivariate analysis indicated that employees who had initial SFL but without p-RSW finally had a higher risk (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-5.1) for developing e-ALT; workers with baseline SFL plus p-RSW had a 3.7-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.8-7.5). SFL poses a conspicuous risk for the development of e-ALT, and persistent p-RSW exposure significantly aggravates the development of e-ALT among on-site workers with preexisting SFL.

  6. On the biomechanics of seedling anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Edmaier, Katharina; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a minimal model for the response of vegetation to pullout constraints at early development stage. We try to capture both the average mechanical properties of the root system and the stochastic component of the uprooting process of seedlings. We identify a minimal set of relevant physical components in the purpose of quantifying the uprooting process: length of the root fibres, elastic response of the fibres and adhesion between the roots and the soil matrix. We present for validation a dataset extracted from Edmaier et al. (under revision), accounting for 98 uprooting experiments using Avena sativa L. seedlings (common oat), growing in non-cohesive sediment under controlled conditions. The corresponding root system has a very simple architecture, with three root fibres of different lengths. The response of the system to the constraint is however complex: the stress-strain signal presents sudden jumps followed by partial elastic recoveries. The analysis of the jumps and partial recoveries gives an insight into the resilience of the system. The anchorage of less mature seedlings rapidly collapses after the peak force has been reached, while more mature seedlings usually recover from partial failures. We explore this crossover with our validation dataset. The type of seedlings we study has been used in flume experiments investigating the feedbacks between the vegetation and the river morphodynamics (see for example Perona et al. (2012)). An understanding of the characteristics of the uprooting curve (maximal uprooting force and total uprooting work) of such vegetation reveals the ability of seedlings to withstand environmental constraints in terms of duration or intensity (see Edmaier et al., under revision), and is therefore helpful for planning future experiments. REFERENCES - P. Perona, P. Molnar, B. Crouzy, E. Perucca, Z. Jiang, S. McLelland, D. Wüthrich, K. Edmaier, R. Francis, C. Camporeale, et al., Biomass selection by floods and related timescales

  7. Challenges in forest reclamation of marginal lands: a balance between site conditions and seedling quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring worldwide, but at the same time efforts in forest restoration are ever increasing. While approaches to restoration often follow specific stakeholder objectives, regional climates and the degree of site degradation also play an important role in the prioritization of restoration efforts. Often the restoration of degraded lands can satisfy only few measurable objectives; however, to design and restore resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to changing conditions, there is a need for new and adaptive management approaches. Mining and other resource extraction industries are affecting more and more forested areas worldwide. A priority in the reclamation and certification of forest lands disturbed by industrial activity is their expeditious redevelopment to functioning forests. To rehabilitate these heavily disturbed areas back to forest ecosystems, planting of trees remains one of the most effective strategies for the redevelopment of a continuous tree canopy on a site. It is well understood that access to good quality seedling stock is essential to achieve establishment success and early growth of seedlings. However, most reclamation areas have challenging initial site conditions and these conditions are often not a single factor but a combination of factors that can be additive or synergistic. Therefore successful forest restoration on degraded lands needs to consider multiple objectives and approaches to minimize trade-offs in achieving these objectives. To meet these demands, new methods for the production and evaluation of seedling stock types are needed to ensure that that seedlings are fit to grow on a wide range of site conditions or are particularly designed to grow in very specific conditions. Generally, defining seedling quality is difficult as it is species specific and results have been mixed; likely influenced by site conditions, further reiterating the need to carefully evaluate sites allowing

  8. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be

  9. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  10. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Imparts Partial Protection from Salt Stress Injury to Maize Seedlings by Improving Photosynthesis and Upregulating Osmoprotectants and Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Meng, Yao; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2017-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has high physiological activity in plant stress physiology. This study showed that the application of exogenous GABA by root drenching to moderately (MS, 150 mM salt concentration) and severely salt-stressed (SS, 300 mM salt concentration) plants significantly increased endogenous GABA concentration and improved maize seedling growth but decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity compared with non-treated ones. Exogenous GABA alleviated damage to membranes, increased in proline and soluble sugar content in leaves, and reduced water loss. After the application of GABA, maize seedling leaves suffered less oxidative damage in terms of superoxide anion (O2·−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. GABA-treated MS and SS maize seedlings showed increased enzymatic antioxidant activity compared with that of untreated controls, and GABA-treated MS maize seedlings had a greater increase in enzymatic antioxidant activity than SS maize seedlings. Salt stress severely damaged cell function and inhibited photosynthesis, especially in SS maize seedlings. Exogenous GABA application could reduce the accumulation of harmful substances, help maintain cell morphology, and improve the function of cells during salt stress. These effects could reduce the damage to the photosynthetic system from salt stress and improve photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. GABA enhanced the salt tolerance of maize seedlings. PMID:28272438

  11. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  12. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K

    1974-10-01

    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  13. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    -oxidation. No functional influence on unsaturated fatty acid metabolism and platelet aggregation in patients with PKU was detected.

  14. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  15. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Salm

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. Th...

  16. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveillei, Kaissleriella subalpina, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora cinnamomi occurred less frequently.

  17. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kowalik; Agnieszka Wandzel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveille...

  18. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  19. Essential fatty acids and their metabolites could function as endogenous HMG-CoA reductase and ACE enzyme inhibitors, anti-arrhythmic, anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and cardioprotective molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-10-01

    -factors that are necessary for their appropriate action/metabolism is as beneficial as that of the combined use of a statin, thiazide, a β blocker, and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, folic acid, and aspirin. Furthermore, appropriate combination of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids may even show additional benefits in the form of protection from depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and enhances cognitive function; and serve as endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules; and could be administered from childhood for life long.

  20. Pathogenicity of P. terrestris on Maize Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of P. terrestris was determined by the Knop’s medium slants method intest tubes. Isolates originated from the roots of maize (Zea mays L., barley (Hordeum vulgareL., Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense Pers., sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L. Moench., garlic(Allium sativum L., onion (Allium cepa L., barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.Beauv.and green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P.B.. A fragment of a fungal colony, cultivated on PDA,was placed on the bottom of Knop’s medium slant in each test tube and then steriliseda maize seed was placed 2 cm away from the inoculum. After 21-day inoculation of seeds,the intensity of the development of symptoms on maize seedlings was estimated. The reddishor dark pigment on the root, mesocotyl and/or coleoptyl of seedlings was an indicatorfor the infection by the fungus under in vitro conditions. Based on the pathogenicity test,the isolates were classified into the following three groups: slightly (3 isolates, moderately(6 isolates and very pathogenic (6 isolates to maize seedlings. The obtained results showthat P. terrestris, originating from different hosts, can be a maize pathogen. These resultscan explain the high frequency and high incidence of this fungus on maize roots in Serbia.

  1. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  2. Propagation of Cucumber Seedlings in Different Organic and Inorganic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cinkilİc

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of using grape marc and cinder an alternative media to peat for cucumber propagation and find out the results.In the study;normal grape marc, normal grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, ground grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, cinder+25% süper coarse perlite, peat+25% süper coarse perlite and peat were used, the best results were obtained from grape marc + 25% super coarse perlite in stem diameter, number of true leaves, weight of seedling, width of seedling, length of leaves and width of leaves; from peat + 25% super coarse perlite in length of seedling, length of seedling with root, weight of root, weight of seedling with root and length of root. The cinder which is the residue of burned coal, gave the worst results in all seedling properties.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  4. Light intensity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis L. f. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C. P. Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effects of the luminosity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis seedlings. Thus, in a substrate composed by topsoil + wood powder (1:1 the seedlings were grown into plastic tubets containing 0.3 dm3 of such substrate, or into plastic pots containing 1.0 dm3 of the same substrate, and subjected to 50 and 25% shading or full sunlight. The assessments were performed every two weeks by measuring plant height and stem diameter, during eight weeks period. At the end of this period, the leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, the ratio between height of plant/diameter of stem, and the Dickson quality index were also assessed. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial [3 luminosity levels (50, 25% shading and full sunlight x 2 types of containers (plastic tubets and clay pots] with four replicates of 10 seedlings each. Means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level and adjustments for the non-linear regression polynomial curves for the assessed characteristics were computed in function of time. Shadings of 25 and 50% were the best alternatives to luminosity; and the tubets were the most suitable containers for production of Cassia grandis seedlings.

  5. Identification and Quantitative Analysis of Significantly Accumulated Proteins During the Arabidopsis Seedling De-etiolation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Chen Wang; Ying-Hong Pan; Da-Zhe Meng; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on seedlings after different light treatments. A total of (1 350±31) protein spots was separated and visualized on each silver nitrate-stained two-dimensional gel using protein samples prepared from light-grown or etiolated seedlings with or without 6-9 h light treatment. Twenty-five protein spots (encoded by 19 genes) that were significantly accumulated upon light treatment were identified using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Functional proteomics indicated that these proteins involved mainly in chloroplast development, energy metabolism,cell cycle progression and membrane electron transport. For 18 of the protein-coding genes we identified through an internet search, the transcript levels of 17 genes matched roughly with their protein content in etiolated and green seedlings, suggesting that these genes were regulated by light mainly at the transcriptional level. Despite a very significant increase in the amount of proteins upon light treatment, similar RNA levels were found in dark-grown or green seedlings for the carbonic anhydrase gene At3g05100, indicating a possible post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. Elucidation of light-induced protein accumulation will undoubtedly enhance our understanding of plant photomorphogenesis.

  6. Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

  7. Longleaf pine bud development: influence of seedling nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Barnett; D. P. Jackson; R. K. Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    A subset of seedlings from a larger study (Jackson and others 2006, 2007) were selected and evaluated for two growing seasons to relate bud development, and root-collar diameter (RCD), and height growth with three nursery fertilization rates. We chose seedlings in the 0.5 (lowest), 2.0 (mid-range), and 4.0 (highest) mg of nitrogen per seedling treatments. Buds moved...

  8. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça; Lucas Gonçalves Ribeiro; José Roque Azevedo Assunção; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; Josival Santos Souza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container) and 10 repetitions, with 64 s...

  9. Human placenta metabolizes fatty acids: implications for fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders and maternal liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Prem; Bennett, Michael J; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael; Rakheja, Dinesh; Strauss, Arnold W

    2003-06-01

    The role of fat metabolism during human pregnancy and in placental growth and function is poorly understood. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders in an affected fetus are associated with maternal diseases of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and the hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome called HELLP. We have investigated the developmental expression and activity of six fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes at various gestational-age human placentas. Placental specimens exhibited abundant expression of all six enzymes, as assessed by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses, with greater staining in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with other placental cell types. beta-Oxidation enzyme activities in placental tissues were higher early in gestation and lower near term. Trophoblast cells in culture oxidized tritium-labeled palmitate and myristate in substantial amounts, indicating that the human placenta utilizes fatty acids as a significant metabolic fuel. Thus human placenta derives energy from fatty acid oxidation, providing a potential explanation for the association of fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders with maternal liver diseases in pregnancy.

  10. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  11. Fatty acid synthase is a key target in multiple essential tumor functions of prostate cancer: uptake of radiolabeled acetate as a predictor of the targeted therapy outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Yoshii

    Full Text Available Fatty acid synthase (FASN expression is elevated in several cancers, and this over-expression is associated with poor prognosis. Inhibitors of FASN, such as orlistat, reportedly show antitumor effects against cancers that over-express FASN, making FASN a promising therapeutic target. However, large variations in FASN expression levels in individual tumors have been observed, and methods to predict FASN-targeted therapy outcome before treatment are required to avoid unnecessary treatment. In addition, how FASN inhibition affects tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we showed the method to predict FASN-targeted therapy outcome using radiolabeled acetate uptake and presented mechanisms of FASN inhibition with human prostate cancer cell lines, to provide the treatment strategy of FASN-targeted therapy. We revealed that tumor uptake of radiolabeled acetate reflected the FASN expression levels and sensitivity to FASN-targeted therapy with orlistat in vitro and in vivo. FASN-targeted therapy was noticeably effective against tumors with high FASN expression, which was indicated by high acetate uptake. To examine mechanisms, we established FASN knockdown prostate cancer cells by transduction of short-hairpin RNA against FASN and investigated the characteristics by analyses on morphology and cell behavior and microarray-based gene expression profiling. FASN inhibition not only suppressed cell proliferation but prevented pseudopodia formation and suppressed cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. FASN inhibition also suppressed genes involved in production of intracellular second messenger arachidonic acid and androgen hormones, both of which promote tumor progression. Collectively, our data demonstrated that uptake of radiolabeled acetate is a useful predictor of FASN-targeted therapy outcome. This suggests that [1-(11C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET could be a powerful tool to accomplish personalized FASN-targeted therapy by non

  12. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, ... The aim of this review is to critically discuss short-chain fatty acids production and the ... Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the ...

  13. Omega 3 fatty acids, gestation and pregnancy outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Prieto-Sánchez, María Teresa; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    .... Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus...

  14. Effects of Supplementing Different Ratios of Short-medium Chain Fatty Acids and Long Chain Fatty Acids on the Immune Function in Mid-lactating Dairy Cows%日粮添加不同比例的中短链和长链脂肪酸对奶牛免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓燕; 卜登攀; 孙鹏; 崔海; 赵小伟; 孙妍; 赵国琦

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing different ratios of short-medium chain fatty acids (SMCFA) and long chain fatty acids (LCFA) on the immune function in mid-lactating dairy cows. Seventy-two Chinese Holstein cows were blocked by the milk yield, lactation day age and parity, and then assigned to six groups. The animals were fed 0 g/d, 400 g/d LCFA, 80 g/d SMCFA, 320 g/d LCFA, 400 g/d butter fat, 240 g/d SMCFA and 160 g/d LCFA and 400 g/d SMCFA respectively on the basis of ordinary diets for the control) group A, group B,group C, group D and group E. The experiment lasted 63 days and on the last day, blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of serum IgA, IgG, IgM, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines. The results showed that among all the groups, IgM and PGE2 were not affected by supplementing fatty acids (P>0. 05). The concentrations of IgA in group A was higher than that in groups B and E and the concentrations of IgG in groups B and D were higher than the other four groups (P<0. 05). Interleukin-4 and 10 increased after supplementing fatty acids, especially in group D(P<0. 01). In conclusion, supplementing fatty acids which consisted of 240 g/d SMCFA and 160 g/d LCFA could improve the immune functions in mid-lactating dairy cows well.%为探讨不同比例的中短链和长链脂肪酸混合物对奶牛免疫功能的影响,试验选用72头产奶量、胎次及泌乳日龄相近的中国荷斯坦奶牛,按随机区组试验设计,分为对照组和5个处理组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,处理组在基础日粮上分别添加400 g/d长链脂肪酸(LCFA,A组)、80 g/d中短链脂肪酸(SMCFA)+320 g/d LCFA(B组)、400 g/d黄油(C组)、240 g/dSMCFA+160 g/d LCFA(D组)及400 g/d SMCFA(E组).试验期为63 d,第1周为预试期,试验期最后1d采集血液样品,用于测定血清中免疫球蛋白及细胞因子的含量.结果显示,日粮添加不同比例的中短链和长链脂肪酸对奶牛血

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that antioxidation mechanisms contribute to cold tolerance in plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-12-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals that Antioxidation Mechanisms Contribute to Cold Tolerance in Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.;ABB Group) Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaosong Yang; Junhua Wu; Chunyu Li; Yuerong Wei; Ou Sheng; Chunhua Hu; Ruibin Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Banana and its close relative,plantain are globally important crops and there is of considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation.Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared to banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars.In this study,we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress.Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0,6 and 24 h of cold stress at 8℃ and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28℃.A total of 3,477 plantain proteins were identified,of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments.The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction,including oxylipin biosynthesis,while others were associated with photosynthesis,photorespiration and several primary metabolic processes,such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation.Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on 7 differentially expressed,cold-response candidate plantain proteins in order to validate the proteomics data.Similar analyses of the 7 candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species.Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays,demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable.Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability,reduced production of ROS and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the higher cold tolerance in plantain.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by proteomic analysis.

  17. Essential fatty acids in extruded and raw dog foods

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Juni S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections: section 1 explaining the theory about fat and fatty acids functions, health effects and sources, section 2 includes a study of commercial extruded and raw dog foods. Fat is the most energy dens nutrient and functions as energy, structural components in cell membranes, source of essential fatty acids (EFA), precursor to biological active substrates and carrier of fat-soluble vitamins. EFA cannot be synthesized by the animal, and needs to be added ...

  18. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are esse...

  19. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids. METHODS: Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS. RESULTS: In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. CONCLUSION: Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  20. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  1. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  2. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular characterization of the fatty alcohol oxidation pathway for wax-ester mobilization in germinated jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Alex S; Gidda, Satinder K; Craddock, Christian; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M; Eastmond, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters (WEs) as a primary seed storage reserve. Upon germination, WE hydrolysis releases very-long-chain fatty alcohols, which must be oxidized to fatty acids by the sequential action of a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FADH) before they can be β-oxidized. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of genes for each of these two activities. Jojoba FAO and FADH are 52% and 68% identical to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FAO3 and ALDH3H1, respectively. The genes are expressed most strongly in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings following germination, but transcripts can also be detected in vegetative tissues. Proteomic analysis indicated that the FAO and FADH proteins can be detected on wax bodies, but they localized to the endoplasmic reticulum when they were expressed as amino-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Recombinant jojoba FAO and FADH proteins are active on very-long-chain fatty alcohol and fatty aldehyde substrates, respectively, and have biochemical properties consistent with those previously reported in jojoba cotyledons. Coexpression of jojoba FAO and FADH in Arabidopsis enhanced the in vivo rate of fatty alcohol oxidation more than 4-fold. Taken together, our data suggest that jojoba FAO and FADH constitute the very-long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation pathway that is likely to be necessary for efficient WE mobilization following seed germination.

  4. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Leaf Development at Rice (Oryza sativa)Seedling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Cai-hong; LIU Guang-rong; WANG Jing-yuan; YUE Cai-fei; LIN Wen-xiong

    2008-01-01

    To identify the function of differential expression proteins in different leaves of rice seedlings extracted from 2- to 5-leaf stages,the leaf proteins at the seedling stage of hybrid rice Shanyou 63 were studied by using the approach of plant proteomics,and those proteins were separated with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and then analyzed with an imagemaster 2D Elite 5.0.The results showed that the 41 protein spots were detected differential expression,of which 17 new protein spots appeared after the 3-leaf stage,including 9 special protein spots,which were only detected at the 3-leaf stage.Thirteen protein spots increased first and then decreased in expression abundance gradually and finally even disappeared.For the other 11 protein spots,3 protein spots decreased,but 6 protein spots were opposite in expression abundance,however,2 protein spots expressed in an irregular pattern after the 2-leaf stage.Of the 41 differential leaf proteins,15 protein spots were identified by ESI-Q MS/MS and categorized into 4 groups of functions.The results indicated that proteins were the carders of the functions in cells,but were significantly influenced by the changes in cell function or intercellular environment;hence,the reason that caused the proteomic changes as mentioned earlier might be related to the occurrence of tillers at the rice seedling stage after the 3-leaf stage.

  5. Habitat-related variation in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrtová, Ester; Košnar, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Differences in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica were investigated between the primary (relict) and the secondary (semi-natural) forest-free habitats of the Bohemian Forest (870-1200 m a.s.l.) and of the Alps (1045-1935 m a.s.l.) to understand the factors promoting the seedling recruitment of G. pannonica and their importance for species distribution, population structure, and conservation. In the communities with adult plants of G. pannonica, we recorded environmental variables (the slope, the altitude, and the covers of bare ground, litter, and rocks), estimated parameters of the vegetation (the covers of herbs, bryophytes, and dwarf shrubs), and counted the seedlings of G. pannonica. In a field experiment, we investigated seedling survival under different soil moisture regimes. We also observed seasonal dynamics of seedling recruitment in permanent plots over the course of three years. In the primary habitats of both regions, G. pannonica grew in a relatively wide range of communities, and its seedlings occurred in each area. In the secondary habitats of the Bohemian Forest, a very low frequency of the seedlings was recorded. The number of seedlings increased with the covers of the moss layer and of bare soil and decreased with the cover of the herb layer, especially of graminoids. The seedling mortality was significantly lower in the plots with higher soil moistures, and the emergence of new-born seedlings was concentrated in the spring season, when the soil received a high water supply due to melting of snow. For the successful generative reproduction of G. pannonica, our findings highlight the critical importance of the microsites with low levels of competition and of sufficient soil moisture G. pannonica. It seems that because of the long-term lack of grazing disturbances, the structures of the secondary habitats of G. pannonica in the Bohemian Forest have become unfavourable for seedling establishment and generative reproduction of this threatened

  6. A widespread plant-fungal-bacterial symbiosis promotes plant biodiversity, plant nutrition and seedling recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A; de Bruin, Susanne; Luckerhoff, Ludo; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Highly diverse microbial assemblages colonize plant roots. It is still poorly understood whether different members of this root microbiome act synergistically by supplying different services (for example, different limiting nutrients) to plants and plant communities. In order to test this, we manipulated the presence of two widespread plant root symbionts, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in model grassland communities established in axenic microcosms. Here, we demonstrate that both symbionts complement each other resulting in increased plant diversity, enhanced seedling recruitment and improved nutrient acquisition compared with a single symbiont situation. Legume seedlings obtained up to 15-fold higher productivity if they formed an association with both symbionts, opposed to productivity they reached with only one symbiont. Our results reveal the importance of functional diversity of symbionts and demonstrate that different members of the root microbiome can complement each other in acquiring different limiting nutrients and in driving important ecosystem functions.

  7. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis.

  8. Proteomic and biochemical studies of lysine malonylation suggest its malonic aciduria-associated regulatory role in mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, G.; Pougovkina, O.; Dai, L.; Tan, M.; Brinke, te H.; Huang, H.; Wanders, R.J.; Locasale, J.W.; Lombard, D.B.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts. I

  9. Proteomic and biochemical studies of lysine malonylation suggest its malonic aciduria-associated regulatory role in mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, G.; Pougovkina, O.; Dai, L.; Tan, M.; Brinke, te H.; Huang, H.; Wanders, R.J.; Locasale, J.W.; Lombard, D.B.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts.

  10. A proposed interplay between peroxidase, amine oxidase and lipoxygenase in the wounding-induced oxidative burst in Pisum sativum seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Colville, Louise; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Havaux, Michel; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Plant surfaces form the barrier between a plant and its environment. Upon damage, the wound healing process begins immediately and is accompanied by a rapid production of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), essential in deterring pathogens, signalling responses and cell wall restructuring. Although many enzymes produce extracellular ROS, it is unclear if ROS-producing enzymes act synergistically. We characterised the oxidative burst of superoxide (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that follows wounding in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Rates of ROS production were manipulated by exogenous application of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. The results indicate significant roles for di-amine oxidases (DAO) and peroxidases (Prx) rather than NADPH oxidase. The burst of O2(·-) was strongly dependent on the presence of H2O2 produced by DAO. Potential substrates released from wounded seedlings included linoleic acid that, upon exogenous application, strongly stimulated catalase-sensitive O2(·-) production. Moreover, a 65kD plasma membrane (PM) guaiacol Prx was found in the secretome of wounded seedlings and showed dependence on linoleic acid for O2(·-) production. Lipoxygenases are suggested to modulate O2(·-) production by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids in the apoplast. Overall, a O2(·-)-producing mechanism involving H2O2-derived from DAO, linoleic acid and a PM-associated Prx is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transfer of (13) C between paired Douglas-fir seedlings reveals plant kinship effects and uptake of exudates by ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Wilhelm, Roland; Asay, Amanda K; Hahn, Aria S; Simard, Suzanne W; Mohn, William W

    2017-04-01

    Processes governing the fixation, partitioning, and mineralization of carbon in soils are under increasing scrutiny as we develop a more comprehensive understanding of global carbon cycling. Here we examined fixation by Douglas-fir seedlings and transfer to associated ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil microbes, and full-sibling or nonsibling neighbouring seedlings. Stable isotope probing with 99% (13) C-CO2 was applied to trace (13) C-labelled photosynthate throughout plants, fungi, and soil microbes in an experiment designed to assess the effect of relatedness on (13) C transfer between plant pairs. The fixation and transfer of the (13) C label to plant, fungal, and soil microbial tissue was examined in biomass and phospholipid fatty acids. After a 6 d chase period, c. 26.8% of the (13) C remaining in the system was translocated below ground. Enrichment was proportionally greatest in ectomycorrhizal biomass. The presence of mesh barriers (0.5 or 35 μm) between seedlings did not restrict (13) C transfer. Fungi were the primary recipients of (13) C-labelled photosynthate throughout the system, representing 60-70% of total (13) C-enriched phospholipids. Full-sibling pairs exhibited significantly greater (13) C transfer to recipient roots in two of four Douglas-fir families, representing three- and fourfold increases (+ c. 4 μg excess (13) C) compared with nonsibling pairs. The existence of a root/mycorrhizal exudation-hyphal uptake pathway was supported.

  12. Quality of tomato seedling in application bioproducts

    OpenAIRE

    BOTEVA, Hriska

    2014-01-01

    The study was performed during the period 2009 - 2011 in the “Maritsa” Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv. The effect of organic products Baikal EM – 1У, Bioglobin and Biolan on the quality of seedlings from tomato, variety Yana was studied in unheated glasshouses ro-ON type. Plants were grown on two substrates: peat-perlite substrate and substrate with Lumbrikal. The post-effect of the applied bioproducts on the plant productivity was studied in field conditions. Tomato seeds from Y...

  13. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  14. Effects of five kinds of phenolic acid on the function of mitochondria and antioxidant systems in roots of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings%连作苹果土壤酚酸对平邑甜茶幼苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芳; 潘凤兵; 展星; 王功帅; 张国栋; 胡艳丽; 陈学森; 毛志泉

    2015-01-01

    Apple replant disease ( ARD) is a biological syndrome that occurs in sites where the same or closely related tree species have been planted previously. It is common in all major apple-growing regions of the world. The problems caused by ARD are typically expressed as reductions in plant growth and development, inhibition of root system development, with a subsequent shortened productive life and reduced yields. Research suggests that ARD is complex and can be induced by many factors. Excessive accumulation of phenolic substances is one of the most important factors. Therefore, studying phenolic acid inhibition of apple trees would provide a scientific and theoretic basis for understanding ARD and enrich research on the continuous cultivation of apple trees. To understand the phytotoxic mechanisms induced by phenolic acids involved in this phenomenon, Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings were planted in sand and treated with five phenolic acids ( phloridzin, phloretin, cinnamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and phloroglucinol) at the same concentrations as found in orchard soils. The effects of these phenolic acids on the function of mitochondria and antioxidant systems of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings were analyzed by measuring plant growth, activity of mitochondrial permeability transition pores ( MPTPs) , membrane electric potential and cytochrome c/a superoxidase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity, along with malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O·-2 ) content. All five kinds of phenolic acids inhibited the growth of replanted seedlings, and reduced total root length and average root diameter. Phloridzin had more significant inhibitory effects than other phenolic acids, reducing under-ground dry weight, aboveground dry weight, total root length, and average root diameter by 56.5%, 32.9%, 31%, and 27.9%, respectively. Root/shoot ratios were significantly decreased, which indicates that the impact on roots was

  15. Response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings exposed to UV-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To determine the response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings, Isatis indigotica seedlings were subjected to UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ m−2) for 8 h day−1 for 8 days (PAR, 220 µmol m−2 s−1) and then exposed to He-Ne laser radiation (633 nm; 5.23 mW mm−2; beam diameter: 1.5 mm) for 5 min each day without ambient light radiation. Changes in free radical elimination systems were measured, the results indicate that: (1) UV-B radiation enhanced the concentration of Malondialdahyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in seedlings compared with the control. The concentration of MDA was decreased and the activities of SOD, CAT and POD were increased when seedlings were subjected to elevated UV-B damage followed by laser; (2) the concentration of UV absorbing compounds and proline were increased progressively with UV-B irradiation, laser irradiation and He-Ne laser irradiation plus UV-B irradiation compared with the control. These results suggest that laser radiation has an active function in repairing UV-B-induced lesions in seedlings. PMID:19820308

  16. Expression Patterns of Glutathione Transferase Gene (GstI in Maize Seedlings Under Juglone-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Sytykiewicz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, E.C.2.5.1.18 represent an important group of cytoprotective enzymes participating in detoxification of xenobiotics and limiting oxidative damages of cellular macromolecules. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of tested allelochemical on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L. seedlings. Furthermore, the effect of juglone-induced oxidative stress on glutathione transferase (GstI gene expression patterns in maize seedlings was recorded. It was revealed that 4-day juglone treatment significantly stimulated the transcriptional activity of GstI in maize seedlings compared to control plants. By contrast, at the 6th and 8th day of experiments the expression gene responses were slightly lower as compared with non-stressed seedlings. Additionally, the specific gene expression profiles, as well as the inhibition of primary roots and coleoptile elongation were proportional to juglone concentrations. In conclusion, the results provide strong molecular evidence that allelopathic influence of juglone on growth and development of maize seedlings may be relevant with an induction of oxidative stress in acceptor plants.

  17. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Ten Chilling Tolerance Indices at the Germination and Seedling Stages in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Huang; Jianhua Zhang; Wenzhen Li; Wei Hu; Lichao Duan; Yang Feng; Fazhan Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Maize seedlings are very sensitive to chilling,especially during the transition phase from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth.Genetic dissection of the genetic basis of chilling tolerance would provide useful information for genetic improvement of maize inbreds.In this study,genome-wide association analysis was conducted to explore the genetic architecture of maize chilling tolerance at the seed germination and seedling stages with an association panel of 125 inbreds.Ten tolerance indices (ratios of the performance of 10 germination rates and seedling growth-related traits under chilling stress and control conditions)were investigated to assess the ability of chilling tolerance of the inbreds,and a total of 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chilling tolerance were detected,with none of them being related to chilling tolerance at both the germination and seedling stages simultaneously.Correlation analysis also revealed that the genetic basis of chilling tolerance at the seed germination stage is generally different from that at the seedling stage.In addition,a total of 40 candidate genes involving 31 of the 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms were predicted,and were grouped into five categories according to their functions.The possible roles of these candidate genes in chilling tolerance were also discussed.

  18. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts.

  19. Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Harris, William S; Vanden Heuvel, John P; Wagner, Paul R; West, Sheila G

    2011-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality at a dose of ≈1 g/d. Studies using higher doses have shown evidence of reduced inflammation and improved endothelial function. Few studies have compared these doses. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a nutritional dose of EPA+DHA (0.85 g/d) with those of a pharmaceutical dose (3.4 g/d) on serum triglycerides, inflammatory markers, and endothelial function in healthy subjects with moderately elevated triglycerides. Design: This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, 3-period crossover trial (8 wk of treatment, 6 wk of washout) that compared the effects of 0.85 and 3.4 g EPA+DHA/d in 23 men and 3 postmenopausal women with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (150–500 mg/dL). Results: The higher dose of EPA+DHA lowered triglycerides by 27% compared with placebo (mean ± SEM: 173 ± 17.5 compared with 237 ± 17.5 mg/dL; P = 0.002), whereas no effect of the lower dose was observed on lipids. No effects on cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL), endothelial function [as assessed by flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry/EndoPAT (Itamar Medical Ltd, Caesarea, Israel), or Doppler measures of hyperemia], inflammatory markers (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), or the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in isolated lymphocytes were observed. Conclusion: The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00504309. PMID:21159789

  20. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  1. Fusarium resistance in Gladiolus: selection in seedling populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, Th.P.; Jansen, J.; Roebroeck, E.J.A.; Löffler, H.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A test to select Fusarium resistant seedlings of Gladiolus is described. Seedlings of 37 populations, obtained from an incomplete diallel between eight parents with different levels of Fusarium resistance, were used. Significant differences in Fusarium infection between and within populations were d

  2. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  3. Photoreceptive sites in the photocontrol of oat seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Madela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of red light on the growth of coleoptiles and mesocotyles of etiolated and pre-irradiated oat seedlings was investigated. Red light (15 min. applied on whole seedlings stimulated the elongation of coleoptiles and inhibited the growth of mesocotyles both in etiolated and in pre-irradiated plants. Irradiation with red light (2 min of various 2-mm-long regions of etiolated and pre-irradiated oat seedlings was carried out in order to locate their light reception regions. On the basis of growth reactions after such treatment it was found that in completely etiolated seedlings the light reception sites involved in the stimulation of coleoptile elongation and inhibition of mesocotyle growth lie directly above and below the seedling node, whereas in pre-irradiated seedlings, in the top of the seedling. These results point to the existence of different growth photoregulation systems in etiolated and pre-irradiated oat seedlings. The role of phytochrome in these phenomena is discussed.

  4. Control damage by seedling debarking weevil. Technical note No. 271

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidt, D.C.; Weaver, C.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical note describing a method of controlling the damage to seedlings by the seedling debarking weevil by using nematodes. Information is given on the damage involved, the nematodes to be used, treatment methods, planting procedures, benefits and costs, and results of earlier trials.

  5. Provenances and fertilizer on early growth cedar seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the initial development of different provenances and the influence of base fertilizer and coverage on growth of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Provenances of seeds were collected in Lapa, PR, Fernandes Pinheiro, PR and Itaara, RS. After germination, the seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags of 500 cm³, filled with commercial substrate. Total height (h, stem diameter (sd, and ratio h/sd seedlings were measured after 150 days of transplanting. Seedlings of Fernandes Pinheiro received basic fertilization after transplantation (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g dm-3  Osmocote® and cover (3 and 6 g L-1, respectively, of Peter’s® and urea. The provenance and doses of controlled-release fertilizer influenced early development of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Itaara provenance showed better seedlings growth. Cedar seedlings showed good growth when incorporated into the substrate 5 g dm-3 Osmocote® and, in addition, applied in topdressing 3 g L-1 of Peter’s®. Urea topdressing is rarely recommended for cedar seedlings.

  6. Folic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cognitive function and prevent depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease--but how and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Undurti N

    2008-01-01

    Low blood folate and raised homocysteine concentrations are associated with poor cognitive function. Folic acid supplementation improves cognitive function. Folic acid enhances the plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) are of benefit in dementia and Alzheimer's disease by up-regulating gene expression concerned with neurogenesis, neurotransmission and connectivity, improving endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) generation, enhancing brain acetylcholine levels, and suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. EPA, DHA, and AA also form precursors to anti-inflammatory compounds such as lipoxins, resolvins, and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) that protect neurons from the cytotoxic action of various noxious stimuli. Furthermore, various neurotrophins and statins enhance the formation of NPD1 and thus, protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent neuronal apoptosis Folic acid improves eNO generation, enhances plasma levels of EPA/DHA and thus, could augment the formation of NPD1. These results suggest that a combination of EPA, DHA, AA and folic acid could be of significant benefit in dementia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease and improve cognitive function.

  7. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  8. Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, D E; Mizier-Barre, K A; Griscti, O; Hafez, K

    2016-10-01

    Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

  9. Evolutionary history and distance dependence control survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Robert; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    One important hypothesis to explain tree-species coexistence in tropical forests suggests that increased attack by natural enemies near conspecific trees gives locally rare species a competitive advantage. Host ranges of natural enemies generally encompass several closely related plant taxa suggesting that seedlings should also do poorly around adults of closely related species. We investigated the effects of adult Parashorea malaanonan on seedling survival in a Bornean rain forest. Survival of P. malaanonan seedlings was highest at intermediate distances from parent trees while heterospecific seedlings were unaffected by distance. Leaf herbivores did not drive this relationship. Survival of seedlings was lowest for P. malaanonan, and increased with phylogenetic dissimilarity from this species, suggesting that survival of close relatives of common species is reduced. This study suggests that distance dependence contributes to species coexistence and highlights the need for further investigation into the role of shared plant enemies in community dynamics.

  10. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju LUO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96–21 with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted lognormal distribution. Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  11. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ju; TANG Shao-qing; HU Pei-song; Aleman LOUIS; JIAO Gui-ai; TANG Jian

    2007-01-01

    Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short) were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96-21) with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted Iognormal distribution.Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile,seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  12. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: bg55@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  13. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  14. Essential fatty acids and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

    2009-12-01

    The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness.

  15. Physiology-biochemical features of the Raphanus sativus seedlings during cultivation in aqueous extracts from technogenic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shupranova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil pollution influence on functional state of the garden radish seedlings is studied. It has been shown that the variability of soil’s mineral composition from different technogenic zones entails active reorganization in a protein system and in antioxidant cell protection from the heavy metals superfluous accumulation in soil as well.

  16. 全自动玉米秧苗移栽机的研制与试验%Development and test of automatic corn seedling transplanter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石铁

    2015-01-01

    transplanting unit, a rack and an earthing and watering part. The seedling transporting and selecting transmission mechanism can automatically eliminate paper pots without seedlings or those with weak seedlings and accelerate seedling supplying so as to guarantee the uniformity of seedlings. The rapid automatic seeding device can realize functions such as automatic grabbing, separation and stacking of paper pot seedlings as well as automatic feeding of seedling disc. The function of the transplanting unit is to ditch, erect seedlings and perform transplanting. The earthing and watering part can perform watering and earthing operation to the seedling ditch after transplanting. The driving force for the seedling transporting and selecting case and the transplanting unit is from the friction between the supporting roller and ground; the power for the automatic seeding system is from the hydraulic motor driven by the rear power output shaft of a tractor; the logical relationships for various working parts are driven by the PLC control module. The transplanter realizes full-automatic transplanting by using a full hydraulic power system and an automatic control system with PLC as its core module. The transplanter applies a three-point rear suspension and it is used in combination with roller tractors above 48kW. The transplanter can be used in both ridge planting and flat planting. The field test results showed that, when the advancing speed of a unit is 2.5-3.0 km/h and the theoretical row spacing is 22 cm, the qualified rate of transplanting depth is 87.5% and, the qualified rate of row spacing is 93.2% and the qualified rate of seedling verticality is 91.2%, which meets the agricultural requirements of corn paper pot seedling transplanting. The transplanter is a mechanized carrier of carrying out the new type agricultural technology of corn paper pot seedling transplanting, and it can enhance the standardization, mechanization and automation degree of corn paper pot seedling

  17. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  19. Effects of Diets High in Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Socially Induced Stress Responses in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Nemeth; Eva Millesi; Karl-Heinz Wagner; Bernard Wallner

    2014-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 poly- and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients and major components of neuronal cell membranes. They play a major role in modulating brain functions and physiology and may therefore diminish behavioral and physiological stress reactions in corroboration with decreased cortisol concentrations. Functionally, cortisol itself can modulate several behaviors and also the fatty acid metabolism in the long term. But on...

  20. Fatty acid profiling of soybean cotyledons by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Ren, C; Beuselinck, P R; Benedict, H R; Bilyeu, K

    2006-11-01

    Genetically improved soybean grain often contains altered fatty acid profiles. Such alterations can have deleterious effects on seed germination and seedling development, making it necessary to monitor fatty acid profiles in follow-up physiological studies. The objective of this research was to quantify the five fatty acids in soybean (Glycine max) cotyledons using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Soybean cotyledon samples were dried, ground, and scanned with visible and NIR radiation from 400 to 2500 nm, and reflectance was recorded. Samples were also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids and total oil; GC data, expressed as actual concentration and proportion of total oil, were regressed against spectral data to develop calibration equations. Equation statistics indicated that four of the five fatty acids could be predicted accurately by NIR spectroscopy; the fifth fatty acid could be determined by subtraction. Principal component analysis revealed that most of the spectral variation in this population was due to chlorophyll absorbance in the visible region. Therefore, the spectra were trimmed to include the NIR region only (1100-2500 nm), and a second set of equations was developed. Equations based exclusively on NIR spectra had equal or greater precision than equations based on visible and NIR spectra. Principal component analysis and partial least squares analysis revealed that even after trimming, at least 90% of the spectral variation was unrelated to fatty acid, though variation from fatty acid was identified in the second and third principal components. This research provides an NIR method for complete fatty acid profiling of soybean cotyledons. Equations were achieved with NIR spectra only, so spectrophotometers that analyze both the visible and NIR regions are not needed for this analysis. In addition, equations were possible with a 250 mg sample, which is one-tenth the normal sample size for

  1. Analysis on Seedling Functional Traits of 7 Wild Fruit Tree Species on the Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains%天山北坡7种野生果树幼苗的功能性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆华; 臧润国; 丁易; 许正; 刁永强; 孙霞

    2012-01-01

    以分布在天山北坡的7种野生果树幼苗为研究对象,测定比叶面积( SLA)、木材密度、叶片厚度、茎皮厚度及根、茎、叶器官的N,P,K含量等功能性状指标,分析影响植物功能性状的环境因子.结果表明:7种野生果树幼苗各项功能性状测定指标均差异显著(P<0.05),新疆野苹果木材密度最小,酸枣木材密度和比叶面积均最大,但叶片厚度和茎皮厚度均最小,胡桃比叶面积最小,但茎皮厚度最大;SLA与叶N含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05);不同树种的根、茎、叶器官的N,P,K含量,除茎P含量差异不显著外(P>0.05),其他均差异显著(P<0.05);酸枣和新疆桃的根、茎、叶器官N,P,K含量均相对较高,辽宁山楂和胡桃各器官养分含量均相对较低.7个树种的叶N含量平均为28.4 mg·g-1,较报道的国内外陆地植物叶片N含量平均水平高,叶P含量平均为2.20 mg·g-1,也相对高于国内陆地植物叶片P含量平均水平,近似于全球平均水平;新疆桃和酸枣的养分利用率较低,辽宁山楂和胡桃的养分利用率较高,其他3个树种居中.%Plant functional traits can reflect their adaptability to environment and their ability of utilizing various resources. The major functional traits of 7 wild fruit tree species in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang were measured and analyzed. The functional traits include specific leaf area (SLA) , wood density, thickness of leaf and bark, and the N, P, K contents in roots, leaves and stems. The results showed that Mains sieversii had the lowest wood density among the 7 tree species, while Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa had the highest wood density and SLA, but the lowest leaf and bark thickness among the 7 tree species. Juglans regia had the smallest SLA, but the highest bark thickness among the 7 tree species. The SLA was significantly and positively correlated with leaf N content ( P < 0. 05 ) . The nutrient contents in leaves, stems

  2. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  3. Proteomic analysis of salt and osmotic-drought stress in alfalfa seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiao-li; KANG Jun-mei; LONG Rui-cai; CUI Yan-jun; ZHANG Tie-jun; XIONG Jun-bo; YANG Qing-chuan; SUN Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is widely grown and is one of the most important forage crops in the world, but its growth and biomass production are markedly reduced under salt and drought stress, particularly during the early seedling stage. To identify the mecha-nisms behind salt and drought responsiveness at the alfalfa seedling stage, the proteins expressed were analyzed under no-treatment, 200 mol L–1 NaCl and 180 g L–1 PEG treatment conditions during the seedling stage. Out of more than 800 protein spots detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels, 35 proteins showed statisticaly signiifcant responses (P<0.05) to NaCl and PEG stress, which were selected for tandem mass spectrometric identiifcation, owing to their good resolution and abundance levels, and 32 proteins were positively identiifed. The identiifed proteins were divided into seven functional categories: photosynthetic metabolism, protein biosynthesis, folding and assembly, carbohydrate metabolism-associated proteins, stress defense related protein, metabolism of nucleic acid, other function categories and unknown proteins. Our results suggested that these proteins may play roles in alfalfa adaptation to salt and drought stress. Further study of these proteins wil provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress and the discovery of new candidate markers in alfalfa.

  4. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNLiang-xian; DONGHai-tao; LIDe-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 cndosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of l-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [P] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6%) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings whilc considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profdes, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  5. Monitoring the Expression Profiles of Cereal Crops Seedlings by Using Rice cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; DONG Hai-tao; LI De-bao

    2004-01-01

    Through exploiting the high homology of cereal crop genes, membranous cDNA microarrays containing 3 311 unique rice transcripts (including 1 639 endosperm-derived transcripts and 1 672 mature stem-derived transcripts) were used for monitoring the expression profiles of 1-leaf stage seedlings of 4 cereal crop species: rice, maize, sorghum and barley. After hybridizing with [α-33p] labeled probes, 73.6 % of the arrayed genes generated reliable signals in all of the four cereal crops. Further analysis revealed that among the arrayed genes, a higher percentage of the endosperm-derived transcripts (86.6 %) expressed than that of the mature stem-derived genes (60.9 %), indicating that most of the endosperm expressed genes functioned in young seedlings while considerable amount of mature stem tissue expressed genes did not express. These results also inferred that some genes might function only at certain developmental stages. By comparing the obtained profiles, 84 genes were identified constantly expressed in all the four cereal crops. Many housekeeping genes, such as polyubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and ribosomal proteins were included in this catalogue. The experiment also identified 14 rice seedling specifically expressed genes, including 3 biotic and abiotic stress induced genes and 1 apoptosis suppressor encoding gene Bax inhibitor-1. This investigation provided invaluable information for comparative genomics of gramineae members.

  6. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs.

  7. Genetic diversity of seagrass seeds influences seedling morphology and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Hughes, A; Hanley, Torrance C; Schenck, Forest R; Hays, Cynthia G

    2016-12-01

    Genetic diversity can influence ecological processes throughout ontogeny, yet whether diversity at early life history stages is important in long-lived taxa with overlapping generations is unclear. Seagrass systems provide some of the best evidence for the ecological effects of genetic diversity among adult shoots, but we do not know if the genetic diversity of seeds and seedlings also influences seagrass ecology. We tested the effects of seagrass (Zostera marina) seed diversity and relatedness on germination success, seedling morphology, and seedling production by comparing experimental assemblages of seeds collected from single reproductive shoots ("monocultures") to assemblages of seeds collected from multiple reproductive shoots ("polycultures"). There was no difference in seedling emergence, yet seedlings from polycultures had larger shoots above and below ground than seedlings from monocultures at the end of the 1-yr experiment. Genetic relatedness of the seedlings predicted some aspects of shoot morphology, with more leaves and longer roots and shoots at intermediate levels of relatedness, regardless of seed diversity. Our results suggest that studies of only adult stages may underestimate the importance of genetic diversity if the benefits at early life history stages continue to accrue throughout the life cycle. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Seed Germination and Seedling Survival of Spartina alterniflora Loisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Biber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass is a widespread intertidal salt marsh plant that is frequently used in coastal restoration projects. Seeds collected in 2004 were tested for seed germination and seedling survival after 6 months of cold seed storage to determine differences among collection locations (experiment 1. Seeds collected in 2005, after Hurricane Katrina, were tested for seed germination and seedling survival from 0 to 15 months of cold seed storage time to determine minimum and maximum storage time and seedling survival rates (experiment 2. Seed germination increased from 1-4 months of cold, wet storage (stratification and then began to decline. Survival of the seedlings was highest after 2 months of stratification. In experiment 1, seedling size was found to vary widely among seedlings of the same source and age. Seedling height at 22 days after planting ranged from 2-16 cm, despite identical environmental conditions. Selective breeding could target plants with fast early growth characteristics to promote strains that can be raised quickly in a nursery in response to demands for restoration.

  9. Germination and initial development of aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroeira has great economic importance due to its wood useful, tannins extraction and use in the pharmacology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the germination aspects and initial seedlings development of aroeira, under gibberellins, substrata and shading effects, and for that two experiments were led out. In the first one, seeds were previously soaked for 24 hours in water and in 100 mg.L-1 gibberellin solution and were sowed directly in cells trays in the following substrata: land and sand (1:1 and 1:2 and Plantmax . In the second experiment, 15 cm length seedlings were transplanted to polyethylene sacks filled out land+sand+poultry manure (1:1:1 partly decomposed and they were maintained at greenhouse for 15 days. Soon after, seedlings were transferred for the following conditions: shading (50% and full sun and they were 50 mg.L-1 and 150 mg.L-1 gibberellins solutions pulverized, as control seedlings water pulverized. Aroeira seeds should not be previously water or gibberellins imbibed before being sowed. The best substrata for aroeira seeds germination was Plantmax without germinative treatments to reach higher than 80% of seedlings survival. The seedlings developed better at full sun light and the gibberellin. It was observed increment in height, diameter, foliar area and fresh and dry mass from aerial and root part when compared to shading situation. The gibberellins applications did not influence the aroeira seedlings initial growth characteristics.

  10. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  11. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Ledeb. and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. After six growing seasons, seedlings provided with controlled-release-fertilizer (Osmocote®: 25 g per seedling) or smaller amounts of easily soluble nitrogen–phosphorus fertilizer (e.g. 1.2 g N per seedling and 1.4 g P per seedling) showed significantly improved...

  12. Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray [Fabaceae]) seedlings were grown with subirrigation and overhead irrigation systems in an effort to characterize post-nursery field performance. One year following outplanting, we found no differences in seedling height or survival, but root-collar diameter was significantly larger for subirrigated seedlings. This indicates that koa seedlings,...

  13. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P compounds differed (P bioactive compounds, total polyphenols tended to be different (6.3 vs 7.2 g/kg DM), but there were no differences in erucic acid and condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in

  14. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  15. PPAR{delta} is a fatty acid sensor, which enhances mitochondrial oxidation in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjaer, Kim; Frigerio, Francesca; Boergesen, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    against adverse effects on GSIS associated with prolonged fatty acid exposure. The presented results indicate that the nuclear receptor PPARdelta is a fatty acid sensor that adapts beta-cell mitochondrial function to long-term changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels. As maintenance of mitochondrial...... is the PPAR subtype expressed at the highest level in insulinoma cells and rat pancreatic islets. Furthermore, PPARdelta displays high transcriptional activity and acts in pronounced synergy with RXR. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids mimic the effects of synthetic PPARdelta agonists. Using sh......RNA-mediated knockdown we demonstrate that the ability of unsaturated fatty acids to stimulate fatty acid metabolism is dependent on PPARdelta. Activation of PPARdelta increases the fatty acid oxidation potential in INS-1E beta-cells, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from islets, and protects GSIS...

  16. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  18. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Woodall, Christopher W

    2012-03-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years apart from more than 7000 forested plots in the eastern United States, we tested three hypotheses: phylogenetic diversity is substantially different from species richness as a measure of biodiversity; forest communities have undergone recent changes in phylogenetic diversity that differ by size class, region, and seed dispersal strategy; and these patterns are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. Specifically, the magnitude of diversity change across broad regions should be greater among seedlings than in trees, should be associated with latitude and elevation, and should be greater among species with high dispersal capacity. Our analyses demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity and species richness are decoupled at small and medium scales and are imperfectly associated at large scales. This suggests that it is appropriate to apply indicators of biodiversity change based on phylogenetic diversity, which account for evolutionary relationships among species and may better represent community functional diversity. Our results also detected broadscale patterns of forest biodiversity change that are consistent with expected early effects o